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Sample records for chilenas mapuche mestiza

  1. Convergent Inquiries: Gloria Anzaldua's "Mestiza" Consciousness and Critical Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Deborah

    Parallels in the thinking of Gloria Anzaldua as expressed in her work "Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza" (1987) about "mestiza" consciousness and the tasks of critical ethnography are explored. Ethnography, as it shifts toward the new paradigm of critical ethnography, can learn much from the consciousness Anzaldua…

  2. Renal transplantation in Mapuche people.

    PubMed

    Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P < .05), and the proportion receiving organs with > or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P < .05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed nonsignificant differences in kidney survival: 86% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years in Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.

  3. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    PubMed

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  4. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Treesearch

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  5. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  6. [10 cases of psychosis in Mapuche indians].

    PubMed

    Biedermann, N; Barria, C; Maass, J; Steil, W

    1983-12-01

    Ten Mapuche indians have been studied with the purpose of observing the particularities of mental disorders in this ethnic group, composed of rural migrants. In each case a syndromatic and an etiological diagnosis has been made. Our cases correspond to six women and four men with an average age of 24.5 years. All are single with a low educational level. Our results show a great frequency of the acute oniroid psychotic syndrome. These results agree with a retrospective study made by Muñoz et al (1966) who found the same syndrome in 66.6% of their Mapuche patients against only 16.3% in non Mapuche chilean patients.

  7. [Evaluation of mental and communication functions in mapuche and non mapuche elderly subjects in rural communities in Southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Mella, Rebeca; Alvear, María; Carrillo, Berta; Caire, Victor

    2003-11-01

    The main predictors of functional impairment in the elderly are alterations in mental or communication functions. To study mental and communication functions in rural elderly subjects of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin. Elderly subjects coming from a rural Mapuche community and a non Mapuche community were studied. Subjects were interviewed at their homes. The communication and mental function assessments of the Functional Autonomy Measurement System were applied. Fifty one Mapuche and 49 non Mapuche subjects with a mean age of 71 +/- 7 and 74 +/- 8 years respectively, were studied. Fifty four percent were female and 31% were illiterate. Twenty six percent had impairment in mental functions. The item with the highest difficulty was memory. The visual function was the most severely impaired among communication items. Mapuche elderly subjects had significantly higher degrees of impairment in mental and communication functions. There is a higher degree of mental and communication impairment among rural Mapuche elderly subjects than in their non Mapuche counterparts.

  8. [COMPARISON OF THE RISKS IN EATING DISORDERS AND BODY IMAGE AMONG MAPUCHES AND NOT MAPUCHES STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Rosas Muñoz, Marcelo; Delgado Floody, Pedro; Cea Leiva, Fredy; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Alvarez San Martín, Roberto; Quezada Gallego, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: existe escasa evidencia sobre los riesgos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) y de la imagen corporal (TIC) en población adolecente y joven de etnia mapuche. Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue establecer si existen diferencias en el riesgo de padecer TCA y TIC en estudiantes mapuches y no mapuches y asociar estas variables con el estado nutricional. Material y métodos: la muestra está constituida por 130 adolescentes entre 14 y 21 años; 95 de etnia mapuche y 35 no mapuche. En ambos grupos se midió; índice de masa corporal (IMC), riesgos de trastorno en la conducta alimentaria y en la imagen corporal. Resultados: no existieron diferencias en riesgos de TCA y TIC al comparar por etnia mapuche y no mapuche (p>0,05). En la comparación por género las mujeres presentaron valores superiores (p.

  9. [HTLV-1 in a Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    Inostroza, J; Díaz, P; Saunier, C

    1990-12-01

    The seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in 405 serum samples from South American Indians, Mapuches, from the IXth region of Chile was investigated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six samples were positive and only 3 of them were also positive by western blot and radio immuno precipitation assay. This corresponds to a seroprevalence of 0.74% for HTLV-1 in healthy Mapuches, which differs from that observed in other populations throughout the world. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the real magnitudes of HTLV-1 infection in Chile.

  10. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.

  11. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  12. Gloria Anzaldua's Mestiza Pain: Mexican Sacrifice, Chicana Embodiment, and Feminist Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Gloria Anzaldua's mestiza consciousness has been celebrated by critics of diverse methodologies and applied to discussions of hybridity, borders, and difference around the world. Lost in these wide and varied applications are the conquest and rape, and the regulation of national and individual boundaries, that are the historical origins of…

  13. Forging a Mestiza Rhetoric: Mexican Women Journalists' Role in the Construction of a National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Cristina D.

    2009-01-01

    This author investigates Mexican women journalists' writing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These women were at the center of the Latin American transnational experience--as female pioneers in the creation of a new mestiza rhetoric that reflected writing from the standpoint of inclusion that was resistant to oppressive ideologies. A…

  14. Gloria Anzaldua's Mestiza Pain: Mexican Sacrifice, Chicana Embodiment, and Feminist Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    Gloria Anzaldua's mestiza consciousness has been celebrated by critics of diverse methodologies and applied to discussions of hybridity, borders, and difference around the world. Lost in these wide and varied applications are the conquest and rape, and the regulation of national and individual boundaries, that are the historical origins of…

  15. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  16. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  17. [Influence of Mapuche origin and socioeconomic conditions on adult height].

    PubMed

    Erazo B, Marcia; Amigo C, Hugo; Bustos M, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    Studies in Chilean adults of low socioeconomic level suggest that their low height is likely to be due to their indigenous background. However this group also has been marginalized from socioeconomic development. To determine the influence of Mapuche ethnic origin and socioeconomic factors on the height of adults. In a cross sectional design, the height of 1,293 adults (528 males and 765 females) of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin were studied in the Araucania Region (Southern Chile) and in the Metropolitan Region (Central Chile). Subjects with Mapuche surnames were considered as pertaining to this ethnic community and those with Spanish surnames were considered as non Mapuche. Linear regression models were done, stratifying by sex, considering ethnic origin, to live in counties of different social vulnerability, and the level of family poverty. Among males, the mean height was 166.6+/-7.3 cm and among females, the figure was 153.6+/-5.9 cm. Mapuche subjects were significantly shorter: -3.2 cm (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -4.0 to -2.3) among females and -4.8 cm (CI -6.0 to -3.6) among males (non adjusted models). This deficit increased to -4.5 and -7.6 cm among females and males, respectively when they lived in poverty and in areas with highest social vulnerability. These differences decreased significantly if Mapuche subjects lived in communities with low social vulnerability and less poverty (-0.59 and -1.14 cm among females and males respectively). The studied population had low height, being lower in Mapuche subjects. The differences decreased among subjects living in counties of less vulnerability and less family poverty.

  18. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  19. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  20. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H2O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  1. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  2. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    PubMed

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  3. [Intercultural health care policy from the perspective of health care providers and Mapuche clients].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Ana María; Astudillo, Paula; Barrios, Sara; Rivas, Edith

    2004-09-01

    Intercultural health is becoming an emergent topic in the design of health care programs for Mapuche people of Chile. This process faces important challenges such as the scarce theoretical support about the meaning of intercultural health and their practical consequences for providers and clients. To explore the perception in providers and Mapuche clients about intercultural health. A survey performed in 11 counties with the highest concentration of Mapuche people, of the IX region of Chile. The perception about the development of a new health policy specially designed for Mapuche patients was surveyed in 399 Mapuche patients and 64 providers of primary health care centers. Mapuche clients considered, as the main regional challenges, the indifference and discrimination of health care teams towards Mapuche patients, aggravated by the indifference of authorities. Providers considered that the main problem was a lack of knowledge about Mapuche culture and skills to deal with this ethnic group. Patients and providers agreed on the need to use Mapuche dialect in health care attentions, to coordinate actions with traditional healers and to accept ethnical therapeutic practices. There is scarce agreement between providers and Mapuche clients about the need for an special intercultural health policy, its contents, and the regional conditions for its implementation and development.

  4. Negotiating Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Mapuche Workers in the Chilean State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yun-Joo; Richards, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    A central component of neoliberal multiculturalism in contemporary Latin America is an increase in indigenous individuals who work for the state, implementing indigenous policy at the municipal, regional and national levels. We explore the consequences of the inclusion of these individuals by analyzing the experiences of Mapuche state workers in…

  5. Cultural meanings of musculoskeletal diseases in Chile's Mapuche Population.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Ana M; Vidal, Aldo; Castro, Marcela

    2013-10-01

    Eight out of 10 Mapuche indigenous women have a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) and do not seek early medical aid. To study both the cultural meanings and implications of MSD from the Mapuche worldview. Ethnographic study carried out from 2008 to 2011 on indigenous reserves in southern Chile. Sixty-four Mapuches participated in comprehensive interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed by the research team. Five cultural domains: (a) foro kutran/bone disease is the general denomination of MSD; (b) Re-Rume Kutran/progressive and incurable course, refers to the course of the disease; (c) Kalül fücha mawiza/body is an old tree, describes internal manifestations such as worn bones, dry body, weak blood, and spiritual weakness; (d) witrür tripai foro/deformation is the external manifestation of MSD; and (e) Reñma ka lof kutran/family and community suffering refers to the impact of MSD. The explanation of MSD is consistent with the integrated body-nature-spirit worldview of the Mapuche. To provide cultural nursing health care so that patients receive prompt diagnosis and care.

  6. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  7. Maria Catrileo's Work in the Tagmemics of Mapuche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frances

    The Mapuches, a tribe now numbering about 500,000 people in south central Chile are the descendants of the Araucanians of Spanish legend. Many still speak only their own idiom, which now shows much lexical influence of the surrounding Spanish. This paper is an exposition of Maria Catrileo Chiguailaf de Godo's research in her native language. It…

  8. Human leukocyte antigens in indigenous (mapuche) people in a regional renal transplantation program in chile.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Oyarzún, M J; Alruiz, P; Jerez, V; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2005-10-01

    An active regional transplantation program established in the southern region of Chile has allowed the incorporation of ethnic minorities particularly Mapuche living in this geographic area in the development of a histocompatibility database. To identify possible differences in the human leukocyte (HLA) antigen distribution in Chilean Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche, we reviewed 442 HLA tissue-typing studies. Seventy-eight of 309 recipients (25%) and 18 of 133 donors (13%) were Mapuche. Among recipients, Mapuche people showed a significantly higher frequency of the HLA antigens, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8, and a lower one for A19, B15, and DR1 (P < .05) compared with non-Mapuche individuals. A particularly higher frequency of the haplotype A28, -B16, -DR4 was also evidenced in Mapuche. Besides, these recipients showed a higher frequency of the allele -DR4 when compared with Mapuche donors. A greater frequency of some histocompatibility antigens in patients with chronic renal disease might be attributed to allelic concentration due to a high index of endogamy, but a possible association with the development of progressive renal disease cannot be ignored, especially when a higher prevalence of DR4 was observed among Mapuche recipients.

  9. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile.

    PubMed

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn.

  10. Origins of the Discrimination Perceived by Mapuches in Chile Based on an Evaluation of Kimeltuwun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapiman, Daniel Quilaqueo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the origin of perceived discrimination as it appears in the discourse of Mapuches living in Temuco and Santiago, and how that discourse is related to the evaluation of "kimeltuwun" (educational knowledge). A qualitative design was used to survey Mapuche emigrants to these two urban centers, where…

  11. Origins of the Discrimination Perceived by Mapuches in Chile Based on an Evaluation of Kimeltuwun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapiman, Daniel Quilaqueo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the origin of perceived discrimination as it appears in the discourse of Mapuches living in Temuco and Santiago, and how that discourse is related to the evaluation of "kimeltuwun" (educational knowledge). A qualitative design was used to survey Mapuche emigrants to these two urban centers, where…

  12. Mapudungun According to Its Speakers: Mapuche Intellectuals and the Influence of Standard Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Cristián; Espinoza, Marco; Rojas, Darío

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the cultural models (or folk theory of language) that the Mapuche intellectual elite have about Mapudungun, the native language of the Mapuche people still spoken today in Chile as the major minority language. Our theoretical frame is folk linguistics and studies of language ideology, but we have also taken an applied…

  13. Mapudungun According to Its Speakers: Mapuche Intellectuals and the Influence of Standard Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Cristián; Espinoza, Marco; Rojas, Darío

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the cultural models (or folk theory of language) that the Mapuche intellectual elite have about Mapudungun, the native language of the Mapuche people still spoken today in Chile as the major minority language. Our theoretical frame is folk linguistics and studies of language ideology, but we have also taken an applied…

  14. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p < 0.01) as a whole. The probability of high satisfaction with food-related life increases as there are fewer children in the household, the person's expenditure on food increases, the person consumes some Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  15. Awareness, Comprehension, and Use of Newly Mandated Nutrition Labels Among Mestiza and Indigenous Ecuadorian Women in the Central Andes Region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Fadya; Ochoa, Diana; Muquinche, Maria; Padro, Manuel; Melby, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ecuador became the first country in Latin America to adopt the nutritional traffic light labeling system as a public policy aimed at guiding informed food choices. To describe the differences in comprehension and use of the new nutrition label in 2 different ethnic populations residing in a limited resource area of central Ecuador. A total of 394 women (18-75 years, 54.8% indigenous and 45.2% mixed-race mestizas) were randomly selected in the Chimborazo Province and were requested by a questionnaire to provide information regarding their awareness and comprehension of the traffic light nutritional labeling system and personal use of the food label in food selection. Indigenous women had a high percentage who lacked any formal education (43.5%) and a greater proportion were not aware of the labeling system when compared with the mestizas (84.3% vs 46%; P = .001). In both groups, the main reason for not reading labels was lack of understanding of its meaning (50% indigenous vs 32.7% mestiza; P < .05). The reported use of the labeling system for food choices was low-on average, 32% of the mestizas and 5% of the indigenous women reported using nutrition label information to guide their purchase and consumption of packaged food items. The use of nutritional labeling is low in both mestiza and indigenous Ecuadorians, although higher among the mestizas. Among the indigenous women, mostly likely owing to less education, limited nutrition-related health knowledge, and higher risk for food insecurity, the utility of the new traffic light food label is limited.

  16. Cutaneous fistula due to pulmonary actinomycosis in a Mapuche girl.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Gaston; Guzman, Pablo; Schafer, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare infection in children, and its extension into the chest wall is infrequently reported. We report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis in a 14-year-old girl of Mapuche descent who presented with chronic respiratory symptoms and multiple discharging skin sinuses on her right lower chest wall. The diagnosis was made by skin biopsy, which showed sulfur granules with actinomyces colonies. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and penicillin G for 6 weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for 6 months. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic variants of serum butyrylcholinesterase in Chilean Mapuche Indians.

    PubMed

    Acuña, M; Eaton, L; Ramírez, N R; Cifuentes, L; Llop, E

    2003-05-01

    We estimated the frequencies of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) alleles in three tribes of Mapuche Indians from southern Chile, using enzymatic methods, and we estimated the frequency of allele BCHE*K in one tribe using primer reduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA). The three tribes have different degrees of European admixture, which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the atypical allele BCHE*A: 1.11% in Huilliches, 0.89% in Cuncos, and 0% in Pehuenches. This result is evidence in favor of the hypothesis that BCHE*A is absent in native Amerindians. The frequencies of BCHE*F were higher than in most reported studies (3.89%, 5.78%, and 4.41%, respectively). These results are probably due to an overestimation of the frequency of allele BCHE*F, since none of the 20 BCHE UF individuals (by the enzymatic test) individuals analyzed showed either of the two DNA base substitutions associated with this allele. Although enzymatic methods rarely detect the presence of allele BCHE*K, PCR-PIRA found the allele in an appreciable frequency (5.76%), although lower than that found in other ethnic groups. Since observed frequencies of unusual alleles correspond to estimated percentages of European admixture, it is likely that none of these unusual alleles were present in Mapuche Indians before the arrival of Europeans. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    PubMed

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  19. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  20. Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Patricio R.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

  1. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    PubMed

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  2. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    PubMed

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression model, Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  3. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes has been increasing during recent years in the Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition.

  4. Categorisation of Mapuche Ways of Conceiving Time and Space: Educational Knowledge of the "Kimches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilaqueo, Daniel; Torres, Hector

    2013-01-01

    The object of this article is to present a categorisation of the ways in which time and space are conceived in the rationale of Mapuche family education. This approach considers knowledge of natural, social, and cultural elements that characterise the classification of time and space by "kimches" (sages) in the education of children and…

  5. Categorisation of Mapuche Ways of Conceiving Time and Space: Educational Knowledge of the "Kimches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilaqueo, Daniel; Torres, Hector

    2013-01-01

    The object of this article is to present a categorisation of the ways in which time and space are conceived in the rationale of Mapuche family education. This approach considers knowledge of natural, social, and cultural elements that characterise the classification of time and space by "kimches" (sages) in the education of children and…

  6. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence.

  8. [Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination among mapuche patients and discontinuation of diabetes care].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Manuel S; Baeza-Rivera, María José; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Flynn, Patricia; Betancourt, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of perceived discrimination on health outcomes is well established. However, less attention has been directed towards understanding the effect of perceived discrimination on health behaviors relevant for the treatment of diabetes in ethnic minorities. To examine the effects of healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination on the continuity of Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) care among mapuche patients in a southern region of Chile. A non-probabilistic sample of 85 mapuche DM2 patients were recruited from public and private health systems. Eligibility criteria included having experienced at least one incident of interpersonal healthcare mistreatment. All participants answered an instrument designed to measure healthcare mistreatment and continuity of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to ethnic discrimination was associated with the discontinuation of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination negatively impacted the continuity of diabetes care, a fact which may provide a better understanding of health disparities in ethnic minorities.

  9. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    PubMed

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  10. Endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP linked to blue egg phenotype in Mapuche fowl.

    PubMed

    Wragg, David; Mwacharo, Joram M; Alcalde, José A; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation.

  11. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Blue Egg Phenotype in Mapuche Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Alcalde, José A.; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation. PMID:23990950

  12. HLA antigens and other genetic markers in the Mapuche Indians of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Haas, E J; Salzano, F M; Araujo, H A; Grossman, F; Barbetti, A; Weimer, T A; Franco, M H; Verruno, L; Nasif, O; Morales, V H

    1985-01-01

    A total of 107 Mapuche Indians living in western Argentina were studied with respect to 16 genetic systems. For HLA, there were a few differences in relation to previous studies; and considering the averages observed in 15 other South American tribes, Mapuche Indians showed low values for A2, A9 and C3, but high ones for A28 and B16. This is the first report of the presence (in low frequencies, 1-6%) of alleles C2, C6 and C7, as well as of DR antigens (most frequent alleles DR4 and DR2) in South American Indians. Some peculiar reactions shown by products of locus B suggest the presence of antigens that are characteristic of the Mapuche. As for the other systems, the frequencies of R1 (Rh) and PGM1(1) were lower but those for r (Rh), GLO1 and Hp1 were higher than the averages obtained considering previous studies of this ethnic group. Other salient findings were the variability observed in the PGM2 and C3 systems, and the low prevalence of Bfs.

  13. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Salas, Carlos; Navarrete, Claudia; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Rainqueo, Angélica; Jara, Tamara; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Miquel, Juan F; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of diabetes and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of MS could differ by ethnicity and lifestyle factors. To determine the prevalence of MS in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environments in Chile and to investigate whether the prevalence and risk of MS in urban and rural environments differs by sex, age and nutritional status. A total of 1077 Mapuche participants were recruited from urban (MU = 288) and rural (MR = 789) settings. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure serum glucose, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The prevalence of MS was determined using the unified IDF and ATP-III criteria. An environment and sex interaction was found for the prevalence of MS (p = 0.042). The prevalence was significantly lower in male MR (13%) compared to other groups (22, 23 and 25% among female MR, female MU and male MU respectively). Also, the prevalence of central obesity and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in male MR. MU are at an increased risk of developing MS compared to MR, with an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.2). This risk increases along with age or body mass index of the population. The adoption of an urbanized lifestyle increases the risk of developing MS in Mapuche individuals. This risk is enhanced by age and nutritional status.

  14. [Lithiasis of gallbladder in the IX region. Study of the autopsies in a zone with a high proportion of Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    Roa, I; Araya, J C; Wistuba, I; Villaseca, M; de Aretxabala, X

    1991-12-01

    The frequency of gallbladder stones in he IXth Region of Chile with a large indigenous population, was studied in forensic necropsies from 1980 to 1989. Among 2,505 autopsies, 85% were males and 15% females. At least 1 "mapuche" surname occurred in 27% of cases. Stones were found in 34% of females and 12.7% of males. No differences were found between "mapuche" and non mapuche cases. Cholecystectomy had been performed in 2.3% of males and 9.1% of males. These results do not differ from those reported from other regions in Chile.

  15. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    PubMed

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  16. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    PubMed

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  17. Ethnic Discrimination against Mapuche Students in Urban High Schools in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra; Merino, María Eugenia; Mellor, David

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic or racial discrimination towards children and adolescents at schools is of concern in many contexts around the world because it is associated with diverse psychosocial, behavioural, emotional, and identity problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethnic discrimination experienced by indigenous Mapuche adolescents in…

  18. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-03

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations.

  19. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (P<0.01) was observed at doses up to 200 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, the highest gastroprotective activity was provided by 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, all of them being as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity of the main diterpenes as well as lansoprazole was studied towards human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and determined by the MTT reduction assay. A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 125 up to 290 microM. Our results support the traditional use of the Araucaria araucana resin by the Mapuche culture.

  20. Genetic Background and Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence in a Mapuche Population from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Suarez, María F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. Methods To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. Results This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. Conclusions These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK. PMID:24040292

  1. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  2. Genetic background and climatic droplet keratopathy incidence in a Mapuche population from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Theodore G; Dulik, Matthew C; Cafaro, Thamara A; Suarez, María F; Urrets-Zavalia, Julio A; Serra, Horacio M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK.

  3. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them. PMID:23764186

  4. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-06-13

    The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people's spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.

  5. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Flavio

    2007-01-01

    Background This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Data sources Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Methods Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Results Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15–44, respectively; for the groups 70–79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Conclusion Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile

  6. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Flavio

    2007-07-02

    This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals), Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals); CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas). Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups < 5 and 15-44, respectively; for the groups 70-79 and 80 + years of age, this trend is reversed. Mortality rates, however, are higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile's Ninth Region. High deprivation areas are associated

  7. The influence of Christian conversion in Mapuche traditional medicine in Temuco, Chile: toward a cultural syncretism or a form of ideological assimilation?

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2013-12-01

    The Mapuche communities living in the urban areas of Chile have undergone radical cultural changes due to Christian conversion. This article analyzes the influence of these changes on the Mapuche ideas and practices of the traditional healers (machi) and patients in Temuco (IX Region), Chile, and the changes and adaptations in the perceptions of healing practices and rituals by the patients. The paper shows how, despite some evident challenges, the encounter with the religion of Christianity can create a process of cultural and spiritual syncretism and push traditional medicine toward an increased specialization in the therapeutic practices.

  8. Chemosensory perception and medicinal plants for digestive ailments in a Mapuche community in NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-06-25

    To document the richness of plant species used in gastrointestinal disorders and to investigate about the criteria of aroma and flavor associated with its recognition, classification, selection and use. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of interviews to 30 inhabitants living in a Mapuche community of Northwestern Patagonia; data collected was analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics. This work records 75 ethnospecies, pertaining to 40 botanic families. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were the most frequently mentioned and described in terms of smell and taste. Most of species (69%) have notable aroma and/or flavor characteristics. The species presenting highest consensus in the population are positively associated with a higher frequency of organoleptic descriptions. In addition, local people consider these perceptions to be potentially useful in the search for substitutes when species are scarce or disappear from a locality. It is possible to establish a preliminary system of classification of medicinal plants based on their organoleptic characteristics and relate this to their effects on health. Moreover the cultural interpretation of smell and taste is of great heuristic importance to ethnopharmacology, in that it indicates which plants are most likely to contain the main active ingredients sought.

  9. Ethnobotanical review of the Mapuche medicinal flora: use patterns on a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-03-18

    This paper aimed to present a quantitative review of information on Mapuche ethnobotany published for Argentina and Chile in the period 1955-2007. Sixteen ethnobotanical articles were studied quantitatively by utilizing ethnobotanical indices, non-parametric and multivariate tests. A total of 505 medicinal species, 304 native (60%) and 196 exotic (39%) were registered. Ailments were treated with both native and exotic species, although native showed higher values of consensus (between studies) than exotic, and were more frequently used in all cases. The most common ailments were gastro-intestinal pains (26%). Most cures used herbs (56%). Native species were obtained mainly by gathering in forests and ecotones (40%), and exotics by gathering in anthropogenic environments (28%). Our results demonstrate the existence of a common, shared body of knowledge of the medicinal flora at a regional level, integrating ancestral knowledge with foreign knowledge accumulated over time. Finally, reflecting cultural erosion, modern articles cited significantly fewer native plants than older articles; a trend not found with exotic species. The information offered can be used as a guide for future work on promising species for health care, and as background information for the development of bio-cultural conservation strategies.

  10. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    PubMed

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P < 0.006). As compared with Hispanic women without gallstones, plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels were increased by > or =100% (P < 0.002) in Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  11. [HLA genetic markers and auto-antibody profile in a Mapuche family with a case affected of type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Sylvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Pérez, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys beta cells of pancreas. Not all carriers of susceptible HLA genes and positive for autoantibodies develop the disease. Environmental factors play a role in triggering the autoimmune process. To analyze an exceptional case of DM1 in a Mapuche family in the context of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. A study of a family with an affected female child was carried out in a Mapuche community in Southern Chile (VIII region). This is an unique and sporadic DM1 case with Mapuche heritage. Nutritional and viral infections data were collected by interview and clinical records. A genetic analysis by PCR was done to detect class I and II HLA genes by reverse dot blot. The proband, her mother and sister had positive islet cell antibodies (ICA). Her father and brother were negative. All thefamily was positive for anti glutamic decarboxylase antibodies (GAD65). All subjects had HLA-DRB1 0407/0407 and HLA-DQB1 0302/0302 alleles. The index case and her father were homozygotes for the HLA-A1:A*68012/A*68012 allele. Mean breastfeeding lapse was 18 months in all children. No evidences for viral infections such as rubella, mumps or measles were found in this family. There was an altered profile of autoantibodies in the family of the index case. All genotypes were comparable with the European population where the diabetogenic combination DR4/DQB1*0302 is the most prevalent. No environmental factors could be incriminated as triggers of the disease.

