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Sample records for chiloe island chile

  1. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-01-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  2. First evidence of Okadaic acid acyl-derivative and Dinophysistoxin-3 in mussel samples collected in Chiloe Island, Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pruzzo, Matías; Rodríguez-Unda, Nelson; Contreras, Cristóbal; Lagos, Néstor

    2010-06-01

    This paper shows the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP) phycotoxins, using HPLC-FLD with pre-column derivatization procedure and HPLC-MS methods, in the analysis of shellfish extracts tested positive with the official DSP mouse bioassay. The shellfish samples were collected in Chiloe Island, Southern of Chile. The amount of Dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3) measured in the shellfish extracts were in average above the international safe limits for DSP content in the shellfish extracts analyzed. As internal control of detection and recovery, DTX-1 analytical standard was spiked into dichloromethane-clean shellfish extracts in order to calculate de extraction recovery of DTX-1. The average recovery was 97%. From all DSP toxins analyzed, the hydrolyzed extract samples appeared mainly DTX-3 in concentrations ranging from 99.40 +/- 1.22 to 257.73 +/- 12.46 ng/g digestive-glands. The acyl-Okadaic Acid (acyl-OA) was also detected in some samples, ranging from 1.02 +/- 1.4 to 3.07. +/- 1.6 ng of DSP toxin/g digestive-glands. This is the first report of acyl-OA ever found in Chilean shellfish samples. This data shows that shellfish samples were contaminated with a complex DSP toxins profile, in which DTX-3 is the major DSP toxin component, followed by DTX-1 and the acyl-OA as the minor one. The important findings showed in this study are the presence of both acyl-derivates (DTX-3 and Acyl-OA) which are the product of a main metabolic biotransformation that occurred inside the shellfish, in order to chelate DTX-1 and OA, transforming them into DTX-3 and the acyl-OA respectively. This metabolic biotransformation must be performed to avoid self-inhibition of their Protein Phosphatase 2A done by DTX-1 and OA, since both acyl-derivates (DTX-3 and acyl-OA) do not inhibit Protein Phosphatase 2A. This complex DSP toxins profile and the permanent presence of both acyl-derivates (DTX-3 and Acyl-OA) could explain the permanent diarrhea symptoms that experience patients who have

  3. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  4. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.

  5. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

  6. Late quaternary vegetation of southern Isla Grande de Chiloñ, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagran, Carolina

    1988-05-01

    Late-glacial-Holocene forest history of southern Isla Chiloé (latitude 43°10' S) was reconstructed on the basis of pollen analysis in three profiles (Laguna Soledad, Laguna Chaiguata, Puerto Carmen). Prior to 12,500 yr B.P. pollen records are dominated by plant taxa characteristic of open habitats (Zone I). From 12,500 yr B.P. to the present, tree species predominate in the pollen records (Zones II-V). Between 12,500 and 9500 yr B.P. ombrophyllous taxa ( Nothofagus, Podocarpus nubigena. Myrtaceae, Fitzroya/Pilgerodendron, and Drimys) are frequent in all pollen diagrams, suggesting a wetter and colder climate than the present. Between 9000 and 5500 yr B.P. Valdivian forest elements, such as Nothofagus dombeyi type, Weinmannia, and Eucryphia/Caldcluvia, dominate, indicating a period of drier and warmer climate. From 5500 yr B.P. onward, the expansion of mixed North Patagonian-Subantarctic forest elements and the increased frequence of Tepualia suggest increased rainfall and temperatures oscillating around the modern values. The change from open to forest vegetation (ca. 12,500 yr B.P.) probably represents the most pronounced climatic change in the record and can be interpreted as the glacial-postglacial transition in the study area.

  7. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues.

  8. A Millenium of Great, and Perhaps Lesser, Earthquakes Recorded by Unusual Landslide and Tsunami Deposits in Chiloe, South-Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, M.; Lagos, M.; Srinivasalu, S.

    2007-05-01

    A stratigraphic sequence at Cocotue Bay, Chiloe Is., south-central Chile, containing both earthquake-triggered debris flows and tsunami deposits, yields an earthquake history that likely includes the giant earthquakes and tsunamis inferred previously from a combination of geology, ecology, and written records in south-central Chile (AD ~1000, ~1300, 1575 and 1960). However, the Cocotue sequence also contains evidence for at least four additional earthquakes and tsunamis that are intermediate in age and perhaps lesser in size. The most recent of the additional earthquakes recorded at Cocotue probably corresponds to the poorly understood Chilean earthquake and associated trans-Pacific tsunami of 1837. The tsunami, though small on the Chilean coast, ran as high as 6 m in Hawaii and flooded fields in Japan. At Cocotue, the 1837 earthquake, like other three earlier events, is probably represented by both a debris-flow deposit and a tsunami deposit. To study the sedimentary record of intermediate and lesser events is important because this is the more probable kind of event to occur in the near future of south-central Chile. Research funded by Proyecto Fondecyt 1060227

  9. Seasonal and vertical distributional patterns of siphonophores and medusae in the Chiloé Interior Sea, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Sergio; Silva, Nelson; Cristina Retamal, María; Castro, Leonardo

    2011-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of jellyfish was assessed in the Chiloé Inland sea, in the northern area of the Chilean Patagonia. A total of 41 species of cnidarians (8 siphonophores, 31 hydromedusae, 2 scyphomedusae) were collected. Eleven jellyfish species were recorded for the first time in the area. Species richness was higher in spring than in winter (37 vs. 25 species, respectively). Species such as Muggiaea atlantica, Solmundella bitentaculata, and Clytia simplex were extremely abundant in spring. The total abundance (408,157 ind 1000 m -3) was 18 times higher in spring than in winter (22,406 ind 1000 m -3). The horizontal distribution of the most abundant species (four in winter, five in spring) showed decreasing abundances in the north-south direction in winter and spring. Peak abundances occurred in the northern microbasins (Reloncaví Fjord, Reloncaví and Ancud gulfs), where the water column stability, phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance were higher, compared with the southern microbasins (Corcovado Gulf, Boca del Guafo). During the spring higher jellyfish abundance season, the vertical distribution of the dominant species (except M. atlantica) showed peak values at mid-depth (30-50 m) and in the deepest sampled layer (50-200 m). This vertical distribution pattern reduced seaward transport in the shallowest layer through estuarine circulation and also limited mortality by predation in the more illuminated shallow layers. Thus, jellyfish were able to remain in the interior waters during the season of maximum biological production.

  10. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.

  11. Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

    2010-06-01

    A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined. PMID:20557217

  12. Simultaneous presence of paralytic and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island, Austral Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Garcá, Carlos; Mardones, Pamela; Sfeir, Andrea; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-01-01

    The study shown here provides the first indisputable evidence that shellfish can be contaminated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins during the summer season in the Southern Chilean fjords. Quantitative analysis of the simultaneous presence of PSP and DSP toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island are shown. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis with pre-column derivatization method for DSP toxins and the post-column derivatization methods for PSP toxins, both with fluorescent on-line detections, showed that both type of toxins were concentrated by the filter bivalve Mytilus chilensis in amounts above the international safe limits. The phytoplankton analysis showed the presence of both Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuta in the water column. The data shows stratification of the toxic dinoflagellates in the water column, since the lowest amount of both DSP and PSP toxins were measured in the superficial and deeper levels of the water column. Moreover, the highest toxicities of both types of toxins were shown by the shellfish samples collected at a depth of 6 meters with 190 nanograms of DTX-1 / gram of digestive gland and 709.8 microg of PSP toxins / 100 grams of mussel meat. PMID:15586821

  13. Dengue-1 virus isolation during first dengue fever outbreak on Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela

    2003-11-01

    Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.

  14. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    PubMed

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  15. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  16. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  17. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a Dengue-1 virus isolated on Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C; Yung, V; Araya, P; Tognarelli, J; Villagra, E; Vera, L; Fernández, J

    2008-01-01

    Dengue-1 viruses responsible for the dengue fever outbreak in Easter Island in 2002 were isolated from acute-phase sera of dengue fever patients. In order to analyze the complete genome sequence, we designed primers to amplify contiguous segments across the entire sequence of the viral genome. RT-PCR products obtained were cloned, and complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined. This report constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a DENV-1 isolate from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis shows that an Easter Island isolate is most closely related to Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses.

  19. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Selkirk Island, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    How did these Karman vortices develop? On that day, the wind was carrying northward a layer of stratocumulus clouds (flat-bottomed puffballs). The mile-high island caused this cloud layer to slow about the island, while remaining fast farther out on either side. So on each “wing,” left and right, the air started rotating toward the inside—clockwise on the left, counter-clockwise on the right. The rotational momentum made each side swirl in on itself. The whorl-cores were clear because the swirling pulled dry, clear air (from above or below) into the wet layer, a bit like the funnel formed when you stir up a pitcher of orange juice. These clear, spinning pockets trailed off down the “street” from the island like soap bubbles from a toy wand—drifting downwind, weakening, filling with clouds, and breaking up.

  20. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  1. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  2. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  3. Chile.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden.

  4. Impact of Intrathermocline eddies on seamount and oceanic island off Central Chile: Observation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hormazabal, Samuel; Morales, Carmen; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Valencia, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Rodriguez, Angel; Correa, Marco; Anabalón, Valeria; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    In the Southeast Pacific, oceanographic processes that sustain the biological production necessary to maintain the ecosystems associated to seamounts and oceanic islands are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the interaction of mesoscale and submesoescale eddies with oceanic islands and seamounts could be playing an important role in the time-space variability of primary production. In this work, research cruises, satellite data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results have been used to describe the main characteristics of intrathermocline eddies (ITE) and their impact on the Juan Fernández archipelago (JFA), off central Chile. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Between the RC and AS are located the westernmost seamounts (JF6 and JF5) of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Satellite altimetry data (sea surface height from AVISO) were used to detect and track mesoscale eddies through eddy-tracking algorithm. Physical, chemical and biological parameters as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence were measured in the water column at JF5 and JF6, and along the coast off central Chile (30-40°S). Results from the research cruise exhibit the interaction between an ITE and the seamount JF6. Eddy-tracking results showed that the ITE observed at the JF6 was formed at the coast off central-southern Chile, traveled ~900 km seaward and after ~9 months reached the JF5 and JF6 region. Observations along the Chilean coast confirmed that the coast corresponds to the formation area of the observed ITE. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (~100 km diameter; 400 m thickness) of homogeneous salinity, nutrient rich and oxygen-poor equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) which is transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent in the coastal band and seaward by ITEs. The effect of ITEs on the

  5. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  6. Aerial arthropod communities of native and invaded forests, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Erin N; Bakker, Jonathan D; Gara, Robert I

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species significantly contribute to biological change and threaten biodiversity, with a growing body of evidence that plant invasions affect higher trophic levels. We explored the relative importance of plant invasion and forest structure on aerial arthropod abundance, diversity, and composition on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. We used flight intercept traps to sample aerial arthropods within distinct canopy strata of native and invaded forests over 3-mo periods in 2006 and 2007. Arthropod abundance and diversity were higher in native than invaded forest, and arthropod communities were distinct between forest types. In both forest types, arthropod abundance was highest in the lower canopy, and canopy strata exhibited some differences in arthropod community composition. Several morphospecies were distinctly associated with each forest type. The strong differences in aerial arthropod communities associated with the invasion of native forest by non-native plants may affect other trophic levels, such as insectivorous birds. Steps to stop invasive plant spread and to restore native forest composition and structure are needed to safeguard the integrity of native communities, from plants to higher-level consumers.

  7. Pathological findings in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead at Guafo Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Paredes, E; Pavés, H; Molina, R; Henríquez, F; De Groote, F; Schlatter, R

    2011-01-01

    During four breeding seasons (2004-2008), 78 necropsy examinations were performed on South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis gracilis) found dead on Guafo Island, southern Chile (43°36'S, 74°43'W). Tissue samples from 65 pups were examined microscopically. The primary causes of death were enteritis with microscopical lesions of bacteraemia (28.2%), starvation (23.1%), drowning (21.8%), trauma (19.2%) and stillbirth (2.6%). Those pups with enteritis and microscopical lesions of bacteraemia had haemorrhagic enteritis (100%), interstitial pneumonia (86%), periportal hepatitis (73%) and vasculitis (18%). The pups that died from starvation had atrophy of hepatocytes (61%) and cholestasis (61%). The pups that drowned had bronchoalveolar oedema (65%) and foreign bodies in the airways (65%). In animals that died from trauma, the main lesions were skull fractures (67%). This range of pathological findings is within what would be expected in a healthy otariid breeding colony.

  8. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line

  9. Tsunami surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 1 April 2014 North Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling

    2014-12-01

    The 1 April 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake ruptured a segment of the megathrust fault offshore of northern Chile and generated a moderate-size tsunami across the Pacific. Tide gauges in Hawaii recorded over 1 m of wave height despite the long distance from the source and position away from the main radiated energy lobe. Inversion of global teleseismic body waves combined with forward modeling of the tsunami at four near-field DART stations arrives iteratively at a self-consistent finite-fault model with very compact dimensions. The slip distribution produces a NNE-SSW trending seafloor uplift patch that enhances the tsunami directionality in the WNW, resulting in good matches to observed DART and tide gauge records around the Hawaiian Islands. The relatively large waves at selected locations in Hawaii can be attributed to a combination of the spatial slip distribution and the resulting short-period waves that triggered localized resonance over the insular shelves. This event highlights the importance of characterizing detailed slip distributions in analysis or forecasting of tsunamis even for a compact source.

  10. Lipophilic toxin profiles detected in farmed and benthic mussels populations from the most relevant production zones in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos; Rodriguez-Unda, Nelson; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor

    2012-01-01

    Lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhoeic toxins were found in Mytilus chilensis (Blue mussels) and Aulacomya ater (Ribbed mussels). These shellfish samples were collected from Chiloe Island, Southern Chile. The samples were tested by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After the analysis, four toxins were found: DTX-1, DTX-3, YTX and PTX. All toxins were identified by comparing their HPLC retention times with those of analytical standards and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3) toxins were the major components within the mussel extracts. Nevertheless, the percentages of these toxins differed depending on the area they were collected from and/or the sampling date. The levels detected in Butacheuques Island for okadaic acid (OA) was 267 ± 3.5 µg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and for DTX-3 was 183.4 ± 7.5 µg kg(-1) in ribbed mussels. Pectenotoxin (PTX) and yessotoxin (YTX) were the toxins detected in minor proportions in the toxic profile of the bivalves. The maximum concentration of YTX detected in ribbed mussels was 85.2 ± 2.8 µg kg(-1) in Mechuque Island, whereas the PTX-2 level in ribbed mussels was 82.0 ± 2.4 µg kg(-1) in Cailin Island. Analogues of YTX and PTX-2 were not detected in any of the analysed mussels, which did not support the supposed presence of isomers of toxins as a result of the enzymatic metabolism of bivalves. This study found evidence proving co-occurrence of lipophilic toxins - like PTX and YTX - with diarrhoeic toxin in samples collected in Southern Chile, which is, to date, the more complex mix of lipophilic toxins ever found in mussels samples from Southern Chile. PMID:22424031

  11. Potential landslide activity affecting the archaeological site of Orongo (Easter Island-Chile): preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, C.; Delmonaco, G.; Spizzichino, D.; Pandolfi, O.; Crisostomo, R.; Nohe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Easter Island forms part of the Easter Line, a continuous latitudinal chain of volcanic seamounts and islands in the Pacific Sea. The island's roughly triangular shape is determined by the merging of lava flows produced by its three main volcanoes (Rano Kau, Terevaka, Poike) which form its main mass. The Rano Kau volcano, sited in the SW vertex of the island, is made up of numerous basaltic lava flows and has been reduced in size by faulting and marine erosion. Its crater (1.4 km wide) is a small caldera that collapsed after a late, large explosive phase, as attested by the presence of breccia deposits around the eastern rim of the crater. The archaeological stone village of Orongo is located above the inner wall of the crater at an altitude of ca. 300m a.s.l. Prominent historical remains are the numerous petroglyphs that represent the ancient ceremonial of the birdman cult (tangata manu). Rano Kau is mainly composed of sequences of basaltic and intermediate lavas and pyroclastics. Most of the of the original caldera area, especially in the southern flank, has been disrupted by marine erosion. This has caused a dramatic change of the original morphology, resulting in a sub-vertical cliff and steep slopes, especially in the middle-low portions. In the upper part of the slopes weathered soils and regolith are outcropping. Topographical and geomorphological analysis of the area conducted by a direct field surveys in January and July 2008 have provided clear evidences of slope instability along the southern external flank of the caldera. Different landslide areas have been detected. The most active area is located at east of the village in correspondence of the crest zone of Rano Kau where a debris slide/fall has recently occurred. The analysis of photos taken in Nov. 2007 in the same area evidences that the landslide crown area was originated at an elevation of ca. 200m a.s.l. along a probable contact between basaltic layers on the top and weathered lava. Other minor

  12. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. PMID:27452992

  13. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions.