  12. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  13. Genetic variation among the Mapuche Indians from the Patagonian region of Argentina: mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and allele frequencies of several nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Ginther, C; Corach, D; Penacino, G A; Rey, J A; Carnese, F R; Hutz, M H; Anderson, A; Just, J; Salzano, F M; King, M C

    1993-01-01

    DNA samples from 60 Mapuche Indians, representing 39 maternal lineages, were genetically characterized for (1) nucleotide sequences of the mtDNA control region; (2) presence or absence of a nine base duplication in mtDNA region V; (3) HLA loci DRB1 and DQA1; (4) variation at three nuclear genes with short tandem repeats; and (5) variation at the polymorphic marker D2S44. The genetic profile of the Mapuche population was compared to other Amerinds and to worldwide populations. Two highly polymorphic portions of the mtDNA control region, comprising 650 nucleotides, were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. The 39 maternal lineages were defined by two or three generation families identified by the Mapuches. These 39 lineages included 19 different mtDNA sequences that could be grouped into four classes. The same classes of sequences appear in other Amerinds from North, Central, and South American populations separated by thousands of miles, suggesting that the origin of the mtDNA patterns predates the migration to the Americas. The mtDNA sequence similarity between Amerind populations suggests that the migration throughout the Americas occurred rapidly relative to the mtDNA mutation rate. HLA DRB1 alleles 1602 and 1402 were frequent among the Mapuches. These alleles also occur at high frequency among other Amerinds in North and South America, but not among Spanish, Chinese or African-American populations. The high frequency of these alleles throughout the Americas, and their specificity to the Americas, supports the hypothesis that Mapuches and other Amerind groups are closely related.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Iron supplementation in Chilean Mapuche infants of the Cautin Province, Chile].

    PubMed

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Hazbún, J; Segú, S; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Figueroa, G; Orellana, J

    1996-06-01

    A 1.8 ml iron supplementation of ferrous sulfate is administered for 90 days to 76 Mapuche infants, 12 months of age, male and female, from the rural area of the Cautin province of Chile. The iron nutrition is evaluated before and after the supplementation, through: hemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin saturation and seric ferritin. Stools test are taken at the infant's home, to confirm the supplement intake and to measure the iron excreted. To study the contained of dietary Fe a Recordatory 24 hour Inquest (RI) is applied moreover a Proximal Chemical Analysis (PCHA) to meal test proceeding from the infant's homes. At 12 months before starting the supplementation, the anemia prevalence was of 28.3%, but it disappear as a result of the intervention. Also 65.3% of the infants showed and increase of 1 g or more on their hemoglobin, which indicates that they were anemic at the beginning of the iron supplementation. By means of this therapeutic test it was find 31% more of anemic infants, indicating more sensibility of this method. The high levels of anemia prevalence are due to the low iron intake, characteristic of the non lactious foods, which according results of the RI reaches an average of 2.8 +/- 1.2 mg of Fe/day, versus 4.8 +/- 4.0 mg of Fe/day according to PCHA. The observed difference between both test showed that there is a process of food environmental contamination, by the use of iron utensils and great soil contact. The high environmental contamination could also be proved by the high iron excretion stools (140 mg of Fe/100 g of stools). This method used to measure the Fe excretion of the supplement, would not be valid in rural population groups with similar characteristics to those of the studied group, because it does not discriminate between the intake and the extremely high environmental contamination. To prevent anemia due to iron absence in infants, it is absolutely necessary to have some iron fortified food starting at 6 months of age, as a

  15. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José

    2004-09-01

    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p<0.005) but similar to that reported in Asian population (p=0.739), probably due to the Asian origin of the Amerindian populations. In addition, the MDR1*l haplotype fequency hin Mestizos was similar to the frequency reported in Caucasians (p=0.49), in agreement with the origin of our population, with a strong influence of Caucasian genes from the Spanish conquerors. The MDR1*2 haplotype distribution, with the three polymoyphisms and probably lower multidrug transporter expression, was similar in the three Chilean populations studied (p>0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  16. Traditional Mapuche ecological knowledge in Patagonia, Argentina: fishes and other living beings inhabiting continental waters, as a reflection of processes of change.

    PubMed

    Aigo, Juana; Ladio, Ana

    2016-12-07

    Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers. Both material and symbolic aspects are included, as are the differences in knowledge and use of the fishes between past and present times. Our methods were based on a quali-quantitative fieldwork approach. In-depth interviews were carried out with 36 individuals from three rural Mapuche populations in Neuquén province (Patagonia, Argentina). Free listing was used for inquiring about fish knowledge and use. Fishes were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. In-depth analysis of the discourses was conducted, documenting the recognition, perception, and cultural significance of fluvial environments and their inhabitants. Quantitative survey results were analyzed with categorical statistical methods. The body of knowledge of the communities studied reflects the socio-environmental changes experienced by Patagonian freshwater bodies. According to local perception, non-human beings live in these water bodies, guarding the environment, and they should not be disturbed. At present, five different fish species are identified, three of which are exotic, having been introduced at the beginning of the 20th century by the white man. These exotic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis) are considered ill omens, indicators of the white man's presence, and therefore their appearance presages negative events for the

  17. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile

    PubMed Central

    González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1–4.3%, P = 6×10−27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data. PMID:28542165

  18. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Boekstegers, Felix; González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Müller, Bettina; Ferreccio, Catterina; Koshiol, Jill; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Fuentes Guajardo, Macarena; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  19. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  20. Regional journals in medicine and public health: a look to the future upon the indexing of the Revista Chilena de Infectología.

    PubMed

    Vermund, Sten H; Acuña, Guillermo

    2005-03-01

    Revista Chilena de Infectología has recently been accepted for index listing in the Index Medicus via the MEDLINE data base. This breakthrough prompts reflection on the nature of regionally focused subspecialty journals and what such a listing means for better dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries reported in such journals. There is a conscientious global effort at present to better represent regional journals in indexing systems and to make access easier for persons in less wealthy nations to medical and public health information via the internet. These trends are reviewed and discussed in the context of Chile's national medical and public health literature.

  1. High Resolution UHPLC-MS Metabolomics and Sedative-Anxiolytic Effects of Latua pubiflora: A Mystic Plant used by Mapuche Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Montoya, Eliana L.; Reyes, Marco A.; Pardo, Joel; Nuñez-Alarcón, Juana; Ortiz, José G.; Jorge, Juan C.; Bórquez, Jorge; Mocan, Andrei; Simirgiotis, Mario J.

    2017-01-01

    Latua pubiflora (Griseb) Phil. Is a native shrub of the Solanaceae family that grows freely in southern Chile and is employed among Mapuche aboriginals to induce sedative effects and hallucinations in religious or medicine rituals since prehispanic times. In this work, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and the elevated plus maze test were employed to test the behavioral effects of extracts of this plant in mice. The psychopharmacological evaluation of L. pubiflora extracts in mice determined that both alkaloid-enriched as well as the non-alkaloid extracts produced an increase of sleeping time and alteration of motor activity in mice at 150 mg/Kg. The alkaloid extract exhibited anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze test, which was counteracted by flumazenil. In addition, the alkaloid extract from L. pubiflora decreased [3H]-flunitrazepam binding on rat cortical membranes. In this study we have identified 18 tropane alkaloids (peaks 1–4, 8–13, 15–18, 21, 23, 24, and 28), 8 phenolic acids and related compounds (peaks 5–7, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 29) and 7 flavonoids (peaks 25–27 and 30–33) in extracts of L. pubiflora by UHPLC-PDA-MS which are responsible for the biological activity. This study assessed for the first time the sedative-anxiolytic effects of L. pubiflora in rats besides the high resolution metabolomics analysis including the finding of pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids and glycosylated flavonoids. PMID:28798689

  2. High Resolution UHPLC-MS Metabolomics and Sedative-Anxiolytic Effects of Latua pubiflora: A Mystic Plant used by Mapuche Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montoya, Eliana L; Reyes, Marco A; Pardo, Joel; Nuñez-Alarcón, Juana; Ortiz, José G; Jorge, Juan C; Bórquez, Jorge; Mocan, Andrei; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2017-01-01

    Latua pubiflora (Griseb) Phil. Is a native shrub of the Solanaceae family that grows freely in southern Chile and is employed among Mapuche aboriginals to induce sedative effects and hallucinations in religious or medicine rituals since prehispanic times. In this work, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and the elevated plus maze test were employed to test the behavioral effects of extracts of this plant in mice. The psychopharmacological evaluation of L. pubiflora extracts in mice determined that both alkaloid-enriched as well as the non-alkaloid extracts produced an increase of sleeping time and alteration of motor activity in mice at 150 mg/Kg. The alkaloid extract exhibited anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze test, which was counteracted by flumazenil. In addition, the alkaloid extract from L. pubiflora decreased [(3)H]-flunitrazepam binding on rat cortical membranes. In this study we have identified 18 tropane alkaloids (peaks 1-4, 8-13, 15-18, 21, 23, 24, and 28), 8 phenolic acids and related compounds (peaks 5-7, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 29) and 7 flavonoids (peaks 25-27 and 30-33) in extracts of L. pubiflora by UHPLC-PDA-MS which are responsible for the biological activity. This study assessed for the first time the sedative-anxiolytic effects of L. pubiflora in rats besides the high resolution metabolomics analysis including the finding of pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids and glycosylated flavonoids.

  3. [Transition from pediatric to adult health care services for adolescents with chronic diseases: Recommendations from the Adolescent Branch from Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría].

    PubMed

    Zubarew, Tamara; Correa, Loreto; Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Velarde, Macarena; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The Adolescent Branch from Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría supports the implementation of planned programs for transition from child to adult health centers, oriented to adolescents with chronic diseases, in order to ensure an appropriate follow-up and a high-quality health care. Recommendations for care are set out in the FONIS and VRI PUC project carried out by the Division of Pediatrics of the Universidad Católica de Chile: “Transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives of adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”, whose goal was to describe the experience, barriers, critical points, and facilitators in the transition process. Critical points detected in this study were: existence of a strong bond between adolescents, caregivers and the pediatric team, resistance to transition, difficulty developing autonomy and self-management among adolescents; invisibility of the process of adolescence; and lack of communication between pediatric and adult team during the transfer. According to these needs, barriers and critical points, and based on published international experiences, recommendations are made for implementation of gradual and planned transition processes, with emphasis on the design and implementation of transition policies, establishment of multidisciplinary teams and transition planning. We discuss aspects related to coordination of teams, transfer timing, self-care and autonomy, transition records, adolescent and family participation, need for emotional support, ethical aspects involved, importance of confidentiality, need for professional training, and the need for evaluation and further research on the subject.

  4. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2014-08-26

    The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in regional shop. The practices of

  5. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Methods Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Results Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in

  6. "Mestiza" Consciousness: An Examination of Two Plays with Chicana Protagonists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the representation of gender and ethnicity in two female protagonists, Maria in "Simply Maria" and Alicia in "Alicia in Wonder Tierra." Demonstrates the cultural politics that direct how the protagonists negotiate gender identity within Mexican-American cultures. (SG)

  7. "Mestiza" Consciousness: An Examination of Two Plays with Chicana Protagonists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the representation of gender and ethnicity in two female protagonists, Maria in "Simply Maria" and Alicia in "Alicia in Wonder Tierra." Demonstrates the cultural politics that direct how the protagonists negotiate gender identity within Mexican-American cultures. (SG)

  8. Seeking a "Mexicana"/"Mestiza" Ethic of Care: Rosa's "Revolución" of Carrying Alongside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa-Provencio, Mia Angélica

    2017-01-01

    This Chicana Critical Feminist "Testimonio" reveals a Mexican/Mexican-American Ethic of Care particular to the needs and strengths of "Mexicana/o" students and "Testimonios" of struggle, survival informing one Mexican/Mexican-American female educator of predominantly Mexican/Mexican-American students. This work,…

  9. An Intercultural Education: Teaching Reading in a Mapuche Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, María Elena Mellado; Hermosilla, Adriana del Carmen Huaiquimil

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, there are currently intercultural educational policies; national curricula that assume updated research development including investigational advances in reading and opportunities for improvement of teacher training. However, in La Araucania Region predominates for lagging behind in reading and it is necessary to explain this tendency…

  10. [Evaluation of the maternal perception of her child's weight and body mass index heritability in mestizas dyads in Southeastern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Camal-Ríos, Nayla Y; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2011-12-01

    Descriptive correlational study. The objectives were the following: 1) evaluate maternal perception of her child's weight through two test, Word-perception (WVP) test and the Body mass index (BMI) of the child as perceived by the mother (Body weight index perception [BWIP]); 2)evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the tests, and 3) quantify BMI heritability (h2) in 173 mother-child dyads. WP was assessed by asking the question, How do you think your child is? For assessing BWIP, the mother referred the child's eight and height, and we calculated the child's BMI as perceived by the mother. The weight and height of the mothers and their children were measured. We found that 10.3% of mothers of children with Overweight (OW) and 1.8% of mothers of children with Obesity (OB) perceived their children adequately by means of WP; by means of the BWIP test, 38.5 and 67.3% of mothers of children with OW and OB, respectively, exhibited adequate perception. BWIP sensitivity was 55.3% and specificity was 54.4%. BWI h2 was 15%. We was concluded that mothers did not perceive the OW-OB of their children, and that asking the mother for the weight and height of the child (BMIP) will aids her to perceive the OW-OB of her child. The BWI h2 indicate that the lifestyle factors of this population contribute to OW-OB. Given the broad socioeconomic and cultural diversity, these results of the southeastern Mexican state of Campeche should be evaluated with similar study designs.

  11. Seeking a "Mexicana/Mestiza" Critical Feminist Ethic of Care: Diana's "Revolución" of Body and Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa-Provencio, Mia Angélica

    2016-01-01

    This Chicana Critical Feminist Testimonio reveals a Mexican/Mexican-American Ethic of Care and Testimonios of struggle and survival informing curriculum and pedagogy of one Mexican/Mexican-American female educator of predominantly Mexican/Mexican-American students. This work is part of a larger ethnographic study conducted through multiple…

  12. Seeking a "Mexicana/Mestiza" Critical Feminist Ethic of Care: Diana's "Revolución" of Body and Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa-Provencio, Mia Angélica

    2016-01-01

    This Chicana Critical Feminist Testimonio reveals a Mexican/Mexican-American Ethic of Care and Testimonios of struggle and survival informing curriculum and pedagogy of one Mexican/Mexican-American female educator of predominantly Mexican/Mexican-American students. This work is part of a larger ethnographic study conducted through multiple…

  13. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  14. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  15. Ethnic Prejudice against the Mapuche in Chilean Society as a Reflection of the Racist Ideology of the Spanish Conquistadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Maria E.; Quilaqueo, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The conquest of Chile and of America in general constituted an encounter between different and mutually unknown civilizations that discovered the existence of an "extreme otherness" which European civilization would generically call "Indians." The Spanish encounter with the aboriginals was both violent and subtle. The…

  16. Ethnic Prejudice against the Mapuche in Chilean Society as a Reflection of the Racist Ideology of the Spanish Conquistadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Maria E.; Quilaqueo, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The conquest of Chile and of America in general constituted an encounter between different and mutually unknown civilizations that discovered the existence of an "extreme otherness" which European civilization would generically call "Indians." The Spanish encounter with the aboriginals was both violent and subtle. The…

  17. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country.

  18. [Reasons to recommend vaccination against dengue in Easter Island: Immunization Advisory Committee of Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

    PubMed

    Fica, Alberto; Potin, Marcela; Moreno, Gabriela; Véliz, Liliana; Cerda, Jaime; Escobar, Carola; Wilhelm, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.

  19. Chile Informed Question Paper - Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    superior military strength and regional economic integration. Internally, Chile also faces little threat; however, militants from the Mapuche ...considered a significant threat.11 The most significant internal security concern is the ongoing campaign by Mapuche indigenous community militants to

  20. Transversing Landmines (Book Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Riki

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connections between the ambiguous status of Mexican immigrants, Mestizas, and others inhabiting border areas described in Marleen Pugach's "On the Border of Opportunity" (1998) and in Gloria Anzaldua's "Borderlands: La Frontera, the New Mestiza" (1987) and postmodernist identity-formation opportunities in Zohar and…

  1. Ethnic differences in HLA antigens in Chilean donors and recipients: data from the National Renal Transplantation Program.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Beltran, R; Ardiles, R; Raddatz, N; Labraña, C; Arenas, A; Flores, J; Alruiz, P; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-11-01

    To describe HLA antigen distribution, looking for possible markers of renal disease in Mapuche and non-Mapuche people in the renal transplantation program, we reviewed data from 1297 histocompatibility studies of the Chilean national renal transplantation program (421 donors and 876 recipients), performed between 2000 and 2005. Mapuche people were classified according to their family surnames. The most frequent antigens found among the total Chilean population were A2 (48%), A19 (33%), B16 (33%), B35 (26%), DR4 (38%), and DR6 (28%), without significant differences between donors and recipients. Among the 114 individuals (9%) classified as Mapuche, the most frequent antigens were A28 (49%), A2 (44%), B16 (63%), B35 (24%), DR4 (48%), and DR8 (30%), with A28/B16/DR4 as the most common haplotype. In contrast, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8 were significantly more frequent in Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche people. B8 was significantly more frequent in Mapuche recipients than in non-Mapuche recipients and Mapuche donors. The higher frequency of some HLA antigens in Mapuche people was confirmed, possibly corresponding to ethnic markers. The special concentration of B8 among Mapuche recipients might represent a genetic factor predisposing to chronic renal disease in this human group.

  2. Factores predictores de inicio y cesación de tabaquismo en una cohorte de mujeres chilenas con 5,5 años de seguimiento

    PubMed Central

    Puschel, Klaus; Thompson, Beti; Olcay, Fabiola; Frreccio, Catterina

    2014-01-01

    Background Chilean women have one of the highest smoking prevalence in the world. Aim To estimate the main factors associated with smoking initiation and quitting among a cohort of adult women living in a low socioeconomic status area of Santiago, Chile. Material and methods A random population-based sample of 1,100 women, 18 years and older, were selected from a community located in the South East area of Santiago. Sociodemographic, as well as smoking, beliefs, behaviors, stages of change and nicotine addiction level were recorded during a personal interview. After an average follow-up period of 5.5 years, women were re-evaluated. Results Seventy-three percent of women completed the study. At baseline, 39% of women were smokers. At the end of the study, there was an absolute smoking rate reduction of 7.1% (p<0.001). The main variables associated with smoking initiation were younger age (Odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05–1.12), higher education level (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.07–1.35), and having fewer children (OR: 1.3 95% CI: 1.01–1.66). Factors related with quitting were younger age of onset (OR: 1.06 95% CI: 1.02–1.1), higher level of nicotine dependence (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.74–10.27), and higher perception of smoking addiction (OR: 4.34, 95% CI: 2–9.09). Stage of change was associated with smoking cessation but its effect was diluted after adjusting for the level of nicotine addiction. Conclusions Sociodemographic and family factors were the main variables related with initiation, whereas age of onset, belief of addiction, and nicotine dependence were the main factors related with cessation. Women with a high motivation for quitting should be evaluated for nicotine addiction level to define the best strategy for intervention (Rev Méd Chile 2009; 137: 1001–9). PMID:19915762

  3. [Antiseptics and disinfectants: aiming at rational use. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Healthcare Associated Infections. Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

    PubMed

    Diomedi, Alexis; Chacón, Eiiana; Delpiano, Luis; Hervé, Beatrice; Jemenao, M Irene; Medel, Myriam; Quintanilla, Marcela; Riedel, Gisela; Tinoco, Javier; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-04-01

    Proper use of antiseptics and disinfectants, is an essential tool to prevent the spread of infectious agents and to control of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Given the increasing importance of environmental aspects, as well as several advances and updates in the field of its proper use at local and intemational level, the SOCHINF HAI Advisory Committee considers that it is necessary to develop a guide for the rational use of antiseptics and disinfectants, which it will provide consistent scientific basis with that purpose.

  4. [TORCH syndrome: Rational approach of pre and post natal diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Neonatal Infections Sociedad Chilena de Infectología, 2016].

    PubMed

    Cofre, Fernanda; Delpiano, Luis; Labraña, Yenis; Reyes, Alejandra; Sandoval, Alejandra; Izquierdo, Giannina

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of bacterial, viral or parasite infections who are able to be transmitted vertically from the mother to the fetus or newborn which implicates an enormous risk for it. The TORCH acronym is used universally to refer to a fetus or newborn which presents clinical features compatible with a vertically acquired infection and allows a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The traditional "TORCH test" is nowadays considered not appropriate and it has been replaced for specific test for specific pathogens under well defined circumstances. The present document reviews the general characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and therapeutic options for the most frequently involved pathogens in the fetus or newborn with TORCH suspicion.

  5. [Prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia in rural aboriginal groups in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Albala, C

    1999-10-01

    Chilean aboriginal ethnic groups (mapuche and aymaras) have a very low prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. The investigation of a possible relationship between this low prevalence of diabetes and obesity, hypertension and serum lipid profiles in both groups is worthwhile. To study the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and lipid profile in two Chilean aboriginal communities. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, leptin and oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 345 mapuche (106 male) and 247 aymara (100 male) individuals. Sixty three percent of mapuche women, 37.9% of mapuche men, 39.7% of the aymara women and 27.0% of aymara men had a body mass index over 27 kg/m2. Twenty percent of mapuche men, 18.0% of mapuche women, 9.0% of aymara men and 4.8% of the aymara women had high blood pressure values. Serum HDL cholesterol was below 35 mg/dl in 16% of mapuche women, 14% of mapuche men, 25% of the aymara women and 27% of aymara men. No differences in total cholesterol levels were observed between mapuches and aymaras. Mapuche women have higher prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure than aymara women. Low serum HDL cholesterol has a higher prevalence among aymara individuals.

  6. A Classroom on the Mall: Indigenous Women and the Culture of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Martha

    1995-01-01

    When rural women do not participate in relevant decision making, development projects risk diminished effectiveness and may increase already onerous workloads. Consisting of 139 Mapuche women textile artisans in Chile, the Casa de la Mujer Mapuche provides its members with income, role models, and a platform to express women's needs and…

  7. [Obesity and leptin association in three Chilean aboriginal populations].

    PubMed

    Pérez, F; Santos, J L; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a clear relationship between body mass index and leptin levels, few authors have addressed the possible influence of ethnic factors on these levels. To measure serum leptin in three different Chilean aboriginal populations. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 345 rural mapuche individuals, 247 rural aymara subjects and 162 urban mapuche subjects. A body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 was used as cutoff point to classify study subjects. Among the three ethnic groups, women had serum leptin levels three times higher than men. In all three ethnic groups, there was a significant association between leptin levels, body mass index and gender (r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p < 0.001, in rural mapuche, r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p < 0.001, in aymara and r2 = 0.24 and 0.49, p < 0.001 in urban mapuche populations). No differences in leptin levels were observed for the interaction between age and insulin. The increments per quartile in leptin levels were lower among mapuche than aymara individuals. Rural mapuche individuals have a high frequency of obesity. However their leptin levels are lower than those of aymara or urban mapuche populations. The higher leptin levels observed in urban mapuche subjects could be due to environmental influences.

  8. [Medical systems which coexist in the Novena region of Chile: a general description].

    PubMed

    Oyarce, A M

    1988-09-01

    3 distinct systems of ideas about health and illness, types of persons dedicated to curing, and treatments and remedies are recognized to coexist in Chile. In the 9th region, the Mapuche traditional indigenous system operates alongside the traditional popular system which resulted from the blending of prehispanic and medieval European medical beliefs and practices and the western, official, scientific medical system. Relations between the western and the 2 traditional systems have been characterized by distrust, lack of esteem, and rejection, both because the western system belongs to the dominant social sectors and because it lacks a frame of reference for understanding medical practices different from its own. The Mapuche medical system is one of the aspects of Mapuche culture that has best withstood cultural change, perhaps because its magicoreligious basis expresses the central core of Mapuche culture. It is transmitted by oral tradition and formal teaching to young Mapuche who receive signs of their vocation. The Mapuche medical system is practiced predominantly in the 9th health region. It is a personalistic system, in which recognized causes of illness are generally attributed to 3rd parties. Illnesses are produced by 3 types of agents including malicious spirits or forces which assume different human, animal, or natural forms and persons with evil powers or those contracting with them. Illnesses may also result from the failure to satisfy a norm, duty, or divine calling. Even in cases in which a disease or injury is recognized to be due to natural causes, a magicoreligious type of cause is believed to originate the condition. A field study conducted in 1987 in a Mapuche community produced evidence within the community of 2 women working in the traditional Mapuche system and 3 in the traditional popular system. Members of the community also consulted at least 6 traditional Mapuche and 5 traditional popular medical specialists in nearby communities, as well

  9. Growth in Indigenous and Nonindigenous Chilean Schoolchildren From 3 Poverty Strata

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Patricia; Amigo, Hugo; Muñoz, Sergio R.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine whether the short stature of Mapuche children, an indigenous group in Chile, reflects poverty or genetic heritage and whether the international reference population, derived from studies of US children of mostly European origin, is appropriate for assessing growth failure in indigenous peoples of the Americas. Methods. The study assessed 768 schoolchildren of Mapuche and non-Mapuche ancestry, aged 6 to 9 years, living under conditions of extreme, medium, and low poverty. Results. Growth retardation was strongly related to poverty in both ethnic groups. Within poverty levels, there were no significant differences in stature between ethnic groups, and in low-poverty areas in Santiago, the capital city, mean stature was only slightly less than in the reference population. Conclusions. Poverty, not ancestry, explains the short stature of Mapuche children, and use of the international reference to assess growth in this population is appropriate. PMID:11574328

  10. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation Preferences Among Minority and Majority Youth: Norms and Contact.

    PubMed

    González, Roberto; Lickel, Brian; Gupta, Manisha; Tropp, Linda R; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Mora, Eduardo; De Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Valdenegro, Daniel; Cayul, Oscar; Miranda, Daniel; Saavedra, Patricio; Bernardino, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, Mages  = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms supporting contact and quality of intergroup contact at Time 1 predicted student's changes in Mapuche identification at Time 2, which in turn predicted changes in support for adoption of Chilean culture and maintenance of Mapuche culture at Time 2; some of the relationships between these variables were found to be moderated by age and ethnicity. Conceptual and policy implications are addressed in the Discussion. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Growth in indigenous and nonindigenous Chilean schoolchildren from 3 poverty strata.

    PubMed

    Bustos, P; Amigo, H; Muñoz, S R; Martorell, R

    2001-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether the short stature of Mapuche children, an indigenous group in Chile, reflects poverty or genetic heritage and whether the international reference population, derived from studies of US children of mostly European origin, is appropriate for assessing growth failure in indigenous peoples of the Americas. The study assessed 768 schoolchildren of Mapuche and non-Mapuche ancestry, aged 6 to 9 years, living under conditions of extreme, medium, and low poverty. Growth retardation was strongly related to poverty in both ethnic groups. Within poverty levels, there were no significant differences in stature between ethnic groups, and in low-poverty areas in Santiago, the capital city, mean stature was only slightly less than in the reference population. Poverty, not ancestry, explains the short stature of Mapuche children, and use of the international reference to assess growth in this population is appropriate.

  12. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2011-01-01

    Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR) (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction)) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR) was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR,) with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  13. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions/Significance Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance. PMID:21931814

  14. Early Full-Time Day Care, Mother-Child Attachment, and Quality of the Home Environment in Chile: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…

  15. Early Full-Time Day Care, Mother-Child Attachment, and Quality of the Home Environment in Chile: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van der Veer, René; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and…

  16. Nonparticipation in Adult Education: From Self-Perceptions to Alternative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porras-Hernandez, Laura Helena; Salinas-Amescua, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose that dispositional factors do not sufficiently explain nonparticipation in adult education programs. Many nations report low participation rates, but empirical studies have usually been conducted with enrolled adults. This study, however, included 279 poorly educated mestizas and Native women in two regions of…

  17. This Is My Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastica, Joelle R.

    2009-01-01

    In her book Borderlands/La frontera: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua writes of a "Borderlands," which she describes as "a vague and undetermined place created by the emotional residue of an unnatural boundary....a constant state of transition" (1999, p. 25). In this paper, I explore my own borderlands, between the spaces of my classroom as a…

  18. Democratizing Academic Writing: A Revision of an Experience of Writing an Autoethnographic Dissertation in Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanco, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I revise my experience of writing an autoethnographic (Ellis, 2004) dissertation in the field of family therapy as a Colombian mestiza. I discuss how I grappled with my writing, and, in the process, stumbled into matters of democratizing texts. I problematize male-dominant academic standards, telling of the tensions when maneuvering…

  19. Nonparticipation in Adult Education: From Self-Perceptions to Alternative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porras-Hernandez, Laura Helena; Salinas-Amescua, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose that dispositional factors do not sufficiently explain nonparticipation in adult education programs. Many nations report low participation rates, but empirical studies have usually been conducted with enrolled adults. This study, however, included 279 poorly educated mestizas and Native women in two regions of…

  20. Chicana Identity Construction: Pushing the Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Helen; De Los Santos, Esmeralda

    2005-01-01

    Identity concepts that Chicana feminists have described as central to their developmental experience are not reflected in the traditional views of identity, feminist accounts of women's identity, or ethnic identity theory. Chicana feminist Gloria Anzaldua initially postulated that in the straddling of two cultures, a hybrid or mestiza identity is…

  1. [Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Elena P; Pérez, Francisco B; Angel, Bárbara B; Albala, Cecilia B; Santos, J Luis M; Larenas, Gladys Y; Montalvo, Domingo V

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p <0.008). Serum triglycerides over 150 mg/dl were observed in 16.9 and 23.1% of Aymara and Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in turban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity.

  2. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.

  3. 78 FR 5440 - Notice of Agreements Filed

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    ...-Maersk A/S; China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; CMA CGM, S.A.; Compa a Chilena de Navegaci n... transportation infrastructure and decrease port-related pollution emissions. The parties requested...

  4. 75 FR 71704 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ..., CMA CGM S.A., and Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. Filing Party: Wayne R. Rohde, Esq.; Cozen O... S.A.; Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A.; Hamburg- Sud; Hapag-Lloyd AG; Mediterranean...

  5. 76 FR 20668 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... amendment deletes Hanjin Shipping as a party to the Agreement. Agreement No.: 012105-001. Title: SCM Lines Transportes/CCNI Agreement. Parties: Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A. and SCM...

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    ... No.: 012105. Title: SCM Lines Transportes/CCNI Agreement. Parties: Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A. and SCM Lines Transportes Maritimos Sociedade Unipessoal, LDA. Filing Party: John P....

  7. [Facilitators and barriers to implementation of intercultural health policy in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Camila; Nazar, Gabriela; Cova, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out. The asymmetric relationship between the Mapuche people and the state, and between the Mapuche health system and the biomedical model, constitutes a fundamental barrier. Other obstacles include the lack of theoretical and practical clarity around the concept of intercultural health and a lack of resources. Conclusions Despite the facilitators identified and the achievements to date, meaningful progress in implementation of an intercultural health policy is limited by barriers that are hard to change. These include the usual forms of government planning and the hegemony of the biomedical model.

  8. Factores que Influencian la Adquisición de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y VIH en Mujeres Jóvenes Chilenas que Participaron en la Intervención Online I-STIPI (Factors That Influence the Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Chilean Young Women Who Participated in the Online Intervention I-STIPI).

    PubMed

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Santisteban, Daniel; Lara, Loreto; Vargas, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate the following factors associated with sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus prevention: (a) knowledge, (b) attitudes, (c) self-efficacy, (d) vulnerability, (e) risky behaviors, (f) preventive behaviors, and (g) internet use among 40 Chilean women between 18 and 24 years who participated in the pilot of an Internet based STI/HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI). A structured questionnaire available in a secure website was used for data collection and it included questions related to STI and HIV prevention. The results of the study indicated that young women are at risk of acquiring STIs and HIV and have special needs for prevention. Familiarity and frequency of use of internet in this population can be used for STIs and HIV prevention. © 2016. All rights reserved.

  9. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-10

    Reconstruction of the Mapuche Nation,” Center for International Policy, November 13, 2009. 21 “ Conflicto Mapuche Preocupa Pero No Hay Una ‘Guerra Civil...An October 2009 poll from a well-respected Chilean polling firm, the Centro de Estudios Politicos (CEP),43 found 36% support for Piñera, 26% for...Asegura Analista,” EFE News Service, September 30, 2009. 43 The Centro de Estudios Politicos is considered the best polling firm in Chile because it

  10. Evolution of the nutritional situation of indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio; Vargas, Claudio; Amigo, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show accelerated but ethnically or socially differentiated changes in their epidemiological profiles. The present study examined the evolution of the nutritional situation (1997-2005) in Chilean schoolchildren as related to ethnical origin (Mapuche). Using official databases, stunting (height/age or=95 percentile) were ascribed in first-grade schoolchildren. Ethnic groups were assigned by native parents' surnames (none, one and two). Based on 1 757 155 children (average age: 76.3 months), in 1997 stunting reached 8.4%, 4.8% and 3.1% in children with two, one and no Mapuche surnames, respectively. In 2005 it fell to 3.7%, 3.1% and 2.6% - a marked decrease in those with two Mapuche surnames (p<0.001). Obesity in 1997 was 11.8%, 12.8% and 13.3%, whilst in 2005 it changed to 17.5, 18.5 and 18.6%, respectively, demonstrating a similar trend to obesity in all groups (p=0.153). Undernutrition was rare (<1.1%) and stable. Poverty decreased clearly among the Mapuche population in this period. The marked decrease in stunting in children with a strong indigenous background seems related to a decrease in poverty over the period. Yet, the increase of obesity in all groups deserves further analysis.

  11. The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis): Over 1000 years of domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated strawberry of South America, Fragaria chiloensis, has a long history. At least two native peoples, the Mapuche and the Picunche began the domestication process. While white- and red-fruited forms were domesticated, the white form was preferred as the red-fruited types are not mention...

  12. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  13. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  14. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vallejos-Rojas, Andrea; Jaramillo-Gallardo, Javiera; Salas Bravo, Carlos; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2016-03-25

     Introducción: obesidad e inactividad física son importantes factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión en adultos. No obstante, hay poca evidencia sobre el efecto de estos factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de hipertensión en población infantil. Objetivo: investigar la asociación del estado nutricional, niveles de actividad física y etnicidad con niveles de hipertensión en escolares entre 6 y 13 años de edad. Métodos: un total de 418 escolares de ascendencia étnica europea (n = 311) y mapuche (n = 107) fueron participantes de este estudio transversal. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y presión arterial, utilizando protocolos estandarizados. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en IMC, estado nutricional y presión arterial entre niños con ascendencia europea y mapuche. No obstante, la prevalencia de prehipertensión (21,3% vs. 11,1%) e hipertensión (28,9% vs. 18,6%) fue significativamente mayor en escolares mapuches en comparación con europeos, respectivamente. Escolares con ascendencia mapuche tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión que escolares con ascendencia europea (OR: 1,92 [1,19 a 3,06], p < 0,01). La prevalencia de hipertensión aumenta significativamente en ambos grupos étnicos con el incremento de IMC y bajos niveles de actividad física. Conclusiones: el riesgo de desarrollar prehipertensión o hipertensión es mayor en población infantil ascendiente de mapuches que ascendiente de europeos y este riesgo se ve acentuado con el incremento de obesidad y bajos niveles de actividad física.

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  17. U.S. National Security Implications of Chinese Involvement in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    56. Christian Rodriguez and Juan Metiches, "El impacto en Chile del alza de tasas de interns en China," El Mercurio, Santiago, October 29, 2004... impacto en Chile del alza de tasas de inter&s en China." 37 60. Christian Viancos, "Asia aparece como inversionista para las empresas chilenas," El

  18. Breastfeeding Initiation and Maintenance Among African Americans and Blacks Enrolled in a Nurse Home Visitation Program: An Outcomes Focused Program Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-11

    Diseases 21: 11-5 57. Cortes F, Perez A, Ferrer L, Cianelli A, Cabieses V. 2006. HIV/AIDS and Breastfeeding. Revista Chilena De Nutricion: Organo...SM, Matsuo T. 2004. [The Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative and breastfeeding in a neonatal unit]. Revista de Saude Publica 38:422-8 262. Vohr BR

  19. 75 FR 74732 - Notice of Agreements Filed

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    ... the Federal Register. A copy of the agreement is available through the Commission's Web site ( http...-Maersk A/S; APL Co. Pte Ltd.; Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica, S.A.; Compania Sud Americana de Vapores, S.A.; Frontier Liner Services, Inc.; Hamburg-S d; Interocean Lines, Inc.; King Ocean...

  20. Intercultural health practices: towards an equal recognition between indigenous medicine and biomedicine? A case study from Chile.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-03-01

    Over the past few years, intercultural health has become an emerging issue in health policy. Intercultural health is an approach in health that aims at reducing the gap between indigenous and western health systems, on the basis of mutual respect and equal recognition of these knowledge systems. This article questions the applicability of such a concept in the context of Chile. Here, conflicting interests between the Mapuche and the Chilean state are related to aspects of economic development, modernity processes, integration, intercultural relations, and indigenous rights and are deeply reflected also in projects for an intercultural health system. By analysing the experience of the intercultural practice of Makewe Hospital, this article argues that effective and equitable intercultural health practices will not take place unless there will be an integral valorisation of the Mapuche culture from a broader perspective.

  1. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. To know you is to love you: Effects of intergroup contact and knowledge on intergroup anxiety and prejudice among indigenous Chileans.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-03-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed.

  5. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  6. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  7. Lack of association between the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism with obesity and insulin resistance in two aboriginal populations from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Fuentes, M; Angel, B; Sanchez, H; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Lera, L; Albala, C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) Ala54Thr genetic polymorphism and to evaluate its association with obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean aboriginal populations. A sample of 96 urban Aymara and 111 urban Mapuche subjects aged 20-80 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in fasting plasma samples. Insulin resistance was estimated through the HOMA-IR model. FABP2 Ala54Thr genotypes were determined by PCR followed by RFLP analysis. The allele frequency of Thr54 variant was estimated as 18.2% in Aymara subjects, which is one of the lowest reported to date. The corresponding frequency in Mapuche subjects was 31.9% (p<0.002). Regarding genotype-phenotype associations, no significant differences were found in any of the anthropometric or metabolic variables according to Ala54Thr genotypes. After adjustment by BMI and metabolic variables through a logistic regression analysis, the association of the FABP2 polymorphism with ethnic group persisted (Mapuche group: OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.319-4.277, p=0.004) It is unlikely that Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene plays a relevant role in obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean ethnic groups.

  8. Contribution of ethnic group and socioeconomic status to degree of disability in rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas.

  9. Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Robinson; Soza, Alejandro; Hernández, Verónica; Pérez, Rosa M; Alvarez, Manuel; Morales, Arturo; Arellano, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Viviani, Paola; Covarrubias, Carmen; Arrese, Marco; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data regarding this infection in developing countries is scanty. Prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection was investigated in a random sample of Chilean general adult population older than 20 years of age. Additionally, frequency of HCV infection was assessed in group of native Chilean Amerindians (Mapuche Indians) living in an isolated locality of the Southern Chile. Incidence of HCV infection was estimated using serum samples separated by 7 years (1993-2000). Among 959 subjects, prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.15% (95% CI 0.48-1.82%) and 0.83% when only RIBA-confirmed cases were considered. Among these subjects, 62.5% had detectable HCV RNA in serum and 40% of them had a history of blood transfusion. Age distribution of cases showed a steadily increasing prevalence with age. Estimated incidence of new HCV infections was 15 per 100,000 subjects per year in the period 1993-2000. No cases were detected among the 145 Mapuche subjects studied. HCV infection is a prevalent disease in the Hispanic population of Chile with a low incidence in the last decade, whereas it was not detected in an isolated Mapuche Indian community. Age distribution of prevalence suggests that the peak of infection in Chile occurred 30 to 50 years ago.

  10. JPRS Report, Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-02

    great writer Jose Maria Arguedas, serving as the inspiration for the beautiful story " Water ," and underneath its lands lie major veins of gold, which...This Year (Brasilia Radio Nacional da Amazonia Network , 16 Jun 87) 24 Remote-Sensing Satellite To Be Built With PRC in 1994 (FOLHA DE SAO PAULO...Leader Denounces Infiltration, Resigns (EL MERCURIO, 5 Jun 87) , 30 Politicians Support Drive for Free Elections (Santiago Radio Chilena Network

  11. Anomalies in the Decay of Particular Nuclear Isotopes (Briefing charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0109 ANOMALIES IN THE DECAY OF PARTICULAR NUCLEAR ISOTOPES Juan Klein Comision Chilena De Enlgia Nuclea Final Report 05/08/2014...Anomalies in the Decay of Particular Nuclear Isotopes 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0027 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...small annual oscillations in many of the same isotopes as the aforementioned 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear Decay , Periodic Variations 16

  12. The UKIRT Infrated Deep Sky Survey : data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    ESO - the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere - and the Sociedad Chilena de Astronomía (SOCHIAS) are organising a Latin American Astronomy Summer School. It will take place from December 8-10, 2005, the week before the Regional Meeting of the International Astronomical Union to be held on December 12-16, 2005 in Pucon, Chile (~ 800 km South of Santiago).

  13. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-06

    Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to

  14. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  15. Ethnic variation of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) gene in southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Véjar, V; Del Moral-Hernández, O; Alarcón-Romero, L C; Flores-Alfaro, E; Leyva-Vázquez, M A; Hernández-Sotelo, D; Illades-Aguiar, B

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we examined the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene (MTHFR) in two ethnic groups in the State of Guerrero, Mexico, which were compared with those of the Mestizo population of the region. A comparative study was conducted on 455 women from two ethnic groups and a group of Mestizo women of the State of Guerrero, Mexico: 135 Nahuas, 124 Mixtecas, and 196 Mestizas. Genotyping of both polymorphisms were performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We found that the 677TT genotype was more frequent in Nahua and Mixteca women compared to Mestiza women (P = 0.008), and the most prevalent genotype in both ethnic groups was the 1298AA genotype (P < 0.001). We also compared the 677T allele frequency obtained from the groups studied with the frequencies reported in other ethnic groups of Mexico (Huichol, Tarahumara, and Purepecha). There were significant differences between the three ethnic groups compared to Nahuas (Huicholes, P = 0.004; Tarahumaras, P < 0.001; Purepechas, P = 0.042). Our results indicated significant differences in the frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms between the two ethnic groups and the Mestizo population of the State of Guerrero. In addition, we found strong differences with other ethnic groups in Mexico. These results could be useful for future studies investigating diseases related to folate metabolism, and could help the government to design specific nutrition programs for different ethnic groups.

  16. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling <4 years (64.0%). GBC standardized incidence rate per 100,000 (SIR) were all 17.5 (95%CI: 15.5-19.4), women 24.3, and men 8.6 (p < 0.00001); Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with <4 years of schooling. Lowest SIRs were among Hispanic men (19.8) and women (21.9) with >8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs.

  17. Comparison of allele frequencies of eight STR loci from Argentinian Amerindian and European populations.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1998-10-01

    Eight STR systems (THO1, FABP, VWA, FES/FPS, HPRTB, F13A1, CSF1PO, and D6S366) were investigated in different ethnic groups of Argentina. Allele and genotype frequencies, power of exclusion, and discriminative power were investigated. Hardy-Weinberg expectations were calculated from heterozygosity levels. FST and G tests demonstrated that significant differences exist among the investigated populations for some of the eight STRs markers. The Wichi Indians are clearly separated from the Mapuche and Tehuelche, who in turn are closer to the European population, suggesting non-Amerindian admixture.

  18. HLA-DRB1 alleles in four Amerindian populations from Argentina and Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the biological systems of major polymorphisms. The study of HLA class II variability has allowed the identification of several alleles that are characteristic to Amerindian populations, and it is an excellent tool to define the relations and biological affinities among them. In this work, we analyzed the allelic distribution of the HLA-DRB1 class II locus in four Amerindian populations: Mapuche (n = 34) and Tehuelche (n = 23) from the Patagonian region of Argentina, and Wichi SV (n = 24) and Lengua (n = 17) from the Argentinean and Paraguayan Chaco regions, respectively. In all of these groups, relatively high frequencies of Amerindian HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed (DRB1*0403, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0417, DRB1*0802, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1402, DRB1*1406 and DRB1*1602). However, we also detected the presence of non-Amerindian variants in Mapuche (35%) and Tehuelche (22%). We compared our data with those obtained in six indigenous groups of the Argentinean Chaco region and in a sample from Buenos Aires City. The genetic distance dendrogram showed a clear-cut division between the Patagonian and Chaco populations, which formed two different clusters. In spite of their linguistic differences, it can be inferred that the biological affinities observed are in concordance with the geographic distributions and interethnic relations established among the groups studied. PMID:21637670

  19. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  1. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.

  2. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  3. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  4. [NORMATIVE VALUES OF SF-6D QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILEAN DIABETES PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas de mayor prevalencia e impacto económico a nivel mundial. La diabetes produce un impacto sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de las personas que la padecen. El cuestionario SF-6D permite evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Es uno de los cuestionarios más usados a nivel mundial, ya que permite conocer las preferencias sociales de los distintos estados de salud. Sin embargo, según nuestro conocimiento no se dispone de los valores normativos de este cuestionario en la población diabética chilena. Objetivo: reportar los datos normativos del cuestionario SF-6D en la población diabética chilena. Métodos: los datos fueron extraídos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS 2009-2010) de Chile. En este estudio se incluyen 424 personas que presentan diabetes (143 hombres y 281 mujeres). Los datos se han presentado segregados por sexo y grupo de edad, así como por región, estado civil, hábito tabáquico, nivel de ingresos y estudios. Resultados: el índice de utilidad del SF-6D en mujeres chilenas con diabetes fue de 0,65 (± 0,15), mientras que en hombres fue 0,70 (± 0,15). Menos del 5% de la población declara una utilidad con valor 1. El índice de utilidad del SF-6D en pacientes con diabetes disminuye con la edad, en las situaciones de bajos ingresos y con niveles de educación bajos. Conclusiones: este estudio presenta los valores normativos chilenos del SF-6D derivado del SF-12 en pacientes con diabetes.

  5. Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

  6. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Strategies of coping with chronic illness in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Flores-Carvajal, Daniel; Urzúa M, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    To develop a tool to evaluate coping strategies for chronic illness in adolescents. Based on a theoretical review and semi-structured interviews with adolescents, a questionnaire was prepared that was finally evaluated by judges experienced in in understanding, relevance and viability. A scale is proposed that consists of 60 items grouped into 12 coping families. The scale may be a useful clinical tool to provide key information about the experience and ways to cope with illness in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  9. Cancer of the gallbladder—Chilean statistics

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Luis Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world’s highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer. PMID:28105075

  10. Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition in Chile: the roles of socioeconomic status and quality of home environment.

    PubMed

    Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi

    2017-09-21

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.

  11. Nuestra culpa: collective guilt and shame as predictors of reparation for historical wrongdoing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rupert; González, Roberto; Zagefka, Hanna; Manzi, Jorge; Cehajic, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that collective guilt and shame have different consequences for reparation. In 2 longitudinal studies, the ingroup was nonindigenous Chileans (Study 1: N = 124/120, lag = 8 weeks; Study 2: N = 247/137, lag = 6 months), and the outgroup was Chile's largest indigenous group, the Mapuche. In both studies, it was found that collective guilt predicted reparation attitudes longitudinally. Collective shame had only cross-sectional associations with reparation and no direct longitudinal effects. In Study 2, collective shame moderated the longitudinal effects of collective guilt such that the effects of guilt were stronger for low-shame respondents. In Study 3 (N = 193 nonindigenous Chileans), the cross-sectional relationships among guilt, shame, and reparation attitudes were replicated. The relationship between shame and reparation attitudes was mediated by a desire to improve the ingroup's reputation.

  12. Cancer of the gallbladder-Chilean statistics.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world's highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer.

  13. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.

  14. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  15. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    PubMed

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  18. When Research "Unravels": One Community Psychologist's Tale of Becoming a Nepantlera.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janelle M

    2017-03-01

    This is an autoethnography of one community psychologist's reflections on the abrupt conclusion of a project that resulted in the dismantlement of a Latinx Student Union at a public middle school in the Pacific Northwest. Gloria Anzaldúa's (Borderlands/La Frontera: The new mestiza, Aunt Lute Books, San Francisco, 2002) notion of nepantla is used to situate how an individual's personal identities often intersects with their professional identities in ways that collide within the research environment. Drawing on the "heart work" core competencies within the field of community psychology (The Community Psychologist, 45, 2012, 8; American Journal of Community Psychology, 55, 2015, 266) and extending the dialogue of feminist community psychologists engaged in narrative work (American Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 2006, 157; American Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 2006, 267; Feminist research practice: A primer, Sage, Los Angeles, 2014; American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 2000, 883), the author addresses why it is important for researchers of Color engaged in community collaborations to reflect on projects that have unraveled to understand how their positionality shifts within social contexts. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Teresa Urrea: Mexican mystic, healer, and apocalyptic revolutionary.

    PubMed

    Nava, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This article is a study of the mystical and apocalyptic dimensions of Teresa Urrea. As explained in this article, Urrea’s mystical experiences and visions are unique for their connection with a propheticapocalyptic and political worldview. This apocalyptic dimension is more than a communication of a hidden message or spiritual world; it also includes a reading of history that is catastrophic and discontinuous. The crisis and terror of history are given expression in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic pronouncements. In particular, the chaotic and oppressive circumstances of Mexican society during the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz was confronted and denounced in Urrea’s mystical and apocalyptic ministry. This apocalyptic healer castigated those culpable or even complicit with the injustices affecting the indigenous communities of Mexico during the late nineteenth century. In the case of Urrea, the transformation and healing of Church and society was an important aspect of her spiritual, healing powers. Because Urrea possessed neither arms nor the weapon of the pen, her sole weapon became her mystical experiences and the insight and healing powers that flowed from them. People of Mexico—especially indigenous groups—began to flock to her hoping that she would bring God’s presence to the troubled and chaotic circumstances of their lives. Her compassion and tenderness for the afflicted as well as the apocalyptic expectations that she stirred up among the indigenous groups of Northern Mexico were enough to get this mystical-political Mexican mestiza exiled from her homeland.

  20. [Hereditary ichthyosis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].

    PubMed

    Vega Almendra, Nadia; Aranibar Duran, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary ichthyoses are a group of genetic disorders of cornification, which are characterised by hyperkeratosis and scaling. The new classification identifies 36 types of ichthyosis, which are subdivided according to their frequency, pattern of inheritance and extracutaneous involvement. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, since genetic studies are not available in our setting. Treatment is symptomatic and management should be performed by a multidisciplinary team. In this article, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of different types of ichthyosis are reviewed, taking into account the nomenclature and modifications presented in the new classification. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Epidemiology and laboratory: a different point or view of public health in Chile].

    PubMed

    García M, Julio; Heitmann G, Ingrid

    2008-06-01

    The authors present an abridged history from their personal point of view of public health dealing with communicable diseases in Chile, in reference to an article previously published in Revista Chilena de Infectología. They do not agree with the mainly critical view of the author. They recognize that although there is a lot to be done on this matter, Chile has been a pioneer in Latin America in many policies relating to the control of these infections, having been recognized by international organisms. The relationship between the National Institute of Public Health, the Ministry of Health and the Laboratory Network, has strongly contributed along the years to concrete sanitary achievements in the field of transmissible diseases which are a pride for our country.

  2. [Tenofovir-associated Fanconi's syndrome and rickets in a HIV infected girl].

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Marcela; Galindo, Armando; Galaz, María Isabel; Vivanco, Maritza; Romero, Patricio; Balboa, Paulina; Torrejón, Claudia

    2016-09-09

    Tenofovir (TDF) is an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogue, although it has good tolerability and high anti-retroviral activity, its effect on the kidney has been a concern. To describe a girl infected with HIV who presented Fanconi syndrome during antiretroviral therapy with TDF. We describe a HIV-1-infected girl, who after 18 months treatment with TDF presented loss of strength and pain of the lower extremities with functional impairment. Laboratory findings were consistent with Fanconi syndrome. Radiographs showed bilateral hip fracture and wrists. Full recovery of Fanconi syndrome was achieved four months after changing antiretroviral therapy. TDF-prescribing physicians must be prepared to detect signs and symptoms of renal dysfunction and immediately consider switching to another antiviral drug. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Report on the Third Advanced Chilean School of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieren, W.; Zoccali, M.; Saviane, I.; Méndez, R.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2007-03-01

    During the second week of January 2007, the third Chilean Advanced School of As-trophysics was held at the Universidad de Concepción, the third-largest university in Chile, on “Insights into Galaxy Evolution from Resolved Stellar Populations”. This school, targeted at Ph.D. students main- ly from Chile and South America, but also open to students from other countries, was organised in the framework of the Chilean FONDAP Center of Astrophysics which includes astronomers of the two largest universities in Santiago and the Universidad de Concepción. The school focused on a field of research which is very well represented in the Center. Addi-tional support was kindly offered by the ALMA Committee, ESO Chile, the Católi-ca and Concepción universities, and the Sociedad Chilena de Astronomía.

  4. [What should the paediatrician know about hyperphenylalaninaemia?].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paulina; Raimann, Erna; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Arias, Carolina; Peredo, Pilar; Castro, Gabriela; Hamilton, Valerie; Campo, Karen; Cornejo, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninaemias are defined by a blood phenylalanine over 2mg/dl. The main cause is due to a mutation in the gene that codes the phenylalanine hydroxylase that catalyses the reaction that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. The hyperphenylalaninaemias are classified into benign or mild hyperphenylalaninaemias, or mild, moderate or classic phenylketonurias. Due to its delayed detection outside the neonatal period it causes severe mental retardation. Its detection along with congenital hypothyroidism has been part of the National Neonatal Screening Program since 1992 in Chile. This article aims to answer the most common questions asked by the paediatrician when faced with a patient with hyperphenylalaninaemias. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Use of inflammatory markers for monitoring paediatric asthma].