  14. Transient evolution of plate coupling after the giant 1960 Chile earthquake at Guafo Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Daniel; Moreno, Marcos; Li, Shaoyang; Cisternas, Marco; Baez, Juan Carlos; Wesson, Robert; Nelson, Alan; Bevis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In subduction zones, elastic energy is slowly accumulated during decades to centuries and suddenly released by great earthquakes. The moment deficit-the energy available for future earthquakes-is commonly inferred by extrapolating modern plate coupling rates estimated from space geodesy back to the last great earthquake's date. However, the evolution of plate coupling between two great earthquakes integrating the moment deficit has been difficult to quantify due to limited geodetic data at decadal time scale, or longer. We infer the evolution of plate coupling below Guafo Island in the south Chilean subduction zone since the 1960 earthquake (Mw=9.5) using photographic and satellite images dating back to 1974, a campaign GPS benchmark installed in 1994, and a permanent GPS station installed in 2009. Guafo was uplifted 3.6-4.0 m in 1960 and has been subsiding since at least the late 1970s. A peaty soil that rapidly developed on the bedrock abrasion platforms that emerged in 1960 has been continuously eroding by relative sea-level rise resulting mostly from land subsidence. This process has resulted in continuous retreat of beach berms overlying bedrock platforms. We mapped such shoreline features in photographic and satellite images through time and, using the measured slope of the underlying platform, inferred relative sea-level changes between image pairs. Land-level changes were subsequently estimated by subtracting a mean absolute sea-level rise rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 mm/yr calculated from satellite altimetry between 1992-2014. The combined time series shows a steady acceleration in the subsidence rate of Guafo Island from 6-8 mm/yr in the late 1970s to 20 mm/yr at present estimated from the permanent GPS. Using a viscoelastic numerical model and constraints for the seismogenic zone width from published thermal models we infer that interseismic plate coupling increased continuously from ~30% in the late 1970s to ~90% at present. Plate coupling apparently needed more

  15. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of feral pigs from Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N

    2015-04-28

    Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park.

  16. Chemosynthetic trophic support for the benthic community at an intertidal cold seep site at Mocha Island off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellanes, Javier; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Pantoja, Silvio; Jessen, Gerdhard L.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed C and N stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna and their potential food sources at an intertidal methane seep site and a control site without emanation at Mocha Island (central Chile). The objective was to trace the origin of the main food sources used by the local heterotrophic fauna, based on the hypothesis that chemosynthetic production could be partially fueling the local food web at the seep site. Food sources sampled at both sites included macroalgae, particulate organic matter and bacteria-like filaments found growing over the red algae Gelidium lingulatum within the areas of active methane release. At the control site, located 11 km away from the gas emanation, fauna exhibited moderate δ 13C values ranging from -16.2‰ (in a nereid polychaete) to -14.8‰ (in a cirolanid isopod), which were consistent with those of the potential photosynthetic food sources sampled at this site (-20.2 to -16.5‰). δ 13C values of the photosynthetic food sources at the seep site similarly ranged between -25.4 and -17.9‰. However, a portion of the animals at this site were consistently more 13C-depleted, with δ 13C values close to that of the seeping methane (-43.8‰) and the bacteria-like filaments (-39.2 ± 2.5‰) also collected at this site. Specific examples were the Marphysa sp. polychaetes (δ 13C = -44.7 ± 0.6‰), the Schistomeringos sp. dorvilleid polychaetes (δ 13C = -42.9‰), and the tanaid crustacean Zeuxo marmoratus (δ 13C = -37.3 ± 0.2‰). The significantly higher δ 13C values of the herbivorous gastropod Tegula atra at the seep site (-29.3 ± 3.1‰) than at the control site (-12.6 ± 0.3‰) also indicated differences among sites of the preferred carbon sources of this species. Mixing model estimates indicate that at the seep site bacteria-like filaments could be contributing up to ˜60% of the assimilated diet of selected invertebrates. Furthermore, several indicators of trophic structure, based in isotopic niche metrics, indicate a

  17. Carbon stocks of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland in southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Quezada, Jorge; Brito, Carla; Cabezas, Julian; Salvo, Patricia; Lemunao, Pedro; Flores, Ernesto; Valdés, Ariel; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Pérez, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of carbon in the different ecosystem stocks may change with direct human perturbation or climate change. We present a detailed description of the carbon stocks of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland (i.e., created by flooding, as a consequence of forest fires or logging). The study area was located in a private reserve in the Chiloé Island, southern Chile (41° 52' S, 73° 40' W). Sampling was done on plots separated 60 m from each other, in areas of approximately 30 ha for each ecosystem type. Total C was 1523 ± 117 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 ± 13.8 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, with 69.7% and 91.7% of this found belowground, respectively. In the forest, the necromass stock composed by logs and snags was high (183 Mg C ha-1), compared with the live-tree stock (264 Mg C ha-1) and with the C stored in the understory vegetation (14 Mg C ha-1). In the peatland, most of the C was stored in the most decomposed layer of peat, deeper in the ground. Because the anthropogenic peatland is experiencing a secondary succession, there is great potential to sequester back the C lost due to the perturbation. However, in most of the area where these ecosystems are found, the moss is being harvested for horticultural purposes.

  18. The Basic Reproduction Number ℛ0 and Effectiveness of Reactive Interventions during Dengue Epidemics: The 2002 Dengue Outbreak in Easter Island, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, G.; Fuentes, R.; Olea, A.; Aguilera, X.; Nesse, H.; Hyman, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number ℛ0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated ℛ0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics. PMID:24245625

  19. The basic reproduction number R0 and effectiveness of reactive interventions during dengue epidemics: the 2002 dengue outbreak in Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Fuentes, R; Olea, A; Aguilera, X; Nesse, H; Hyman, J M

    2013-01-01

    We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number R0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated R0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics.

  20. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  1. Interactions of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices in Complex Bathymetries: Numerical Simulations in the Chacao Channel in Southern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, K. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Richter, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Many coastal areas in the South Pacific Ocean can provide significant marine energy resources in the near future. The installation of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in these regions will require new approaches to understand physical and environmental processes that are relevant for the installation of turbine arrays, which are also specific of each site. The coastal morphology of the Chacao channel in southern Chile, which separates the Chiloé island from the main continent (41º47'S, 73º31'W) stands out as an important energy resource that can potentially contribute a significant power capacity. This coastal area not only sustains delicate ecosystems with limited anthropic intervention, but it is characterized by a complex bathymetry that can have important effects on the performance of MHK devices and their local impacts. To understand the interactions of the local bathymetry and ambient turbulence with turbine arrays, we carry out a series of numerical simulations with a coherent-structure resolving turbulence model using the actuator disk parameterization. The main objective of this study is to further our understanding on the physical processes associated with the installation of the turbine arrays. We perform simulations with different geometries and inlet boundary conditions, from simple cases in a rectangular channel, to more complex cases that include the high-resolution bathymetry of an extensive area of the Chacao channel. The results show how the interactions between the MHK devices, the local flow, and the bed can affect the energy flux and potential generation in specific sites. The results also provide new insights of local impacts of MHK devices and they can also help to optimize turbine arrays in natural environments. This work has been supported by Fondecyt project 1130940, and the Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) financed by Corfo and based in Santiago, Chile.

  2. Source Rupture Models and Tsunami Simulations of Destructive October 28, 2012 Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia (Mw: 7.8) and September 16, 2015 Illapel, Chile (Mw: 8.3) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Ulutaş, Ergin

    2016-04-01

    The finite-fault source rupture models and numerical simulations of tsunami waves generated by 28 October 2012 Queen Charlotte Islands (Mw: 7.8), and 16 September 2015 Illapel-Chile (Mw: 8.3) earthquakes are presented. These subduction zone earthquakes have reverse faulting mechanisms with small amount of strike-slip components which clearly reflect the characteristics of convergence zones. The finite-fault slip models of the 2012 Queen Charlotte and 2015 Chile earthquakes are estimated from a back-projection method that uses teleseismic P- waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source. Non-uniform rupture models of the fault plane, which are obtained from the finite fault modeling, are used in order to describe the vertical displacement on seabed. In general, the vertical displacement of water surface was considered to be the same as ocean bottom displacement, and it is assumed to be responsible for the initial water surface deformation gives rise to occurrence of tsunami waves. In this study, it was calculated by using the elastic dislocation algorithm. The results of numerical tsunami simulations are compared with tide gauges and Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoy records. De-tiding, de-trending, low-pass and high-pass filters were applied to detect tsunami waves in deep ocean sensors and tide gauge records. As an example, the observed records and results of simulations showed that the 2012 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake generated about 1 meter tsunami-waves in Maui and Hilo (Hawaii), 5 hours and 30 minutes after the earthquake. Furthermore, the calculated amplitudes and time series of the tsunami waves of the recent 2015 Illapel (Chile) earthquake are exhibiting good agreement with the records of tide and DART gauges except at stations Valparaiso and Pichidangui (Chile). This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK

  3. Glacier fluctuations during the last 400 years at Mount San Lorenzo and Santa Ines Island, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, J.; Luckman, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    We examine the local glacier fluctuations for the last 400 years in two mountain areas of the western coast of southernmost South America, Mount San Lorenzo and Santa Ines Island, using dendroglaciologic, geomorphologic and historical evidence. Mount San Lorenzo moraines span between 1636 and 1927 with periods of more frequent occurrence of glacial advances for the years 1670, 1770, 1870 and 1910. Santa Ines glacial advances are less numerous than in Mount San Lorenzo with well defined, clearly separated frontal moraines. The moraines were colonized by Nothofagus betuloides and Nothofagus antarctica two species with clear and well-preserved tree rings and the total age of the sampled trees was more precisely estimated. Dated moraines cover the last 300 years with evidence for advances during late 1600s, around 1800, 1860, 1910, 1930 and 1960. Further work is needed in dendroglaciological dating, geomorphologic surveying, and better understanding of local glacial dynamics for several glaciers to obtain a regional history of the glacier fluctuations of the southern Andes.

  4. Repeated Surveys and Historical Nautical Charts Support Elastic Rebound Model on Megathrust at Santa MARÍA Island, Chile, (37°S) Through One and One-Half Seismic Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R. L.; Melnick, D.; Cisternas, M.; Ely, L. L.; Moreno, M.

    2010-12-01

    Repeated bathymetric surveys, historical nautical charts, geologic observations, interviews with local residents, and modern GPS measurements all support a pattern of coseismic uplift, followed by post-seismic and inter-seismic subsidence, at Santa María Island off the coast of south-central Chile. The island is located approximately 75 km landward of the Chile trench and about 12 km above the megathrust fault. Six weeks after the February 20, 1835 Concepcion earthquake (~M 8.5), Captain Robert FitzRoy and the HMS Beagle visited the island and reported 2.4-3 m of uplift based primarily on observations of elevated, newly dead, intratidal and subtidal shellfish attached to rocks. The February 27, 2010 Maule earthquake (M 8.8) earthquake produced similar effects. Several lines of evidence suggest significant subsidence between 1835 and 2010. First, the extensive wave-cut platform at the northern end of island that FitzRoy vividly describes as being exposed and covered with dead shellfish in 1835, lay at the lower level of the island’s 2-m tidal range in January 2010. The nautical chart prepared by officers of the Beagle suggests that the platform was above high tide in 1835. An elderly resident reports that in the first half of the twentieth century part of the platform was above high tide. While some lowering of the bedrock platform could be explained by erosion, the amount of required erosion would be very rapid and extensive. GPS measurements for the interval 2004-2008 indicate that the island subsided at a rate of 10 +/- 1 mm/a as well as moving landward at a rate of 42 mm/a. On January 13 and 15, 2010, we carried out a simple echo-sounder survey in the bay off the southeastern coast of Santa María Island. The same bay, Rada Santa Maria, was surveyed by the Beagle in 1835 using a lead line and pole. The bay has a smooth and very gently sloping bottom, an average depth of about 8 m, and dimensions of about 3 x 5 km. Comparison of our measured depths with those

  5. A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp-Schickel, T.; Häussermann, V.; Vader, W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new species of Stenothoe (Amphipoda, Stenothoidae), S. boloceropsis sp. nov., collected among the tentacles of the sea anemone Boloceropsis platei Mc Murrich, 1904, found on sublittoral sand of Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile.

  6. ChiloKey, an interactive identification tool for the geophilomorph centipedes of Europe (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

    PubMed

    Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Lopresti, Massimo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2014-01-01

    ChiloKey is a matrix-based, interactive key to all 179 species of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) recorded from Europe, including species of uncertain identity and those whose morphology is known partially only. The key is intended to assist in identification of subadult and adult specimens, by means of microscopy and simple dissection techniques whenever necessary. The key is freely available through the web at: http://www.biologia.unipd.it/chilokey/ and at http://www.interactive-keys.eu/chilokey/.

  7. ChiloKey, an interactive identification tool for the geophilomorph centipedes of Europe (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Lopresti, Massimo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract ChiloKey is a matrix-based, interactive key to all 179 species of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) recorded from Europe, including species of uncertain identity and those whose morphology is known partially only. The key is intended to assist in identification of subadult and adult specimens, by means of microscopy and simple dissection techniques whenever necessary. The key is freely available through the web at: http://www.biologia.unipd.it/chilokey/ and at http://www.interactive-keys.eu/chilokey/. PMID:25349493

  8. Seismology in Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kausel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.

  9. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-11-14

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1.

  10. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1. PMID:24226906

  11. Identification of Candidate Olfactory Genes in Chilo suppressalis by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Wei, Jinjin; Liao, Xinyan; Walker, William B.; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by multiple proteins in the antenna, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, an economically important agricultural pest, which inflicts great damage to the rice yield in south and east part of Asia, especially in Southern China. By Illumina sequencing of male and female antennal transcriptomes, we identified 47 odorant receptors, 20 ionotropic receptors, 26 odorant binding proteins, 21 chemosensory proteins and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:25076861

  12. Identification of candidate olfactory genes in Chilo suppressalis by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Wei, Jinjin; Liao, Xinyan; Walker, William B; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by multiple proteins in the antenna, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, an economically important agricultural pest, which inflicts great damage to the rice yield in south and east part of Asia, especially in Southern China. By Illumina sequencing of male and female antennal transcriptomes, we identified 47 odorant receptors, 20 ionotropic receptors, 26 odorant binding proteins, 21 chemosensory proteins and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:25076861

  13. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  14. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species. PMID:25354095

  15. Susceptibility baseline and chlorantraniliprole resistance monitoring in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Congfen; Yao, Rong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Su, Jianya

    2013-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole, a new anthranilic diamide insecticide, has been commercialized in China since 2008 for controlling of several lepidopterans, including rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. Chemical control of this pest has become difficult because of its resistance development to many conventional insecticides. To facilitate chlorantraniliprole-resistance monitoring, seedling dip bioassays were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess the susceptibility of 30 populations of C. suppressalis from seven provinces in China. The assays established a larval susceptibility baseline with LC50 at 1.393 mg a.i/liter. The toxicity (LC50) of chlorantraniliprole against second-instar larvae of field populations ranged from 0.568 (SL12) to 13.547 (RA12) mg a.i/liter. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole were detected among different geographic populations, but no significant difference was observed between years for most populations except for populations from Dong'an, Cangnan, and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 1.0 to 9.7, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. Approximately, 13.3% of the populations exhibited low levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. These data are useful in future monitoring program for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of use of the insecticide.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the First Caspase in the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at −3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis. PMID:23676354

  17. [Effects of temperature stress on physiological indices of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) diapause larvae].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Cheng-Kui; Du, Yu-Zhou; Yu, Ling-Ya; Qin, Yue-Hua; Feng, Wu-Jian

    2012-05-01

    To understand the physiological mechanisms of temperature stress on the diapause larvae of rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker at physiological and biochemical levels, determinations were made on the contents of water, lipid, total sugar and low molecular mass carbohydrates and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT in the larvae after series temperature stress (STS) and gradient temperature stress (GTS). With the decrease of temperature, the water content in the larvae decreased, and the decrement below 0 degrees C was significantly larger in treatment GTS than in treatment STS. The lipid content in the larvae decreased gradually, but no significant difference was observed between treatments STS and GTS. The total sugar content in the larvae in treatment STS increased after an initial decrease, but that in treatment GTS continued to decline. Four species of low molecular carbohydrates, i. e. , trehalose, glucose, glycerol and fructose were detected in the larvae. In treatment STS, the contents of glycose, glycerol and fructose in the larvae decreased after an initial increase, while the trehalose content was in adverse. In treatment GTS, the trehalose content decreased first and increased then, the glucose and glycerol were in adverse, but the fructose content had little change. In the range from 14 to -14 degrees C, the SOD and POD activities in the larvae in treatment STS were significantly lower than those in treatment GTS, but the CAT activity was in adverse. The changes of these indices reflected the physiological responses of C. suppressalis diapause larvae to different temperature stress.

  18. Study on the optimum pheromone release rate for attraction of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Alfaro, Cristina; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Zarzo, Manuel; Primo, Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Traditional chemical control against Chilo suppressalis Walker is currently being replaced in Spain by new methods based on pheromones. A key step to improve the efficacy of these methods is the determination of the optimum pheromone release rate, which is still uncertain for this pest. In this work, the pheromone release profile and the field performance of a new mesoporous dispenser was compared with a standard commercial dispenser. For this purpose, pheromone loads were extracted from field-aged dispensers and quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. In addition, a field trial was carried out with traps baited with one, two, or three mesoporous dispensers per trap, as well as with traps containing one standard dispenser. We found that the highest number of field catches did not correspond to the highest pheromone emission rate, which suggests a repellent effect of the insect if the emission is excessive. The results suggest that the attractant activity was maximized by emitting approximately 34 microg/d. The efficacy of the mesoporous dispenser and its possible improvements are discussed.

  19. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.

  20. Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).