    PubMed

    Vidal G, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of asthma control takes into account the symptoms, quality of life, lung function, and inflammatory markers. In the last few years, there has been a large increase in the number of publications related to the study of biomarkers in the management of paediatric asthma. Despite the large variety of inflammatory markers described in research studies, only a small group has shown to be useful in monitoring the disease. Induced sputum eosinophils offer the most solid evidence in assessing asthma control. Exhaled breath condensate and urinary leucotrienes could be useful in the future if there is standardisation in their procedures and interpretation of the results. Nitric oxide, basic eosinophil cationic protein, and bronchial biopsy with bronchoalveolar lavage, only appeared to be useful in a reduced group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  7. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustín; Carlos Falcón, Juan; Hernández Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

  8. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study

    PubMed Central

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-01-01

    Chile’s gallbladder cancer rates are among the highest in the world, being the first cancer killer among Chilean women. To provide insights into the etiology of gallbladder cancer, we conducted an ecologic study examining the geographical variation of gallbladder cancer and several putative risk factors. The relative risk of dying from gallbladder cancer (relative to the national average mortality rate) between 1985 and 2003 was estimated for each of the 333 Chilean counties, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model, adjusting for age, sex, and geographical location. The risk of gallbladder cancer mortality was analyzed in relation to region (costal, inland, northern, and southern), poverty, Amerindian (Mapuche) population, typhoid fever, and access to cholecystectomy, using logistic regression analysis. There were 27,183 gallbladder cancer deaths, age-sex-adjusted county mortality rates ranging from 8.2 to 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, being higher in inland and southern regions; compare to the north-coastal, the northern-inland region had a 10-fold risk odds ratio (OR) (95% of confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–42.2) and the southern-inland region had a 26-fold risk (OR 95%CI: 6.0–114.2). Independent risk factors for gallbladder cancer were: ethnicity (Mapuche) OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.8–8.7), typhoid fever OR:2.9 (95%CI 1.2–6.9), poverty OR:5.1 (95%CI 1.6–15.9), low access to cholecystectomy OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.5–10.1), low access to hospital care OR:14.2 (95%CI 4.2–48.7) and high urbanization OR:8.0 (95%CI 3.4–18.7). Our results suggest that gallbladder cancer in Chile may be related to both genetic factors and poor living conditions. Future analytic studies are needed to further clarify the role of these factors in gallbladder cancer etiology. PMID:18566990

  9. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus.

  10. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J.; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control. PMID:28861064

  11. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  12. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural Aymara population from northern Chile].

    PubMed

    Vargas M, Pablo; Saavedra P, Stephanie; Araya A, María Virginia; Loyola A, Khanty; Huerta G, Patricio; Silva A, Mariana; Araya C, Scarlett; Saavedra A, Willybaldo; Portales P, Pilar; Saavedra P, Willybaldo

    2016-09-01

    Some rural non-Caucasian ethnic groups have genetic protective factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. Studies performed in Mapuche and Aymara ethnic groups in Chile, found significantly lower prevalence rates. Aymaras are the second most common ethnic population in Chile. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a native Aymara ethnic population. We studied 276 native Aymara people with a median age of 53 years (63% women), registered in the rural clinics of Camiña and Putre. The frequency of hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity and smoking were determined. The frequency of overweight and obesity was 38% and 38.4% respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and DM2 were 18.5% and 6.9% respectively. Thirty-five percent had elevated total cholesterol, 21% had high LDL cholesterol, 48% had low HDL cholesterol and 45.7% had high triglyceride levels. Two percent smoked. In this group of Aymara individuals, we found a markedly lower prevalence of hypertension and DM2, despite the high prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia.

  13. [Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases].

    PubMed

    Berger F, Zoltán; Mancilla A, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, respectively. Pancreatic calcifications were initially observed in 93 patients and became evident during the follow-up in another six patients. Severe pain or local complications occurred in 27 patients, requiring surgery in 10 or endoscopic treatment in 15. During the years of follow-up, 55 patients were free of symptoms. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was demonstrated and treated in 81 and 67 patients, respectively. Alcoholic etiology was evident in 40% of patients. In 29% no etiology was identified. Mapuche origin was exceptional. Late diagnosis of CP is common, since most of our patients presented with advanced stages. Even though CP is increasingly diagnosed in our hospitals, the number of cases is still far fewer when compared to other countries. Underdiagnosis alone cannot explain this difference and genetic factors might be of importance.

  14. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, M B; Zapiola, I; Quiruelas, S; Gorvein, D; Panzita, A; Rey, J; Carnese, F P; Corral, R; Perez, C; Zala, C

    1994-11-01

    Endemic foci for HTLV-II infection have been identified in several Amerindian populations. To determine HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection among Amerindians living in Argentina we studied 454 sera or plasmas from Indians and natives from different areas of our country. All samples were tested by the particle agglutination technique, and positive reactions were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA titration was used to differentiate HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. Twenty-three of 222 samples (10.4%) were found positive among the Tobas Indians; 22 samples were typed as HTLV-II and 1 as HTLV-I. Antibodies for HTLV-I were found in the serum and CSF of three natives from Salta with a TSP diagnosis. No positive samples were found among 96 Mapuche Indians and 133 natives from San Luis. Our results indicate that HTLV-II is endemic among the Tobas Indians. In this study, infection by these retroviruses in Argentinian Amerindians seems to have a marked geographic distribution.

  15. Reference database of hypervariable genetic markers of Argentina: application for molecular anthropology and forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Carnese, R; Corach, D

    1999-06-01

    The population of Argentina is mostly composed of people of European ancestry. Aboriginal communities are at present very reduced in number and restricted to small geographically isolated patches. Three aboriginal communities, the Mapuche, Tehuelche and Wichi, were selected for short tandem repeat (STR) investigation. The metropolitan population of the city of Buenos Aires was analyzed, with both micro- and minisatellites. The minisatellite loci D1S7, D2S44, D4S139, D5S110, D8S358, D10S28, and D17S26 were typed on HaeIII-digested DNA obtained from unrelated individuals. D1S80 was typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The autosomal STRs THO1, FABP, D6S366, CSF1PO, TPOX, F13A1, FES/FPS, vWA, MBPA/B, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, and RENA4 and the sex chromosome STRs HPRTB, DYS385, DYS3891, DYS38911, DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and YCAII were also investigated. As a by-product of our investigations, a reference database was created that is routinely used in forensic casework and paternity testing. STR allele frequency distributions are characterized by significant differences within and also between different populations. In contrast, the minisatellite bin distribution of the metropolitan population is not significantly different from other Caucasian populations.

  16. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of leptocarpin, a plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bosio, Claudia; Tomasoni, Giacomo; Martínez, Rolando; Olea, Andrés F; Carrasco, Héctor; Villena, Joan

    2015-12-05

    Sesquiterpene lactones have attracted much attention in drug research because they present a series of biological activities such as anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant. Leptocarpin (LTC) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from a native Chilean plant, Leptocarpha rivularis, which has been widely used in traditional medicine by Mapuche people. Previous work has demonstrated that LTC decreases cell viability of cancer cell lines. In this contribution, we analyze the mechanism of LTC cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines. The results show that in all cases LTC induces an apoptotic process and inhibition of NF-κB. Apoptosis has been confirmed by observing condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentation, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and increasing of caspase-3 activity. It has also been found that LTC is an effective inhibitor of NF-κB, which suggests that leptocarpin-induced cytotoxicity involves in some degree the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. The concentration at which LTC inhibits NF-κB activity to the control level is similar or even lower than that found for parthenolide and others sesquiterpene lactones. These results indicate that leptocarpine is a very interesting molecule that could be considered as therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  17. Saccharomyces uvarum is responsible for the traditional fermentation of apple chicha in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Maria E; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo; Lopes, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Apple chicha is a fresh low alcoholic beverage elaborated by aboriginal communities of Andean Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). In the present work, we identified the yeast microbiota associated with this fermentation, and characterized genetically those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum were found in the analyzed fermentations. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses based on genes sequence analysis were carried out for both S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum strains obtained in this study and a set of additional strains from diverse origins. The results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains from apple chicha belong to the big group of wine/European strains of this species, while S. uvarum strains were included in the Holartic population of this species. Additionally, some S. uvarum strains from chichas evidenced as an admixture of both pure Holartic and pure South American populations. Our results suggest that Holartic strains could have been introduced in South America together with the domestication of apple trees by Mapuche communities. This Holartic population suffered admixis with the naturally present South American population of this species, originating strains bearing genetic features from the two populations, detectable in both chichas and natural habitats.

  18. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined.

  19. Reduced Mtdna Diversity in the Ngobe Amerinds of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.; Cooke, R.; Ward, R. H.; Arias, T. D.; Guionneau-Sinclair, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity was determined for 46 Ngobe Amerinds sampled widely across their geographic range in western Panama. The Ngobe data were compared with mtDNA control region I sequences from two additional Amerind groups located at the northern and southern extremes of Amerind distribution, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest and the Chilean Mapuche and from one Na-Dene group, the Haida of the Pacific Northwest. The Ngobe exhibit the lowest mtDNA control region sequence diversity yet reported for an Amerind group. Moreover, they carry only two of the four Amerind founding lineages first described by Wallace and coworkers. We posit that the Ngobe passed through a population bottleneck caused by ethnogenesis from a small founding population and/or European conquest and colonization. Dating of the Ngobe population expansion using the HARPENDING et al. approach to the analysis of pairwise genetic differences indicates a Ngobe expansion at roughly 6800 years before present (range: 1850-14,000 years before present), a date more consistent with a bottleneck at Chibcha ethnogenesis than a conquest-based event. PMID:7635293

  20. [Comparison of resting energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry and estimated by predictive formulas in women with obesity degrees I to III].

    PubMed

    Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Cherem-Cherem, Loren; Galindo-De Noriega, Daniela; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Mary Carmen; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La determinación del gasto energético en reposo (GER) se calcula cotidianamente a partir de fórmulas predictivas aunque el resultado varía dependiendo de la población. Objetivo: Comparar la determinación del GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin (MF), Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), «Institute of Medicine» (IOM), Fórmula Rápida (FR) y Valencia (VA) en mujeres con grados de obesidad I a III. Métodos: Mujeres adultas mestizas mexicanas se incluyeron en el estudio y formaron 3 grupos a partir del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Obesidad grado I (IMC 30,0-34,9; n = 42), grado II (IMC 35,0-39,9; n = 38) y grado III (IMC > 40; n = 41). Se determinó el GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones antes señaladas. ANOVA de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba de Dunn se emplearon para el análisis estadístico (p < 0,05 se aceptó como diferencia). Resultados: No se observó diferencia estadística entre los valores de las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA respecto a la CI. La concordancia obtenida de dichas fórmulas fue 63%, 67% y 64%, respectivamente, al analizar los datos en un solo grupo de obesidad. Asimismo, las fórmulas IOM, ER y MF mostraron diferencia estadística significativa versus la CI, siendo la concordancia 58%, 53% y 54%, respectivamente. En el grado III de obesidad la concordancia de VA (78%) y FR (71%) fue la mayor obtenida. Discusión: Las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA fueron las mejores para estimar el GER en mujeres mexicanas con IMC>30. En el grado III VA y FR muestran el mejor desempeño.

  1. [Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a child with congenital dyshormonogenetic hypothyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Orellana, María José; Fulle, Angelo; Carrillo, Diego; Escobar, Lucía; Ebensperger, Alicia; Martínez, Raúl; Rumié Carmi, Hana

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare childhood disease. The development of PTC in dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is infrequent, with very few case reports in literature. To report a case of PTC in a boy with dyshormonogenetic CH without goitre and exposed to ionising radiation. To evaluate relationships between these factors and development of PTC. We present a boy with dyshormonogenetic CH since birth. Early hormonal substitution was initiated, with subsequent normal levels of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones. He has also congenital cardiomyopathy, exposed to interventional treatment with 10 heart catheterisations, and approximately 26 chest X-rays at paediatric doses. A thyroid nodule was found in thyroid echography at the age of 6 years old. Fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed high probability of thyroid carcinoma (Bethesda 5). The pre-surgical thorax and cerebral scan showed no evidence of metastasis. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination revealed a 0.5cm papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma in the right lobe, with no evidence of dissemination. Genetic mutations and radiation exposure may play an important role in the development of PTC. There may be common pathways between dyshormonogenetic CH and thyroid carcinoma that need further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [An updated review of 1p36 deletion (monosomy) syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bello, Sabina; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    The Monosomy 1p36 deletion syndrome is part of the group of diseases known as Rare Diseases. The objective of the present work is to review the characteristics of Monosomy 1p36 deletion syndrome. The monosomy 1p36 deletion syndrome phenotype includes: dysmorphic craniofacial features; large anterior fontanelle, unibrow, deep-set eyes, epicanthus, wide nasal root/bridge, mandible hypoplasia, abnormal location of the pinna, philtrum and pointed chin; neurological alterations: seizures and hydrocephalus (in some cases). Cerebral malformations: ventricular hypertrophy, increased subarachnoid space, morphological alterations of corpus callosum, cortical atrophy, delays in myelinisation, periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular heterotopia. These alterations produce intellectual disability and delays in motor growth, communication skills, language, social and adaptive behaviour. It is Hearing and vision impairments are also observed in subjects with this syndrome, as well as alterations of cardiac, endocrine and urinary systems and alterations at skin and skeletal level. Approximately 100 cases have been documented since 1981. This rare disease is the most common subtelomeric-micro-deletion syndrome. In situ hybridization with fluorescence (FISH) and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH-array) are at present the two best diagnostic techniques. There is currently no effective medical treatment for this disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [General concepts of epigenetics: Projections in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence supports the notion that alterations in intrauterine growth and during the first years of life have a substantial effect on the risk for the development of chronic disease, which in some cases is even higher than those due to genetic factors. The persistence and reproducibility of the phenotypes associated with altered early development suggest the participation of mechanisms that would record environmental cues, generating a cellular reprogramming (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms). This review is an introduction to a series of five articles focused on the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of highly prevalent chronic diseases (i.e., cardiovascular, metabolic, asthma/allergies and cancer) and their origins in the foetal and neonatal period. This series of articles aims to show the state of the art in this research area and present the upcoming clues and challenges, in which paediatricians have a prominent role, developing strategies for the prevention, early detection and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Infantile cortical hyperostosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mónica; Martínez, Luz Elena; Cortés, José; de Uña, Armando; Vega, Valentina; Acosta, Mario

    Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis, or Caffey-Silverman disease, is a rare condition characterised by generalised bone proliferation mediated by an acute inflammatory process. Diagnosis can be made through clinical evaluation and X-ray studies. The course is generally self-limiting and prognosis is excellent. To present the case of a 4-month child with clinical and radiological symptoms compatible with Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis. A 4-month old male who presented with crying and irritability associated with swelling of the face, arms and legs was admitted to the Emergency Room of National Institute of Pediatrics. Bilateral mandibular swelling extending to periauricular region was observed, with no signs of inflammation. X-ray studies showed a periosteal reaction in the jaw, left femur and tibia, and radius bilateral. Clinical observation combined with analgesics and antipyretics was the only medical intervention. Four to six months after discharge from hospital, the symptoms disappeared, confirming the good prognosis of this condition. Infantile cortical hyperostosis is a collagenopathy, which must be considered as a differential diagnosis in acute bone inflammatory processes, irritability and fever. It is important to understand and identify this disease and clinical-radiological correlation is remarkable. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [A case of partial 1p36.1 deletion and partial trisomy 6p diagnosed by karyotype].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pineda, Monica; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián; Isaza, Carolina; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    The deletion of chromosomal region 1p36 is one of the most common sub-telomeric microdeletion syndromes and has distinctive dysmorphic features. On the other hand, partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 6 is a rare chromosomal abnormality with a variable phenotype. To report a case with both chromosome abnormalities, and to highlight the importance of the karyotype as a diagnostic tool in dysmorphology. The case of is presented of a two month-old infant with several craniofacial anomalies, neck haemangioma, sacral pit, rhizomelic shortening, small hands and feet, left unilateral cryptorchidism, and hypotonia. The infant also suffered intrauterine growth restriction and is the product of the eighth pregnancy of a 28 years old woman. Due to the unspecific findings in phenotype, a karyotype was requested, which showed a partial deletion of 1p36.1 and a partial trisomy of chromosome 6. The development of new techniques in molecular biology has improved diagnostic possibilities in medical genetics. However, the traditional karyotype remains as an important diagnostic tool in patients with multiple congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Pediatric intervertebral disc calcification: A rare cause of acquired torticollis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Yerko; Schonhaut, Luisa; Espinoza, Aníbal; Schonstedt, Valeria; Aird, Alejandra; Castoldi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Pain and cervical muscle spasm are common reasons why parents bring children to the pediatric emergency department. The first steps are the gathering of medical history of the patient and a physical examination. If musculoskeletal damage is suspected, cervical spine x-rays should be obtained. An intervertebral disc calcification finding, in the absence of other radiological lesions should suggest pediatric intervertebral disc calcification. To present a case of intervertebral disc calcification, a rare condition that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of torticollis and neck pain in childhood. A seven-year-old male patient without morbid history and no history of trauma or rough sport practice. He consulted the emergency room for pain and cervical contracture for the last six days. C reactive protein and red cell sedimentatio rates were slightly elevated. Imaging studies showed calcification of the C5-C6 intrvertebral disc and anterior disc protrusion. The patient was hospitalized for evaluation and pain management, with good clinical response and continue afterwards with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a soft collar. At the 6-month-follow up, the patient had resolved symptoms and calcifications. Pediatric intervertebral disc calcification is a rare cause of acquired torticollis, with a benign and self-limited outcome. Conservative management, as well as clinical and imaging follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sleep bruxism in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Firmani, Mónica; Reyes, Milton; Becerra, Nilda; Flores, Guillermo; Weitzman, Mariana; Espinosa, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism is a rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, characterized by teeth grinding and clenching. This is a phenomenon mainly regulated by the central nervous system and peripherally influenced. It has two circadian manifestations, during sleep (sleep bruxism) and awake states (awake bruxism). Bruxism is much more than just tooth wearing. It is currently linked to orofacial pain; headaches; sleep disorders; sleep breathing disorders, such as apnea and hypopnea sleep syndrome; behavior disorders, or those associated with the use of medications. It is also influenced by psycho-social and behavior factors, which means that oromandibular parafunctional activities, temporomandibular disorders, malocclusion, high levels of anxiety and stress, among others, may precipitate the occurrence of bruxism. Nowadays, its etiology is multifactorial. The dentist and the pediatrician are responsible for its early detection, diagnosis, management, and prevention of its possible consequences on the patients. The aim of this review is to update the concepts of this disease and to make health professionals aware of its early detection and its timely management. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cárdenas, Claudia; Wong, Carolina; Vargas Catalán, Nelson A

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an important disease in children and adolescent being a major risk factor for early morbidity and mortality. To know the degree of metabolic control and prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in T1D patients. Retrospective study including patients under 19 years of age with T1D controlled at a Chilean hospital in 2011. 94 patients were evaluated (average age at diagnosis: 7.3 years; current age: 11,9 years; evolution time: 4.5 years). Seventy-nine percent (79.8%) of patients presented glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) over the recommended level with an average of 8.9%. The group between 13 and 19 years of age exhibited the worst metabolic control (86% with HbA1c abnormal levels). Overweight or obesity occurred in 26.6% of patients, 20.3% had LDL >100mg/dl and 4.2% had hypertension. Only about twenty percent of patients had adequate metabolic control as measured by HbA1c, although cardiovascular risk profile was acceptable. Therapeutic and educational efforts must be reinforced mainly in adolescents, emphasizing the importance of adequate nutritional management as a primary method to treat this entity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Survey of adolescent perception of hospital admission. The importance of hospital humanisation].

    PubMed

    Butragueño Laiseca, Laura; González Martínez, Felipe; Oikonomopoulou, Niki; Pérez Moreno, Jimena; Toledo Del Castillo, Blanca; González Sánchez, María Isabel; Rodríguez Fernández, Rosa

    The humanisation of health care involves considering the patient as an integral human being, providing assistance beyond medical care, and covering other fields such as social, emotional, spiritual, or relational areas. To evaluate the requirements and concerns of the hospitalised children. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire on children aged 12-16. The study included 39 patients, with a median age of 14 years. The most unpleasant experience during the hospitalisation was the invasive procedures. Almost all (95%) of patients suffered from pain, and 17% of them felt at some point that a procedure was performed without them being fully aware. More than 75% of children asked for more entertainment, with the lack of Wi-Fi being the more demanded item. The needs of the population included in this survey, showed the importance to consider cognitive (necessity of obtaining clear and extensive information), social (maintaining everyday relationships), emotional (illness and its diagnostic and therapeutic procedures often generate mood disorders), and practical (environmental and architectural aspects can lead to either an improvement or a worsening of the hospitalisation perception) factors. All of these factors have shown a beneficial contribution, leading to an earlier recovery of health. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sotos syndrome diagnosed by comparative genomic hybridisation].

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Molina-Barrera, Laura Camila; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Sotos Syndrome (SS) is a genetic disease with an autosomal dominant pattern caused by haplo-insufficiency of NSD1 gene secondary to point mutations or microdeletion of the 5q35 locus where the gene is located. It is a rare syndrome, occurring in 7 out of every 100,000 births. The objective of this report is to present the case of a 4 year-old patient with a global developmental delay, as well as specific physical findings suggesting a syndrome of genetic origin. Female patient, 4 years of age, thinning hair, triangular facie, long palpebral fissure, arched palate, prominent jaw, winged scapula and clinodactilia of the fifth finger both hands. The molecular test comparative genomic hybridisation test by microarray was subsequently performed, with the result showing 5q35.2 q35.3 region microdeletion of 2,082 MB, including the NSD1 gene. Finally, this article also proposes the performing of comparative genomic hybridisation as the first diagnostic option in cases where clinical findings are suggestive of SS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [What preoperative information do the parents of children undergoing surgery want?].

    PubMed

    Sartori, Josefina; Espinoza, Pilar; Díaz, María Soledad; Ferdinand, Constanza; Lacassie, Héctor J; González, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Parents feel fear and anxiety before surgery is performed on their child, and those feelings could obstruct their preparation for the surgery. Preoperative information could relieve those feelings. To determine the preoperative information needs of parents of children undergoing elective surgery. A study was conducted on the parents of children who underwent elective surgery. Demographic data of parents were recorded. Preoperative information received or would like to have received was assessed in terms of contents, methods, opportunity, place and informant. Descriptive statistics were used. Thirteen hundred parents were surveyed. More than 80% of them want preoperative information about anaesthesia, surgery, preoperative fasting, drugs and anaesthetic complications, monitoring, intravenous line management, pain treatment, postoperative feeding, anxiety control, hospitalisation room, recovery room, and entertainment in recovery room. Most want to be informed verbally, one to two weeks in advance and not on the same day of surgery. The informant should be the surgeon and in his office. In addition, they want information through leaflets, videos and simulation workshops, or guided tours. Parents need complete preoperative information about anesthesia, surgery and postoperative care, received verbally and in advance. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Bartonella henselae vertebral osteomyelitis: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Juan Zepeda, T; Jorge Morales, S; Hugo Letelier, A; Luis Delpiano, M

    2016-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae, with unknown prevalence and incidence in the Chilean paediatric population. Regional lymphadenopathy is the most common presentation, while atypical forms constitute a diagnostic challenge. To report a case of CSD with osteomyelitis and present guidelines regarding treatment. An eight year-old patient, with prolonged febrile illness, back pain and neck stiffness. Laboratory studies highlight positive IgG for Bartonella henselae. The abdominal ultrasound showed splenic micro-abscesses, and the MRI showing vertebral lesions suggestive of osteomyelitis. The diagnosis of atypical forms requires a high rate of suspicion, as in this case, in which the patient manifested the musculoskeletal symptoms simultaneously with the febrile syndrome, which led us to study possible complications of the disease. Current knowledge of the treatment of atypical or complicated CSD is derived from the observation of case studies, rather than randomized trials. It is suggested that antibiotic therapy is analysed individually, with the help of a specialist. The importance of high clinical suspicion are emphasised and discussed, as well presenting some treatment options based on the evidence from the current literature. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Time bacterial growth in blood cultures in neonates].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Luis; Osorio, Miguel; Fernández, Marisol; Henao, Claudia; Arias, Martha; Mendoza, Laura; Manzano, Stefania; Varela, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. To detect the time when the bacterial growth curve is evidenced in the blood sample inoculated blood cultures and comparing the times of bacterial growth between Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, among the types of neonatal sepsis and identifying microorganisms more often isolated from preterm and term. A descriptive study. 114 positive blood cultures from 1,932 blood cultures taken from 01-May-2010 and 31-May-2014 were evaluated. Data were analyzed with Stata(®) 11.0. 5.9% of blood cultures had bacterial growth. The median and interquartile range of Gram negative times of bacterial growth was 11h (10-13h), for Gram positive coagulase-negative Staphylococcus different (CoNS) 12h (12-18h) and CoNS 42h (36-44h). 95.8% of Gram positive and 96% of Gram negative, were the times of bacterial growth≤24h incubation, whereas the 100% CoNS was positive≤62h of incubation. 100% of sepsis by Gram negative and Gram positive no CoNS and 90% of those caused by CoNS are identified in blood cultures in 48h, so we can conclude that to rule out sepsis, an incubation period of 48h in blood cultures is sufficient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hospital morbidity and mortality in children with Down's syndrome: Experience in a university hospital in Chile].

    PubMed

    Lizama Calvo, Macarena; Cerda Lorca, Jaime; Monge Iriarte, Marcela; Carrillo Mayanquer, Irene; Clavería Rodríguez, Cristian; Castillo Moya, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome (DS) have a higher risk of congenital malformations and acute diseases, with increased risk of hospital admissions compared with the general population. This study describes patterns of hospital admissions for children and adolescents with DS. A retrospective study of hospital admissions of children with DS, younger than 15 years old, and cared for by the Paediatric Department of the Hospital Clínico Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, between 2008 and 2011. There were 222 admissions of 161 patients with DS during the study period, of which 110 were girls. The median age was 8 months, and the median hospital stay was 6 days. Just over half (56.7%) of the hospital stays were in the Paediatric Critic Care Unit. Heart surgery was performed on 59.4%, and the principal congenital heart defect attended was atrioventricular canal. The principal diagnosis, other than heart surgery, was lower respiratory tract infection. In this series, 3 children died. Children with DS are a relevant group for inpatient care, because their high incidence in Chile, their respiratory and cardiovascular risk, prolonged hospitalizations, high frequency of critical care days and mortality risk. This group has special and complex needs during their hospitalizations and it is necessary to create a multidisciplinary team with competences to take care the particular characteristics of this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ear, nose and throat disease profile in children with Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Paul D, María A; Bravo V, Alejandra; Beltrán M, Constanza; Cerda L, Jaime; Angulo M, Daniela; Lizama C, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    The children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk of ear-nose-throat (ENT) disorders. International recommendations suggest early hearing screening and periodic specialist evaluation. Our goal was to characterize ENT disorders in children with DS, and propose recommendations for the Chilean population. Cross-sectional, descriptive study, of children with DS, between 6 months and 15 years of age. The data was obtained by a health interview to the parents and review of medical records. We analyzed 134 patients with an average age of 44.5 months. The 78.8% had ENT disorders, the most frequent ENT disorders was allergic rhinitis and otitis media with effusion. Hearing screening was abnormal in a quarter of the patients, 50% of children over 3 years of age had obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed by polysomnogram. Older children had a statistically higher frequency of ENT disorders. This series shows a high rate of ENT disorders in children with DS, which supports recommendations for hearing screening, high suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea and routine referral to an ENT specialist for prevention and aggressive therapy in order to reduce hearing loss and improve development of the child with DS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Models of care and classification of "Children with special health care needs-CSHCN": Recommendations from the CSHCN Committee, Chilean Paediatric Society].

    PubMed

    Flores Cano, Juan Carlos; Lizama Calvo, Macarena; Rodríguez Zamora, Natalie; Ávalos Anguita, María Eugenia; Galanti De La Paz, Mónica; Barja Yañez, Salesa; Becerra Flores, Carlos; Sanhueza Sepúlveda, Carolina; Cabezas Tamayo, Ana María; Orellana Welch, Jorge; Zillmann Geerdts, Gisela; Antilef, Rosa María; Cox Melane, Alfonso; Valle Maluenda, Marcelo; Vargas Catalán, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    "Children with special health care needs" (CSHCN) is an emerging and heterogeneous group of paediatric patients, with a wide variety of medical conditions and with different uses of health care services. There is consensus on how to classify and assess these patients according to their needs, but not for their specific diagnosis. Needs are classified into 6 areas: a) specialised medical care; b) use or need of prescription medication; c) special nutrition; d) dependence on technology; e) rehabilitation therapy for functional limitation; and f) special education services. From the evaluation of each area, a classification for CSHCN is proposed according to low, medium, or high complexity health needs, to guide and distribute their care at an appropriate level of the health care system. Low complexity CSHCN should be incorporated into Primary Care services, to improve benefits for patients and families at this level. It is critical to train health care professionals in taking care of CSHCN, promoting a coordinated, dynamic and communicated work between different levels of the health care system. Compliance with these guidelines will achieve a high quality and integrated care for this vulnerable group of children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Caudal regression sequence: clinical-radiological case].

    PubMed

    Zepeda T, Juan; García M, Mirna; Morales S, Jorge; Pantoja H, Miguel A; Espinoza G, Aníbal

    2015-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon congenital malformation that includes a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Characterised by caudal musculoskeletal compromise, it can be associated to neurological, gastrointestinal, renal and genitourinary defects. Although the specific aetiology has not been clarified, it has been associated with the presence of maternal diabetes and mutations in homeobox gene HBLX9. Its diagnosis is based on a good prenatal ultrasound detection, detailed physical examination, and post-natal imaging study using radiography and magnetic resonance. Caudal regression syndrome requires multidisciplinary management, and it seems that good metabolic control of gestational diabetes constitutes the best preventive measure available. We present the clinical case and images of a male term newborn, born to a pregestational diabetic mother with poor metabolic control and a prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of lumbar spine, iliac bones and lower limbs malformation. Born in good conditions, the diagnosis was confirmed using X-rays and magnetic resonance. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Monitoring intracranial pressure in severe traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    García-Lira, José Ramón; Zapata-Vázquez, Rita Esther; Alonzo-Vázquez, Felipe; Rodríguez-Ruz, Suemy Gabriela; Medina-Moreno, Manuel Rene; Torres-Escalante, Jose Luis

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious condition. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be used to direct treatment, which is of limited access in developing countries. To describe the clinical experience of pediatric patients with severe TBI. A clinical experience in patients with severe TBI was conducted. Age was 1-17 years, exclusion criteria were chronic illness and psicomotor retardation. Informed consent was obtained in each case. Two groups were formed based on the criterion of neurosurgeons: with and without intracraneal pressure (ICP) monitoring. PIC monitoring was performed through a 3PN Spiegelberg catheter and a Spiegelberg HDM 26 monitor. Patients were treated according international pediatric guides. The characteristics of both groups are described at 6 months of follow-up. Forty-two patients (CM=14 and SM=28). Those in the CM Group had lower Glasgow coma scale score and Marshall classification with poorer prognosis. Among them survival rate was lower, although the outcome was from moderate to good. No complications were reported with the use of the ICP catheter. Patients with ICP monitoring had greater severity at admission and an increased mortality; however, the outcome for the survivors was from moderate to good. It is necessary to conduct randomized clinical trials to define the impact of ICP monitoring on survival and quality of life in severe TBI patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Family planning in Chile and its effect on health indicators].

    PubMed

    Viel, B; Morales, W C

    1988-01-01

    In 1938 when the infant mortality rates (IMR) in Chile were over 200/1000 the Minister of Health, Dr. Eduardo Cruz Coke, decided that the principal cause for such a high IMR was malnutrition; he introduced a law that provided all living infants with powdered milk. The introduction of antibodies during the 50's also helped lower the IMR. By 1960 the IMR had dropped to 120.3/1000, a 37.6% drop in 20 years and by 1987 the IMR was 18.7/1000, a 90.3% drop in 47 years. The heavy drop in IMR between 1940-60 led to an increase in the population, with a parallel increase in the incidence of illegal abortions. Chilean hospital statistics indicate that in 1940 16,560 (13.9% of those 15-44) women were diagnosed with abortions and by 1960 it was 40,186 (29.8%). This increase of 114% in 20 years burdened the hospital care system until it reached "epidemic" proportions. By 1958 Dr. Jaime Zipper introduced the IUD to provide women with an alternative to abortion. By the mid-60's a group of OB-GYN's organized the Asociacion Chilena de Proteccion de la Familia (APROFA). In 1965 APROFA became an IPPF affiliate with access to modern methods of contraceptives. The article also includes 2 tables and 6 graphs with a demographic analysis of Chile's population by age groups and by health care status in the last 45 years.

  1. [Need for resuscitation in preterm neonates less than 32 weeks treated with antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection].

    PubMed

    Lloreda-Garcia, Jose María; Lorente-Nicolás, Ana; Bermejo-Costa, Francisca; Martínez-Uriarte, Juan; López-Pérez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for foetal neuroprotection in pregnant women at imminent risk of early preterm birth. To evaluate the relationship between intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection and delivery room resuscitation of preterm infants less 32 weeks. A prospective observational study was conducted on preterm infants less 32 weeks exposed to magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection, and a comparison made with another historic group immediately before starting this treatment. Cases in both groups that had not reached lung maturity with corticosteroids were rejected. The rates of resuscitation, morbidity and mortality for each of the groups were analysed and compared. There was a total of 107 preterm, with 56 exposed to magnesium sulphate. Rate of advanced resuscitation were similar between the two groups. There were no other differences in mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation, time to first stool, and other comorbidities. Intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection was not associated with an increased need for intensive delivery room resuscitation and other morbidities in these cohorts of less than 32 weeks preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    PubMed

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Consumption of fruits and its association with nutritional status in chilean university students career of physical education].

    PubMed

    Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Valdes-Badilla, Pablo; Godoy Cumillaf, Andrés; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Chile es uno de los paises que alcanza los mayores niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad a nivel mundial (66.7% de la poblacion chilena), siendo los estudiantes universitarios un grupo tendiente a engrosar estas cifras por considerarse un grupo vulnerable nutricionalmente. Objetivo: Asociar el consumo de frutas con el estado nutricional de estudiantes universitarios chilenos de educacion fisica. Métodos: La poblacion estuvo constituida por todos los estudiantes de la Carrera de Pedagogia en Educacion Fisica de la Universidad Autonoma de Chile, sede Temuco (n=420). La muestra incluyo a 239 estudiantes (56,9%), hombres (76,5%), con un promedio de edad de 21,5 } 2,1 anos. A cada alumno se determino el estado nutricional y se les aplico una encuesta de habitos alimentarios validada. Resultados: Se observa una asociacion entre el consumo de frutas (≥2 porciones/dia) en el modelo crudo OR=0,528 (0,288-0,965), modelo ajustado 1 OR=0,496 (0,268-0,916) y modelo ajustado 2 OR=0,495 (0,265- 0,924) Conclusión: El consumo ≥ 2 porciones al dia de frutas es un factor protector para un buen IMC en estudiantes universitarios chilenos de educacion fisica.

  4. [The Use of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Paediatric residents in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Hamui, Magalí; Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Yulitta, Horacio; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is considered the reference standard for competence evaluation, but its use in Latin America is limited. The City of Buenos Aires Government (CBAG) administers a Paediatric residency system that includes 400 residents distributed in 13 hospitals, sharing an admission system and education program. We aim to describe the experience of administering an OSCE for evaluating all the Paediatric residents of the CBAG. Descriptive study, including all paediatric residents of the CBAG, belonging to 13 hospitals (2 paediatric and 11 general), ending their first year of training. The OSCE included 10 stations. Eighty-five residents participated in the OSCE, and 88.2% (95% CI 79.7-93.5) passed the examination. There were no significant differences in the pass rate between residents from paediatric hospitals and from general hospitals (89.5 vs. 85.7%; OR=1.4; 95% CI 0.4-5.5; P=.8). In 2015, the OSCE was administered to all paediatric residents of the CBAG for the first time. This experience allowed identifying weaknesses in the education system, in order to develop strategies to overcome them. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  6. [Impact of an educational program for parents of children with cancer on the increased knowledge of their children's disease and the decrease in anxiety].

    PubMed

    de la Maza L, Verónica; Fernández C, Maria; Concha R, Lorena; Santolaya D, María Elena; Villarroel C, Milena; Castro C, Magdalena; Torres T, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of an educational program provided by a nurse to parents of children with cancer to improve the level of knowledge of the disease and to decrease the levels of anxiety. A prospective randomized study was conducted on parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer and treated in the Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna. After informed consent, parents were randomized in two groups: one receiving the educational program and another without intervention. Both groups completed a questionnaire on social risk, and three tests to assess the levels of knowledge and anxiety. A total of 96 parents were enrolled (July 2010-November 2011). When comparing the number of correct responses on day 10, and day 90 after the intervention, a significant increase was observed in the level of parental knowledge in the group that received the educational program (P<.0001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of anxiety (P=.06) between both groups. An educational program provided by nurses to parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer, increased the knowledge of their children's disease. However there was no effect on the levels of anxiety. A feasible educational intervention is proposed that could be implemented at other cancer centers for children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Bile duct cysts; an unusual cause of jaundice in paediatrics. Presentation of a case series].

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, Rocío; Aguilera Alonso, David; Muñoz Aguilar, Gemma; Fonseca Martín, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Cysts of the bile duct or choledochal cysts are rare diseases in our area. The aetiology is unknown, with the most accepted hypothesis being a pancreatobiliary maljunction anomaly. To analyse the clinical data, diagnosis and treatment of a number of patients with choledochal cyst, as well as presenting an update on this condition. A retrospective descriptive study was performed on paediatric patients diagnosed with choledochal cyst in the last 20 years in a tertiary hospital. A total of 4 choledochal cyst cases in childhood, predominantly female, are pre- sented. The most frequent reason for consultation was vomiting, and presenting with jaundice and choluria in all cases. Patients with choledochal cyst were classified as type I in 3 cases, and one case of type IVa. In all cases surgical treatment was performed; any patient had complications to date. Cysts of the bile ducts have a low prevalence. The treatment of choice is surgical, requiring close monitoring due to the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Work-related traumatic spinal cord lesions in Chile, a 20-year epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Correa, G I; Finkelstein, J M; Burnier, L A; Danilla, S E; Tapia, L Z; Torres, V N; Castillo, J C

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To describe the characteristics of patients with work-related traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in Chile. Hospital del Trabajador in Santiago, Santiago, Chile. Patients suffering from TSCI incurred at the workplace from 1986 to 2005 were identified through records of the Asociación Chilena de Seguridad (ACHS, Chilean Safety Association). The medical records of 173 patients, 172 men and 1 woman, were analyzed. The yearly average incidence was 7.8 per million workers. Age at TSCI onset was 38.2 ± 12.1 years. The principal external causes for TSCI incurred at the workplace were falls from a height in 86 cases (49.7%) and trauma blows to the vertebral spine in 61 cases (35.3 %). More falls occurred in the field construction, and other traumas occurred as a result of traumatic blows caused by tree trunks and stones in forestry and mining sectors. Mortality in this series was 8.7%, and the worst prognosis was for older patients with complete tetraplegia. The paraplegia:tetraplegia ratio was 3.2:1. The characteristics of workplace TSCI are specific to this population. It is important therefore to develop prevention programs for specific work-related TSCI.

  9. [Autochthonous cutaneous larva migrans in Chile. A case report].

    PubMed

    González F, Carmen G; Galilea O, Natalia M; Pizarro C, Kharla

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is the most common tropical dermatitis. It is caused by nematodes hosted by cats and dogs. Humans act as an accidental reservoir. Clinically, it manifests as a slow-growing, elevated linear, erythematous and pruritic plaque, on the sole of the foot. Diagnosis is clinical, based on the morphology of the lesion associated with recent travel to endemic areas. To present an autochthonous case of CLM in Chile. A 3-year-old boy, presented with a linear lesion on his foot, clinically compatible with CLM. He received a single dose of ivermectin and had complete resolution of the lesion. The patient had no history of travel outside of Chile, but had contact with dogs. CLM is classically described as travellers dermatitis. We present this case, because there are no previous reports of CLM acquired in Chile by children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Developmental disorders in children and adolescents of the Los Ríos region, Valdivia, Chile, 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Guzmán C, Maria L; Guzmán C, Sergio F; Guzmán, Maria E; Marín, Fransisco; Remolcois, Elisabeth; Gallardo, Andrés; Rozas, Néstor; Urra, Edmundo; Rojas, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    To study possible findings of factors in the antenatal, perinatal or postnatal period, in the mother or the child that may have an influence on the appearance of a developmental disorder. A Data Base of Clinical Histories from every patient with a developmental disorder (F80-F90 ICD10) was created. The patients attended the Child Psychiatric Unit at Hospital Regional of Valdivia, Chile, from August 2006 to December 2008. Total: 493 patientes (48.7% of the total of patients consulting); 32 healthy patients. odds ratio (95% confidence). The main risk factors for developing a developmental disorder (P<.005, 25% frequency in the consulting population) are: prematurity, male sex, mother with low education, early hospitalizations, and medical illnesses (all with a significant odds ratio). Also, having a mother with psychiatric illness doubles the risk of having a developmental disorder. It requires an interdisciplinary collaborative work between neonatologists, obstetricians, child psychiatrists and the primary care to detect early children at risk. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [DRESS syndrome in paediatrics. Clinical case].

    PubMed

    Silva-Feistner, Marcos; Ortiz, Elena; Rojas-Lechuga, María Jesús; Muñoz, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes skin eruption, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. Presenting a rare condition in children, to facilitate a rapid diagnostic suspicion and recognition by doctors CASE REPORT: An 9 months old infant admitted due to a severe viral pneumonia, managed with non-invasive ventilation and ceftriaxone. Five days after stopping antibiotics, a confluent maculopapular rash appeared, which was predominantly in the trunk, face and upper extremities, combined with a fever, eosinophilia, and elevated serum levels of transaminase. She received treatment with oral prednisone and topical corticosteroids for 6 weeks, with a good outcome after 3 months. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is made using clinical criteria, laboratory values, and histopathology, if there is any query. Although it is classically caused by anticonvulsants and sulphonamides, many other drugs have been implicated. The offending drug should be immediately discontinued and the patient given supportive treatment, and systemic corticosteroids for long periods of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Predictive value of procalcitonin in children with suspected sepsis].

    PubMed

    Bustos B, Raúl; Padilla P, Oslando

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomarkers could be a tool for diagnosis, prognosis and stratifying children with sepsis. Our main goal was to analyze the value of procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and lactate in predicting mortality, septic shock and the stratification in children with suspected sepsis Prospective study in 81 patients. Plasma levels of PCT, CRP and lactate were measured at admission in the pediatric intensive care unit. Patients were categorized into systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Concentrations of PCT (ng/mL) increased significantly according to the severity of sepsis: 0.36 (0-1.2) for systemic inflammatory response syndrome; 1.96 (0.4-3.5) for sepsis; 7.5 (3.9-11.1) for severe sepsis; and 58.9 (35.1-82.7) for septic shock (P<.001). Compared to CRP and lactate, the area under the ROC curve revealed a good discriminative power of PCT to predict septic shock and mortality, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), respectively. In contrast to CRP and lactate, the determination of PCT in pediatric intensive care unit admission is a good predictor of mortality and septic shock and can stratify patients according to severity of sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Deficiency of surfactant protein: Case report].

    PubMed

    Milet, María Beatriz; Mena N, Patricia; Pérez, Héctor I; Espinoza, Tatiana

    Congenital surfactant deficiency is a condition infrequently diagnosed in newborns. A clinical case is presented of surfactant protein B deficiency. A review is performed on the study, treatment and differential diagnosis of surfactant protein deficiencies and infant chronic interstitial lung disease. The case is presented of a term newborn that developed respiratory distress, recurrent pulmonary opacification, and a transient response to the administration of surfactant. Immunohistochemical and genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of surfactant protein B deficiency. Pulmonary congenital anomalies require a high index of suspicion. Surfactant protein B deficiency is clinically progressive and fatal in the majority of the cases, similar to that of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 3 (ABCA3) deficiency. Protein C deficiency is insidious and may present with a radiological pulmonary interstitial pattern. Due to the similarity in the histological pattern, genetic studies help to achieve greater certainty in the prognosis and the possibility of providing adequate genetic counselling. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Internal consistency and criterion validity and reliability of the Mexican Version of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5)].

    PubMed

    Albores-Gallo, Lilia; Hernández-Guzmán, Laura; Hasfura-Buenaga, Cecilia; Navarro-Luna, Enrique

    To investigate the validity and internal consistency of the Mexican version of the CBCL/1.5 -5 that assesses the most common psychopathology in pre-school children in clinical and epidemiological settings. A total of 438 parents from two groups, clinical-psychiatric (N= 62) and community (N= 376) completed the CBCL/1.5-5/Mexican version. The internal consistency was high for total problems α=0.95, and internalized α=0.89 and externalized α=0.91 subscales. The test re-test (one week) using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ≥ 0.95 for the internalized, externalized, and total problems subscales. The ROC curve for the criterion status of clinically-referred vs. non-referred using the total problems scale ≥ 24 resulted in an AUC (area under curve) of 0.77, a specificity 0.73, and a sensitivity of 0.70. The CBCL/1.5 -5/Mexican version is a reliable and valid tool. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Venous angiomas and headache in children. A case report].

    PubMed

    López, Mauricio; Huete, Isidro; Hernández, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Venous angiomas (VA) are benign entities; however infrequent symptomatic cases may occur. Case report and literature review. A 6 year old girl was referred with a history of bi-frontal, non-pulsatile, headache with no nausea or vomiting. Headache intensity was 4-6/10. The episodes were frequent, 3-4 times per week. Triggers include academic work. Computed tomography showed a small VA in left caudate nucleus, which was confirmed by a brain MRI, with no evidence of inflammatory or ischaemic changes, or another vascular malformation. Psychological and psycho-pedagogic techniques were used, combined with relaxation and cognitive-behavioural techniques to reduce the intensity and frequency. There was a good outcome, and the headache decreased to 10 episodes per year. The patient was monitored for 12 years until graduation from high school. The VA remained without complications. In the study of a headache, a VA usually is an incidental finding. The International Classification of Headache Disorders III provides specific criteria of frequent episodic tension-type headache, and allows us begin specific therapy for it. Monitoring of non-symptomatic VA cases should be clinical. The surgical management of these entities is exceptional. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Septic shock in intensive care units. Current focus on treatment].

    PubMed

    Arriagada S, Daniela; Donoso F, Alejandro; Cruces R, Pablo; Díaz R, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Essential therapeutic principles in children with septic shock persist over time, although some new concepts have been recently incorporated, and fully awareness of pediatricians and intensivists is essential. Fluid resuscitation is a fundamental intervention, but the kind of ideal fluid has not been established yet, as each of these interventions has specific limitations and there is no evidence supportive of the superiority of one type of fluid. Should septic shock persists despite adequate fluid resuscitation, the use of inotropic medication and/or vasopressors is indicated. New vasoactive drugs can be used in refractory septic shock caused by vasopressors, and the use of hydrocortisone should be considered in children with suspected adrenal insufficiency, as it reduces the need for vasopressors. The indications for red blood cells transfusion or the optimal level of glycemia are still controversial, with no consensus on the threshold value for the use of these blood products or the initiation of insulin administration, respectively. Likewise, the use of high-volume hemofiltration is a controversial issue and further study is needed on the routine recommendation in the course of septic shock. Nutritional support is crucial, as malnutrition is a serious complication that should be properly prevented and treated. The aim of this paper is to provide update on the most recent advances as concerns the treatment of septic shock in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Dengue with unusual clinical features in an infant. Case report].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Domínguez, Nina; Achach-Medina, Kikey; Morales-Gual, Yareni María; Gómez-Carro, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    The state of Yucatan, in Mexico, is an endemic area for dengue. During 2015, there was an unpredicted increase in the number of expected cases of dengue fever. To describe and analyse the clinical presentation, progress, and management of a case of dengue infection with non-specific clinical manifestations in an infant which resulted in a dengue shock syndrome. One month old infant admitted to hospital with a generalised rash and a history of being bitten by an insect. He was diagnosed with anaphylaxis based on clinical manifestations and anamnesis. While in hospital, he developed hypotension, tachycardia, anaemia, and respiratory distress. He was transferred to the intensive care unit, but died on the fifth day. He tested positive to dengue virus in the PCR test and for IgG antibodies using Elisa. The basic cause of death was dengue shock syndrome. Dengue fever in young infant infections may be afebrile, so it is important to suspect them appropriately in the presence of a generalised rash, tachycardia, and hypotension, in order to avoid the deadly consequences of dengue shock. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Septic shock secondary to non-congenital chikungunya fever in a young infant: A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Domínguez, Nina; Achach-Asaf, Jorge Augusto; Basso-García, Luis Manuel; Quiñones-Pacheco, Yazmín Berenice; Gómez-Carro, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    A chikungunya outbreak took place in the State of Yucatan starting in the second half of 2015 OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical course of a case of chikungunya in a previously healthy infant, providing practical evidence to guide future diagnoses and treatment during outbreak seasons in endemic areas Clinical manifestation started with a sudden onset of fever and a diffuse macular-papillary erythema, originally treated in the community with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two days later, the fever relapsed with hypoactivity, severe thrombocytopenia and neutropenia (without lymphopenia), respiratory distress, liver dysfunction, sepsis, followed by septic shock with a fatal outcome. IgM test was positive to chikungunya, while her mother tested negative. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the blood culture possible due to contamination, without ruling out the possibility of a mixed origin sepsis. Chikungunya is a disease in which the manifestations in neonates and young infants can be severe, and even fatal. It is important to suspect it in this age group at risk of vector contact, in the presence of fever without apparent source of infection and cutaneous manifestations. It is important to use the antipyretics cautiously, considering the possibility of aggravating the underlying infection, and the potential hepatic and haematological damage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pulmonary-renal crosstalk in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Donoso F, Alejandro; Arriagada S, Daniela; Cruces R, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of renal replacement therapy, mortality of acute renal failure remains high, especially when occurring simultaneously with distant organic failure as it is in the case of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this update, birideccional deleterious relationship between lung and kidney on the setting of organ dysfunction is reviewed, which presents important clinical aspects of knowing. Specifically, the renal effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the use of positive-pressure mechanical ventilation are discussed, being ventilator induced lung injury one of the most common models for studying the lung-kidney crosstalk. The role of renal failure induced by mechanical ventilation (ventilator-induced kidney injury) in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure is emphasized. We also analyze the impact of the acute renal failure in the lung, recognizing an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability, inflammation, and alteration of sodium and water channels in the alveolar epithelial. This conceptual model can be the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to use in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cost effectiveness and budget impact analysis of inhaled nitric oxide in a neonatal unit from the perspective of the public health system].

    PubMed

    Kilchemmann Fuentes, Carlos; Vallejos Vallejos, Carlos; Román Navarro, Andrés

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently the first-line therapy in severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure of the newborn. Most of regional neonatal centres in Chile do not have this therapeutic alternative. To determine the cost effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension of the newborn compared to the usual care, including the transfer to a more complex unit. A clinical decision tree was designed from the perspective of Chilean Public Health Service. Incremental cost effectiveness rates (ICER) were calculated, deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed, and probabilistic budget impact was estimated using: TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2014 software. The iNO option leads to an increase in mean cost of $ 11.7 million Chilean pesos (€15,000) per patient treated, with an ICER compared with the usual care of $23 million pesos (€30,000) in case of death or ECMO avoided. By sensitising the results by incidence, it was found that from 7 cases and upwards treated annually, inhaled nitric oxide is less costly than the transfer to a more complex unit. From the perspective of a Chilean regional hospital, incorporating inhaled nitric oxide into the management of neonatal respiratory failure is the optimal alternative in most scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Age of menarche and nutritional status of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents in the Araucanía Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Muzzo, Santiago; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Early onset of menarche has been linked to prevalence of obesity; however, this may differ for indigenous females. To analyse the relationship between age of menarche and nutritional status among indigenous and non-indigenous girls. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Date of menarche was determined through interviews, and all responses were confirmed by the girls' mothers. A total of 8504 adolescents were screened for recent menarche. One hundred and thirty-one girls of Mapuche (indigenous) and 143 girls of Chilean-Spanish background were identified and evaluated by anthropometric measurements. Median age of menarche was 150 months, interquartile range (IR) 143-157 in indigenous, and 145.5 months, IR 139-153 in non-indigenous girls (p = 0.04). The indigenous females showed a higher prevalence of overweight (36.4% vs 23.1%), although the frequency of obesity was similar (16.8% vs 16.3%). For indigenous girls, age of menarche was delayed by 2.69 months (confidence intervals (CI) -0.38 to 5.77). It was observed that girls with overweight experienced age of menarche 7.59 months earlier than those with normal weight, CI -10.78 to -4.41. In the analysis of obesity, the effect on age of menarche was similar, with onset 7.53 months earlier than for the normal weight, CI -11.34 to -3.72. Age of menarche is younger than has been previously reported and occurs earlier in girls with overweight and obesity, while being indigenous was not related.

  3. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress.

  4. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  5. Frequency of Cholelithiasis and Biliary Pathology in the Easter Island Rapanui and Non-Rapanui Populations.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo; Contardo, Jorge; Cea, Jerson

    2016-01-01

    Chile is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of cholelithiasis worldwide, considering the Mapuche ethnicity as a risk factor for developing this pathology. Moreover, cholelithiasis is the main risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer, being the fifth cause of cancer death in Chile. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology among the population belonging to Rapanui ethnicity and non-Rapanui population living on Easter Island. In this retrospective case-control study, a total of 609 abdominal ultrasonographs performed consecutively in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period August 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology, adjusting for age, gender and referral diagnostic hypothesis. In the Rapanui population the frequency for cholelithiasis and biliary pathology was 6.4% and 13%, meanwhile for the non-Rapanui population it was 13% and 22% respectively. Compared to the non-Rapanui Chilean population, the Rapanui ethnicity presented an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.95) for cholelithiasis and OR of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.82) for biliary pathology. We found statistically significant ethnic differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary disease among the population of Rapanui and non-Rapanui ethnicity, so that this could be a protective factor for the development of biliary pathology, given the Chilean population context. Other studies including community population to determine the real prevalence of cholelithiasis and analyze the protective role of Rapanui ethnicity on this disease are necessary.