    PubMed

    Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer. PMID:16172896

  1. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Huan; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01). In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3) of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns. PMID:27669309

  2. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Huan; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01). In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3) of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns. PMID:27669309

  3. Enhanced insecticidal activity of Chilo iridescent virus expressing an insect specific neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Muratoglu, Hacer; Yesilyurt, Aydın; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-07-01

    Previously we have generated a recombinant Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) by inserting the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the CIV 157L open reading frame (ORF) locus and showed that this recombinant (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was fully infectious both in cell culture as well as in insect larvae. This study opened up a new avenue for increasing the speed of kill of CIV and other iridoviruses by inserting virulence or toxin genes into the viral genome. In the current study we constructed a recombinant CIV (rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT) where the 157L ORF was replaced with both the AaIT neurotoxin gene from the scorpion Androctonus australis and the gfp gene, each under control of the viral major capsid protein (mcp) gene promoter. Recombinant virus was purified by successive rounds of plaque purification using Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells. One-step growth curves for the recombinant viruses, rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT and rCIV-Δ157L-gfp, and wild-type CIVs in Sf-9 cells showed similar profiles. AaIT toxin expression in infected third instar Galleria mellonella larvae was confirmed by western blot analysis using an antibody against the AaIT protein. rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT infection at a concentration that kills 100% of the larvae caused paralysis in infected third instar G. mellonella larvae from two days after injection, whereas infection with non-AaIT containing viruses showed mortality starting much later (>10days). Bioassays on these larvae demonstrated that the speed of kill of CIV carrying AaIT was strikingly enhanced as compared to wild-type CIV. These results suggest that insertion of a toxin gene into CIV provides further opportunities to control a wide range of pest insects, such as weevils, using an iridovirus. PMID:27369385

  4. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  5. [Hospital medicine in Chile].

    PubMed

    Eymin, Gonzalo; Jaffer, Amir K

    2013-03-01

    After 15 years of development of Hospital Medicine in Chile, there are several benefits of this discipline. Among others, a reduction in the length of hospital stay, readmissions, costs, and improved medical teaching of students, residents and fellows have been observed. However, in South América there are only isolated groups dedicated to Hospital Medicine in Chile, Argentina and Brazil, with a rather slow growth. The unjustified fear of competition from sub specialists, and the fee for service system of payment in our environment may be important factors to understand this phenomenon. The aging of the population makes imperative to improve the safety of our patients and to optimize processes and resources within the hospital, to avoid squandering healthcare resources. The following is a detailed and evidence-based article, on how hospital medicine might benefit both the public and prívate healthcare systems in Chile. PMID:23900327

  6. Country Profiles, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

    A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  7. Epidemiological description of the sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) situation in southern Chile in August 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valdés, Pablo; Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago

    2012-05-01

    Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysén to 100% in the Seno de Reloncaví zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncaví (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirén (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chiloé norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysén (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones.

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)(13)' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid

  9. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)13' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid

  10. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with brush border membrane vesicles of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Nain, Vikrant; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Kumar, P A

    2011-02-01

    Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a major insect pest of maize and sorghum in Asia and Africa. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins have been found effective against C. partellus, both in diet-overlay assay and in transgenic plants. Gene stacking as one of the resistance management strategies in Bt maize requires an understanding of receptor sharing and binding affinity of δ-endotoxins. In the present study, binding affinity of three fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled Cry1A toxins showed high correlation with the toxicity of respective δ-endotoxins. Competitive binding studies showed that Cry1Ab toxins share some of the binding sites with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac with low affinity and that Cry1Ab may have additional binding sites that are unavailable to the other two toxins tested. PMID:20831871

  11. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  12. DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum, are widely distributed in the mid to high elevations of the Andes from Venezuela south to northern Argentina, and then with a break in distribution in the lowlands of central Chile in Chiloé Island and the Chonos Archipelago immediately to the south. ...

  13. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  14. [Erysipelas outbreaks in Chile].

    PubMed

    Laval R, Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Historical antecedents of erysipelas outbreaks in Chile, registered by national bibliography at years 1822 and 1873 are reviewed. The first one, after an earthquake, with numerous severe ataxo-adynamic manifestations and the second, more attenuated with few severe cases. Remembers of treatments utilized at XIX Century for the disease and the beginning of sulphamides prescription at the thirty decade are presented. Afterwards penicillin and other antimicrobial agents treatments were implemented. Finally, we comment the severe presentation of soft tissues streptococcal diseases that appeared in the end of XX Century.

  15. Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2009-02-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258

  16. Metazoan meiofauna within the oxygen-minimum zone off Chile: Results of the 2001-PUCK expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Gerdes, Dieter; Quiroga, Eduardo; Hebbeln, Dierk; Sellanes, Javier

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative study of metazoan meiofauna was carried out at continental shelf and slope stations affected by the oxygen-minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific off Chile. Densities of meiobenthos at the investigated stations off Antofagasta (22°S), Concepción (36°S), and Chiloé (42°S) ranged from 1282.1 to 8847.8 ind 10 cm -2. Oxygen deficiency led only to average abundances, despite higher food availability and freshness at the corresponding sites. Sediment organic carbon, chlorophyll- a, and phaeopigment contents were used as measures of the input from water-column primary production, which accumulated at the oxygen-minimum zone stations. The highest abundances were found at a station with an oxygen content of 0.79 mL L -1, which was slightly elevated from what is defined as oxygen minimum (0.5 mL L -1). The most oxygenated site yielded the lowest densities. Meiofauna assemblages became more diverse with increasing bottom-water oxygenation, whereas nematodes were the most abundant taxon at every station, followed by annelids, copepods, and nauplii.

  17. Immune and metabolic responses of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.

    PubMed

    Mirhaghparast, Seyyedeh Kimia; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Hoda, Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Efficient control of Chilo suppressalis Walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. So, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. Bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94µg/ml as LC10-50 values. Numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well as phenoloxidase activity increased in the different time intervals following treatment by hexaflumuron. Combined effects of hexaflumuron and Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin also increased hemocyte numbers and phenoloxidase activity at different time intervals using all concentrations. Activities of general esterases assayed by α- and β-naphtyl acetate and glutathione S-transferase using CDNB and DCNB increased 1-12h post-treatment. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and aldolase increased in the larvae treated by hexaflumuron. However enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase was only obtained by treating 180 and 470µg/ml concentrations of hexaflumuron. Activities of ACP and ALP were found to be higher than control for all time intervals even 1-12h post-treatment. The amounts of HDL and LDL increased in the highest concentrations of hexaflumuron after 12-24h of post-treatment. Amount of triglyceride was higher than that of control after 1 and 3h but it was lower in other time intervals. Amounts of glycogen and protein were lower than those of control for all time intervals except for 6 and 12h of post-treatment in case of protein. Results of the current study revealed negative effects of hexaflumuron on intermediary metabolism of Chilo suppressalis but it increased the number of hemocytes and activity of phenoloxidase which are responsible for spore removal from hemolymph. It can be concluded that hexaflumuron is

  18. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  20. Exploring the Midgut Transcriptome and Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Proteome of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

  1. Variability in development of the striped rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), due to instar number and last instar duration

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jing; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. This variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. It is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this variation. In this study, a laboratory population and a population recently established from the field were used to test variation in development time across instar stages. The duration of developmental time of C. suppressalis started to diverge from the 5th instar onward. Individuals pupated at the 5th, 6th, 7th or even 8th instar stage. In both populations, both the instar at which the larva pupated and the duration of the last larval instar stage determined total developmental time of an individual. There was little impact of the developmental time of early instars on total developmental duration or on instar number prior to pupation. Sex influenced the number of instars but not development time within this number. The biological and applied significance of uneven development in C. suppressalis are discussed. PMID:27731388

  2. Identification of novel odorant binding protein genes and functional characterization of OBP8 in Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Liu, Yan; Niu, Dong-Juan; Wei, Dan; Li, Fei; Wang, Gui-Rong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-10-15

    At the peripheral level of the insect olfaction, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to bind and transport exogenous hydrophobic volatiles to the odorant receptors (ORs) located on the dendrite membrane of the olfactory neurons. In this study, cDNA sequences of 29 OBP genes from Chilo suppressalis, a notorious rice pest, were identified, with 15 of them being newly reported. The tissue and temporal expression patterns of these CsupOBPs were determined by RT-PCR, revealing that CsupOBP8, 10 and 24 were specifically expressed in the heads at larval stage and in antennae of both sexes at adult stage. In addition, CsupOBP 6, 9 and 18 were expressed in much higher levels in heads than abdomen at the larval stage, while CsupPBP4 and CsupOBP1, 3, 8, 11 and 24 were specifically expressed in antennae of both sexes at the adult stage. Such expression profile strongly suggests olfactory roles of these genes. Furthermore, the function of CsupOBP8 was chosen to be investigated by the competitive fluorescence binding assay. Results showed that CsupOBP8 displayed high binding affinities (Ki=4.9-15.0μM) with plant volatile β-ionone, nerolidol, farnesol and 2-hexanone, suggesting that CsupOBP8 plays olfactory roles through binding and transporting the plant volatiles. The study provides an important base for understanding the olfactory mechanisms in C. suppressalis. PMID:27374155

  3. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  4. Identification of Putative Carboxylesterase and Glutathione S-transferase Genes from the Antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-01-01

    In insects, rapid degradation of odorants in antennae is extremely important for the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant degradation in insect antennae is mediated by multiple enzymes, especially the carboxylesterases (CXEs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an economically important lepidopteran pest which causes great economic damage to cultivated rice crops in many Asian countries. In this study, we identified 19 putative CXE and 16 GST genes by analyzing previously constructed antennal transcriptomes of C. suppressalis. BLASTX best hit results showed that these genes are most homologous to their respective orthologs in other lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these CXE and GST genes were clustered into various clades. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that three CXE genes (CsupCXE8, CsupCXE13, and CsupCXE18) are antennae-enriched. These genes are candidates for involvement in odorant degradation. Unexpectedly, none of the GST genes were found to be antennae-specific. Our results pave the way for future researches of the odorant degradation mechanism of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:26198868

  5. Responses of parasitoids to volatiles induced by Chilo partellus oviposition on teosinte, a wild ancestor of maize.

    PubMed

    Mutyambai, Daniel M; Bruce, Toby J A; Midega, Charles A O; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Pickett, John A; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2015-04-01

    Maize, a genetically diverse crop, is the domesticated descendent of its wild ancestor, teosinte. Recently, we have shown that certain maize landraces possess a valuable indirect defense trait not present in commercial hybrids. Plants of these landraces release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract both egg [Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)] and larval [Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)] parasitoids in response to stemborer egg deposition. In this study, we tested whether this trait also exists in the germplasm of wild Zea species. Headspace samples were collected from plants exposed to egg deposition by Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths and unexposed control plants. Four-arm olfactometer bioassays with parasitic wasps, T. bournieri and C. sesamiae, indicated that both egg and larval parasitoids preferred HIPVs from plants with eggs in four of the five teosinte species sampled. Headspace samples from oviposited plants released higher amounts of EAG-active compounds such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. In oviposition choice bioassays, plants without eggs were significantly preferred for subsequent oviposition by moths compared to plants with prior oviposition. These results suggest that this induced indirect defence trait is not limited to landraces but occurs in wild Zea species and appears to be an ancestral trait. Hence, these species possess a valuable trait that could be introgressed into domesticated maize lines to provide indirect defense mechanisms against stemborers.

  6. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  7. Cloning and expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis (L1-2) gene encoding a crystal protein active against Glossina morsitans morsitans and Chilo partellus.

    PubMed

    Omolo, E O; James, M D; Osir, E O; Thomson, J A

    1997-02-01

    A local isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis,designated L1-2, that is toxic to Chilo partellus was found to be toxic to the adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. The delta-endotoxin crystals derived from the isolate gave a major protein band with a molecular weight of Mr 130,000-140,000 on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the cloned gene was found to be similar to that of the B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 cryIA(c) gene, having one amino acid difference at position 148 and four additional DNA differences. PMID:9003589

  8. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  9. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  10. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. [Chile: Standing up again].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  12. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented. PMID:12347181

  13. Loss of Genetic Variation in Laboratory Colonies of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Han, Lanzhi; Hou, Maolin

    2015-02-01

    The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important insect pest of rice in China. The genetic variation of a set of laboratory colonies of C. suppressalis was compared with their source populations in the wild (laboratory colonies BJCK, BJ1AB, and BJ1AC versus wild population BJW; laboratory colonies FZCK and FZ1CA versus wild population FZW) and was analyzed using eight microsatellite markers and two partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions (COI and COII). Results from both analyses revealed similar patterns. Microsatellite DNA analysis showed that the two wild populations (BJW and FZW) harbored more private alleles and had higher levels of gene diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity, compared with the laboratory colonies. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed that the two wild populations (BJW and FZW) had higher numbers of haplotypes compared with the five laboratory colonies. The three Beijing laboratory-reared colonies (BJ1CK, BJ1AB, and BJ1AC) had one fixed haplotype (H04). Most of the pairwise FST values based on mtDNA were high and all pairwise FST comparisons based on microsatellite DNA were significant, which indicated that the significant differences between these colonies and populations. Genetic drift caused by several factors, such as founder effect, small effective population size, rearing protocols, and inbreeding, can contribute to the rapid loss of genetic variation and affect the distribution of alleles and haplotypes. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the sample size of source populations to prevent the loss of genetic variation and genetic differentiation between different colonies. PMID:26308808

  14. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.

  15. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection. PMID:7809525

  16. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  17. Vegetation, fire and climate change in central-east Isla Grande de Chiloé (43°S) since the Last Glacial Maximum, northwestern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce, O. H.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a detailed record from Lago Lepué to examine vegetation, climate and fire-regime changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in central-east Isla Grande de Chiloé (43°S), northwestern Patagonia. Precipitation in this region correlates with the intensity of the southern westerly winds (SWW), allowing reconstruction of past SWW behavior through precipitation-sensitive sensors. Recession from the LGM glacier margins exposed the central-east sector of Isla Grande de Chiloé by 17,800 cal yr BP, followed by the immediate colonization of pioneer cold-resistant herbs/shrubs and rapid establishment of closed-canopy Nothofagus forests by 17,000 cal yr BP. Broad-leaved temperate rainforests have persisted since then with compositional changes driven by changes in temperature, hydrologic balance and disturbance regimes. We detect low lake levels and enhanced fire activity between 800-2000, 4000-4300, ˜8000-11,000 and 16,100-17,800 cal yr BP, implying southward shifts and/or weaker SWW flow that alternated with cold, humid phases with muted fire activity. Covariation in paleoclimate trends revealed by the Lago Lepué record with tropical and Antarctic records since the LGM, suggests that the SWW have been a highly dynamic component of the climate system capable of linking climate changes from low- and high-southern latitudes during the Last Glacial termination and the current interglacial.

  18. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud

  19. Women and Politics in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  20. [Geographic variation of the fox Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae) in Chile: taxonomic implications].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Jonathan A; D'Elía, Guillermo; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We studied the geographic variation of skulls of Lycalopex culpaeus using qualitative and quantative analyses. The sampling area covered Chile, from its northern portion, to Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring Hoste Island, as well as part of Argentina. Five subespecies are currently recognized from this large area. We found two morphotypes that are segregated geographically. Both groups mostly differ by morphometric attributes, followed by qualitative features. Specimens from northern Chile (Tarapacá and Antofagasta) have small skulls, short rostrum, a liriform sagital zone, and lack the interparietal crest. The second group is formed by specimens from north-western and central Argentina, central-south Chile, Patagonia, and the austral islands of Tierra del Fuego and Hoste. This group presents a strong sagital crest, large rostrum, and a large skull. Our results agree with observed patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation. We propose to retain the name L. c. andinus for the populations of northern Chile and to synonymize L. c. magellanicus, L. c. lycoides, and L. c. smithersi under L. c. culpaeus.

  1. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  2. 1960 Valdivia earthquake tsunami deposits from two coastal lakes and preliminary results for an extended paleotsunami record of South-Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Philipp; Moernaut, Jasper; Vandoorne, Willem; Van Daele, Maarten; Strasser, Michael; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; De Batist, Marc

    2013-04-01

    After the large number of victims and the vast damage to infrastructure by tsunamis in the last decade the probabilistic risk evaluation and precautions need to be reconsidered. This reconsideration has to include more detailed studies on recent tsunamis and tsunamis from the historic and pre-historic record to avoid redundancy. Deposits of the 1960 Valdivia Earthquake tsunami and four of its local predecessors were previously identified in the sedimentary record at the estuary of Rio Maullín, (41°S) South-Central Chile (Cisternas et al., 2005). Here, we present side-scan sonar data, pinger seismic data and a multi-proxy analysis of sediment cores of up to 9 m length from two coastal lakes on La Isla Grande de Chiloé (42°S): i.e. Lago Cucao and Lago Huelde. These lakes have 1.2 km and 1.1 km wide and 10 m and 5 m high barriers between the Pacific coast and their shoreline, respectively. Data coverage is ensured by core transects, which correlate to the acoustic datasets. The good spatial control on the data allows a detailed understanding of the distribution of the tsunami deposits in the lakes. The 1960 tsunami hit the West coast of Chiloé with two to four large waves of 10 to 20 m run-up height, inundating both lakes. Multi-layered sand sheet deposits mirror the repeated inundation of wave trains in the otherwise organic-rich lake sediment record. We describe the link between the tsunami wave and its deposit and show two preliminary paleotsunami records comprising 15 events dating back to 3930 ± 90 cal yr BP, thus potentially extending the current paleotsunami record of the Valdivia seismic segment further back in time by at least 2000 years. References Cisternas, M., Atwater, B.F., Torrejon, F., Sawai, Y., Machuca, G., Lagos, M., Eipert, A., Youlton, C., Salgado, I., Kamataki, T., Shishikura, M., Rajendran, C.P., Malik, J.K., Rizal, Y., Husni, M., 2005. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake. Nature 437, 404-407.

  3. [Chile: social protection in health].

    PubMed

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  4. Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

  5. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among populations of D. confertifolia and the continental species D. winteri and D. andina, and to test probable migration routes between the major islands. Population genetic analyses were conducted using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites of 421 individuals from 42 populations from the Juan Fernández islands and the continent. Drimys confertifolia shows a wide genetic variation within populations on both islands, and values of genetic diversity within populations are similar to those found within populations of the continental progenitor. The genetic results are compatible with the hypothesis of high levels of genetic variation accumulating within anagenetically derived species in oceanic islands, and with the concept of little or no geographical partitioning of this variation over the landscape. Analysis of the probability of migration within the archipelago confirms colonization from the older island, Robinson Crusoe, to the younger island Alejandro Selkirk. PMID:25292282

  7. Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among populations of D. confertifolia and the continental species D. winteri and D. andina, and to test probable migration routes between the major islands. Population genetic analyses were conducted using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites of 421 individuals from 42 populations from the Juan Fernández islands and the continent. Drimys confertifolia shows a wide genetic variation within populations on both islands, and values of genetic diversity within populations are similar to those found within populations of the continental progenitor. The genetic results are compatible with the hypothesis of high levels of genetic variation accumulating within anagenetically derived species in oceanic islands, and with the concept of little or no geographical partitioning of this variation over the landscape. Analysis of the probability of migration within the archipelago confirms colonization from the older island, Robinson Crusoe, to the younger island Alejandro Selkirk.

  8. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline

  10. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  11. Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2011-11-01

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

  12. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  14. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  15. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  16. Relations Between Chile and ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal

  17. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  18. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  19. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  20. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  1. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  2. Public Information and Education in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.; Mirabel, F.

    2005-09-01

    One of the initiatives of ESO in Chile is the strengthening of the links with Chilean and Latin American media, to provide the information needed to educate the public in Latin America on the latest advancements in astronomy and astrophysics. This initiative has produced a considerable increase in the media coverage of ESO science activities, as described in Figure 1, which shows the evolution in the number of media publications in Chile on recent achievements at ESO.

  3. Cloning of the Heat Shock Protein 60 Gene from the Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis, and Analysis of Expression Characteristics Under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ya-Dong; Du, Yu-Zhou; Lu, Ming-Xing; Qiang, Cheng-Kui

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6°Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%–86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39°C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31°C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36°C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39°C. PMID:20673188

  4. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.

  5. The effect of silencing 20E biosynthesis relative genes by feeding bacterially expressed dsRNA on the larval development of Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Li, Ping; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a robust tool to study gene functions as well as potential for insect pest control. Finding suitable target genes is the key step in the development of an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique. Based on the transcriptome of Chilo suppressalis, 24 unigenes which putatively associated with insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. Amongst these, four genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis i.e., ptth, torso, spook and nm-g were evaluated as candidate targets for function study. The partial cDNA of these four genes were cloned and their bacterially expressed dsRNA were fed to the insects. Results revealed a significant reduction in mRNA abundance of target genes after 3 days. Furthermore, knocked down of these four genes resulted in abnormal phenotypes and high larval mortality. After 15 days, the survival rates of insects in dsspook, dsptth, dstorso, and dsnm-g groups were significantly reduced by 32%, 38%, 56%, and 67% respectively, compared with control. Moreover, about 80% of surviving larvae showed retarded development in dsRNA-treated groups. These results suggest that oral ingestion of bacterially expressed dsRNA in C. suppressalis could silence ptth, torso, spook and nm-g. Oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsRNA provides a simple and potential management scheme against C. suppressalis. PMID:27352880

  6. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    PubMed

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  7. The effect of silencing 20E biosynthesis relative genes by feeding bacterially expressed dsRNA on the larval development of Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Li, Ping; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a robust tool to study gene functions as well as potential for insect pest control. Finding suitable target genes is the key step in the development of an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique. Based on the transcriptome of Chilo suppressalis, 24 unigenes which putatively associated with insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. Amongst these, four genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis i.e., ptth, torso, spook and nm-g were evaluated as candidate targets for function study. The partial cDNA of these four genes were cloned and their bacterially expressed dsRNA were fed to the insects. Results revealed a significant reduction in mRNA abundance of target genes after 3 days. Furthermore, knocked down of these four genes resulted in abnormal phenotypes and high larval mortality. After 15 days, the survival rates of insects in dsspook, dsptth, dstorso, and dsnm-g groups were significantly reduced by 32%, 38%, 56%, and 67% respectively, compared with control. Moreover, about 80% of surviving larvae showed retarded development in dsRNA-treated groups. These results suggest that oral ingestion of bacterially expressed dsRNA in C. suppressalis could silence ptth, torso, spook and nm-g. Oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsRNA provides a simple and potential management scheme against C. suppressalis. PMID:27352880

  8. Regression analysis of dynamics of insecticide resistance in field populations of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during 2002-2011 in China.

    PubMed

    He, Yueping; Zhang, Juefeng; Gao, Congfen; Su, Jianya; Chen, Jianming; Shen, Jinliang

    2013-08-01

    To understand the evolution of insecticide resistance in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in field, regression analysis based on a linear or nonlinear model was adopted for analyzing resistance dynamics to six insecticides of two field populations of the Lianyungang (LYG) and Ruian (RA) populations during 2002-2011. For the low-level resistance population, LYG population, sustained susceptibilities to abamectin and fipronil were seen for 10 yr; a polynomial curve regression model showed an increase in resistance to chlorpyrifos; exponential growth models fit to the resistance dynamics to triazophos and deltamethrin, and a sigmoidal growth curve for monosultap. For the high-level multiple resistance population, RA population, a slight increase from susceptible to a minor resistance to abamectin could be modeled by a polynomial cubic equation; an exponential growth model fit to the increase of resistance to fipronil from 8.7-fold to 33.6-fold; a sine waveform model fit to the vibrating tendency of resistance to chlorpyrifos; the dynamics of resistance to triazophos could be modeled by two combined curves, with a polynomial growth model and a sine waveform model; the high level of resistance to monosultap could be modeled with a sine waveform model; and a significant linear growth relationship of the resistance to deltamethrin of the RA population over years was found. Then, the relationship between dynamics of resistance development to insecticides among the field populations of C. suppressalis and the application history of pesticides for controlling rice borers was discussed.

  9. New ideas about genetic differentiation of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in China based on the mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important pest of rice in China and other parts of the world. To further explore the population genetic structure and genetic differentiation of C. suppressalis populations found on rice in China, we amplified 432 bp fragments of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene for 44 C. suppressalis populations. Nineteen variable sites in the mtDNA gene were observed, and 16 haplotypes were identified. Nucleotide diversity (π) and haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.00274 to 0.00786 and 0.72297 to 0.87604, respectively, while genetic structure analysis found significant genetic differentiation to be present among the five regions in China - northern China (NC), northeastern China (NEC), central China (CC), southern China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC) - where C. suppresalis was collected. In addition, molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that a relatively high proportion (57.6%) of the total genetic variance was attributable to variation within the populations. N(m) and F(ST) analyses suggested that the differentiation was not significantly different between NEC and NC, CC and SC, and SC and SWC regions, but was significant between NEC and CC, SC and SWC regions, corresponding well with the geographical distribution of the sampled populations. Phylogenetic analysis divided the populations into two indistinct clades: a NEC-NC-CC clade and a CC-SC-SWC clade, while CC region acted as a transition zone between north and south China, a finding different from previous work.

  10. Do differences in life-history traits and the timing of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis have a genetic basis?

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei-Li; Liu, Wen; Zhou, Rui-Qi; Qureshi, Sundas Rana; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The development of host races, genetically distinct populations of the same species with different hosts, is considered to be the initial stage of ecological speciation. Ecological and biological differences consistent with host race formation have been reported between water-oat and rice-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis. In order to confirm whether these differences have a genetic basis, we conducted experiments to determine the extent to which various life-history traits and the time of peak mating activity of these populations were influenced by the species of host plant larvae were raised on. Individuals from each population were reared for three consecutive generations on either water-oat fruit pulp or rice seedlings. Descendants of both populations had higher larval survival rates, shorter larval developmental periods, higher pupal weight, and longer adult forewings, when reared on water-oats than when reared on rice. The time of peak of mating activity differed between the descendants of each population, irrespective of whether they were raised on water-oats or rice. These results indicate that although some life-history traits of host-associated populations of C. suppressalis are influenced by the host plant larvae are raised on, time of peak mating activity is not. Because it is a stable, objective, phenotypic trait, further research on difference in the time of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of C. suppressalis should be conducted to clarify the mechanism responsible for host race formation in this species. PMID:27386090

  11. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.

    2003-08-01

    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (<30 km), relatively young (Paleozoic or more recent) continental crust beneath the volcanoes. The nature of the subduction-derived materials involved in the genesis of the Cay and Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (<1 wt%) of both subducted sediments and slab-released fluids were added to the mantle sources of the Cay and Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (<10 Ma) of the oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the volcanoes, slab melts were not involved in the magma genesis. Notwithstanding the proximity of the Cay and Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used

  12. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  13. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  14. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  15. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Jiménez, Jaime E

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60% of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  16. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  18. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  19. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  20. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  1. Non university sources of science in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.

  2. Comparison of three transgenic Bt rice lines for insecticidal protein expression and resistance against a target pest, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Ke, Kai-Qie; Li, Yun-He; Han, Lan-Zhi; Liu, Yan-Min; Hua, Hong-Xia; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Two transgenic rice lines (T2A-1 and T1C-19b) expressing cry2A and cry1C genes, respectively, were developed in China, targeting lepidopteran pests including Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The seasonal expression of Cry proteins in different tissues of the rice lines and their resistance to C. suppressalis were assessed in comparison to a Bt rice line expressing a cry1Ab/Ac fusion gene, Huahui 1, which has been granted a biosafety certificate. In general, levels of Cry proteins were T2A-1 > Huahui 1 > T1C-19b among rice lines, and leaf > stem > root among rice tissues. The expression patterns of Cry protein in the rice line plants were similar: higher level at early stages than at later stages with an exception that high Cry1C level in T1C-19b stems at the maturing stage. The bioassay results revealed that the three transgenic rice lines exhibited significantly high resistance against C. suppressalis larvae throughout the rice growing season. According to Cry protein levels in rice tissues, the raw and corrected mortalities of C. suppressalis caused by each Bt rice line were the highest in the seedling and declined through the jointing stage with an exception for T1C-19b providing an excellent performance at the maturing stage. By comparison, T1C-19b exhibited more stable and greater resistance to C. suppressalis larvae than T2A-1, being close to Huahui 1. The results suggest cry1C is an ideal Bt gene for plant transformation for lepidopteran pest control, and T1C-19b is a promising Bt rice line for commercial use for tolerating lepidopteran rice pests.

  3. Identification of genes encoding zinc finger proteins, non-histone chromosomal HMG protein homologue, and a putative GTP phosphohydrolase in the genome of Chilo iridescent virus.

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, P; Hug, M; Handermann, M; Janssen, W; Koonin, E V; Delius, H; Darai, C

    1994-01-01

    Five RNA transcripts of about 1.2 to 1.7 kilobases were mapped to a part of the genome of insect iridescent virus type 6 (Chilo iridescent virus; CIV) between genome coordinates 0.832 and 0.856 within the EcoRI DNA fragment F. The nucleotide sequence of this particular region (5702 base pairs) of the CIV genome was determined. The DNA sequence contains a number of perfect direct, inverted, and palindromic repeats including three clusters of tandemly organized repetitive DNA elements located between the nucleotide positions 1534 to 1566, 3720 to 3780, and 4350 to 4450. Eight long open reading frames (ORFs; EF1 to 8) were detected in the sequenced region of the CIV genome. ORF EF1 encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acid residues (aa) that is closely related to eukaryotic nonhistone chromosomal proteins of the high mobility group (HMG) superfamily. Virus encoded homologues of HMG proteins have not been reported so far. The EF2 gene product (145 aa) contains a specific zinc finger motif and belongs to a distinct group of identified and putative zinc finger proteins including a second putative protein (239 aa) of CIV encoded in the EcoRI DNA fragment Y (1984 bp; 0.381 to 0.391 viral map units). The product of EF6 (127 aa) is related to D250 ORF product of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and belongs to the recently described protein family sharing a highly conserved sequence motif with bacterial antimutator GTP phosphohydrolase MutT. Thus the sequenced region of the CIV genome encodes three putative proteins which may be directly involved in the replication and/or transcription of the viral DNA. Images PMID:8121799

  4. Genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes and their varied functions in larval moult, pupation and eclosion in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Tu, G; Huang, S; Yang, Q; Shahzad, M F; Li, F

    2016-08-01

    Some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. Although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. Here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. After amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified 12 chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. All these genes had the conserved domains and motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 18 and grouped phylogenetically into five subgroups. C. suppressalis chitinase 1 (CsCht1) was highly expressed in late pupae, whereas CsCht3 was abundant in early pupae. Both CsCht2 and CsCht4 were highly expressed in larvae. CsCht2 was abundant specifically in the third-instar larvae and CsCht4 showed periodic high expression in 2- to 5-day-old larvae in each instar. Tissue specific expression analysis indicated that CsCht1 and CsCht3 were highly expressed in epidermis whereas CsCht2 and CsCht4 were specifically abundant in the midgut. Knockdown of CsCht1 resulted in adults with curled wings, indicating that CsCht1 might have an important role in wing expansion. Silencing of CsCht2 or CsCht4 arrested moulting, suggesting essential roles in larval development. When the expression of CsCht3 was interfered, defects in pupation occurred. Overall, we provide here the first catalogue of chitinase genes in the rice striped stem borer and have elucidated the functions of four chitinases in metamorphosis. PMID:27080989

  5. Reforming health insurance in Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A; Lloyd-Sherlock, P

    2000-12-01

    The paper examines the recent reforms of health insurance in Chile and Argentina. These partially replace social health insurance with individual insurance administered through the private sector. In Chile, reforms in the early 1980s allowed private health insurance funds to compete for affiliates with the social health insurance system. In Argentina, reforms in the 1990s aim to open up the union-administered social insurance system to competition both internally and from private insurers. The paper outlines the specific articulation of social and individual health insurance produced by these reforms, and discusses the implications for health insurance coverage, inequalities in access to healthcare, and health expenditures.

  6. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Observations and Modeling of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J. C.; Barrientos, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile’s mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary ITST was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment per established protocols. The 3-25 March ITST covered an 800km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter Island), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21-23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile’s mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometers inland along rivers. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Coastal uplift measurements in Chile are compared with tectonic land level changes

  8. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  9. A review of the Hexactinellida (Porifera) of Chile, with the first record of Caulophacus Schulze, 1885 (Lyssacinosida: Rossellidae) from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Araya, Juan Francisco

    2014-12-02

    All records of the 15 hexactinellid sponge species known to occur off Chile are reviewed, including the first record in the Southeastern Pacific of the genus Caulophacus Schulze, 1885, with the new species Caulophacus chilense sp. n. collected as bycatch in the deep water fisheries of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 off Caldera (27ºS), Region of Atacama, northern Chile. All Chilean hexactinellid species occur in bathyal to abyssal depths (from 256 up to 4142 m); nine of them are reported for the Sala y Gomez and Nazca Ridges, with one species each in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago and Easter Island. The Chilean hexactinellid fauna is still largely unknown, consisting of only 2.5 % of the known hexactinellid extant species. Further studies and deep water sampling are essential to assess their ecology and distribution, particularly in northern Chile.

  10. Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

    2012-10-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs.

  11. Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

    2012-10-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

  12. A systems approach to chile harvest mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews nearly half a century of published research on harvest mechanization of C. annuum var. annuum cultivars, focusing on chile for canning and fresh markets. At present, most of the crop is still harvested by hand, displacing production to locations where labor costs are low. Mech...

  13. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  14. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996. PMID:15705337

  15. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  16. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  17. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  18. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  20. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  1. Fundamentals of Moral Education in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Giaume

    1980-01-01

    Moral education is not included in the curriculum, but the history of Chile shows the influence of European culture. Therefore a philosophy of education which promotes an autonomous human being has usually underlined educational policy. The influence of Catholicism has been very strong both in school curriculum and parent attitudes. (Author/SJL)

  2. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  3. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  4. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  5. First evidence of azaspiracids (AZAs): A family of lipophilic polyether marine toxins in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) collected in two regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, A; O'Callaghan, K; Moriarty, M; O'Driscoll, D; Hamilton, B; Lehane, M; James, K J; Furey, A

    2010-04-01

    Azaspiracids are a family of lipophilic polyether marine biotoxins that have caused a number of human intoxication incidents in Europe since 1995 following the consumption by consumers of intoxicated shellfish (Mytilus edulis). These azaspiracids have now been identified in mussels (Mytilus chilensis) and scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) from two Chilean locations. This is the first report of the occurrence of azaspiracid toxins in these species (Mytilus chilensis and Argopecten purpuratus) from Chile. The areas studied were Bahía Inglesa (III Region, 27 degrees SL) and Chiloé Archipelago, both important scallop and mussels farming areas. Separation of azaspiracid (AZA1), azaspiracid isomer (AZA6) and its analogues, 8-methylazaspiracid (AZA2) and 22-demethylazaspiracid (AZA3), was achieved using reversed-phase LC and toxins were identified using a turbo electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In mussels, AZA1 was the predominant toxin in mussel hepatopancreas with AZA2, AZA3 and AZA6 present in approximate equivalent amounts in the remaining tissues, 20-30% of the AZA1 level. AZA2 predominated in the scallop samples with the toxin almost entirely present in the hepatopancreas (digestive gland). AZA1 was only observed in some of the scallop samples and was present at 12-15% of the AZA2 levels. Whilst the levels of AZAs in Chilean samples are below the EU regulatory limit of 160mug/kg, it is significant that this toxin is present in Pacific Ocean species. Consequently measures should be taken by regulatory authorities to implement regular seafood monitoring to ensure safety of harvested product. PMID:19852974

  6. Relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Wang, Ming-Liang; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Li, Yan-Ning; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-05-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, overwinters in China as a larva in facultative diapause. The instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. In this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwintering larvae were divided into five groups based on body weight (I, up to 35.0mg; II, 35.1-57.0mg; III, 57.1-79.0mg; IV, 79.1-101.0mg; and V, over 101.1mg) for further analysis. The body water content of the lighter group (I) was significantly higher than that of the heavier groups (IV-V). However, the mean supercooling point decreased with an increase of the mean larval body weight in five groups; mean supercooling point of group I was significantly lower than that of group V, except in January 2009. After transfer of overwintering larvae to 15, 20 and 25°C on different dates, smaller individuals pupated slightly faster than larger ones at the same temperature, suggesting that diapause was less intense in smaller overwintering larvae. On 19 March 2009 there was a strong positive correlation between larval body weight and the weight of 3 day-old pupae, and the number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females at 15, 20 and 25°C. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females differed significantly among different groups. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females in group V was significantly greater than those of other groups, and that of group I was significantly lower than those of other groups, suggesting that post-diapause reproductive potential was determined, to a certain extent, by body weight of the overwintering larvae.