  6. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  7. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  8. The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations: a systematic review and global assessment.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Melina; Moore, Suzanne P; Hassler, Sven; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally. The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence. Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups. We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.

  9. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Alejandra E; Agüero, Paola R; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  11. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  12. Diet, residential origin, and pathology at Machu Picchu, Peru.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bethany L; Armelagos, George J

    2012-09-01

    Pathological conditions in human skeletal remains provide a wealth of information about archaeological populations, but many are limited in their interpretive significance by their nonspecific etiologies. This study analyzes three common pathological conditions known to manifest in infancy and childhood in the skeletal population from Machu Picchu, Peru (N = 74) with published carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic data (Turner et al.: J Archaeol Sci 36 (2009) 317-332; Turner et al.: Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena 42 (2010) 515-524) to distinguish early-life diet from residential origins as significantly associated with pathologies among the site's inhabitants. Analyses of variance indicate highly significant variation between enamel δ(18)O values, which serve as a rough proxy of local environment, and both cribra orbitalia (CO) and porotic hyperostosis (PH), generally understood to be markers of anemia. Results tentatively suggest that individuals manifesting these lesions may have lived closer to the arid coasts; however, no significant variation was found in parameters of diet (enamel δ(13) C(carbonate), dentin δ(13) C(collagen), dentin δ(15)N) by either CO or PH, suggesting that the primary factors causing anemia may have been more significantly related to residential origin rather than diet. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) frequency significantly varied by both dietary and residential parameters, supporting models of LEH formation from a synergy of dietary and environmental factors. These results support previous research on the etiology of PH in the Andes; they also represent a useful approach to refining site-specific interpretations of pathological conditions in archaeological populations, and exploring etiological variation between populations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Nutritional assessment in hospitalized children in a Paediatric service].

    PubMed

    Velandia, Silvia; Hodgson, Maria Isabel; Le Roy, Catalina

    Malnutrition in hospitalized children is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To determine the nutritional status in children admitted to the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad Católica de Chile. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on hospital patients less than 17 years old within the period from November 2010 to April 2011. A record was made of the demographic data, admission diagnosis, biochemistry results (albumin, haemoglobin, haematocrit), hospital stay, and anthropometry data. Nutritional diagnosis was expressed as standard deviation (SD) for weight-for-height (WFH) by WHO in children younger than 5 y, and body mass index (BMI) by CDC-NCHS in older children. Height-for-age (HFA) ≤-2SD indicated stunted growth. A total of 365 children, including 201 boys (55.1%), were evaluated. The median age was 3.35 years (IQR: 1.2-8.2). The most frequent reason for admission was heart disease (30.4%). The median hospital stay was 2 days (IQR: 2.0-4.0). Undernutrition was observed in 3.3% of the children, 8% were nutritionally at risk, 15% were overweight, and 10.9% were obese. As regards HFA, short stature was reported in 12.9%. There was a significant relationship between lower age and heart disease, and higher age with gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. By ordinal logistic regression for each year of age, the weight/height ratio (ZP/T) increases by 6.9% (OR=1.07). The biochemistry results (albumin, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels) were not associated with nutritional status. A high percentage of children at risk of undernutrition was found. The percentage overweight was similar to the general Chilean paediatric population. Early detection will allow an opportune intervention, and nutritional monitoring at discharge. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Epigenetics and obesity].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo

    Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D in children with cerebral palsy. Preliminary randomised controlled study].

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Catalina; Meier, Martina; Witting, Scarlett; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Solano, Carlos; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. Although there are many studies on VD and CP, there is limited information about VD supplementation in these patients. To evaluate the effect of supplementation with a single dose of VD on the plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25OHD) in children with CP. Prospective-randomised-controlled-trial, including 30 Chilean children (19 males) with CP, median age 9.9 years (6.2-13.5). Clinical and biochemical variables including 25OHD, were recorded (time 0 and 8 weeks). Patients were allocated to the supplemented (S) group receiving 100,000 IU oral D3 at baseline, and compared with the placebo (P) group. Among clinical features are highlighted: gastrostomy (60%), underweight (30%), bed-ridden (93.3%), antiepileptic drugs (70%), and 43.3% used VD metabolism inducing antiepileptics. Baseline biochemical measurements were normal. The 25OHD was insufficient in 4/30 and deficient in 6/30. 25OHD levels were not associated with the variables studied. Eight patients completed the study in the S group, and 10 in P group. The placebo and supplementation groups had no significant difference in baseline variables. Serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 8 weeks were normal in both groups, with no statistically significant differences. 25OHD in the P group was normal in 6/10, and insufficient+deficient in 4/10, and the S group was normal in all (8/8) (exact Fisher test P=.07). A single dose of 100,000 IU VD could normalise the concentrations of 25OHD after 8 weeks of supplementation in Children with CP, but more studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Nutritional status of adolescents from a cohort of preterm children].

    PubMed

    González Stäger, M Angélica; Rodríguez Fernández, Alejandra; Muñoz Valenzuela, Carolina; Ojeda Sáez, Alejandra; San Martín Navarrete, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Catch-up growth in preterm-born children occurs in the first months of life, but in some cases, growth recovery takes place in adolescence. The objective of this study was to study the growth and development of preterm-born adolescents from a cohort of preterm infants born between 1995 and 1996, who resided in the cities of Chillán and San Carlos in the Biobío Region, Chile. The results were then compared with term-born adolescents. A sample of 91 children from the cohort was studied and compared with 91 term-born adolescents matched for gender, age, and attendance at the same educational institution. The nutritional status was assessed by BMI-for-age, height-for-age, body composition by skinfold, cardiovascular risk due to blood pressure, and waist circumference. There was 23.0% and 24.1% overweight and obesity in preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, with 25.5% of preterm-born and small for gestational age adolescents vs. 14.5% of those born adequate for gestational age were overweight. Lower height was observed in 16.5% and 5.5% of the preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, and with a higher proportion of girls (P<.04). Preterm-born adolescents had a more fat mass than the controls, particularly in the suprailiac skinfold. No significant differences were found in blood pressure and waist circumference. The results indicate that there is a group of preterm-born children who do not recover height during adolescence, especially girls. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Intrauterine growth and biochemical levels in cord blood samples in infants less than 31 weeks gestation].

    PubMed

    Mena Nannig, Patricia; Cubillos Celis, M Paz; Toro Jara, Claudia; Zuñiga Vergara, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The use of greater amounts of protein and energy during the first week of life is associated with hypophosphataemia in extreme preterm babies. The lowest phosphorus levels are described in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies. To describe biochemistry levels in cord blood plasma in extreme premature, adequate and small for gestational age babies (AGA/SGA) and their relationship with plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week of life. A descriptive clinical study was performed in the Neonatology Service at Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río during 2013 and 2014. A biochemical analysis of cord blood was performed on 43 premature babies, as well as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week. The adequacy for gestational age was obtained using Alarcón- Pittaluga growth curves. Statistical significance was P<.05. Cholesterol, transaminases, albumin and creatinine levels were similar for both AGA and SGA babies. Levels of pH, phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in SGA babies. Urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides levels were higher in SGA. The analysis during the first week showed a strong reduction in phosphorus levels, as well as an increase in calcium levels in proportion to the decrease in phosphorus in the SGA sub- group. Intrauterine malnutrition in preterm babies is expressed in the modulation of plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides. During post-natal life, when nutritional intake begins, a decrease in phosphorus and an increase in calcium levels appear, consistent with insufficient phosphorus intake during this period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Successful endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysm secondary to infection of the umbilical artery catheter in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Borchert, Evelyn; Lema, Guillermo; Springmuller, Daniel; González, Katia; Chang, Win T; González, Rodrigo; Garay, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms (AA) in the paediatric population are uncommon. The use of umbilical catheters in neonates has been associated with infections and, on some occasions, the formation of aortic aneurysms. The surgical repair of these aneurysms is one type of treatment; however, percutaneous intervention with stents could provide an alternative treatment route, with fewer complications. The aim of this report is to present the therapeutic scope of a hybrid procedure, in which the combined surgical and percutaneous technique offers a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the repair of aortic aneurysms or their main branches. The case concerns a pre-term newborn of 30 weeks weighing 1,335 g. An umbilical catheter was introduced, which was withdrawn at 14 days due to an infection. It developed as Staphylococcus aureus with sepsis. The echocardiogram and Angio-CT confirmed AA, which were managed using a hybrid procedure of surgery and the endovascular implantation of 2 coated stents (Atrium V12 XR Medical Corp, Hudson, NH). The post-procedure clinical follow-ups, including abdominal echo-tomography, confirmed the success of the treatment. The endovascular aortic aneurysm repair procedure in premature newborns may be considered when deciding treatment of this disease, and could avoid the risks associated with open surgery. However, follow-up and monitoring is required while the patient grows up, due to the possibility that the implanted stents require re-dilating. The outcomes of neonatal endovascular procedures in the future are unknown. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: 10 year experience with staged surgical management].

    PubMed

    Urcelay, Gonzalo; Arancibia, Francisca; Retamal, Javiera; Springmuller, Daniel; Clavería, Cristián; Garay, Francisco; Frangini, Patricia; González, Rodrigo; Heusser, Felipe; Arretz, Claudio; Zelada, Pamela; Becker, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a lethal congenital heart disease in 95% of non-treated patients. Surgical staging is the main form of treatment, consisting of a 3-stage approach, beginning with the Norwood operation. Long term survival of treated patients is unknown in our country. 1) To review our experience in the management of all patients seen with HLHS between January 2000 and June 2012. 2) Identify risk factors for mortality. Retrospective analysis of a single institution experience with a cohort of patients with HLHS. Clinical, surgical, and follow-up records were reviewed. Of the 76 patients with HLHS, 9 had a restrictive atrial septal defect (ASD), and 8 had an ascending aorta ≤2mm. Of the 65 out of 76 patients that were treated, 77% had a Norwood operation with pulmonary blood flow supplied by a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, 17% had a Norwood with a Blalock-Taussig shunt, and 6% other surgical procedure. Surgical mortality at the first stage was 23%, and for Norwood operation 21.3%. For the period between 2000-2005, surgical mortality at the first stage was 36%, and between 2005-2010, 15% (P=.05). Actuarial survival was 64% at one year, and 57% at 5years. Using a multivariate analysis, a restrictive ASD and a diminutive aorta were high risk factors for mortality. Our immediate and long term outcome for staged surgical management of HLHS is similar to that reported by large centres. There is an improvement in surgical mortality in the second half of our experience. Risk factors for mortality are also identified. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparative results of Fontan surgery in patients with and without hypoplastic left heart syndrome].

    PubMed

    Becker Rencoret, Pedro; Besa Bandeira, Santiago; Riveros González, Sergio; Frangini Sanhueza, Patricia; Springmüller Pinto, Daniel; González Foretic, Rodrigo; Urcelay Montecinos, Gonzalo

    During the last few years, numerous patients with univentricular heart disease have been treated surgically with total cavopulmonary anastomosis according to a staged surgery protocol in our institution. To evaluate the perioperative outcomes and survival of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) after the Fontan procedure and compare them with other types of univentricular heart disease. A total of 102 patients underwent a Fontan procedure between April 1996 and March 2014, 25 with HLHS (group I), and 77 patients with other types of univentricular heart disease (group II). Groups survival, demographics, hemodinamic studies, morbimortality, mechanical ventilation, surgical drains, post-operative stay, isotopes score, pacemaker use, and requiriment of Fontan takedown were analyzed. Intraoperative mortality was 4% (n=1) for group I, and 7.8% (n=6) for group II (P=.451). A difference was only found in hospital length of stay (LOS), being 17 days (6-47) for group I and 12 days (5-103) for group II (P=.017). Mean follow-up was 4.24±2.08 years for group I, and 8.7±4.67 for group II. Survival rate at 8 years for both groups was 88%, and 81% at 10 years for group II. The Fontan procedure had similar mortality, but longer LOS, in patients with HLHS compared to those with another types of single ventricle anatomy. Long term survival was comparable between both groups. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Severe vitamin D deficiency in children from Punta Arenas, Chile: Influence of nutritional status on the response to supplementation].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Karin; Le Roy, Catalina; Iñiguez, Germán; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    There is a high risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in the population of southern Chile that can be treated with VD supplements. Weight excess (WE) can influence the response to supplements. To study the prevalence of VD deficiency and the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) supplements in healthy children from Punta Arenas, Chile, and evaluate a possible association with nutritional status. Demographic and anthropometric data, as well as laboratory assessment of serum 25-hidroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and other bone metabolism parameters were evaluated. After baseline evaluation, children were supplemented with VD3 1600 IU/day for one month, after which 25OHD was retested. Of the 108 children studied, 50% were boys, and had a mean age of 9.6±0.5 years. Nutritional assessment showed that 39% had normal weight, 46% were overweight, and 15% were obese. Median 25OHD was 10.9ng/ml: 96.3% had deficiency (<20ng/ml) and 3.7% insufficiency (20-29ng/ml). Severe deficiency was found in 62% (<12ng/ml). Baseline 25OHD was not affected by nutritional status. After supplementation, median 25OHD was 17.5ng/ml: 62% had deficiency, 36% insufficiency, and 2% sufficiency (>30ng/ml). Children with WE had a significantly lower increase in 25OHD than children with normal weight (5±5.5 vs. 7.7±4.9, p=03). Children with WE may require 32% higher VD dose than normal weight children to attain the same 25OHD concentration. Chilean schoolchildren from Punta Arenas have high prevalence of WE and VD deficiency, with a majority in the range of severe VD deficiency. WE interferes in the response to VD supplementation, leading to a lower increase in 25OHD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STEVIA SWEETENER CONSUMPTION AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra; Morales Illanes, Gladys; Schifferli Castro, Ingrid; Sanhueza Espinoza, Claudia; Encina Vega, Claudia; Vivanco Cuevas, Karla; Mena Bolvaran, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el consumo de stevia a nivel mundial se ha incrementado en los diferentes grupos etarios; sin embargo, existen pocos estudios que muestren la ingesta y asociación con el peso corporal en adultos. Objetivo: evaluar el consumo de stevia en jóvenes universitarios de primer año de cinco ciudades de Chile (Santiago, Temuco, Viña del Mar, Concepción y Antofagasta) de acuerdo al estado nutricional, nivel socioeconómico, sexo y pertenencia al área de la salud. Materiales y métodos: se evaluaron 486 estudiantes universitarios (EU) de primer año, pertenecientes a cuatro universidades chilenas. A cada participante se le aplicó una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo semanal con alimentos y bebidas que contienen stevia. Se solicitó el autoinforme de peso y talla. Resultados: el 69,8% de los estudiantes consumen stevia durante la semana. La stevia en gotas constituye el mayor aporte de stevia en la dieta de los estudiantes, con un 63%. Solo el 1,4% de los estudiantes sobrepasaban el IDA para stevia. Las mujeres normopeso presentan una ingesta mayor de stevia que las que tienen sobrepeso u obesidad (p < 0,05). Finalmente, se observó una asociación positiva entre el consumo de stevia y un peso normal, modelo ajustado 1 (OR = 0,219; IC 95%: 0,13-0,35; p < 0,05) y modelo 2 (OR = 0,21; IC 95%: 0,13-0,35; p < 0,05). Conclusión: el consumo de stevia se asoció a un estado nutricional normal en estudiantes universitarios chilenos.

  3. [Latex allergy in a paediatric hospital. Characteristics and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael; Norambuena, Ximena; Roizen, Gigia; Rodríguez, Jorge; Quezada, Arnoldo

    The prevalence of latex sensitisation varies according to the population studied. There are various risk factors that increase latex sensitisation, such as genetic risk, atopy, and multiple surgeries. To characterise patients referred to an Immunology Unit with suspected latex allergy, and to analyse their clinical features and risk factors. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on children suspected of latex allergy. Their medical records were reviewed in order to assess symptoms with contact or exposure to latex materials. Known risk factors to latex sensitisation, such as pathologies requiring repeated surgery (spina bifida, myelomeningocele, scoliosis and nephro-urological alterations), atopy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis) were investigated. A prick test and/or specific IgE to latex were also performed. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to find associations between symptoms triggered by exposure to latex with underlying diseases and other risk conditions. A total of 106 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 50 were evaluable. At diagnosis 96% of patients were older than five years. Most of the risk factors described were observable in these patients, such as multiple surgeries, neurological and nephro-urological malformations, surgery before one year-old, and repeated bladder catheterisation. After latex exposure, mucous cutaneous manifestations were the most common (52%), followed by respiratory symptoms (36%). All patients were sensitised and allergic to latex. Latex allergy is a significant problem in children with risk factors. The results shown in this study raise important challenges for preventive measures and awareness. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Exposition to drugs of abuse in pregnancy and breastfed babies growth in CONIN Valparaíso, Chile].

    PubMed

    Piñuñuri, Raúl; Mardones, Constanza; Valenzuela, Carina; Estay, Pamela; Llanos, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Las consecuencias de la exposición fetal a drogas de abuso en niños han sido estudiadas extensamente. El presente estudio pretende describir la realidad chilena en esta materia, caracterizando el crecimiento de niños expuestos a drogas durante la vida fetal. Objetivo: Comparar la antropometría entre neonatos expuestos a drogas por consumo materno durante el embarazo y controles no expuestos, de los 0 a 6 meses de vida. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron los datos antropométricos desde el nacimiento y hasta los 6 meses de vida de 74 individuos sanos atendidos en Centros de Salud de la comuna de Valparaíso, y de 61 individuos con antecedentes de consumo de drogas de la madre durante el embarazo, atendidos en la Corporación para la Nutrición Infantil (CONIN). Posteriormente se compararon las diferencias entre ambos grupos mediante (T-Student por grupos). Resultados: Según la edad gestacional hay diferencias en la proporción de individuos de pretérmino entre grupos de estudio, observándose una prevalencia de menos del 11% en el grupo no expuesto y superior al 25% en el grupo expuesto. En base a las curvas de los Dres. Pittaluga y Alarcón para crecimiento intrauterino, el grupo expuesto tuvo mayor cantidad de sujetos pequeños para la edad gestacional en ambos sexos, con 37% en CONIN y menos del 6% en el grupo no expuesto. El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas (p.

  5. [Physical activity patterns of school adolescents: Validity, reliability and percentiles proposal for their evaluation].

    PubMed

    Cossío Bolaños, Marco; Méndez Cornejo, Jorge; Luarte Rocha, Cristian; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Canqui Flores, Bernabé; Gomez Campos, Rossana

    2016-08-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. To validate a questionnaire for measuring patterns of PA, verify the reliability, comparing the levels of PA aligned with chronological and biological age, and to develop percentile curves to assess PA levels depending on biological maturation. Descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample non-probabilistic quota of 3,176 Chilean adolescents (1685 males and 1491 females), with a mean age range from 10.0 to 18.9 years. An analysis was performed on, weight, standing and sitting height. The biological age through the years of peak growth rate and chronological age in years was determined. Body Mass Index was calculated and a survey of PA was applied. The LMS method was used to develop percentiles. The values for the confirmatory analysis showed saturations between 0.517 and 0.653. The value of adequacy of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.879 and with 70.8% of the variance explained. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.81 to 0.86. There were differences between the genders when aligned chronological age. There were no differences when aligned by biological age. Percentiles are proposed to classify the PA of adolescents of both genders according to biological age and sex. The questionnaire used was valid and reliable, plus the PA should be evaluated by biological age. These findings led to the development of percentiles to assess PA according to biological age and gender. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Child health environment in the context of relocating of camp site families to social housing].

    PubMed

    Burgos, Soledad; Sigala, Fiorenza; Argueta, Luzmila; Iglesias, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Housing interventions aimed at overcoming poverty can lead to changes in the health status of children by modifying risk factors in their physical and social environment the aim was to identify children's environmental health factors to change with the relocation of families from slums to public housing. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children ages 2-8 years old of families relocated to public housing (n=115) who were compared to children residing in slums (n=88) in Santiago, Chile. Family socioeconomic characteristics, indoor environment and neighborhoods were collected. It was included respiratory symptoms, accidents and maternal-child care of children. χ2, Fisher and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare groups. There were differences in households related to pets keeping, presence of humidity/molds in homes, types of fuels, and perceived safety problems in neighborhoods (p<0.05). The families from slums reported higher tenancy of pets (73.8% v/s 32.2%%), humidity/molds in homes (43.,2% v/s 18.3%), use of wood for heating (39.8% v/s 0.0%), compared with families of public housing. Residents of public housing perceived more safety problems in neighborhood, and children have more asthma related symptoms and have lower diversity of accidents in home. Among the factors studied, indoor air quality and safety in neighborhoods could be linked to changes from the relocation of families. This reinforces the need to deepen the positive and negative influences of residential mobility of these groups focused on child welfare perspective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Adult height of children with idiopathic short stature treated with growth hormone therapy].

    PubMed

    Avilés Espinoza, Carolina; Bermúdez Melero, Carla; Martinez Aguayo, Alejandro; García Bruce, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is defined as a height of < or = 2 standard deviations (SD) from the mean for age. The use of Growth Hormone (GH) in ISS is controversial, and there are not results for adult height (AH) in Chilean patients with ISS treated with GH. The objective of the study is to compare AH in patients treated with GH with the height prediction at beginning of treatment. AH was considered with bone age ≥ 17 in males and ≥15 in females. The height SD according to the NCHS curves at beginning and ending of treatment were used for the comparison. Height prediction (HP) was calculated by Bayley-Pinneau method. AH was reached by 18/47 patients with ISS treated with GH. Initial height -2.1 ± 0.85 SD (133.1±6.8 cm) and HP -1.94±0.86 SD, and were treated since 11.6 ± 1.2 years old. After one year of treatment their height was -1.64 ± 0.69 SD, and AH was -1.28 +/- 0.62 SD (163.76 +/- 7.22 cm). It is suggested that treatment with GH for ISS is effective to increase AH. Although with wide individual variability, a mean increase of 0.67±0.9 SD (+2.67 cm) was obtained in the AH. This is the first report on Adult Height in Chilean patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  9. [Cloverleaf skull and bilateral facial clefts].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Manassero, Denisse; Manassero-Morales, Gioconda

    2015-01-01

    Cloverleaf skull syndrome, or Kleeblattschädel syndrome, is a rare malformation in which the skull has a cloverleaf appearance. It is caused by the premature closure of several sutures, being evident before birth. To present our experience in a case of cloverleaf skull syndrome, and update the information from the literature. A female infant of 5 months of age, diagnosed at birth with cleft lip and palate and hydrocephaly. A peritoneal ventricle valve was implanted at 30 days of life, and an ocular enucleation was performed due to an infectious process. The patient was followed-up in Genetics, where it confirmed a macrocephaly and craniosynostosis type cloverleaf skull. The 46XX cytogenetic study and echocardiography were normal. The brain CT scan showed multiple anomalies associated with hydrocephaly and non-specific malformations. Cloverleaf skull may be present in isolated form or associated with other congenital abnormalities, leading to various craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Crouzon, Pfeiffer or Carpenter. It may also be a component of the amniotic rupture sequence or to different dysplasias, such as campomelic dysplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia type 2, or the asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy of Jeune. The case presented does not fulfil all the characteristics needed to be included within a specific syndrome, and on not having a family history that suggests a hereditary pattern or chromosome abnormalities, it is concluded that it is a case of a congenital anomaly of sporadic presentation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Trisomy 18 syndrome: A case report].

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Rengifo-Miranda, Heidy; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián

    2016-01-01

    The trisomy 18 syndrome occurs due to the presence of an extra chromosome 18 in most cases. The prevalence in infants is estimated at 1:6000 to 1:8000. Those affected have a high mortality rate, only 4% may survive their first year of life. There are few reported cases exceeding five years of age. The aim of this paper is to report a case of trisomy 18 of long survival with oral cavity features not described in the literature, and to provide information to physicians and paediatricians about aetiology, phenotype, survival and genetic counselling. A 7 year-old female patient with 2 karyotypes performed by lymphocyte culture showing 47XX+18 in all metaphases. She presented with growth deficiency, dysmorphic facies, severe psychomotor retardation and cognitive disability, inability to feed, lack of verbal language, sensorineural hearing loss, ataxia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and genitals with hypoplastic labia majora and minora. In the oral cavity: dome shaped palate, macroglossia, absence of upper central incisors and first upper and lower molars in mouth. X-ray findings showed formation of missing teeth, with late eruption being concluded. In cases of trisomy 18 syndrome there is an increased risk of neonatal and infant mortality. The clinical characteristics in utero and in neonates have been well described. Since few cases exceeding five years of age have been reported, the phenotype is yet to be established. In the case being reported we describe oral cavity findings not documented in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Neonatal circumcision with local anesthesia. Results of a standardized protocol].

    PubMed

    Ovalle, Alejandra; López, Pedro-Jose; Guelfand, Miguel; Zubieta, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal circumcision is a common procedure in the US and other countries, with low rates of complications in trained hands. However, it has recently been incorporated into the clinical environment in Chile. Our goal was to establish a local standardised protocol for neonatal circumcision under local anaesthesia, and evaluate the results and possible complications. A standardised prospective protocol was used on patients who underwent neonatal circumcision. The inclusion criteria were: children <60days and <5kg. The surgical technique used was topical local anaesthesia and penile block, attrition of redundant prepuce and mucosa with Mogen® clamp, and section with scalpel. The protocol was used and evaluated from November 2005 to October 2014 by a paediatric surgeon and/or paediatric urologist trained in the technique. Complications and conditions until final discharge were analysed. The protocol was applied to 108 patients over a 9year period. The mean age at procedure was 9days (1-52). One patient (0.9%) had immediate bleeding, requiring further surgery. All patients were discharged from further medical checks at 1 month, without any other complications. The reason for the procedure was by parental request in 100% of the cases, and always for sociocultural reasons. Neonatal circumcision under local anaesthesia is a simple procedure, and has excellent results in selected patients, and with no major complications. With proper training, and adapting the initial protocol, it can be performed on an outpatient basis, without putting the neonates through the risks of general anaesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en

  13. [An analysis of Chilean biomedical publications in PubMed in the years 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Valdés S, Gloria; Pérez G, Fernanda; Reyes B, Humberto

    2015-08-01

    During the years 2008 and 2009, 1,191 biomedical articles authored by Chilean investigators working in Chile were indexed in PubMed. To evaluate the potential visibility of those articles, according to scientometric indexes of the journals where they were published. Those journals where the articles had been published were identified and each journal’s Impact Factor (JIF), 5-year JIF, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), SCImago Quartiles (Q) for 2010 and the Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) for 2008-2009 were identified. Three hundred and twelve articles (26,2%) were dedicated to experimental studies in animals, tissues or cells and they were classified as “Biomedicine”, while 879 (73,8%) were classified as “Clinical Medicine”; in both areas the main type of articles were original reports (90% and 73.6%, respectively). Revista Médica de Chile and Revista Chilena de Infectología concentrated the greater number of publications. Articles classified in Biomedicine were published more frequently in English and in journals with higher scientometric indexes than those classified in Clinical Medicine. Biomedical articles dealing with clinical topics, particularly case reports, were published mostly in national journals or in foreign journals with low scientometric indexes. It can be partly attributable to the authors’ interest in reaching local readers. The evaluation of research productivity should combine several scientometric indexes, selected according to the field of research, the institution's and investigators’ interests, with a qualitative and multifactorial assessment.