  7. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  8. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  9. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  10. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  11. [Risk groups for tuberculosis in Chile].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania

    2015-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global and national problem. In Chile the incidence rate has remained at 13 per 100,000 inhabitants for several years without tendency to the expected decline that would allow their elimination by 2020. As a low prevalence country, TB cases have been concentrated in risk groups, reaching 33% in 2013, and this proportion increases as younger people are analyzed. The main risk groups in Chile are HIV co-infection, foreigners and population of prisons. By 2013, the proportion of cases for these three groups was 8.7%, 8.4% and 3.9% respectively, and these percentages vary significantly when regional situation is analyzed. In addition, many of these patients have more than one risk factor, demons-rating the existence of clusters more vulnerable to TB.

  12. [Risk groups for tuberculosis in Chile].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania

    2015-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global and national problem. In Chile the incidence rate has remained at 13 per 100,000 inhabitants for several years without tendency to the expected decline that would allow their elimination by 2020. As a low prevalence country, TB cases have been concentrated in risk groups, reaching 33% in 2013, and this proportion increases as younger people are analyzed. The main risk groups in Chile are HIV co-infection, foreigners and population of prisons. By 2013, the proportion of cases for these three groups was 8.7%, 8.4% and 3.9% respectively, and these percentages vary significantly when regional situation is analyzed. In addition, many of these patients have more than one risk factor, demons-rating the existence of clusters more vulnerable to TB. PMID:25860037

  13. [Current status of medical education in Chile].

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it.

  14. [Rabies in Chile: 1989-2005].

    PubMed

    Favi C, Myriam; Rodríguez A, Luis; Espinosa M, Carla; Yung P, Verónica

    2008-04-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study about epidemiology of rabies in Chile between years 1989 and 2005 was done. A data base of 39793 national registries of rabies samples was analyzed by means of statistical packages. Out of 39793 analyzed cases, 719 bats, 7 dogs, 7 cats, 1 bovine and 1 human were positive to rabies throughout the 17 years of this study. The statistical analysis established a significant increase in the proportions of positivity in bats, with predominance of variant 4 between the reservoirs. Given the complexity of the wild cycle of the rabies in Chile, it is necessary to maintain a program control of rabies, directed to educate people for a responsible possession of domestic animals, due to the risk of rabies transmission from bat to the susceptible species. PMID:18425219

  15. Food, agricultural and marine biotechnology in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, J M; Agosin, E; San Martín, R

    1993-10-01

    Economic segments with highest growth rates in Chile are those based on renewable resources like agriculture (fruits and vegetables), marine and forest products. Opportunities for biotechnology are based on a sound scientific base at universities, adequate funding and incipient industry-academia relationships. However, there is an urgent need to develop the engineering capabilities required to scale-up processes and to design, build and operate industrial biotechnology plants.

  16. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1945-01-01

    Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of floating objects in coastal waters of central-southern Chile and Patagonian fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Iván A.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Thiel, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Floating objects are suggested to be the principal vector for the transport and dispersal of marine invertebrates with direct development as well as catalysts for carbon and nutrient recycling in accumulation areas. The first step in identifying the ecological relevance of floating objects in a specific area is to identify their spatio-temporal distribution. We evaluated the composition, abundance, distribution, and temporal variability of floating objects along the continental coast of central-southern Chile (33-42°S) and the Patagonian fjords (42-50°S) using ship surveys conducted in austral winter (July/August) and spring (November) of the years 2002-2005 and 2008. Potential sources of floating items were identified with the aid of publicly available databases and scientific reports. We found three main types of floating objects, namely floating marine debris (mainly plastic objects and Styrofoam), wood (trunks and branches), and floating kelps ( Macrocystis pyrifera and Durvillaea antarctica). Floating marine debris were abundant along most of the examined transects, with markedly lower abundances toward the southern fjord areas. Floating marine debris abundances generally corresponded to the distribution of human activities, and were highest in the Interior Sea of Chiloé, where aquaculture activities are intense. Floating wood appeared sporadically in the study area, often close to the main rivers. In accordance with seasonal river run-off, wood was more abundant along the continental coast in winter (rainy season) and in the Patagonian fjords during the spring surveys (snow melt). Densities of the two floating kelp species were similar along the continental coast, without a clear seasonal pattern. M. pyrifera densities increased towards the south, peaking in the Patagonian fjords, where it was dominant over D. antarctica. Densities of M. pyrifera in the Patagonian fjords were highest in spring. Correlation analyses between the abundances of floating

  18. [Availability of physicians and specialists in Chile].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes C, Jorge; Bustos F, Verónica

    2011-05-01

    The availability and planning of Human Resources are important issues in many countries, as it is a key factor to cope with the critical challenges of Health Care Systems. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has undertaken several studies in order to improve knowledge about the medical workforce both in public and private sectors. The aim of this paper is to update and systematize the existing data on physicians and specialists availability in Chile. Several information sources were crossed to obtain new and more precise figures about this topic. According to the Internal Revenue System, 29.996 physicians practice medicine in the country, 43% of them hired in public services, part or full time. There is a high concentration of professionals in the central regions of Chile. Being the overall density of physicians of one per 559 inhabitants, the figures in the central region is one per 471 and one per more than 800 in the South and North. Between 2004 and 2008, the public sector increased its physician workforce by more than 80% in primary health care and more than 20% in the secondary and tertiary levels. This paper presents a method for a more rigorous identification of the categories of general practitioner and specialist respectively, and the results obtained from the databases used.

  19. [Availability of physicians and specialists in Chile].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes C, Jorge; Bustos F, Verónica

    2011-05-01

    The availability and planning of Human Resources are important issues in many countries, as it is a key factor to cope with the critical challenges of Health Care Systems. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has undertaken several studies in order to improve knowledge about the medical workforce both in public and private sectors. The aim of this paper is to update and systematize the existing data on physicians and specialists availability in Chile. Several information sources were crossed to obtain new and more precise figures about this topic. According to the Internal Revenue System, 29.996 physicians practice medicine in the country, 43% of them hired in public services, part or full time. There is a high concentration of professionals in the central regions of Chile. Being the overall density of physicians of one per 559 inhabitants, the figures in the central region is one per 471 and one per more than 800 in the South and North. Between 2004 and 2008, the public sector increased its physician workforce by more than 80% in primary health care and more than 20% in the secondary and tertiary levels. This paper presents a method for a more rigorous identification of the categories of general practitioner and specialist respectively, and the results obtained from the databases used. PMID:22051705

  20. [Geographical distribution of physicians in Chile].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, Chile had 15,451 active physicians (less than 70 years old) for a population of 14,027,344 with a ratio of 1 physician per 908 inhabitants, a satisfactory figure compared to other countries of similar socio-economical development. Ratios of 1:880 and 1:843 are projected for 1999 and 2004 respectively. The annual rate of physician's population growth (2.2%), that is superior to the general population's growth rate (1.6%), will increase to about 2.5% per annum in 2001 as a consequence of the creation of three new medical schools. However, the distribution of physicians along the country is unsatisfactory. While the capital (Metropolitan Region) has a ratio of 1 physician per 629 inhabitants, the figure for the Region of Maule is 1:2,113. Only two of ten regions, excepting the capital, have a ratio lower than 1:1,000. Sixty percent of physicians live in Santiago while only 40% of the general population does so, illustrating their high concentration. Median ratio in Chile, that better reflects the reality than the mean, is 1:1,280. The heterogeneous distribution of physicians in Chile is a sign of social inequity that must be corrected. In a free society a better physician distribution is achieved with economical and professional incentives given by health institutions.

  1. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  2. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  3. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  4. Holocene coseismic and aseismic uplift of Isla Mocha, south-central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Manley, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 6000 years Isla Mocha, a 12 km-long island 30 km off the coast of south-central Chile, experienced a 38 m fall of relative sea level caused primarily by rapid tectonic uplift of the island. As many as 18 raised shorelines (strandlines) record this uplift. Historic accounts of uplift during the great earthquakes (M > 8) of 1835 and 1960 suggest some of the more prominent prehistoric strandlines also emerged during great earthquakes on the interface between the Nazca and South America plates. But the close elevational spacing of strandlines, subdued morphology of strandline beaches, scarcity of exposed bedrock wave-cut platforms, and the extremely high rates of aseismic uplift (ca. 70 mm/yr) of the island since the last great earthquake suggest that many strandlines were raised by aseismic rather than coseismic uplift. Strandline heights and 14 new radiocarbon ages on marine shells show that the present-day uplift rate is more than three times the net rate (ca. 20 mm/yr) of the past 1000 years. The recent high rate probably reflects increased aseismic slip on an inferred thrust fault in the overriding South America plate. Isla Mocha overlies an area of high stress concentration between two major segments of the Chilean subduction zone. The inferred high rate of slip on the thrust fault may be a response to stress changes on the plate interface near the boundary between the segments. ?? 1992.

  5. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  6. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  7. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  8. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela

    This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with Chile's most…

  9. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  15. Education for development under the skies of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Cecilia; Fischer, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    We report on an educational program initiated in Chile in the year 2010 on the frame of an excellence research and graduate exchange program between the University of Heidelberg and the Pontfica Catlica University in Chile, funded by the German International Exchange Office (DAAD).

  16. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  17. Rapid Characterization of Large Earthquakes in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.; Team, C.

    2015-12-01

    Chile, along 3000 km of it 4200 km long coast, is regularly affected by very large earthquakes (up to magnitude 9.5) resulting from the convergence and subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. Minimum delay characterization of these giant events to establish their rupture extent and slip distribution is of the utmost importance for rapid estimations of the shaking area and their corresponding tsunami-genic potential evaluation, particularly when there are only few minutes to warn the coastal population for immediate actions. The task of a rapid evaluation of large earthquakes is accomplished in Chile through a network of sensors being implemented by the National Seismological Center of the University of Chile. The network is mainly composed approximately by one hundred broad-band and strong motion instruments and 130 GNSS devices; all will be connected in real time. Forty units present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz stream at 4-cm level. Tests are being conducted to stream the real-time raw data to be later processed at the central facility. Hypocentral locations and magnitudes are estimated after few minutes by automatic processing software based on wave arrival; for magnitudes less than 7.0 the rapid estimation works within acceptable bounds. For larger events, we are currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement coming out from the real time GNSS streams. This software has been tested for several cases showing that, for plate interface events, the minimum magnitude threshold detectability reaches values within 6.2 and 6.5 (1-2 cm coastal displacement), providing an excellent tool for earthquake early characterization from a tsunamigenic perspective.

  18. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  19. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  20. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  1. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  2. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    PubMed

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  3. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  4. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  5. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  8. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  9. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  11. [Liver cirrhosis in Chile: epidemiologic considerations].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M

    1993-11-01

    Liver cirrhosis is an important public health problem in Chile, accounting for 5% of all deaths, proportion that has increased 24 fold in the last 60 years. Chile has the highest death rate for cirrhosis in America and the second highest in the world, after Hungary. The risk of death and hospitalization for cirrhosis has increased significantly between 1950 and 1970, stabilizing thereafter in values near to 50 hospitalizations and 30 deaths/year per 100,000 inhabitants. The risk for cirrhosis is higher among men and increases with age. Among people between 35 and 60 years of age, cirrhosis is the first or second cause of death and the third among those aged 60 to 69 years. The age of patients hospitalized for cirrhosis has increased from 42.7 years in 1950 to 55.5 in 1990. Among women, cirrhosis appears at older ages than in men. Mortality rates vary in the different regions of the country and range from 55 in Concepcion and Talcahuano to 8 per 100,000 inhabitants in Coquimbo. The certainty of Chilean information on cirrhosis and the evidences associating cirrhosis to alcohol consumption are discussed, being prominent the significant association between annual death rates for cirrhosis and wine production. PMID:8191144

  12. Botanical and geological significance of potassium-argon dates from the juan fernandez islands.

    PubMed

    Stuessy, T F; Foland, K A; Sutter, J F; Sanders, R W; O, M S

    1984-07-01

    Potassium-argon dating of five basalts from the three main islands of the Juan Fernández (or Robinson Crusoe) Islands of Chile in the southeastern Pacific gives ages of 1.01 +/- 0.12 and 2.44 +/- 0.14 million years for Masafuera, 3.79 +/- 0.20 and 4.23 +/- 0.16 for Masatierra, and 5.8 +/- 2.1 for Santa Clara. These ages are much younger than that of the underlying oceanic plate and are consistent with the origin of the island-seamount chain from a mantle hot spot beneath the eastward moving Nazca plate. The young age for the archipelago suggests that speciation within endemic genera has occurred within the past 4 to 5 million years. Endemic genera of apparently more ancient origins, such as Lactoris and Thyrsopteris, have apparently dispersed to the islands and survive refugially.

  13. Botanical and Geological Significance of Potassium-Argon Dates from the Juan Fernandez Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuessy, Tod F.; Foland, K. A.; Sutter, John F.; Sanders, Roger W.; Silva O., Mario

    1984-07-01

    Potassium-argon dating of five basalts from the three main islands of the Juan Fernandez (or Robinson Crusoe) Islands of Chile in the southeastern Pacific gives ages of 1.01 ± 0.12 and 2.44 ± 0.14 million years for Masafuera 3.79 ± 0.20 and 4.23 ± 0.16 for Masatierra, and 5.8 ± 2.1 for Santa Clara. These ages are much younger than that of the underlying oceanic plate and are consistent with the origin of the island-seamount chain from a mantle hot spot beneath the eastward moving Nazca plate. The young age for the archipelago suggests that speciation within endemic genera has occurred within the past 4 to 5 million years. Endemic genera of apparently more ancient origins, such as Lactoris and Thyrsopteris, have apparently dispersed to the islands and survive refugially.

  14. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  15. The Aysen (Southern Chile) 2007 Seismic Swarm: Volcanic or Tectonic Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R.; Vandecar, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Aysen seismic swarm began January 23, 2007, with a magnitude 5.2 (USGS) earthquake and, after an apparent decrease in activity, continued with a magnitude 5.6 event on February 26. The swarm is characterized by numerous felt earthquakes of small to moderate magnitude, located at crustal depths beneath the Aysen Canal, a prominent fiord of the Chilean littoral. The region is characterized by the subduction of an active oceanic spreading ridge: the Chile Ridge, the divergent Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary, is currently subducting beneath continental South America along the Chile Trench at approximately 46.5°S, forming a plate triple junction in the vicinity of the Taitao Peninsula, somewhat south and west of the swarm. Also, the Liquine-Ofqui dextral strike- slip fault traverses the Aysen Canal in the vicinity of the swarm. This fault has been interpreted as a 1000 km long dextral intra-arc strike-slip fault zone, consisting of two major strands which extend north from the Chile Margin triple junction. The Liquiñe-Ofqui system is marked by several pull-apart basins along its trace through the area. Seismic activity along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone has been poorly studied to date, largely because teleseismic events clearly related to the fault have been few, and southern hemisphere seismic stations are lacking. However, we deployed a dense temporary broad-band seismic network both onland and on the islands in the Aysen region, which allowed us to capture the initial phases of the swarm on some 20 stations, and to determine the background seismicity patterns in this area for the two years preceding the swarm. The swarm could be caused by several processes: the spatial and depth distribution of the events suggests that they are well correlated with reactivation of the southern end of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, as defined by geologic studies and onshore gravity data collected in southern Chile. The swarm may be related to formation of new volcanic center between

  16. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the Central Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  17. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the central andes.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, S H; Chang, C C

    1984-04-20

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  18. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management.

  19. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. PMID:23541391

  20. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  1. Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

    2010-12-01

    The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

  2. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  3. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  4. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat.

  5. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  6. The 2015 Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Arnett, Dinah; Hardy, Eduardo; Cabezón, Sergio; Spuck, Tim; Fields, Mary Sue; Smith, R. Chris

    2015-08-01

    The first Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit occurred March 22-28, 2015. The Summit was organized and supported by the U.S. Embassy in Chile, Associated Universities Inc., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Image of Chile Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and La Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. The Summit brought together a team of leading experts and officials from Chile and the U.S. to share best practices in astronomy education and outreach. In addition, Summit participants discussed enhancing existing partnerships, and building new collaborations between U.S. Observatories and astronomy education outreach leaders in Chile.The Summit was an exciting and intense week of work and travel. Discussions opened in Santiago on March 22 with a variety of astronomy education and public outreach work sessions, a public forum, and on March 23 the U.S. Embassy sponsored a Star Party. On Tuesday, March 24, the Summit moved to San Pedro de Atacama, where activities included work sessions, a visit to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array telescope facilities, and a second public forum. From San Pedro, the team traveled to La Serena for additional work sessions, visits to Gemini and Cerro Tololo, a third public forum, and the closing session. At each stop, authorities and the broader community were invited to participate and provide valuable input on the current state, and the future, of astronomy education and public outreach.Following the Summit a core working committee has continued meeting to draft a “roadmap document” based on findings from the Summit. This document will help to identify potential gaps in astronomy outreach efforts, and how the U.S. facilities and Chilean institutions might work together strategically to address these needs. The first draft of this “roadmap document” will be made available for comment in both Spanish and

  7. Household treatment for "chile burns" of the hands.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Tandberg, D; Troutman, W G

    1987-01-01

    In New Mexico, chile peppers (Capsicum annum) are prepared by roasting and manually removing the skin from the fruit. Peeling is often done barehanded and may cause prolonged burning pain, irritation, and erythema but not vesication. In a survey of elderly Hispanic women, treatment with oils or cool tap water were frequently used home remedies. Twenty female subjects immersed their hands in a standardized slurry of green chile for 40 minutes, afterwards one hand was placed in cool tap water and the other in vegetable oil for a total of 75 minutes. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale while the hands were immersed in the chile slurry, test baths, and after drying. The difference in pain score was calculated for each subject. Analysis was by pooled regression. Cool tap water immersion initially provided more relief while vegetable oil provided better long-term relief from the pain of "chile burns".

  8. Conducting a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, G. A.; Crosby, J. L.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1998, we directed a two-week laboratory-oriented teacher professional development program, "Curso Experimental de Quimica", for thirty-six high school chemistry teachers in Santiago, Chile. Participants earned a certificate of completion from the University of Chile. Our involvement began in 1996, when we presented a plenary lecture in science education at the XXII Latin American Congress of Chemistry in Concepcion, Chile. In that address, we discussed the philosophy and the operation of the Master of Arts in Chemistry Program1 that we were running in the State of Washington. The response to the presentation was enthusiastic, and eventually Hugo Zunino, the Dean of the School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Chile, visited us in Pullman to explore the idea of involving us in a teacher development initiative in Santiago.

  9. New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2002-06-01

    The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

  10. Applications of TsunAWI: Operational scenario database in Indonesia, case studies in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Androsov, Alexey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The Numerical simulation of prototypic tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is suited for both tasks. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution presents two fields of applications. In the Indonesian tsunami early warning system, the existing TsunAWI scenario database covers the Sunda subduction zone from Sumatra to the Lesser Sunda Islands with 715 epicenters and 4500 scenarios. In a collaboration with Geoscience Australia, we support the scientific staff at the Indonesian warning center to extend the data base to the remaining tectonic zones in the Indonesian Archipelago. The extentension started for North Sulawesi, West and East Maluku Islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). The earthquake and tsunami events on 1 April 2014 and 16 November 2016 showed the practical use of this approach in comparison to hind casts of these events.

  11. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  12. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  13. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  14. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country.

  15. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  16. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  17. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  18. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  19. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  20. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  1. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  2. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  4. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

  5. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  6. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-08-12

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly.

  7. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  8. Family allowance and family planning in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S J

    1978-01-01

    Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child. PMID:717610

  9. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  10. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  11. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  12. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  13. Botanical and geological significance of potassium-argon dates from the Juan Fernández Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuessy, Tod F.; Foland, K.A.; Sutter, John F.; Sanders, Roger W.; Silva, O. Mario

    1984-01-01

    Potassium-argon dating of five basalts from the three main islands of the Juan Fernández (or Robinson Crusoe) Islands of Chile in the southeastern Pacific gives ages of 1.01 ± 0.12 and 2.44 ± 0.14 million years for Masafuera, 3.79 ± 0.20 and 4.23 ± 0.16 for Masatierra, and 5.8 ± 2.1 for Santa Clara. These ages are much younger than that of the underlying oceanic plate and are consistent with the origin of the island-seamount chain from a mantle hot spot beneath the eastward moving Nazca plate. The young age for the archipelago suggests that speciation within endemic genera has occurred within the past 4 to 5 million years. Endemic genera of apparently more ancient origins, such as Lactoris and Thyrsopteris, have apparently dispersed to the islands and survive refugially.

  14. Assessment of trace metals and porphyrins in excreta of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in different locations of the northern coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Celis, José E; Espejo, Winfred; González-Acuña, Daniel; Jara, Solange; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    To add data on trace metal contamination of Humboldt penguins in the South Pacific, levels of trace metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) and porphyrins (copro-, uro-, and proto-) in excreta of Humboldt penguins that inhabit some important nesting sites on the northern coast of Chile were determined. Fresh excreta were collected on Pan de Azúcar Island, Chañaral Island, and Cachagua Island, from December 2011 to January 2012. Concentration of metals was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas porphyrins levels were measured by fluorimetric analysis. Concentrations (dry weight) of Cu (199.67 μg g(-1)), As (7.85 μg g(-1)), and Pb (12.78 μg g(-1)) were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in Cachagua Island. Colonies from Pan de Azúcar Island showed the highest levels of Hg (0.76 μg g(-1)), Cd (47.70 μg g(-1)), and Zn (487.10 μg g(-1)). Samples from Cachagua Island showed the highest (p ≤ 0.05) levels of copro- (2.16 nmol g(-1)), uro- (2.20 nmol g(-1)), and protoporphyrins (2.23 nmol g(-1)). There was a positive correlation between the metals As, Pb, and Cu with uro-, copro-, and protoporphyrins. The results indicated that penguin colonies from Cachagua Island are more exposed to metal contamination than penguin colonies from Pan de Azúcar and Chañaral Islands, thus being more likely to develop certain diseases caused by contamination with metals. Considering biomagnification, the metals detected in the excreta of Humboldt penguins can be a source of contamination from marine environments to terrestrial ecosystems, which could also affect other living organisms.

  15. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    .... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund... requested order would supersede a prior order issued to the Australia Fund. DATES: Filing Dates: The... ``Chile Fund Board'' and the ``Australia Fund Board'') or the board of directors or trustees of...

  16. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  17. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  18. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  19. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  20. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  1. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  2. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  3. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    PubMed

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  4. New records of feather lice from some seabirds in Chile.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, M S; Palma, R L; Ochoa-Acuña, H

    1997-04-01

    Six species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Philopteridae) are reported from four species of seabirds collected off the coast of Chile. They are Eidmanniella pellucida, Piagetiella transitans, and Piagetiella caputincisa, from a Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii); Harrisoniella ferox collected from a black-browed albatross (Diomedea melanophrys); Ancistrona vagelli from a white-necked petrel (Pterodroma externa); and Pelmatocerandra flinti collected from a Magellan diving petrel (Pelecanoides magellani). Eidmanniella pellucida and P. transitans are reported from Chile for the first time. Piagetiella caputincisa from the Guanay cormorant may be a contaminant from a red-legged shag (Phalacrocorax gaimardi). PMID:9131581

  5. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    PubMed

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem.

  6. Tamarugal basin exploration under way in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, M.

    1996-12-30

    The government of Chile has awarded an exploration contract to Cardinal Resources Inc., headquartered in White Plains, N.Y., to develop oil and natural gas for commercial production on a large inland tract in northern Chile. Recent geological/geophysical evaluations of the contract area by both Cardinal and Empresa Nacional del Petroleol (ENAP), the state energy company, have upgraded the hydrocarbon potential of this northern basin, making it an attractive exploration play. The paper describes the contract area, two oil seeps that have been discovered, structural history, Jurassic stratigraphy, and interpretation of the aeromagnetic and Landsat data.

  7. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  8. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  9. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  10. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  11. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  12. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  13. Detailed Axial Morphology of the Chile Rise as it Approaches the Chile Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Henig, A. S.; Barroso, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thurber, A. R.; German, C. R.; Inspire Cruise Participants, T.

    2010-12-01

    New bathymetric mapping along the two southernmost Chile Rise spreading segments shows axial volcanic structure that had not been evident in prior data. On the first segment extending north from the triple junction, where the basement is not obscured by sediment, a narrow line of volcanic structures appears to track the center of the rift valley. However, the next segment north, which is offset almost 50 km along a transform fault, has axial volcanic features that vary in position within the rift valley. In the northern ~half of this segment, lineated small volcanic structures hug the eastern scarp of the rift whereas in the south they are apparent only along the western part of the valley floor. A classic ridge-transform intersection (RTI) nodal deep occurs at this southern end of the segment. The position of the basin is asymmetric relative to the axis, toward the ‘inside corner’ on the eastern side of the rift valley. It is intriguing that the nodal deep, which is often modeled as the result of viscous mantle upwelling and plate stresses at an RTI, is centered on the opposite side of the rift valley from where the most recent volcanic activity occurred. Presumably this reflects interplay between local magma plumbing and tectonic stresses. In addition to the local ridge-transform forces, regional factors associated with subduction along the edge of the Cocos plate may affect mantle flow, melting, and detailed plate kinematics. We will present maps that combine the new Simrad EM122 swath sonar data, obtained during cruise MV1003 aboard R/V Melville, with pre-existing German and Chilean bathymetric grids. We will also discuss some of the tectonic and magmatic implications of the observed detailed morphologic patterns. As one of the few areas on the globe where active subduction and spreading occur in close proximity, the southernmost Chile rise presents a natural laboratory for studying the manifestations of interaction between these processes.

  14. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (< 2 Hz) P-wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate

  15. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  16. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  18. Special Education for the Learning Disabled in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo-Valdivieso, Luis

    The paper focuses on the growth and development of special education for learning disabled children in Chile with particular emphasis on the contribution of child psychiatry and pediatric neurology departments of hospitals and the contribution of universities in training specialists. Initial sections provide a background on primary education in…

  19. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  20. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  1. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  2. New species of Anisophya Karabag from Chile (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phanopterinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the most primitive Neotropical bush katydids (Phaneropterinae) — including species of Cosmophyllum Blanchard, Stenophylla Brunner von Wattenwyl, Marenestha Brunner von Wattenwyl, Anisophya Karabag, Coryphoda Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Burgilis Stål — are endemic in Chile. The Chilean species...

  3. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  4. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  5. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  6. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  7. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  8. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  9. Paleoseismic Records of Multiple Great Earthquakes from the Subduction Zones of Sumatra, Chile, and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, T.; Horton, B.; Briggs, R. W.; Cisternas, M.; Ely, L. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Nelson, A. R.; Rubin, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Instrumental and historical records have proved too short to estimate the potential magnitudes and recurrence intervals of rare events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-Oki great earthquakes and tsunamis. Paleoseismology improves our understanding of subduction zone hazards by extending earthquake histories thousands of years into the past. Through paleoseismic investigations at subduction zones, we scrutinize coastal sediments in low-energy depositional environments to reconstruct relative sea-level (RSL) changes related to upper-plate deformation from past earthquakes and tsunami inundation. Microfossils—long recognized as valuable RSL indicators—in coastal sediment provide an independent test of earthquake related RSL change and tsunami deposition inferred from coastal stratigraphy. Here, we illustrate the value and potential of paleoseismic methods at megathrust sites in Sumatra, Chile, and the eastern Aleutian Islands to identify both coseismic subsidence and uplift. In western Sumatra, coastal sediments beneath a lowland near the city of Padang contain stratigraphic evidence for two mid Holocene earthquakes, each resulting in > 1 m of coseismic subsidence. A site along the most populated portion of the central Chilean coast near Valparaíso records stratigraphic and diatom evidence of six instances of early to mid-Holocene coseismic uplift (< 1 m) accompanied by tsunamis. Coastal marsh sediment on the eastern Aleutian Island of Sitkinak contains stratigraphic and diatom evidence for three instances of uplift and two of subsidence during great earthquakes. Such biostratigraphic evidence of past great earthquakes and tsunamis shows that the absence of great megathrust events near our sites in the last 200-300 years is not representative of the potential for great events on the megathrusts. In addition, we discuss how our earthquake and tsunami records fit within the context of past regional RSL histories and emphasize the importance of RSL on

  10. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  11. Descriptions of Four New Species of Criconematoidea (Tylenchina: Nemata) from Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Raski, Dewey J.; Valenzuela-A., Adelina

    1986-01-01

    Four new species of Criconematoidea are described from Hoste Island, Chile. Criconema certesi n. sp. is distinguished by the fine, spine-like, cuticular extensions on body annuli; projection of annuli into rows of scales on posterior part of body; single, smooth, labial annulus set off by short collar from second (first body) annulus which is about same diameter as first (labial) annulus. Male with prominent caudal alae, slender curved spicules, and four incisures in lateral field. Ogma terrestris n. sp. is distinguished by small scales with rounded tips bearing minute, short bristles; scales number 21 at mid-body; and first (labial) annulus rounded, not retrorse, not set off from succeeding annuli, narrower in diameter from second (first body) annulus. Hemicycliophora macrodorata n. sp. is distinguished by its large size (L = 1.52 [1.28-1.72] mm); large stylet (146 [127-161] μm); annuli = 297 (280-315); tail slightly spicate, lateral field with or without interruptions of incisures, occasional anastomoses; and males with U-shaped spicules. Paratylenchus fueguensis n. sp. is distinguished by its prominent stylet with large, rounded knobs (4-5 μm across); cephalic region rounded not at all set off; lateral field with four incisures; lateral vulvar membranes present; and male tail short, strongly curved (almost 180°) ventrad. PMID:19294175

  12. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  13. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  14. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  15. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  16. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  17. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  18. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  19. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  20. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  1. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  2. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for establishing a new centre for observation in Chile - ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new centre for astronomical observation in Chile.

  3. Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these

  4. Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.

    PubMed

    Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these

  5. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  6. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  8. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... supplies were discovered on the island in 1964, but their origin could not be determined. Seals in the area were declared to be ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  9. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  10. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  11. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  12. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  13. A new titanosaur sauropod from the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rubilar-Rogers, David; Vargas, Alexander; Suárez, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Partial remains of a titanosaur sauropod collected in the Tolar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) at the Atacama Desert (Antofagasta Region), northern Chile, is described, and a new species, Atacamatitan chilensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected. The material consists mainly of dorsal and caudal vertebrae, part of a humerus and a femur. The presence of a titanosaur confirms the Cretaceous age for the outcrops of red sandstone of the Tolar Formation whose age was previously uncertain, ranging from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleocene. The new specimen represents the most complete dinosaur reported for this region and one of the most complete titanosaur known from Chile and the pacific margin of South America so far. PMID:21437382

  14. A new titanosaur sauropod from the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rubilar-Rogers, David; Vargas, Alexander; Suárez, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Partial remains of a titanosaur sauropod collected in the Tolar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) at the Atacama Desert (Antofagasta Region), northern Chile, is described, and a new species, Atacamatitan chilensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected. The material consists mainly of dorsal and caudal vertebrae, part of a humerus and a femur. The presence of a titanosaur confirms the Cretaceous age for the outcrops of red sandstone of the Tolar Formation whose age was previously uncertain, ranging from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleocene. The new specimen represents the most complete dinosaur reported for this region and one of the most complete titanosaur known from Chile and the pacific margin of South America so far.

  15. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

  16. [Two new genera of land snails (Stylommatophora: Arionacea) from Chile].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Almonacid, Patricio; Stuardo, José R

    2007-06-01

    We describe two new genera of land molluscs found under wet leaf litter in isolated fragments of a secondary native forest at the Hualpén Botanical Park (36 degrees 45'-36 degrees 49' S, 73 degrees 9'-73 degrees 13' W), University of Concepción, Chile. The new taxa are Pichikadi gen.n., of Punctidae, and Chellius gen.n., of Charopidae, with the following new species: Pichikadi hualpensis sp.n., and Chellius piramidalis sp.n. English diagnosis are presented for all taxa, together with an English identification key and English versions of figure captions and table headings. To facilitate subsequent studies and interpretations, we follow recent authors in using mainly shell characters, an approach that has favored the present taxonomic stability of the world's land micromollusca. The diagnosis and observations are complemented with a key for the species of these families inhabiting continental Chile.

  17. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    PubMed

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  18. Biosecurity practices on intensive pig production systems in Chile.

    PubMed

    Julio Pinto, C; Santiago Urcelay, V

    2003-06-12

    Chile eradicated classical swine fever (CSF) in April 1998, following a 17-year eradication programme. The authors describe biosecurity levels of pig farms in Chile after the eradication of CSF. A formal survey was administered to 50 large integrated pig farms, which represented almost 60% of the swine population. The main topics on the questionnaire were production, health management, biosecurity, insurance and information about CSF outbreaks in the past. Biosecurity practices were analysed according to the criteria stated by Barcelo and Marco in 1998. A scoring system to measure biosecurity was designed and pig farms were classified according to this score. An adjusted specific measure is discussed as a potential indicator of risk for disease infections. The authors explore associations between biosecurity herd size and insurance policy against CSF.

  19. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time.

  20. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J

    2012-12-01

    In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile. PMID:22458941

  1. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    PubMed

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  2. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    PubMed

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.

  3. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  4. Water resources investigation program for Rio Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John Ezra

    1969-01-01

    This report, prepared at the request of the Government of Chile under the auspices of the U. S. Agency for International Development (US AID), is based on a 2-month assignment (Oct. 22 to Dec. 31, 1969) of the author and outlines a program of water resources studies. The study program, if followed to its conclusion, will provide the basic hydrologic and hydrogeologic information and analysis essential for planning optimum future development and use of the water resources of the valley.

  5. [Female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, during the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the status of female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, in the 1980s, with a focus on the level of poverty and social inequalities. Aspects considered include "the dramatic transformation in domestic service, the increase in the number of non-migrant, lower class women participating in the economy, and the limited and precarious status of women's employment in the more dynamic sectors of the economy." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    PubMed

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy. PMID:7983095

  7. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  8. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María

    2006-06-01

    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process. PMID:17195557

  9. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  10. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María

    2006-06-01

    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process.

  11. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  12. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  13. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  15. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  16. [Mortality in Chile 1955-1975: trends and causes].

    PubMed

    Taucher, E

    1978-12-01

    Sources for data on mortality in Chile are available from the Instituto National de Estadistica, and from the Servicio National de Salud. For the purpose of this study every possible effort was made to get valid data, relying on the national death register, and on medical certificates of death. Between 1953 and 1963 the mortality rate was 12-13/1000; it abruptly descended in 1973, and rose again, to reach the level of 7.2/1000 in 1975. Male mortality is higher than female mortality. In the years 1974-1975 the mortality rate descended considerably for infants and for children 1-4. If one compares mortality rates in Chile and Sweden for 1975, it is obvious that modern medical technology and different sanitary conditions are responsible for the low mortality rate in Sweden. As to the causes of mortality, 9 diseases are responsible for more than 90% of deaths. During the past 15 years death from cancer was about 110/1000, while violent deaths and deaths by accidents augmented. The death rate for respiratory diseases decreased significantly in 1974-1975. In comparing causes of death in Chile and in the U.S. one notices that respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and circulatory diseases account for a great number of deaths in Chile, while in the U.S. accidents account for 73.4% of deaths in the 15-24 year old group. Tuberculosis, which has almost disappeared in the U.S., accounts for 5% of deaths in Chile in the 15-44 year old group. Such differences are due to cultural, social and economic diversity in the structure of the 2 countries. Pneumonia still accounts for 50% of infant mortality, and malnutrition for about 39% of mortality of children under 5. Still, most causes of death, like diarrhea in children, could be avoided with proper diagnosis and treatment. Nutrition, sanitary conditions, medical attention, and socioeconomic conditions are finally responsible if Chilean mortality rates still are much higher than those of developed countries.

  17. Spreading of AbaR-type genomic islands in multidrug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii strains belonging to different clonal complexes.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, María Soledad; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Stietz, María Silvina; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Jeric, Paola; Limansky, Adriana S; Márquez, Carolina; Bello, Helia; Catalano, Mariana; Centrón, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    In order to determine the occurrence of AbaR-type genomic island in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) strains circulating in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, we studied 51 MDRAb isolates recovered from several hospitals over 30 years. AbaR-type genomic resistance islands were found in 36 MDRAb isolates since 1986 till now. MLST technique allowed us to identify the presence of four different Clonal Complexes (109, 104, 119, 113) among the positive AbaR-type island positive strains. This is the first description of AbaR-type islands in the CC104 and CC113 that are the most widespread Clonal Complexes in Argentina. In addition, PCR mapping exposed different arrays to those previously described, evidencing the plasticity of this island. Our results evidence a widespread distribution of the AbaR-type genomic islands along the time in the MDRAb population, including the epidemic global clone 1 (GC1) as well as different clonal complexes to those already described in the literature. PMID:23397241

  18. Intraplate Splay Faults and Near-field Tsunami Generation during Giant Megathrust Earthquakes in Chile, Alaska, and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival

  19. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  20. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three main volcanoes make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W): the older volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the recent Kilauea seen venting steam. This color infrared image is one of a pair (see STS052-77-002) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the human eye whereas color infrared imagery reduces atmospheric haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  1. Shoreline dating of the former Quillagua-Llamara Lake, N-Chile - Implications of global teleconnections to the hydrology of the Atacama Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Benedikt; Dunai, Tibor; Stuart, Finlay; Wennrich, Volker; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of ancient lake-level shoreline terraces of the Quillagua-Llamara Lake in the central Atacama Desert (N-Chile) provides new insights in the paleohydrology of the driest desert on earth. The lake developed from a paleo-exohereic drainage system in the Central Depression, before it opened towards the Pacific and an endohereic drainage system became established due to incision by the Rio Loa. The duration of the lake stages was long enough to cut erosive shoreline terraces into exposed islands. These shoreline features are preserved due to 250 m uplift of islands (Cerro Soledad, Cerro Mogote). Exposure dating of the shorelines reveals the existence of pluvial lake stages in the Atacama Desert during parts of the Late Pliocene and several Pleistocene interglacials (MIS 7, 9, 11, possibly 31, 87-93). These interglacials at least partly coincide with episodes of strong sea-ice retreat or even collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This correlation is traced back to dramatic changes in the oceanographic and atmospheric circulation system in the Equatorial-SE Pacific with implications for global climate. A strong reduction in West Antarctic sea ice, followed by a weakening of the Peru-Chile Current and reduced supply of cold water, may have enabled expansion of the Pacific Warm Pool and thus increased sea-surface temperatures along the west coast of South America. These long-lasting, El Niño-like conditions may have in turn decreased the temperature inversion and enabled moisture transport towards the western Andean flanks. Our findings are compatible with evidence from the ANDRILL 1B record from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and warm-water faunal assemblages on marine shoreline terraces from northern Chile. Furthermore, the exposure ages of the pluvial lake stages narrow the maximum incision age the of Rio Loa canyon and break through the Coastal Cordillera, and imply rock uplift rates of isolated islands in the Central Depression in the

  2. Ecological consistency across space: a synthesis of the ecological aspects of Dromiciops gliroides in Argentina and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Franco, Marcela; Rodríguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Rivarola, M. Daniela; Amico, Guillermo C.

    2012-11-01

    Dromiciops gliroides is an arboreal marsupial found in the temperate forests of South America (36-43 °S). This species is the sole extant representative of the order Microbiotheria, and is a key seed disperser of many native plant species, including the keystone mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus. Here, we synthesized the current knowledge on the ecological aspects of this species, and compared the available information from Argentina and Chile. Population density (23 ± 2 (mean ± SE) individual/ha) and home range (1.6 ± 0.6 ha) appear to be relatively similar across a marked ecological gradient in the mainland, but lower densities (7 ± 2 individual/ha) and smaller home ranges (0.26 ± 0.04 ha) were detected at island sites. We detected regional variation in body condition in Chile, but there were no significant differences across a wider E-W gradient. Movement patterns fit a random walk model; such behavior might have important consequences in shaping plant's spatial patterns. Although our data suggest that D. gliroides is more tolerant to habitat disturbance than previously thought, its incapability to disperse across non-forested areas suggests that the rapid rate of habitat loss and fragmentation that characterizes southern temperate forests likely poses a serious threat to this species. These ecological similarities are surprising given that forests studied receive dramatically different rainfall and correspond to distinct forest types. The evidence synthetized here dispels some of the myths about this species but also stresses the need for more comprehensive ecological studies across its distribution range.

  3. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    PubMed

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  4. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  5. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  6. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  7. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  10. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA'') and Article II of the United States... Environmental Cooperation; (3) ] Chapter 19 (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement;...

  11. [History of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine and clinical hospital location].

    PubMed

    Osorio A, Carlos G

    2015-02-01

    The history of the location of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine North Campus is derived from a farm of Pedro de Valdivia founder of the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura and governor of the “Reyno de Chile”. This work narrates succinctly the history of this particular location from the Spanish Conquest period to present days.

  12. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  13. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  14. The Role of the Colegio de Periodistas in the Journalism of Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Mary A.

    Recent decree laws in Chile, if implemented, will eliminate all professional "colegios" (governing bodies), including those for medicine, law, and journalism, and allow them the alternative of forming free trade unions. The twenty "colegios" of Chile require university education for membership and serve as monitors of the education and ethics…

  15. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  16. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... from Indonesia, 64 FR 8310 (February 19, 1999); and Notice of Amendment of Final Determination of Sales... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR 19658...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of...

  17. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  18. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  19. Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

  20. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  1. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  2. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

  3. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  4. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  5. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  6. Study of the dynamics of the corona using July 11, 2010 eclipse data recorded from Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Tanmoy

    Spectroscopic observations of the solar corona were performed during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010 in the green line at 5303 Å [Fe XIV] and the red line at 6374 Å [Fe X] from Easter Island, Chile. The data is analyzed to study the periodic variations in the intensity, line width and doppler velocity using wavelet analysis at all pixels within our field of view. We have found that there are few locations where significant oscillations are present. These oscillations can be interpreted in terms of the presence of magnetoacoustic waves or Alfvén waves in the corona.

  7. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

  8. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas.

  9. Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.

    1986-07-01

    The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation was discovered in the F well. Because these attempts to find oil were unsuccessful and because drilling costs have escalated, exploratory activities have been curtailed. Forearc basins off central Chile are characterized by low geothermal gradient and a sedimentary filling of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Tertiary sequences are characterized by low organic carbon content, immature humic-type organic matter, and a biogenic gas potential. Cretaceous sequences are characterized by higher organic carbon content, good reservoir rocks, and fair to good source rocks. The organic matter is sapropelic, with vitrinite and liptinites, and is favorable for oil and gas generation. Seismic and well data suggest that Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequences filling the basins (more than 4000 m thick at the shelf edge) extend 40-70 km beyond the present shelf edge. Mesozoic rocks deposited on the slope may generate petroleum and gas that could migrate upslope and accumulate in traps associated with the faulted basement highs and graben-type depressions existing at the shelf edge. This geologic setting favors the development of large petroleum accumulations along the shelf edge and graben on the sedimentary basins off central Chile.

  10. Modern rates of glacial sediment accumulation along a 15° S-N transect in fjords from the Antarctic Peninsula to southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, Katherine V.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Hallet, Bernard; Koppes, Michele N.; Forrest, Brittany K.; Wellner, Julia S.; Anderson, John B.

    2013-12-01

    of glacial erosion in temperate climates rank among the highest worldwide, and the sedimentary products of such erosion record climatic and tectonic signals in many glaciated settings, as well as temporal changes in glacier behavior. Glacial sediment yields are expected to decrease with increasing latitude because decreased temperature and meltwater production reduce glacial sliding, erosion, and sediment transfer; however, this expectation lacks a solid supportive database. Herein we present modern 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates on decadal to century time scales for 12 fjords spanning 15° of latitude from the Antarctic Peninsula to southern Chile and interpret the results in light of glacimarine sediment accumulation worldwide. 210Pb records from the Antarctic Peninsula show surprisingly steady sediment accumulation throughout the past century at rates of 1-7 mm yr-1, despite rapid warming and glacial retreat. Cores from the South Shetland Islands reveal accelerated sediment accumulation over the past few decades, likely due to changes in the thermal state of the glaciers in this region, which straddles the boundary between subpolar and temperate conditions. In Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, sediment accumulates faster (11-24 mm yr-1), and previously collected seismic profiles show that rates reach meters per year close to the glacier termini. This increase in sediment accumulation rates with decreasing latitude reflects the gradient from subpolar to temperate climates and is consistent with glacial erosion being much faster in the temperate climate of southern Chile than in the polar climate of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  11. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  12. [The Revista Médica de Chile. 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1990-01-01

    Manuel Barros Borgoño MD, Professor of Surgery who graduated in France (1879) was President of the Santiago Medical Society (1885), Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1889-95) and Rector of the University of Chile (1901). He was a contributor of the Journal. As a prominent surgeon, he introduced different forms of anesthesia, like morphine and atropine, cocaine and methylchloride. He was an organizer of the first Chilean and the first Latin American Medical Congress. In the University he encouraged medical research and helped establish the basic role of the University as a leading institution in the nation. He died in 1903.

  13. [The Revista Médica de Chile. 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1990-01-01

    Manuel Barros Borgoño MD, Professor of Surgery who graduated in France (1879) was President of the Santiago Medical Society (1885), Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1889-95) and Rector of the University of Chile (1901). He was a contributor of the Journal. As a prominent surgeon, he introduced different forms of anesthesia, like morphine and atropine, cocaine and methylchloride. He was an organizer of the first Chilean and the first Latin American Medical Congress. In the University he encouraged medical research and helped establish the basic role of the University as a leading institution in the nation. He died in 1903. PMID:2152709

  14. Panoramic View of the Andes Mountains, Chile and Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina (24.5S, 69.5W) is dominated by the yellows and browns of the coastal Atacama Desert and the full width of the Andes altiplano, about 300 miles. Winter snow can be seen capping the 22,000 to 23,000 ft. peaks of the Andes. Wisps of cirrus clouds lie over the altiplano and offshore fog obscures the coast. In the distance, the low Chaco Plain appears green with pastures and agriculture.

  15. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  16. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Pablo; Garrido, Marcela; Lessard, Eli; Swanson, Julian; Mallon, William K.; Saldias, Fernando; Basaure, Carlos; Lara, Barbara; Swadron, Stuart P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO) that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED) presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%). Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2%) of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8%) cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine). Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39%) patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a relatively low rate

  17. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  18. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  19. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species.

  20. Eddies around Guam, an island in the Mariana Islands group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, E.; Richmond, R. H.; Davis, G.; Deleersnijder, E.; Leben, R. R.

    2003-06-01

    Near-surface currents around Guam, a 35 km long, slab-shaped island in the Mariana Islands group, were estimated from current meters, satellite-derived surface topography, and a numerical model. A dominant northwestward-flowing North Equatorial Current prevailed from June to December 2000, with speeds typically 0.1-0.2 m s -1, generating unsteady eddies in the lee of Guam. A number of transient eddies off the tips of the island were apparent, the smallest eddies were at the scale of local topographic features such as headlands and embayments, while other eddies were island size. In addition to eddies off the tips of the island, a large (200 km in diameter) cyclonic oceanic eddy was advected eastward past Guam during the last 2 weeks of August 2000. Centered on Guam for a few days, this eddy formed elsewhere and impinged on the island generating anticlockwise currents around the island of up to 0.5 m s -1. It is suggested that these eddies are sufficiently energetic to return fish and coral eggs and larvae to their natal reefs in Guam, thereby enabling self-seeding of coral reefs in Guam. The numerical model also predicts that large (up to 30 m amplitude) island-generated internal waves may occur around Guam; however, no observations are presently available to support this prediction.

  1. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  2. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  3. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  4. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  5. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

  6. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  7. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  8. First record of Cymatium keenae Beu, 1970 (Mollusca: Ranellidae) from Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile, in connection with El Niño events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Tom; Riascos, Jose M.; Pacheco, Aldo

    2008-03-01

    Cymatium ( Monoplex) keenae Beu, 1970, the neopolitan triton, is a Ranellidae predator distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. In this study we report this species for the first time in Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile. Adult specimens have been found since June 2003 at depths ranging from 5 to 15 m in La Rinconada Marine Reserve (23°28'18″S, 70°30'46″W) in Antofagasta Bay, near a scallop farming facility. The present findings clearly extend the geographic range of C. keenae, which previously had been reported from La Paz, Gulf of California (Mexico) to Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the SE Pacific. Previous evidence strongly suggests that the intrusion of this tropical immigrant can be related to warm El Niño episodes. We analyze the key role of the oceanographic characteristics of Antofagasta Bay as potential temporal refuge for this species.

  9. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  10. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  11. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  12. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  13. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  14. Pre-seismic anomalous geomagnetic signature related to M8.3 earthquake occurred in Chile on September 16-th, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand Stanica, Dragos, ,, Dr.; Stanica, Dumitru, ,, Dr.; Vladimirescu, Nicoleta

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the geomagnetic data collected, via internet (www.intermagnet.com), on the interval 01 July-30 September 2015 at the observatories Easter Island (IMP) and Pilar (PIL), placed in Chile and Argentina, respectively, to emphasize a possible relationship between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M8.3 earthquake, that occurred in Offshore Coquimbo (Chile) on September 16-th, 2015. The daily mean distributions of the normalized function Bzn=Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectrical strike) and its standard deviation (STDEV) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis. It was demonstrated that in pre-seismic conditions the Bzn has a significant enhancement due to the crustal electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting system developed inside the foci and its neighboring area. After analyzing the anomalous values of the normalized function Bzn obtained at Easter Island and Pilar observatories, the second one taken as reference, we used a statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, to identify on 1-2 September 2015 a pre-seismic signature related to the M8.3 earthquake. The lead time was 14 days before the M8.3 earthquake occurrence. The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme earthquake hazard assessment.

  15. Chile2015: Lévy Flight and Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Earthquake Magnitudes in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Mariani, Maria C.; Serpa, Laura F.; Tweneboah, Osei K.

    2016-07-01

    The stochastic Truncated Lévy Flight model and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the temporal distribution of earthquake magnitudes in Chile. We show that Lévy Flight is appropriated for modeling the time series of the magnitudes of the earthquakes. Furthermore, DFA shows that these events present memory effects, suggesting that the magnitude of impeding earthquakes depends on the magnitude of previous earthquakes. Based on this dependency, we use a non-linear regression to estimate the magnitude of the 2015, M8.3 Illapel earthquake based on the magnitudes of the previous events.

  16. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  17. Roentgenologic aspects of bone islands.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, H

    1977-06-01

    A review of radiographs of 143 Adult Health Study and 46 non-sample subjects made over a period of 23 years established sites, sizes, ages at detection, and prevalence of 209 bone islands in 189 subjects. Except for 18 new bone islands, all appeared during the period of observation. Twenty-six of them changed: of these, 21 enlarged, 4 became smaller, and 1 disappeared. There was no association with atomic bomb radiation dose. Bone islands were more frequent in the pelvis and femora but often occurred in the ribs. Five bone islands in adolescents enlarged proportionally to bone growth, suggesting that they often participate metabolically in the normal osseous system. Bone islands must be differentiated from osteoblastic metastases.

  18. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439

  19. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  20. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  1. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10-166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35)/n-C31) ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  2. [Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Marcela; Maldonado, Mónica; Tagle, Federico; León, Sergio; Soto, Alejandra; Mena, Aaron; Toro, Carla

    2011-05-01

    A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the Maule regional blood production center. The results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. A change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. In Chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. There was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.

  3. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries. PMID:20945755

  4. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

    2005-10-01

    Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

  5. Differences in infant temperament between Chile and the US.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament. For the first aim, 150 Chilean infants aged 10-15 months were assessed, and 73 US infants aged 10-15 months were examined for the second aim. The children's parents completed a demographic questionnaire and the IBQ-R-VSF, which measures three dimensions of temperament: Surgency, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. The reliability of each dimension for the Chilean sample was between 0.70 and 0.75, and significant differences between Chilean and US infants emerged. Parents of Chilean infants reported higher levels of Effortful Control, whereas US parents reported that their infants exhibited higher levels of Negative Affectivity. A relationship between parents' higher educational level and infants' higher levels of Surgency was found for both countries. No gender or age differences were observed for any of the three temperament dimensions. These results and their implications for cultural studies are discussed. PMID:27450101

  6. Death patterns during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-11-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate.

  7. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  8. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries.

  9. Identification of trypanosomes isolated from reduviidae from north Chile.

    PubMed

    Schaub, G A; Schottelius, J

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 54 Triatoma infestans from a village near the European Southern Observatory La Silla in Chile and of 9 Triatoma spinolai from the territory of the observatory showed that 10 T. infestans were infected with trypanosomatids. Mice were infected with in vitro cultures initiated with five different trypanosomatid isolates and treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to increase the parasitemia of the flagellates. Evidence of the presence of T. cruzi was provided by a comparative biometrical analysis of blood trypomastigotes and the occurrence of intracellular amastigotes. Three methods for further identification were used: examination of kDNA ultrastructure, disc electrophoresis of soluble proteins and the Aaptos papillata II lectin induced agglutination. We obtained the following results for all isolates: (1) presence of a central band of the kDNA; (2) T. cruzi specific double bands of the protein patterns; (3) positive reaction with Aaptos papillata II. No differences between the five isolates from Chile and T. cruzi or T. cruzi-like strains from other countries could be observed. Based on these results an infection of the bugs with T. rangeli and T. conorhini could be excluded. PMID:6421021

  10. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  11. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.

  12. Identification of trypanosomes isolated from reduviidae from north Chile.

    PubMed

    Schaub, G A; Schottelius, J

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 54 Triatoma infestans from a village near the European Southern Observatory La Silla in Chile and of 9 Triatoma spinolai from the territory of the observatory showed that 10 T. infestans were infected with trypanosomatids. Mice were infected with in vitro cultures initiated with five different trypanosomatid isolates and treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to increase the parasitemia of the flagellates. Evidence of the presence of T. cruzi was provided by a comparative biometrical analysis of blood trypomastigotes and the occurrence of intracellular amastigotes. Three methods for further identification were used: examination of kDNA ultrastructure, disc electrophoresis of soluble proteins and the Aaptos papillata II lectin induced agglutination. We obtained the following results for all isolates: (1) presence of a central band of the kDNA; (2) T. cruzi specific double bands of the protein patterns; (3) positive reaction with Aaptos papillata II. No differences between the five isolates from Chile and T. cruzi or T. cruzi-like strains from other countries could be observed. Based on these results an infection of the bugs with T. rangeli and T. conorhini could be excluded.

  13. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow

  14. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  15. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  16. Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

  17. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

  18. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  19. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  20. [Informatics in the School of Medicine of the University of Chile. I. Origin and evolution of biomedical computing in Chile].

    PubMed

    Vivaldi, E A

    1990-08-01

    In the sixties and seventies, the School of Medicine of the University of Chile was the first Chilean institution to incorporate computers into academic endeavors through its own Computer Center. Later, professors were marginated from policy making, which became oriented to administrative goals, but they compensated that situation with the easy access to personal computers brought about by present technology. In 1986, when School authorities were again elected by the faculty staff, professors were able to participate again in a committee designing projects in this area. Current development at the School of Medicine include a proliferation of personal computers, the implementation of a computer network with access to medical data bases, and a growing number of applications in the fields of research and teaching. In the near future, due to the accessibility of telecommunications and computers, these advancements should have an impact on the whole biomedical community, a situation that would restore, after many years, the traditional role of the University of Chile in the life of the country.

  1. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, Frederick SB; Godoy, Marcos G; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Molly JT; Gherardelli, Valentina; Mansilla, Soledad; Lisperger, Angelica; Jarpa, Miguel; Larroquete, Geraldine; Avendaño, Fernando; Lara, Marcela; Gallardo, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    ISA outbreaks that started in June 2007. The genes of the F and HE glycoproteins were cloned and sequenced for 51 and 78 new isolates, respectively. An extensive comparative analysis of ISAV F and HE sequence data, including reference isolates sampled from Norway, Faroe Islands, Scotland, USA, and Canada was performed. Based on phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ISAV F and HE genes of 103 individual isolates, the isolates from the ISA outbreaks in Chile grouped in their own cluster of 7 distinct strains within Genotype I (European genotype) of ISAV, with the closest relatedness to Norwegian ISAVs isolated in 1997. The phylogenetic software program, BACKTRACK, estimated the Chile isolates diverged from Norway isolates about 1996 and, therefore, had been present in Chile for some time before the recent outbreaks. Analysis of the deduced F protein sequence showed 43 of 51 Chile isolates with an 11-amino acid insert between 265N and 266Q, with 100% sequence identity with Genotype I ISAV RNA segment 2. Twenty four different HE-HPRs, including HPR0, were detected, with HPR7b making up 79.7%. This is considered a manifestation of ISAV quasispecies HE protein sequence diversity. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that the ISA outbreaks were caused by virus that was already present in Chile that mutated to new strains. This is the first comprehensive report tracing ISAV from Europe to South America. PMID:19558648

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  4. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  5. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  7. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics. PMID:17369965

  8. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.

  9. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  10. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  11. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits. PMID:26376473

  12. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  13. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  14. Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve

    2014-05-01

    Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The

  15. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  20. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  1. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  3. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  4. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  5. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  6. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  7. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  8. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  9. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  10. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  11. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  12. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  13. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a

  14. The February 27, 2010 Chile Tsunami - Sedimentology of runup and backflow deposits at Isla Mocha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.; Spiske, M.

    2010-12-01

    On February 27, 2010, at 3:34 am local time, an earthquake with Mw 8.8 occurred off the town of Constitución in Central Chile and caused a major tsunami beween Valaparaiso (c. 33°S) and Tirua (c. 38°S). Maximum runup heights of up to 10 m were measured on coastal plains. The cliff coast at Tirua recorded a runup height between 30 m and 40 m. Considering past tsunami events, respective deposits may be the only observable evidence, even though their preservation potential is limited. To understand how tsunami deposits form and how they can be identified in the geological record, it is of paramount importance to undertake detailed studies in the wake of such events. Here we report initial field data of a sedimentological post-tsunami field survey undertaken in Central Chile between March 31 and April 18, 2010. At selected localities we measured detailed topographic profiles including runup heights and inundation distances, and recorded the thickness, distribution and sedimentological features of the respective tsunami deposits, as well as erosional features caused by the tsunami. We found the most instructive and complete sedimentological record of the February 27, 2010 tsunami at the northern tip of Isla Mocha, a small island off the Chilean coast at c. 28.15°S. Runup distances vary between 400 m and 600 m, the flow depth exceeded 3 m at ca. 100 m from the coast. Runup heights reached up to 21 m above sea level. In a rare sedimentological case, deposits of tsunami runup and backwash could be distinguished. The runup phase was mainly documented by fields of boulders extending c. 360 m inland. Boulders had maximum weights of 12 t. They were oriented with their long axis parallel to the coast and the wave front. Algal veneers and barnacles on the boulder faces give evidence of entrainment in intertidal water depths. The boulders are now embedded in mostly structureless coarse shelly sand. These sands were originally entrained during near shore supratidal erosion of

  15. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a

  16. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  17. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Southern Chile, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995-2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate.

  18. [Feasibility of implementing tele-psychiatry in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castro, Ariel; Larraín, Alberto; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this review was to search the literature on the use of telemedicine in mental health and evaluate if it can play a role in Chile. A systematic, qualitative review was carried out to compile systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and clinical controlled trials (CCT) that were in English or Spanish and that applied information technologies for the treatment of psychiatric diseases. Excluded from the review were articles without summaries or articles that included only the trial design, without results. The references of each selected article were critically evaluated. Of the 265 articles found, 224 were excluded for failing to comply with the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 41 articles were left for analysis, 30 reporting CCT and 11 systematic reviews. It is concluded that the use of information technologies to provide mental health care is widespread. It can be implemented in geographically remote places, without access to specialized mental health care and be a part of complex interventions that integrate several components.

  19. [Measles outbreaks in developed countries: A lesson for Chile].

    PubMed

    Cerda, Jaime; Abarca, Katia; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The measles vaccine has been used for over 50 years and has proven to be safe, effective and inexpensive, Nevertheless, in 2013 145,700 measles deaths occurred, mostly in countries with low per capita income and weak health infrastructure. The occurrence of measles cases is not restricted to developing countries, but also affects developed countries (Europe and USA), where is associated with a reduction in vaccination coverage, explained by a loss of confidence of some parents in the vaccine. This perspective article addresses the loss of confidence in the vaccine, and the individual and collective consequences of the decision to not vaccinate a child. Various strategies to reverse this phenomenon are presented, most notably the continuing education of health professionals, parents and patients using scientific arguments, given in an understandable and interesting language. Finally, the current situation of Chile (a country with current certification of measles elimination) is presented, emphasizing the importance of maintaining this condition. PMID:26230440

  20. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a “reciprocity principle”, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures. PMID:27570970

  1. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  2. FACTORS RELATED TO TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN OLDER ADULTS (CHILE).

    PubMed

    Pakozdi, Tamara; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; de la Maza, María Pía; Henriquez, Sandra; Hirsch, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el Gasto Energético Total (GET) en ancianos sanos que viven institucionalizados o independientes en Chile. Método: se evaluaron veintisiete jovenes (27-30 años), 27 adultos mayores institucionalizados (> 65 años ) y 27 ancianos independientes (> 65 años). Se midió la composición corporal utilizando absorciometría bifotónica de rayos X. Se calculó el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el gasto energético total (GET) utilizando acelerómetros Actiheart; se aplicó Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) y se midió el Timed Up and Go (TUG). Resultados: el GEAF fue 171, 320 y 497 kcal/día en ancianos institucionalizados, independientes y jóvenes, respectivamente (p.

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  4. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  5. [A general practitioners' program for primary care in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bass del Campo, Germán Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities. PMID:25826371

  6. A failed platform: The Citizen Consensus Conference travels to Chile.

    PubMed

    Ureta, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness.

  7. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses. PMID:26107824

  8. [A general practitioners' program for primary care in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bass del Campo, Germán Camilo

    2015-03-13

    The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities.

  9. [Scarlet fever epidemic during year 1929 in Chile].

    PubMed

    Laval R, Enrique

    2009-04-01

    Scarlet fever is endemic in Chile, with relatively low morbidity and periodic exacerbations every 4 or 5 years, which can become epidemics. From 1921 to 1927, the number of patients hospitalized in the country fluctuated from 15 to 65 per year, until an epidemic involving nearly 3.000 patients started at the end of 1928 and continued during all 1929. 978 patients died, 537 (52.5%) were from Santiago. Public Health authorities confronted this emergency with prevention, prophylaxis, isolation and treatment measures and 558 beds were disposed for patient hospitalization. Vaccination trials were undertaken and specific treatment with antitoxins was used in patients with toxic clinical cases, having satisfactory results. Convalescent patients were controlled in order to stop the spread of the infection. After approximately 3 years, this disease returned to its regular endemicity.

  10. A failed platform: The Citizen Consensus Conference travels to Chile.

    PubMed

    Ureta, Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness. PMID:25573750

  11. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  12. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  13. A numerical study of the upwelling circulation off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesias, Jorge M.

    The summer upwelling circulation off Central Chile between 34°--40°S is studied using the Princeton Ocean Circulation numerical model, implemented with realistic atmospheric forcings and bottom topography. The simulations are made for summers of years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sea surface temperature (SST) from the model results and satellite sensors (derived from NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Project datasets) are compared to determine regions where the numerical simulations more realistically represent the oceanic fields. The summer local winds are predominantly equatorward and fluctuate affected by the seasonal displacement of the Subtropical Anticyclone of the Southeast Pacific. The model ocean circulation shows the presence of a surface coastal equatorward jet flowing over a poleward undercurrent that spreads over the continental shelf and slope break. These currents resemble those historically observed off Central Chile, following a classical Ekman-geostrophy dynamics. The oceanic variability is strongly related to the variability of the local wind forcing, bottom relief, and coastline geometry. Strong wind fluctuations induce the formation of cyclonic/anticyclonic mesoscale eddies, favored by the separation of the equatorward jet from the coast, downstream of a prominent mid-domain cape. The flow variability between regions depends on the spatial variability of the wind forcing. The wind relaxation is larger in the southern regions, where the upwelling tends to disappear. In the northern areas, the separation of the jet and the formation of eddies induce a strong cross-shelf transport activity. Comparisons among SST fields for all years indicate that the model and satellite fields vary in similar patterns, especially in the northern coastal areas, and suggest that oceanic fields are largely affected by changes in local winds during El Nino events. During El Nino periods, the upwelling activity weakens due to a rapid decrease of the equatorward winds, and the passage of

  14. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  15. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  16. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  17. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  18. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  19. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  20. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... demand. Currently, Chile is dependent on imported fossil fuels for a large portion of its power... fossil fuels; smart grid; competition in electricity distribution; and regional electricity distribution... regulations (see...

  1. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  2. [Genetic evidence corroborates Negme's hypothesis about the greater mildness of American trypanosomiasis in Chile].

    PubMed

    Acuña, M; Rothhammer, F; Moreno, R; Barton, S; Arribada, A; Apt, W; Llop, E

    1992-03-01

    Chagas disease is present in northern and central Chile. Not more than 25% of infected individuals have had a pathologic condition presumably due to Trypanosoma cruzi. The majority of individuals with chronic infectious Chagas disease in Chile are asymptomatic in contrast to what has been observed in other South American countries. Historic and paleopathologic evidences suggest that this particular behavior could be explained by a genetic adaptation of Chilean aborigines to T cruzi. Associations between ethnic admixture, presence of Chagas disease, associated cardiac pathology and 4 blood groups (ABO, MNSs, Rh and Duffy) were investigated among inhabitants of San Pedro de Atacama in northern Chile. Cardiac pathology was determined by positive serologic reactions in individuals with abnormal electrocardiographic findings. Individuals with negative serologic results had a significantly greater aboriginal admixture (88%) compared to those with positive serology (66%). This findings supports the hypothesis of genetic adaptation explaining mildness of Chagas disease in Chile.

  3. Regulating self-selection into private health insurance in Chile and the United States.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Méndez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    In the 1980s, Chile adopted a mixed (public and private) model for health insurance coverage similar to the one recently outlined by the Affordable Care Act in the United States (US). In such a system, a mix of public and private health plans offer nearly universal coverage using a combined approach of managed competition and subsidies for low-income individuals. This paper uses a "most different" case study design to compare policies implemented in Chile and the US to address self-selection into private insurance. We argue that the implementation of a mixed health insurance system in Chile without the appropriate regulations was complex, and it generated a series of inequities and perverse incentives. The comparison of Chile and the US healthcare reforms examines the different approaches that both countries have used to manage economic competition, address health insurance self-selection and promote solidarity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27523039

  4. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  5. Genome Sequences of Three Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Maipo Valley, Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is part of the microbial terroir involved in wine production. Here, we present three genome sequences of O. oeni strains isolated from spontaneous malolactic fermentation of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon Maipo Valley, Chile. PMID:26272563

  6. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  7. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  8. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  9. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  10. Is Chile Complying with its Light Pollution Regulations? A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Monte Patria is the first Municipality in Chile to comply fully with Supreme Decree 686, the Chilean, environmentally-based legislation governing exterior lighting in Northern Chile - the "norma luminica". "Before" and "after" photographs of Monte Patria were published in last June's issue of "Physics Today", in the context of the global effort to control light pollution. Some photographs of other Chilean towns have been obtained for this poster and for display at the International Dark Sky Association's stand at this meeting. Highlights include detailed midnight and dawn panoramas taken by us during October, 2005 - the month in which the six-year "grace period" for all external lighting in northern Chile's astronomically-sensitive 2nd, 3rd and 4th Regions was supposed to come into full compliance. It is clear that significant progress is being made. The chief obstacle has been financial. Large-scale changeout of street lighting requires an outlay of many millions of dollars from cash-strapped municipalities. Chile's central government has moved in to provide financing at the 80-100/% level in many cases. Once Chile's congressional elections are over, we will be able to judge the political will to complete the changeover. Various large mining operations are currently engaged in major lighting changeovers; such changes are especially important in the various mines that are directly visible from existing major observatories in Northern Chile. The importance to astronomy is that full compliance with DS686 will, on average, extend the potential useful life of all the major optical observatories in Northern Chile by several decades. Funding for the Office for the Protection of the Quality of the Skies of Chile (OPCC) is provided by the Chilean National Environment Committee (CONAMA), NOAO, Gemini, ESO and the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  11. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dobson, Patrick

    2013-02-11

    Helium isotope and stable isotope data from the El Tatio, Tinginguirica, Chillan, and Tolhuaca geothermal systems, Chile. Data from this submission are discussed in: Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  12. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  13. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  14. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  15. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  16. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  17. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  18. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  19. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  20. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...