  14. [NPHS2 Mutation analysis study in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Azocar, Marta; Vega, Álvaro; Farfán, Mauricio; Cano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Podocin is a protein located in the glomerular slit diaphragm where it takes part in the regulation of glomerular filtration. Mutations of the NPHS2 gene that codes podocin are the main cause of autosomal recessive steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). To identify the NPHS2 mutations in Chilean children with SRNS, and to determine the prevalence of the most common variants in a group of healthy adults. Mutation analysis of NPHS2 in 34 Chilean children with SRNS. Once the two most common variants of NPHS2 were identified, screening for these mutations was performed on 233 healthy adults. The mutation analysis was performed by the direct sequencing of the eight coding exons by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The DNA sequencing was performed using a fluorometric method, and then evaluated with SeqPilot software. The relationship between the presence of NPHS2 variants and SRNS was calculated by comparing the allele frequency between patients with SRNS and those of the healthy volunteers using the exact Fisher test. A P<.05 was considered significant. Pathogenic NPHS2 mutations were detected in 7 (21%) of the 34 patients studied, of which 6 were heterozygotes for p.R229Q and p.A284V. The presence of p.R229Q was 2.46% in the healthy volunteers. This study shows that p.R229Q and p.A284V are the most frequent variants in Chilean children with SRNS. It is the first time that this relationship has been reported in Chilean children. Based on this, a screening strategy is proposed for the genetic study in patients with SRNS and their families. A parallel or sequential search strategy for p.R229Q and p.A284V in these patients is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Characterization of patients who died of invasive pneumococcal disease in the child population of Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Juan Pablo; Leal, Aura Lucia; Patiño, Jaime; Montañez, Anita; Camacho, Germán; Beltrán, Sandra; Bonilla, Carolina; Barrero, Rocio; Mariño, Cristina; Ramos, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), also known as pneumococcus, is one of the main bacteria associated with mortality in children under 2 years of age, with a morbidity and mortality incidence that varies according to demographics and exposure to risk, or protective factors. To describe the child mortality due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between 2008 -2014 (6 years), in 8 Medical Centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Descriptive observational case series of patients who died of IPD, aged 28 days to 18 years, in 8 tertiary care institutions in Bogota, Colombia. The study period was from 1 January 2008 to 15 January 2014. 239 patients. A total of 239 registered cases of IPD were reviewed, showing a mortality of 8% (n 18). The mean age of patients that died was 43.7 months, with an age range from 2 to 176 months (14 years), with 66% of the cases being male. Serotypes were identified in 8 patients, finding: 6A, 6B, 10A, 14, 18C, 23B, 23F, and 35B. The most common clinical presentation of the cases was meningitis with mortality of 33% (6 cases), followed by bacteraemia without focus in 28% (5 cases), and pneumonia with 27% (5 cases). Combined clinical situations were presented, such as pneumonia and meningitis in 11% (2 cases). Two of the patients had clearly documented risk factors for IPD (asplenia and chronic respiratory disease). IPD mortality is particularly high in children under 2 years in male patients, especially when presented with a meningeal focus (44%). Serotyping was not possible in all patients who died, since no strain isolated was sent to the National Institute of Health. Continuous and systematic vigilance is required to evaluate the impact of vaccination and possible changes in the pattern of presentation of disease. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Aetiology of childhood alopecia].

    PubMed

    Cortés G, Andrea; Mardones V, Felipe; Zemelman D, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Childhood alopecia is a relative rare event in general paediatric dermatology practice. Hair loss in children may have multiple causes, and there are different types of alopecia according to age groups. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of alopecia in children from two Chilean paediatric hospitals. Descriptive analysis of clinical records of patients from the Dermatology Department of Roberto del Rio and Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospitals between January 2007 and June 2010. Patients with clinical diagnosis of alopecia were included. A total of 345 clinical records were analysed, with 179 males (51.9%). The median age was 72 months. Overall, the most common diagnoses were: alopecia areata (AA), (36.8%), tinea capitis (TC), (21%), nevus sebaceous (13.2%), and tellogen effluvium (8.7%). According to age groups, in newborns, the most common causes were aplasia cutis and nevus sebaceous. In toddlers, pre-school and school children, the principal causes were nevus sebaceous, AA and TC. Trichotillomania was also significant in school children. In adolescents, nevus sebaceous, AA and tellogen effluvium were the most frequent diagnoses. AA was statistically associated with autoimmune disease, thyroid disease, nail disorder, psychiatric disease, and Down's syndrome. The most common aetiological agent in TC was M. canis (86.6%). Trichotillomania was also statistically associated to psychiatric disorders. In this study, the main causes of alopecia in children were acquired and non-scarring alopecia. In our results, the type of alopecia varies according to age group. Some types of childhood alopecia showed a close correlation to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Regional anesthesia practice in Chile: an online survey].

    PubMed

    Corvetto, M; McCready, M; Cook, C; Pietrobon, R; Altermatt, F

    2010-04-01

    To conduct a survey to profile the practice of regional anesthesia in Chile and determine the limitations on its use. A link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anesthesiologists who were members of their national professional association (Sociedad Chilena de Anestesiologia). The survey was processed anonymously. Multiple choice items elicited responses concerning general demographic information, professional experience as an anesthetist, academic degree, hospital size, and the use of regional anesthesia in clinical practice (number of procedures and types of techniques). Finally, the questionnaire focused on the use of nerve and plexus blocks. A total of 209 completed questionnaires were received, for a response rate of 54%. Regional anesthesia was part of routine practice for 97% of the respondents; 68% reported that regional techniques were used in more than 30% of their caseload. Most performed neuraxial techniques: 98.1% were spinal blocks, 96.2% lumbar epidural blocks, and 66.9% thoracic epidural blocks. Routine use of peripheral nerve blockade was reported by 73.7%. Upper limb anesthesia was provided significantly more often than lower limb anesthesia (P =.011). The most common technique involved use of a peripheral nerve stimulator (64%). Skills were mainly acquired through residency programs (68.9%) and self-teaching (20.1%). Peripheral nerve blocks were never performed by 26.3% of the respondents; the reason given most often was lack of training. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used in Chile, neuraxial blocks remain the most frequently used types. Peripheral nerve blocks are used fairly often, mostly on an upper limb. Training should stimulate attempts to promote more widespread use of all forms of regional anesthesia.

  19. [Vitamin D deficiency in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Bustos B, Raúl; Rodríguez-Nuñez, Iván; Peña Zavala, Rubén; Soto Germani, Gonzalo

    Vitamin D is essential for bone health, as well as for cardiovascular and immune function. In critically ill adults vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common, and is associated with sepsis and higher critical illness severity. To establish the prevalence of VDD and its association with clinically relevant outcomes in children admitted to a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in Concepcion, Chile. Prospective observational cohort study in 90 consecutive children admitted to the PICU in a university general hospital. Blood was collected on admission to PICU and analysed for 25-OH-D levels. Severity of illness and vasopressor use were assessed using PRISM, PELOD, and vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) score. VDD was defined as a serum 25-OH-D level<20ng/ml. Relative risks (RR) were calculated to determine the association between VDD and relevant clinical outcomes. Mean (SD) serum vitamin D (25-OH-D) level in the cohort was 22.8 (1.0)ng/ml. The prevalence of VDD was 43.3%. VDD was associated with vasopressors use (RR1.6; 95%CI: 1.2-2.3; P<.01), mechanical ventilation (RR2.2; 95%CI: 1.2-3.9, P<.01), septic shock (RR1.9; 95%CI: 1.3-2.9, P<.001), and fluid bolus>40ml/kg in the first 24h of admission (RR 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1, P<.05). In this study, VDD at PICU admission was prevalent in critically ill children and was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefit of optimizing vitamin D status in the PICU. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Self-concept level in children with burns sequelae: A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Castillo C, Carmen; Santander M, Dolores; Solís F, Fresia

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P>.05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Waist-to-height ratio is an indicator of metabolic risk in children].

    PubMed

    Valle-Leal, Jaime; Abundis-Castro, Leticia; Hernández-Escareño, Juan; Flores-Rubio, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal fat, particularly visceral, is associated with a high risk of metabolic complications. The waist-height ratio (WHtR) is used to assess abdominal fat in individuals of all ages. To determine the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to detect metabolic risk in mexican schoolchildren. A study was conducted on children between 6 and 12 years. Obesity was diagnosed as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, and an ICE ≥0.5 was considered abdominal obesity. Blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative value, area under curve, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the WHtR and BMI were calculated in order to identify metabolic alterations. WHtR and BMI were compared to determine which had the best diagnostic efficiency. Of the 223 children included in the study, 51 had hypertriglyceridaemia, 27 with hypercholesterolaemia, and 9 with hyperglycaemia. On comparing the diagnostic efficiency of WHtR with that of BMI, there was a sensitivity of 100% vs. 56% for hyperglycaemia, 93 vs. 70% for cholesterol, and 76 vs. 59% for hypertriglyceridaemia. The specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under curve were also higher for WHtR. The WHtR is a more efficient indicator than BMI in identifying metabolic risk in mexican school-age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [The Spanish triage system in the evaluation of neonates in paediatric emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Mirta; Pavlicich, Viviana; Luaces, Carlos

    2016-08-16

    The triage system in the emergency department classifies patients according to priority levels of care. Neonates are a vulnerable population and require rapid assessment. To correlate the priority levels in newborns seen in the paediatric emergency department with admissions, resource consumption, and service times. Observational study, using the Andorran triage model (MAT-SET) with ePATV4 software database, in paediatric emergencies. Neonates were classified into 3 levels of care established for them as level I resuscitation, level II emergency, and level iii urgent. The correlation between levels of priority and admission and resource consumption were analysed, as well as the time spent on medical care and stay in the emergency department. The study included 1103 infants. The highest priority level was positively correlated with hospital admission (r=0.66, P<.005) and resource consumption (r=0.59, P<.005). The medical care times were 126±203, 119±51, and 33±81min for levels i, ii, and iii, respectively and the stay in emergency department was 150±203, 131±80, and 55±86min, respectively for these levels (P<.05). The higher level of priority in the care of neonates in the paediatric emergency department was positively correlated with increased need for hospital admission and resource consumption. They also required a longer time for medical care and stay in the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Incidence of admissions due to pneumonia in children under 24 months old before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the National Immunization Program of Chile].

    PubMed

    Fernández V, José Pablo; Goecke H, Carola; von Borries, Cecilia; Tapia R, Natalia; Santolaya de P, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, especially in the hospitalized population. The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was included in the National Immunization Program of Chile in 2011. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia in hospitalized children<24 months of age in the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine into the National Immunization Program. Passive surveillance study. Patients<24 months with discharge diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia from Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital were studied between 2009 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital's Statistical Service. The incidence of pneumonia was evaluated in the pre-vaccination period (2009-2010) and in the post-vaccination period (2012-2013). During the study period, an average of 4,321 discharges/year was observed in children<24 months (range: 3,587-4,702), with a significant decrease from pre- to post-vaccination vaccine period (4,644 vs 4,013, P<.001). The average incidence of pneumonia ranged from 3.4/100,000 to 1.5/100,000 in the pre- and post-vaccine period, respectively (P=.009), with an annual mean of 157 cases of pneumonia in the pre- vaccine period, and 62 cases in the postvaccine period (P<.001) and a decrease in incidence between the two periods of 56%. This study confirms information previously obtained in other countries, which show a decrease in the incidence of pneumonia associated with the implementation of a pneumococcal vaccine at the population level. Ongoing surveillance is required to evaluate if this effect is maintained over time and expands to older populations. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Holocene tephrostratigraphy of southern Chiloé Continental (Andean southern volcanic zone; ~43°S), Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts [1]. In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga [2], ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of [3], in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., [4]) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk. [1] Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240. [2] Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245. [3] Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960. [4] Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.

  6. [Use of opioids in palliative care of children with advanced cancer].

    PubMed

    Fernández Urtubia, Belem; Trevigno Bravo, Antonella; Rodríguez Zamora, Natalie; Palma Torres, Chery; Cid Barria, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of cancer in paediatric patients, 15% of children die from the illness progression in Chile, and pain is the most significant symptom in advanced stages. Although the World Health Organization guidelines demonstrate that opioids are fundamental in pain management, there is still resistance to their use. The main objective of this article was to describe the experience in the use of opioids for pain management in paediatric patients with advanced cancer in palliative care (PC). Retrospective study of patients admitted into the PC Program at the Hospital Roberto del Río between 2002 and 2013. Analysis was carried out on demographic data; oncological diagnosis; pain intensity on admission and discharge, according to validated scales; use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; weak opioids; strong opioids; adjuvants drugs; the presence of secondary effects resulting from the use of morphine, and the need for palliative sedation. Of the 99 medical records analysed, the median age was 8 years, 64.6% were male, and there was a similar distribution in three oncological diagnosis groups. Upon admission, 43.4% presented intense to severe pain, and upon discharge there were four patients, but with a maximum VAS score of 7 in only one case. Of the 66 patients taking strong opioids, 89% required less than 0.5mg/kg/hr. Constipation was the most frequently observed secondary effect. Two thirds of the patients studied required strong opioids, with which adequate pain management was achieved, with no serious complications observed. The use of opioids in this group of patients, following a protocol, is considered effective and safe. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Gastroschisis: A pandemic with increasing rates? ECLAMC experience in Chile 1982-2015].

    PubMed

    Nazer Herrera, Julio; Karachon Essedin, Lucas; Cifuentes Ovalle, Lucía; Assar Cuevas, Rodrigo

    Several communications have reported a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in the last three decades. In many Countries it is referred to as "a pandemic strongly associated to low maternal age". To verify if there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in Chile, and if this rate is associated with a low maternal age. The study was performed using the ECLAMC data base from 26 Chilean Hospitals. Comparison between prevalence rates and maternal age categories were made using the X(2) test or Fisher exact Test. The time series was studied comparing average tendencies using the Student t test and Wilcoxon-test. There were 721,901 newborns in the period 1982-2014, among which 107 were diagnosed with gastroschisis (1.48/10,000). Around three-quarters (75.7%) of them were born from mothers younger than 25. The mean maternal age was 21.6 years in mothers of children with gastroschisis, while the mean maternal age of all mothers from Chile was almost 28 years old. The gastroschisis prevalence at birth rate was constant at around 1/10,000 until 1994. From 1995 this rate has a significant increasing tendency of 0.1591 by year (P=.00714). This increase is about a 300% on average for the 1995-2014 period, compared with the previous one (P<.00001). There has been a significant increase in the gastroschisis prevalence at birth in Chile from 1995, and this anomaly is associated with a low maternal age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Sepúlveda A, Cecilia; Espinoza G, Aníbal; Rebollo G, María Jesús; Le Roy O, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricaemia has been suggested as an additional metabolic factor in adult obese patients, but it has not been sufficiently studied in paediatric. To assess the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUAL) with the level of general and visceral obesity, and other biochemical parameters in children and adolescents of Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was conducted on 770 children and adolescents (ages: 6-15 y.) from a public school in Santiago, Chile, of whom 227 (29%) were obese (BMI>2 SD, WHO growth standards). Ninety subjects were randomly selected and 77 with no other chronic disease (41 males) accepted to participate. Data was collected on weight, stature, abdominal circumference (AC), visceral adiposity using ultrasound, and other biochemical measurements including fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and SUAL. The mean SUAL was 0.200±0.065 mmol/L, and was increased in children with hyperinsulinism (adjusted by age: 0.221±0.075 vs. 0.183±0.054 mmol/L; P<.01), with no significant differences according to HOMA. Differences were also found between children with ALT>or<26 U/mL: 0.238±0.070 vs. 0.178±0.054 mmol/L, P<.001. The logistic regression showed the increased SUAL was only associated with increased ALT. No significant differences were found in general or visceral adiposity measurements or fatty liver. Children and adolescents from Santiago, Chile have higher uric acid serum uric acid levels as well as an association with increased ALT and insulin. It is demonstrated in this study that uric acid should be measured in obese children and adolescents, and in their follow up. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Congenital anomalies of poor prognosis. Genetics Consensus Committee].

    PubMed

    Pardo Vargas, Rosa A; Aracena, Mariana; Aravena, Teresa; Cares, Carolina; Cortés, Fanny; Faundes, Víctor; Mellado, Cecilia; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Sanz, Patricia; Castillo Taucher, Silvia

    The Genetic Branch of the Chilean Society of Paediatrics, given the draft Law governing the decriminalisation of abortion on three grounds, focusing on the second ground, which considers the "embryo or foetus suffering from a congenital structural anomaly or a genetic disorder incompatible with life outside the womb", met to discuss the scientific evidence according to which congenital anomalies (CA) may be included in this draft law. Experts in clinical genetics focused on 10 CA, reviewed the literature evidence, and met to discuss it. It was agreed not to use the term "incompatible with life outside the womb", as there are exceptions and longer survivals, and change to "congenital anomaly of poor prognosis (CAPP)". Ten CA were evaluated: serious defects of neural tube closure: anencephaly, iniencephaly and craniorachischisis, pulmonary hypoplasia, acardiac foetus, ectopia cordis, non-mosaic triploidy, "limb body wall" complex, "body stalk" anomaly, trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and bilateral renal agenesis. Findings on the prevalence, natural history, prenatal diagnostic methods, survival, and reported cases of prolonged survival were analysed. Post-natal survival, existence of treatments, and outcomes, as well as natural history without intervention, were taken into account in classifying a CA as a CAPP. A CAPP would be: anencephaly, severe pulmonary hypoplasia, acardiac foetus, cervical ectopia cordis, non-mosaic triploidy, limb body wall complex, body stalk anomaly, non-mosaic trisomy 13, non-mosaic trisomy 18, and bilateral renal agenesis. For their diagnosis, it is required that all pregnant women have access to assessments by foetal anatomy ultrasound and occasionally MRI, and cytogenetic and molecular testing. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Breastfeeding indicators produced at time of vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in southern Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Glisser, Mario Boris; Barragán, Tatiana del Carmen; Weisstaub, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare official breastfeeding (BF) data with those obtained by interviews conducted during regular vaccination visits. A pilot descriptive study with convenience sampling was conducted by interviewing guardians of children attending vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in south Santiago. BF prevalence indicators were calculated and stratified by age and education of mothers. A comparison was made between the results and the official ones reported by each Centre. Chi-squared (X2) was calculated to evaluate differences (P<.05) RESULTS: A total of 1990 cases were analysed, in which exclusive BF prevalence was 43.4%, 34.2% and 8.8%, at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively. At the sixth month, official data (41%) was significantly higher (P<.001). Mothers with less than 12 years of schooling have a lower prevalence of exclusive BF at the 4th month than those with higher education (28.4% vs. 37.8%, respectively, P<.05). Even considering the small size of the sample studied, exclusive BF prevalence obtained is surprisingly lower than official reported data. That difference might be explained by: (a) children brought to vaccinations are roughly two fold the number brought to well-child clinics and, (b) potential bias in official data obtained by staff in charge of promotion and education on BF practices, which could distort the results. Further studies are needed to improve the methodology for collecting and analysis BF data. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Maternal infection due to Helicobacter pylori does not increase the risk of the infection in the first trimester of the life of their infants].

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Paula; Villagrán, Andrea; Vera, Macarena; Estay, Alberto; Ortiz, Marlene; Serrano, Carolina; Hernández, Caroll; Harris, Paul R

    H. pylori infection is acquired early in childhood. However, there is little information available regarding the role of breastfeeding and neonatal acquisition of the infection. To evaluate factors affecting the acquisition of H. pylori in newborns and infants from infected mothers. Consecutive mothers and their newborns were recruited into the study from the maternity unit, immediately after delivery. After signing informed consent, one stool sample from the mother was obtained before hospital discharge. Three stool samples of the newborns were then collected at home at 15, 60, and 90 days of life, for the detection of H. pylori antigen (Monoclonal HpSAg, sensitivity 94% and specificity 97%). The socio-epidemiological and biomedical variables were also analysed using a questionnaire. A total of 32 mother-child pairs (64 subjects) were enrolled. The mean maternal age was 30.1±5.1 years, with 53% vaginal delivery, and 85% exclusively breastfed. There were 13 (40%) infected mothers. No H. pylori infection was detected in newborns and infants up to 3 months of follow-up. No significant differences were found in socioeconomic level between infected versus non-infected mothers (both groups mostly in the very high socioeconomic category: 28% and 32%, respectively, P=.15) and in the number of family members between infected versus non-infected mothers (3.8±0.8 vs 4.2±1.8 persons, P=.18). Despite having a significant percentage of H. pylori-infected mothers, no newborn was infected at the third month of life. The protective role of breastfeeding cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clinical characteristics and management of infants less than 1-year-old suspected with allergy to cow's milk protein].

    PubMed

    Errázuriz, Germán; Lucero, Yalda; Ceresa, Sergio; Gonzalez, Mónica; Rossel, Maureen; Vives, Andrés

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is highly prevalent in infants (2-5%). It has a wide clinical spectrum, and confirmation through an oral food challenge (OFC) is relevant for its differential diagnosis. Information on this topic is scarce in Chile. To describe the demographic and clinical features of infants with suspected CMPA. A retrospective study of patients<1 year-old, treated for suspected CMPA between 2009 and 2011. Demographic data, symptoms of atopy, nutrition at the time of diagnosis, CMPA symptoms, diagnostic studies, and response to treatment were recorded. Diet response at least 4 weeks after milk modification, and clinical behavior when suspected foods were added back to the diet were considered standard diagnostic criteria. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epiinfo ™ software. The study included 106 infants, of whom, 51% male, 80% term newborns, 74% with≥1 atopic parent, and 34% with ≥1 parent/sibling with food allergy. The median age at onset of symptoms was 1.5 months (range 1.5-2m). Almost half (46%) were breast-feeding≥6m, with 15% receiving formula milk since the neonatal period, and 49% before the third month. Common symptoms were: vomiting (63%), colic (49%), and bleeding on passing stools (41%). No anaphylaxis was identified, and 61% had≥2 symptoms at debut. Only 34% were subjected to OFC. The most frequently requested tests were, test patch (43%), prick test (40%), and blood in stools (37%). 43% breast feeding with exclusion diet, 24% extensively hydrolysed formula, 26% amino acid formula, and 7% others. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar to those previously described in international literature. Clinical presentation was early in life, and digestive symptoms predominated. OFC was underused for diagnosis, and most of the tests requested did not change management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased lung compliance increases preload dynamic tests in a pediatric acute lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Erranz, Benjamín; Díaz, Franco; Donoso, Alejandro; Salomón, Tatiana; Carvajal, Cristóbal; Torres, María Fernanda; Cruces, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Preload dynamic tests, pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) have emerged as powerful tools to predict response to fluid administration. The influence of factors other than preload in dynamic preload test is currently poorly understood in pediatrics. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of tidal volume (VT) on PPV and SVV in the context of normal and reduced lung compliance in a piglet model. Twenty large-white piglets (5.2±0.4kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed and monitored with pulse contour analysis. PPV and SVV were recorded during mechanical ventilation with a VT of 6 and 12mL/kg (low and high VT, respectively), both before and after tracheal instillation of polysorbate 20. Before acute lung injury (ALI) induction, modifications of VT did not significantly change PPV and SVV readings. After ALI, PPV and SVV were significantly greater during ventilation with a high VT compared to a low VT (PPV increased from 8.9±1.2 to 12.4±1.1%, and SVV from 8.5±1.0 to 12.7±1.2%, both P<0.01). This study found that a high VT and reduced lung compliance due to ALI increase preload dynamic tests, with a greater influence of the latter. In subjects with ALI, lung compliance should be considered when interpreting the preload dynamic tests. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Upper limb functional assessment scale for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Spinal muscular atrophy].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo

    2016-08-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions. To describe the development of a scale to evaluate upper limb function (UL) in patients with DMD and SMA, and describe its validation process, which includes self-training for evaluators. The development of the scale included a review of published scales, an exploratory application of a pilot scale in healthy children and those with DMD, self-training of evaluators in applying the scale using a handbook and video tutorial, and assessment of a group of children with DMD and SMA using the final scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach and Kendall concordance and with intra and inter-rater test-retest, and validity with concordance and factorial analysis. A high level of reliability was observed, with high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.97), and inter-rater (Kendall W=0.96) and intra-rater concordance (r=0.97 to 0.99). The validity was demonstrated by the absence of significant differences between results by different evaluators with an expert evaluator (F=0.023, P>.5), and by the factor analysis that showed that four factors account for 85.44% of total variance. This scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing UL functionality in children with DMD and SMA. It is also easily implementable due to the possibility of self-training and the use of simple and inexpensive materials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  16. Cultural energy grassroots and development.

    PubMed

    Kleymeyer, C D

    1992-01-01

    The importance of culture in economic development is discussed based on 10 years of case reports in the publication, Grassroots Development. Cultural energy is considered important for the launching, sustainment, and expansion of programs; yet, only 10% of IAF Foundation grants over 20 years have focused on cultural energy as a tool for development. By the late 1960s development theorists blamed the lack of progress on "backward looking traditional cultures." In Latin America culture was seen as an obstacle to be overcome rather than an opportunity. The debt and environmental crisis of the 1980s has opened the doors to new methods. A recent study of the Aymara and Mapuche in Chile found that uprooting local culture meant loss of land, cultural roots, and social relationships, as well as loss of stewardship of the environment. The Kuna is Panama were seen as successful in combining traditional ways with Western ideas in formation of an ecological park; this was accomplished through self-confidence and self-will in grassroots development. However, the Kuna have also undergone changes and the ancestral view of nature and humanity's place in it is being undermined. The acculturation of the young may leave an emptiness that is neither Panamanian nor Kuna. The Chimborazo Indians in the highlands of Ecuador have only achieved moderate success in eliminating poverty in spite of international efforts which imposed development schemes onto the community. The Feria Educativa (Educational Fair) was formed among indigenous volunteers working with the Serviceo Ecuatoriano de Voluntarios-Chimborazo to promote culture and self-help. Members enter the community only when invited; the program uses puppets and sociodramas to portray common problems such as illiteracy and stimulate group participation. Their efforts have been successful in establishing literacy, reforestation, and economic activity programs. The Kuna shopped among Western ideas to chose ones appropriate to their

  17. [Epidemiological changes in burned children. A 10-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Rojas Goldsack, María de Los Ángeles; Saavedra Opazo, Rolando; Vicencio Pezo, Paulina; Solís Flores, Fresia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of burns suffered by children in a district of Santiago of Chile over a period of ten years. An analytical study was conducted by checking through the medical files of children under 15 years of age from Pudahuel district who were admitted with burns to the Santiago Aid to Burned Children Corporation (COANIQUEM) during 2011. A comparison was made with the results obtained in a similar study performed in the same district in 2001. In 2011, 440 children were admitted, with an incidence rate of 700/100,000 <15 years old (95% CI: 635-765), a decrease of 25% compared to 2001(Incidence rate of 933/100,000; 95% CI: 856-1010). There were 52% males, 64.5% under 5 years old of age, 88% burned at home, or at other houses where they are been taking care of. There was a significant change in the causative agent, and included, increasing by their relative importance; hot objects (27.1%). The mechanism that mostly increased in occurrence were contact with stoves or heaters, and also emerge that caused by hair iron, and motorcycle exhaust. The most common location was the hand, increasing by 30.8%, and 66.4% showed an extension of the burn of <1% total body surface area (2001, 61%). A significant decline of 54% of deep burns was observed, and 23.2% were admitted to rehabilitation, a similar proportion to 2001. The rate of hospitalization and/or skin graft decreased from 104/100,000 to 62/100,000<15 years old (95% CI: 43-82). Burns incidence has decreased. Hot objects are now the main causal agent. The decrease in the rate of hospitalization and/or graft indicates a lower severity of burns. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Subacute anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. A serie of 13 paediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Erazo, Ricardo; González, Jaime; Quintanilla, Consuelo; Devaud, Claudia; Gayoso, Consuelo; Toledo, Ximena; Rauch, Erna; Riffo, Claudia; Alvarez, Carolina; Salazar, Marne; Salvo, Daniela; Dalmau, Josep; Carmona, Orietta

    Subacute anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was recognised in 2007 as a clinical entity, and was first described in young women with ovarian teratoma. The first paediatric series unrelated with tumours was reported in 2009. To present the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of 13 patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in Chile. A description is presented of 13 children, 9 males, aged between 1 and 16 years, diagnosed between 2009 and 2016 in 7 hospitals. All patients were evaluated with cerebral magnetic resonance and electroencephalogram. Cytochemical, oligoclonal bands and virus studies (PCR and antibodies) were performed in cerebrospinal fluid. All patients were evaluated in search of anti NMDA receptor in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Tumor imaging studies were performed in all children. All children began the disease with psychiatric symptoms, and 11/13 had seizures. All of them subsequently presented with psychomotor agitation, dystonia, and bucolingual dyskinesias, with 11/13 loss of language and 6/13 autonomic disorders. All of them (13/13) had positive anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. CSF was normal in 12/13 children, positive oligoclonal bands in 6/10 patients, normal brain resonance in 13/13 children, EEG changes in 11/13 children, and abnormal SPECT in 6/6 children. A methylprednisolone bolus of 30mg/kg was given for 3-5 days to 12/13 children, and 6 received immunoglobulin 2g/kg. The large majority (12/13) of children recovered 1-4 months after disease onset. One child had a recurrence one year later, and recovered quickly. Subacute encephalitis due to NMDA anti-receptor antibodies should be suspected in children with psychiatric disorders and abnormal movements. Functional studies, such as EEG and SPECT are valuable diagnostic support. Early detection of this encephalitis leads to a faster recovery of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [EFFECT OF A HEALTHY EATING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION PROGRAM ON CHILHOOD OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Mena Bastías, Carmen; Celis-Moralesl, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Valdivia Moral, Pedro

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: las intervenciones orientadas a la formación de estilos de vida saludable en edades tempranas podría ser una herramienta eficaz para reducir los niveles de obesidad en escolares. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de una intervención en alimentación y actividad física (AF) en la reducción de la obesidad en escolares. Métodos: un total de 312 escolares participaron en esta intervención, la cual se aplicó durante cinco meses. Se desarrollaron talleres para la familia y los niños con material educativo basado en guías alimentarias chilenas, en conjunto con 45 minutos diarios de AF. El estado nutricional fue evaluado con el International Obesity Task Force. Los cambios en los hábitos alimentarios y de actividad física fueron evaluados mediante la aplicación de cuestionarios. Resultados: el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) disminuyó significativamente post intervención (-0,2 kg.m-2); al analizar estos resultados por sexo, solo los varones presentaron una reducción significativa (-0,3 kg.m-2). Resultados similares fueron observados para el perímetro de la cintura en varones (-0,4 cm). No obstante, al analizar el efecto de la intervención en aquellos escolares con sobrepeso u obesidad preintervención se observaron cambios significativos en el IMC, los cuales fueron asociados a cambios en la alimentación y los niveles de actividad física. Conclusiones: las intervenciones multidisciplinarias aplicadas a escolares del primer ciclo de enseñanza básica son efectivas a la hora de reducir los niveles de IMC e incrementar los niveles de actividad física y la calidad de la alimentación en escolares con sobrepeso u obesidad.

  20. Comunicación de pareja y VIH en mujeres en desventaja social

    PubMed Central

    Rosina Cianelli, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Margarita Bernales, S.; Natalia Villegas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Introducción La epidemia de VIH y SIDA se ha diseminado rápidamente a nivel mundial tendiendo a la feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización. La comunicación de pareja en torno el VIH es descrita como uno de los factores protectores en la adquisición de esta enfermedad, favoreciendo la adopción de conductas sexuales seguras tales como la negociación de pareja y la utilización de preservativo, consideróndose como un pilar fundamental en la incorporación de medidas de autocuidado en la sexualidad femenina. Objetivo Determinar el nivel de comunicación de pareja en torno al VIH en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Cuatrocientas noventa y seis mujeres contestaron la entrevista inicial de la investigación “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women” (RO1 TW 006977 PI Cianelli). Se utilizó la escala “Health protective sexual communication scale (HPC)” (0–10 puntos). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 16.0. Resultados El promedio del nivel de comunicación de pareja fue de 3,26 ± 2,7 puntos con la pareja principal, de 2,52 ± 2,48 puntos con una segunda pareja y de 0 puntos con una tercera pareja. Los temas de menor comunicación entre las parejas fueron el uso de preservativo y la realización del test para VIH antes de tener relaciones sexuales. Conclusión Las mujeres de la muestra presentan bajos niveles de comunicación de pareja en relación a VIH con todas sus parejas sexuales. Son necesarias estrategias que potencien este tópico dentro de las intervenciones de prevención de VIH y SIDA de manera de fortalecer la adopción de conductas de autocuidado en torno al tema. PMID:19936328

  1. Plasma Dynamics and VUV Emission in a Fast Hollow Cathode Capillary Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Esaulov, Andrey; Silva, Patricio; Sylvester, Gustavo; Moreno, José; Zambra, Marcelo; Nazarenko, Andrey

    2000-10-01

    Following the world tendency to study the physical mechanisms to obtain laser emission in the VUV to soft X-ray region in table-top device, a fast capillary discharge has been constructed at Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN. The device is identical to designed by P. Choi and M. Favre, included an electron beam from the hollow cathode region to provide ionization on the axis (1). The discharge operates in Argon with a cathode pressure of 100-500 mtorr. The system works with differential vacuum, thus the anode pressure is around five times less than the cathode pressure. The radius of capillary is 0.4 mm and the length is 2.5 cm. For an applied voltage of 10 kV a peak current of 5 kA with a rise time of 4.8 ns is obtained (10^12 A/s). MHD simulations in order to study the plasma dynamics an temperature evolution were performed (2). A final radius of 100-200 microns is expected at 8 ns, 2 ns after the peak current with a electron density of 2 x 10^18 cm-3. An electron and ion temperature of 80 and 40 eV respectively are predicted. In addition to usual electrical diagnostics, time-space resolution pinhole images (multipinhole camera with a multichannel plate, four frames, one frame every 4 ns) and time resolved spectra in the region of 10 to 100 nm were performed. Dynamics of plasma compresion was studied from time resolved pinhole images. Detected spectra show that plasma consists of argon ions with ionization potential from ArVI to ArX. This work has been funded by FONDECYT grant 1980187 and a Presidential Chair in Science granted by Chilean government. Authors are thankful to K. Koshelev and P. Antsiferov (ISAN, Troitsk) for fruitful discussions and comments. 1.- P. Choi and M. Favre, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3118, (1998) 2.- A. Esaulov, P. Sasorov, L. Soto, M. Zambra and J. Sakai, ``Fast Hollow Cathode Capillary Discharge. MHD Simulation''. Submitted for publication.

  2. [Hospital Admissions due to cyanosis episodes in newborns with gestational age of 34 weeks or more].

    PubMed

    Casanueva, C Paulina; Cifuentes, R Javier

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed between January 2007 and December 2012 to assess the admission rates of newborns due to episodes of cyanosis Retrospective study that included all the newborns hospitalized with episodes of cyanosis between January 2007 and December 2012. In them were employed two study protocols that considered first and second line tests, the latter in view of recurrence of events. The first line protocol considered general biochemical tests, chest x-ray and echocardiography in selected cases, while the second line protocol included electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, nuclear magnetic resonance of the brain, expanded metabolic screening, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, and in case of seizures, cytochemical, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for herpes. A total of 98 (2.8%) out of 3,454 newborns were admitted due to episodes of cyanosis. Gestational age: 37.8+1.4 weeks, birth weight: 3,145+477 g. Maternal age: 32+4.8 years. Disease was present in 19.4% of mothers; gestational diabetes (8.1%), pregnancy induced hypertension (5.1%), intrahepatic cholestasis (3.1%), and intrauterine growth retardation (3.1%). Gender: 48.8% male, 51.2% female (NS). Birth: caesarean section, 68.4%, and vaginal delivery, 31.6%. Age on admission 1.9+1.4 days. Hospital stay: 4.2+4.2 days. First line tests were performed in 100% of patients with 39.8% fulfilling the criteria for second line study. A condition was detected in 21.4%, with convulsive syndrome was the most frequent (33%). Newborns with an identified condition had 3.8+2.7 episodes versus 1.5+2,4 in those without diagnosis (NS). A home oxygen monitor was given to 15.4%. There were no re-admissions. Most newborns admitted due to cyanosis are discharged with a condition of unknown origin. In this study, convulsive syndrome was the most frequent cause. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Seroconversion in response to a reinforced primary hepatitis B vaccination in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Villena, Rodolfo; Zubieta, Marcela; Hurtado, Carmen; Salgado, Carmen; Silva, Gladys; Fernández, Jazmine; Villarroel, Milena; Fernández, Marisol; Brahm, Javier; O'Ryan, Miguel; Santolaya, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Immune response against vaccine antigens may be impaired in children with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroconversion response against hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) at the time of chemotherapy onset and/or remission in children with cancer. Prospective, two-centre, controlled, non-randomised study conducted on children recently diagnosed with cancer, paired with healthy subjects. Cases received HBV at time 0, 1 and 6 months with DNA recombinant HBV at a dose of 20 and 40 μg if < or > than 10 years of age, respectively, at the time of diagnosis for solids tumours and after the remission in case of haematological tumours. Controls received the same schedule, but at of 10 and 20 μg doses, respectively. HBs antibodies were measured in serum samples obtained at 2, 8 and 12 months post-vaccination. Protective titres were defined as > 10 mIU/ml at 8th month of follow up. A total of 78 children with cancer and 25 healthy controls were analysed at month 8th of follow up. Seroconversion rates in the cancer group reached 26.9%, with no differences by age, gender or type of tumour (P = .13, .29, and .44, respectively). Control group seroconversion was 100% at the 8th month, with P < .0001 compared with the cancer group. At month 12 of follow up, just 31.9% of children with cancer achieved anti-HBs antibodies > 10 mIU/ml. Vaccination against hepatitis B with three doses of DNA recombinant vaccine at an increased concentration, administrated at the time of onset of chemotherapy and/or remission provided an insufficient immune response in a majority of children with cancer. More immunogenic vaccines should be evaluated in this special population, such as a third generation, with more immunogenic adjuvants, enhanced schedules at 0, 1, 2, 6 month, evaluation of antibody titres at month 8 and 12h to evaluate the need for further booster doses. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [UNHEALTHY FOOD INTAKE IS LINKED TO HIGHER PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILEAN ADULT POPULATION: CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN 2009-2010 NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY].

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Villarroel, Luis; Marin, Pedro Paulo; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el síndrome metabólico (SM) es un conjunto de factores de riesgo que predisponen a padecer enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes. Una dieta poco saludable juega un rol importante en el desarrollo de esta condición. En este estudio evaluamos la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico y su asociación con la calidad de la dieta en adultos chilenos. Métodos: se analizaron los datos de 2.561 adultos mayores de 18 años de edad incluidos en la última Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS 2009-2010), que contaban con información para el diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico siguiendo los criterios de ATP III-NCEP. La frecuencia de consumo de pescado, cereales integrales, frutas, verduras y lácteos fue analizada y asociada a la presencia de SM. Por medio de un índice de dieta saludable (IDS), se evaluó la calidad global de la dieta y se correlacionó con la prevalencia de este síndrome. Resultados: un menor consumo de cereales integrales se asoció a una mayor prevalencia de síndrome metabólico (OR = 1,78; 95% IC: 1,088-2,919; p = 0,022). El IDS mostró que el consumo de alimentos tiene mejor calidad en mujeres y a mayor edad y mejor nivel educacional. Un IDS < 3 puntos se asoció con un mayor riesgo de síndrome metabólico (OR IDS < 3 / IDS ≥ 3 = 3,69 95% IC:1,884- 7,225, p < 0,001). Conclusión: la población adulta chilena presenta una elevada prevalencia de síndrome metabólico asociado al consumo de una alimentación de mala calidad.

  5. [Indoor air pollution by fine particulate matter in the homes of newborns].

    PubMed

    Barría, René Mauricio; Calvo, Mario; Pino, Paulina

    Air pollution by particulate matter (PM) is a major public health problem. In Chile, the study has focused on outdoor air and PM10, rather than indoor air and PM2.5. Because newborns and infants spend most of their time at home, it is necessary to evaluate the exposure to indoor air pollution in this susceptible population. To determine concentration of PM2.5 in the homes of newborns and identify the emission sources of the pollutants. The PM2.5 concentration ([PM2.5]) was collected over a 24hour period in 207 households. Baseline sociodemographic information and environmental factors (heating, ventilation, smoking and house cleaning), were collected. The median [PM2.5] was 107.5μg/m(3). Family history of asthma was associated with lower [PM2.5] (P=.0495). Homes without heating showed a lower median [PM2.5], 58.6μg/m(3), while those using firewood, kerosene, and electricity ranged between 112.5 and 114.9, and coal users' homes reached 162.9μg/m(3). Wood using homes had significant differences (P=.0164) in median [PM2.5] whether the stove had complete combustion (98.2μg/m(3)) vs. incomplete (112.6μg/m(3)), or a salamander stove (140.6μg/m(3)). Cigarette smoking was reported in 8.7% of the households, but was not associated with the [PM2.5]. Ventilation was associated with a higher median [PM2.5] (120.6 vs. 99.1μg/m(3), P=.0039). We found homes with high [PM2.5]. Residential wood consumption was almost universal, and it is associated with the [PM2.5]. Natural ventilation increased MP2.5, probably due to infiltration from outside. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [High flow nasal cannula in infants: Experience in a critical patient unit].

    PubMed

    Wegner A, Adriana; Cespedes F, Pamela; Godoy M, María Loreto; Erices B, Pedro; Urrutia C, Luis; Venthur U, Carina; Labbé C, Marcela; Riquelme M, Hugo; Sanchez J, Cecilia; Vera V, Waldo; Wood V, David; Contreras C, Juan Carlos; Urrutia S, Efren

    2015-01-01

    The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a method of respiratory support that is increasingly being used in paediatrics due to its results and safety. To determine the efficacy of HFNC, as well as to evaluate the factors related to its failure and complications associated with its use in infants. An analysis was performed on the demographic, clinical, blood gas, and radiological data, as well as the complications of patients connected to a HFNC in a critical care unit between June 2012 and September 2014. A comparison was made between the patients who failed and those who responded to HFNC. A failure was considered as the need for further respiratory support during the first 48hours of connection. The Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, chi squared and the Exact Fisher test were used, as well as correlations and a binary logistic regression model for P≤.05. The study included 109 patients, with a median age and weight: 1 month (0.2-20 months) and 3.7kg (2-10kg); 95 percentile: 3.7 months and 5.7kg, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis and radiological pattern was bronchiolitis (53.2%) and interstitial infiltration (56%). Around 70.6% responded. There was a significant difference between failure and response in the diagnosis (P=.013), radiography (P=018), connection context (P<.0001), pCO2 (median 40.7mmHg [15.4-67 mmHg] versus 47.3mmHg [28.6-71.3mmHg], P=.004) and hours on HFNC (median 60.75hrs [5-621.5 hrs] versus 10.5hrs [1-29 hrs], P<.0001). The OR of the PCO2 ≥ 55mmHg for failure was 2.97 (95% CI; 1.08-8.17; P=.035). No patient died and no complications were recorded. The percentage success observed was similar to that published. In this sample, the failure of HFNC was only associated with an initial pCO2 ≥ 55mmHg. On there being no complications reported as regards it use, it is considered safe, although a randomised, controlled, multicentre study is required to compare and contrast these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatr

  7. [Levels of obesity, fasting glycemia and physical condition in Chilean students].

    PubMed

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Guzmán Guzmán, Iris Paola; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Campos Jara, Christian; Ríos Lagos, Gonzalo; Díaz Inostroza, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Antecedentes: en Chile se han modificado drásticamente los patrones de alimentación y de actividad física. El principal problema nutricional que enfrenta la sociedad chilena es el exceso de peso, que se presenta en forma progresiva desde temprana edad. El objetivo del estudio es determinar el estado nutricional y comparar los niveles de condición física y glicemia en ayuno de los escolares. Pacientes y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo- comparativo de corte transversal, realizando una comparación por género y estado nutricional, con 100 escolares (56 hombres y 44 mujeres) de entre 12 a 15 años de edad. Se evaluó la composición corporal, la glucosa en ayuna y la condición física. Resultados: las mujeres presentaron mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad que los hombres (22,73% y 19,65%). En la comparación de género se reportaron diferencias estadísticas en una repetición máxima (1RM) (p = 0,001), resistencia abdominal (p = 0,004) y velocidad (p = 0,001); no existieron diferencias significativas en el índice de masa corporal (IMC) (p = 0,24) ni en glucosa en ayunas (p = 0,99). En la comparación del estado nutricional, en los escolares clasificados como obesos se observó un perímetro de cintura más elevado (p = 0,001) y mayor tiempo para recorrer 400 m (p = 0,008); no existieron diferencias significativas en las demás variables. Conclusiones: las mujeres presentan una mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad que los hombres. Los escolares obesos presentan un perímetro de cintura más elevado, mayor tiempo para recorrer 400 metros (p = < 0,05) y poseen niveles aumentados de glucosa basal.

  8. [Validation of an instrument to measure food practices in Chilean families of school children aged 4-7 years].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Salinas, Judith; Fretes, Gabriela; Vio, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Para enfrentar el problema de la obesidad infantil, es necesario evaluar prácticas alimentarias en familias de escolares. Objetivo: Elaborar y validar un instrumento para medir actitudes, conocimientos y hábitos alimentarios en familias chilenas de escolares de prebásica y básica basado en las guías alimentarias. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio piloto en 30 padres de escolares de prebásica y básica. Se diseñó un cuestionario por los investigadores del estudio considerando la opinión de un grupo de expertos, para medir actitudes, conocimientos hábitos alimentarios en los padres de los escolares. Para la validación del cuestionario, se aplicó en 2 ocasiones, con 15 días de intervalo y se evaluó estabilidad temporal, consistencia interna y concordancia inter-observadores. Posteriormente se aplicó a una muestra de 59 padres y se calculó la consistencia interna del instrumento. Resultados: El cuestionario quedó conformado por 55 preguntas, agrupadas en 4 secciones. Se encontró una buena concordancia inter-observadores para casi todas las preguntas de la sección conocimientos en alimentación y hábitos alimentarios (0,5-1,0). La correlación entre la primera aplicación y la segunda (test-retest) fue elevada (0,6-1,0), así como la consistencia interna (0,75). En la sección frecuencia de consumo del padre y en la de alimentación del niño en el hogar y colegio, la consistencia interna para los dos observadores fue elevada (0,85-0,87; 0,92-0,90; respectivamente). Conclusiones: El instrumento es útil y válido para ser aplicado en familias de escolares de prebásica y básica intervenidas con educación nutricional y esta metodología puede ser replicada en estudios similares.

  9. [Children less than 3 months hospitalised due to acute febrile syndrome. 5 years clinical experience].

    PubMed

    Méndez Espinola, Benigno Miguel; Herrera Labarca, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Acute fever of unknown origin (AFUO) is established when the anamnesis and physical examination cannot identify the cause. In infants less than 3 months-old this is situation for concern, due to the risk of a serious bacterial infection. To describe the clinical and laboratory variable of patients with AFUO, in order to look for clues in order to base studies on the decisions arising drom this problem. A report is presented on a retrospective study conducted on a cohort of children less than three months-old admitted to the Hospital Roberto del Río (2007-2011) due to an AFUO. Clinical histories were reviewed and the patients were grouped, according to the severity of the admission diagnosis, into severe and non-severe. They were compared in strata determined by the variables of clinical interest. A total of 550 children were admitted with AFUO during the study period. There was low agreement between the severity on admission and at discharge (kappa=0.079; P=.26). There were 23.8% of children in the severe group and 76.2% in the non-severe group. Urinary tract infection predominated in the severe group (68.7%) and 40.7% with acute febrile syndrome in the non-severe group. The cut-off levels for C-reactive protein, white cells, and neutrophils per mm(3), to calculate the fixed and variable indices, only showed negative predictive values of some use for ruling out serious bacterial infection. The ROC curves with white cell and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein, did not provide andy fixed indices of clinical use. More than one-third (34.6%) of lumbar punctures were traumatic or failures. According to the results of this study, there is an obvious excess of hospital admissions, little usefulness in the examinations to identify serious bacterial infection, a high percentage lumbar punctures traumatic and lumbar punctures failures, and an excess of antibiotic treatments. A review of clinical criteria and procedures is needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de

  10. Ethnoecology of Oxalis adenophylla Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydeé

    2014-08-08

    environments where the plant grows, its phenology and morphological and organoleptic characteristics, appropriate times for harvesting, and animals that forage for this species. The informants with the greatest ethnoecological knowledge harvested leaves and roots most frequently. The frequency of use did not differ in relation to age or gender. In contrast, frequency of use was the highest when the informant lived with several generations at home, maintained traditional animal husbandry practices and when they considered themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people. Informants perceived low abundance and availability of the plant in the environment, restricted by the great distances involved in obtaining them, seasonality, and in particular, difficulty in finding the roots. Informants believe that the plant is sensitive and it should be harvested in such a way as to ensure no damage to the whole plant, allowing resprouting. Our ecological measurements agreed with this perception. The local risk index for the plant was medium. In Patagonian Argentina, Oxalis adenophylla is a multipurpose species widely used for its medicinal properties but less for its edible roots and ornamental features. In the rural communities where we worked, frequency of use seems to depend on individual ethnoecological knowledge, the practice of indigenous worldview, living in households interacting with other generations and maintaining the activity of cattle raising. Locally, the main risk for the plant is the particular environment where it grows, characterized by slopes vulnerable to erosion. The human practice of local use could promote the conservation of this species through the understanding of its sensitivity to harvesting, and its insipient cultivation. This research shows the importance of obtaining a general overview of useful wild species used by local people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% < 8 school years). SC SIR was higher in men than women (40.8 and 14.8 respectively, P < 0.001), risk factors were low education RR 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9-6.8) and 1.6, (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for women and men respectively and Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases

  12. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  13. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    -born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants’ access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introducción La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varían significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en América Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo exploró el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los comparó con la población chilena. Métodos Análisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en características demográficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composición del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconómico (educación, ingreso, situación contractual), tipo de previsión (pública, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atención primaria. Análisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresión ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observó un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminución en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsión y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron más frecuentemente la atención prenatal y ginecológica, y

  14. Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS–III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la

  15. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    as a hydrogen line in emission. However, when the colour of this mysterious object was measured in different wavebands, it was found to be very red and quite similar to that of one of the two known Brown Dwarfs in double star systems. The presence of the lithium line in the spectrum is also an indication that it might be of that type. The astronomer now decided to give the new object the name KELU-1 ; this word means `red' in the language of the Mapuche people, the ancient population in the central part of Chile. Its visual magnitude is 22.3, i.e. more than 3 million times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. In early April, additional infrared observations with the UKIRT (UK Infrared Telescope) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) by Sandra K. Leggett (Joint Astrophysical Centre, Hilo, Hawaii, USA) confirmed the Brown Dwarf nature of KELU-1, in particular through the unambiguous detection of Methane (CH 4 ) bands in its spectrum. The nature of Brown Dwarfs Brown Dwarfs are first of all characterised by their low mass. When a body of such a small mass is formed in an interstellar cloud and subsequently begins to contract, its temperature at the centre will rise, but it will never reach a level that is sufficient to ignite the nuclear burning of hydrogen to helium, the process that it is main source of energy in the Sun and most other stars. The Brown Dwarf will just continue to contract, more and more slowly, and it will eventually fade from view. This is also the reason that some astronomers consider Brown Dwarfs in the Milky Way and other galaxies as an important component of the `dark matter' whose presence is infered from other indirect measurements but has never been directly observed. It is assumed that the mass limit that separates nuclear-burning stars and slowly contracting Brown Dwarfs is at about 90 times the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, or 8 percent of that of the Sun. KELU-1: a great opportunity for Brown Dwarf studies Assuming that KELU-1 is

  16. And Then There Were Three...!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    VLT MELIPAL Achieves Successful "First Light" in Record Time This was a night to remember at the ESO Paranal Observatory! For the first time, three 8.2-m VLT telescopes were observing in parallel, with a combined mirror surface of nearly 160 m 2. In the evening of January 26, the third 8.2-m Unit Telescope, MELIPAL ("The Southern Cross" in the Mapuche language), was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". During this night, a number of astronomical exposures were made that served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope. The ESO staff expressed great satisfaction with MELIPAL and there were broad smiles all over the mountain. The first images ESO PR Photo 04a/00 ESO PR Photo 04a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 352 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 688 pix - 110k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 04a/00 shows the "very first light" image for MELIPAL . It is that of a relatively bright star, as recorded by the Guide Probe at about 21:50 hrs local time on January 26, 2000. It is a 0.1 sec exposure, obtained after preliminary adjustment of the optics during a few iterations with the computer controlled "active optics" system. The image quality is measured as 0.46 arcsec FWHM (Full-Width at Half Maximum). ESO PR Photo 04b/00 ESO PR Photo 04b/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 429 pix - 39k] [Normal - JPEG: 885 x 949 pix - 766k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 04b/00 shows the central region of the Crab Nebula, the famous supernova remnant in the constellation Taurus (The Bull). It was obtained early in the night of "First Light" with the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL . It is a composite of several 30-sec exposures with the VLT Test Camera in three broad-band filters, B (here rendered as blue; most synchrotron emission), V (green) and R (red; mostly emission from hydrogen atoms). The Crab Pulsar is visible to the left; it is the lower of the two brightest stars near each other. The image quality is about 0.9 arcsec, and is completely

  17. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  18. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex