Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F
Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817
Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Albornoz, Abraham A; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Arim, Matías; Armesto, Juan J; Marquet, Pablo A
This study characterizes the structure of a plant-pollinator network in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé Island, southern Chile, where woody species are strongly dependent on biotic pollinators, and analyzes its robustness to the loss of participating species. Degree distribution, nestedness, and expected species persistence were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the roles of predefined subsets of plants (classified by life forms) and pollinators (grouped by taxonomic orders) in the network's structure and dynamics. For this, we simulated the complete removal of each plant and pollinator subset and analyzed the resultant connectivity patterns, as well as the expected long-term species losses by running a stochastic model. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of the network structure to the loss of single species in order to identify potential targets for conservation. Our results show that the plant-pollinator network of this Chilean temperate rain forest exhibits a nested structure of interactions, with a degree distribution best described by a power law model. Model simulations revealed the importance of trees and hymenopterans as pivotal groups that maintain the core structure of the pollination network and guarantee overall species persistence. The hymenopterans Bombus dahlbomii and Diphaglossa gayi, the shrubs Tepualia stipularis and Ugni molinae, the vines Mitraria coccinea and Asteranthera ovata, and the entire set of tree species exerted a disproportionately large influence on the preservation of network structure and should be considered as focal species for conservation programs given current threats from selective logging and habitat loss.
Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.
After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.
Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M
1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the
Mora, Mónica; Napolitano, Constanza; Ortega, René; Poulin, Elie; Pizarro-Lucero, José
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are two of the most common viruses affecting domestic cats (Felis catus). During the last two decades, reports show that both viruses also infect or affect other species of the family Felidae. Human landscape perturbation is one of the main causes of emerging diseases in wild animals, facilitating contact and transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. We investigated FIV and FeLV infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile. Samples from 78 domestic cats and 15 guignas were collected from 2008 to 2010 and analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Two guignas and two domestic cats were positive for FIV; three guignas and 26 domestic cats were positive for FeLV. The high percentage of nucleotide identity of FIV and FeLV sequences from both species suggests possible interspecies transmission of viruses, facilitated by increased contact probability through human invasion into natural habitats, fragmentation of guigna habitat, and poultry attacks by guignas. This study enhances our knowledge on the transmission of pathogens from domestic to wild animals in the global scenario of human landscape perturbation and emerging diseases.
Cabrera, Elsa; Carlson, Carole A.; Brownell, Robert L.
Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004–2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively. Using mark-recapture analysis of left and right side photographs collected from Isla Grande de Chiloé (2004–2012), open population models estimate that ~570–760 whales are feeding seasonally in this region. POPAN superpopulation abundance estimates for the same feeding ground in 2012 are 762 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 638–933) and 570 (95% CI 475–705) for left and right side datasets respectively, very similar to results from closed population models. Estimates of trend revealed strong variation in abundance, peaking in 2009 and [suggesting] fluctuating use in the survey area over time, likely related to the density of their prey. High inter-annual return rates suggest a degree of site-fidelity of individuals to Isla Grande de Chiloé and that the number of whales using this feeding ground is relatively small. PMID:28081160
Galletti Vernazzani, Barbara; Jackson, Jennifer A; Cabrera, Elsa; Carlson, Carole A; Brownell, Robert L
Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004-2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively. Using mark-recapture analysis of left and right side photographs collected from Isla Grande de Chiloé (2004-2012), open population models estimate that ~570-760 whales are feeding seasonally in this region. POPAN superpopulation abundance estimates for the same feeding ground in 2012 are 762 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 638-933) and 570 (95% CI 475-705) for left and right side datasets respectively, very similar to results from closed population models. Estimates of trend revealed strong variation in abundance, peaking in 2009 and [suggesting] fluctuating use in the survey area over time, likely related to the density of their prey. High inter-annual return rates suggest a degree of site-fidelity of individuals to Isla Grande de Chiloé and that the number of whales using this feeding ground is relatively small.
Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A
The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.
Frostick, L.E.; Steel, R.J.; Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Schmoll, H.R.
At Río Pudeto and Quetalmahue, two estuaries along the northern shore of Isla Chiloé that subsided as much as 2 m in the great 1960 earthquake, reconnaissance stratigraphical studies reveal evidence of a regressive, nearshore marine sequence. The intertidal deposits include a peat-bearing, high-intertidal marsh sequence as thick as 1.4 m overlying shell- and foraminifera-bearing silt and clay layers presumed to represent a deeper water, low-intertidal environment.Stratigraphy indicates a relative sea-level fall since about 5000 years BP as evidenced by radiocarbon ages that constrain the peat-bearing sequences. Locally, low-intertidal silt and clay overlie high-intertidal peat layers, but such minor transgressions cannot be correlated from site to site. At Río Pudeto, the youngest foraminifera-bearing silt deposit is no younger than 1200 years BP. The youngest age of shells at Quetalmahue is about 2600 years BP. The oldest peat-bearing deposits that are not overlain by silt deposits are about 1350 years BP at Río Pudeto, and as old as 4900 years BP at Quetalmahue. At Río Pudeto, peat-bearing deposits, which are overlain by silt and clay, range in age from 760 to 5430 years BP, and at Quetalmahue from 290 to 5290 years BP. A beach terrace on the northwest coast of the Isla is estimated to have been emergent since 1150 + 130 years ago.Although some relatively abrupt transgressions may be due to sudden coseismic subsidence, data are not sufficient to document regional subsidence during individual plate-interface earthquakes. Seven earthquakes in south central Chile since 1520, especially those that occurred in 1575, 1737, and 1837, are thought to have been of a magnitude comparable to that of the 1960 earthquake. Although the sedimentological effects of the 1960 earthquake on the intertidal zone were dramatic, only limited evidence of possible historic earthquakes is found on Isla Chiloé and nearby islands; the ages and displacements of these earthquakes are
Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.
The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts . In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga , ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of , in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., ) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk.  Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240.  Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245.  Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960.  Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.
Late-glacial-Holocene forest history of southern Isla Chiloé (latitude 43°10' S) was reconstructed on the basis of pollen analysis in three profiles (Laguna Soledad, Laguna Chaiguata, Puerto Carmen). Prior to 12,500 yr B.P. pollen records are dominated by plant taxa characteristic of open habitats (Zone I). From 12,500 yr B.P. to the present, tree species predominate in the pollen records (Zones II-V). Between 12,500 and 9500 yr B.P. ombrophyllous taxa ( Nothofagus, Podocarpus nubigena. Myrtaceae, Fitzroya/Pilgerodendron, and Drimys) are frequent in all pollen diagrams, suggesting a wetter and colder climate than the present. Between 9000 and 5500 yr B.P. Valdivian forest elements, such as Nothofagus dombeyi type, Weinmannia, and Eucryphia/Caldcluvia, dominate, indicating a period of drier and warmer climate. From 5500 yr B.P. onward, the expansion of mixed North Patagonian-Subantarctic forest elements and the increased frequence of Tepualia suggest increased rainfall and temperatures oscillating around the modern values. The change from open to forest vegetation (ca. 12,500 yr B.P.) probably represents the most pronounced climatic change in the record and can be interpreted as the glacial-postglacial transition in the study area.
Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin
There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues.
Cisternas, M.; Lagos, M.; Srinivasalu, S.
A stratigraphic sequence at Cocotue Bay, Chiloe Is., south-central Chile, containing both earthquake-triggered debris flows and tsunami deposits, yields an earthquake history that likely includes the giant earthquakes and tsunamis inferred previously from a combination of geology, ecology, and written records in south-central Chile (AD ~1000, ~1300, 1575 and 1960). However, the Cocotue sequence also contains evidence for at least four additional earthquakes and tsunamis that are intermediate in age and perhaps lesser in size. The most recent of the additional earthquakes recorded at Cocotue probably corresponds to the poorly understood Chilean earthquake and associated trans-Pacific tsunami of 1837. The tsunami, though small on the Chilean coast, ran as high as 6 m in Hawaii and flooded fields in Japan. At Cocotue, the 1837 earthquake, like other three earlier events, is probably represented by both a debris-flow deposit and a tsunami deposit. To study the sedimentary record of intermediate and lesser events is important because this is the more probable kind of event to occur in the near future of south-central Chile. Research funded by Proyecto Fondecyt 1060227
Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J
We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.
Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Thiel, Martin; Henríquez, Camila; Hernández, Sebastián; Fernández, Julio C. C.; Hajdu, Eduardo
Estuarine environments are complex ecological systems, which depend on multiple inputs of organic sources that could support their benthic communities. The deep-water megabenthic communities of the Interior Sea of Chiloé (ISCh, northern part of the fjord region of Chile) were studied to characterize their taxonomic composition and to trace the energy pathways supporting them by using stable isotope analysis (SIA). Megabenthic and demersal organisms as well as sunken macroalgal debris and terrestrial organic matter (TOM: wood, leaves, branches) were obtained by bottom trawling along an estuarine gradient covering 100-460 m water depth. Additionally, particulate organic matter (POM) and the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) were sampled and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were determined for all these organisms and potential food sources. A total of 140 taxa were obtained, including invertebrates (e.g. polychaetes, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms) bony fishes, rays and sharks. Based on the stable isotope values it was possible to infer a strong dependence on primary production derived from phytoplankton which is exported to the benthos. A potentially important contribution from sunken macroalgae to megabenthic consumers was established only for some invertebrates, such as the irregular echinoid Tripylaster philippii and the decapod Eurypodius latreillii. The trophic structure metrics suggest a similar isotopic niche width, trophic diversity and species packaging in the food webs among the major basins in the ISCh. It is thus concluded that the benthic food webs are supported principally by surface primary production, but macroalgal subsidies could be exploited by selected invertebrate taxa (e.g. detritivores) and terrestrial carbon pathways are important for certain specialized taxa (e.g. Xylophaga dorsalis).
Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R
A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined.
Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela
Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.
Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.
Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric
The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732
Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric
The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.
Cáceres, C; Yung, V; Araya, P; Tognarelli, J; Villagra, E; Vera, L; Fernández, J
Dengue-1 viruses responsible for the dengue fever outbreak in Easter Island in 2002 were isolated from acute-phase sera of dengue fever patients. In order to analyze the complete genome sequence, we designed primers to amplify contiguous segments across the entire sequence of the viral genome. RT-PCR products obtained were cloned, and complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined. This report constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a DENV-1 isolate from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis shows that an Easter Island isolate is most closely related to Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses.
How did these Karman vortices develop? On that day, the wind was carrying northward a layer of stratocumulus clouds (flat-bottomed puffballs). The mile-high island caused this cloud layer to slow about the island, while remaining fast farther out on either side. So on each “wing,” left and right, the air started rotating toward the inside—clockwise on the left, counter-clockwise on the right. The rotational momentum made each side swirl in on itself. The whorl-cores were clear because the swirling pulled dry, clear air (from above or below) into the wet layer, a bit like the funnel formed when you stir up a pitcher of orange juice. These clear, spinning pockets trailed off down the “street” from the island like soap bubbles from a toy wand—drifting downwind, weakening, filling with clouds, and breaking up.
The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations
Hormazabal, Samuel; Morales, Carmen; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Valencia, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Rodriguez, Angel; Correa, Marco; Anabalón, Valeria; Silva, Nelson
In the Southeast Pacific, oceanographic processes that sustain the biological production necessary to maintain the ecosystems associated to seamounts and oceanic islands are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the interaction of mesoscale and submesoescale eddies with oceanic islands and seamounts could be playing an important role in the time-space variability of primary production. In this work, research cruises, satellite data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results have been used to describe the main characteristics of intrathermocline eddies (ITE) and their impact on the Juan Fernández archipelago (JFA), off central Chile. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Between the RC and AS are located the westernmost seamounts (JF6 and JF5) of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Satellite altimetry data (sea surface height from AVISO) were used to detect and track mesoscale eddies through eddy-tracking algorithm. Physical, chemical and biological parameters as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence were measured in the water column at JF5 and JF6, and along the coast off central Chile (30-40°S). Results from the research cruise exhibit the interaction between an ITE and the seamount JF6. Eddy-tracking results showed that the ITE observed at the JF6 was formed at the coast off central-southern Chile, traveled ~900 km seaward and after ~9 months reached the JF5 and JF6 region. Observations along the Chilean coast confirmed that the coast corresponds to the formation area of the observed ITE. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (~100 km diameter; 400 m thickness) of homogeneous salinity, nutrient rich and oxygen-poor equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) which is transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent in the coastal band and seaward by ITEs. The effect of ITEs on the
In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden.
Renteria, Willington; Lynett, Patrick
The object of this study is to present an analysis of measurements and observations from the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 tsunamis, in order to understand the particular response of the Galápagos Islands to the occurrence of these extreme events. There was very limited data measured in the Galápagos during the tsunami events, other than a high-frequency and continuous record of each event logged at the two tidal gauge stations. With this data, a wavelet analysis is performed with the aim of discriminating different patterns in wave periods along the record of observation and to recognize the frequency response of the islands to an incoming tsunami. During both events, a clear and persistent signal is found in the period range of ten to twelve minutes for Baltra tide gauge, and in the range of seventeen to twenty minutes for Santa Cruz tide gauge. Both of these persistent signals are speculated to be a shelf resonant mode particular to the Galápagos Islands and the Galápagos Platform.
Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie
Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access
Jessen, Gerdhard L.; Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo A.; Quiñones, Renato A.; González, Rodrigo R.; Sellanes, Javier; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe
We studied for the first time the intertidal and subtidal gas seepage system in Mocha Island off Central Chile. Four main seepage sites were investigated (of which one site included about 150 bubbling points) that release from 150 to 240 tonnes CH 4 into the atmosphere per year. The total amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere is estimated in the order of 800 tonnes per year. The gases emanated from the seeps contain 70% methane, and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane, δ 13C-CH 4 averaged -44.4±1.4‰ which indicates a major contribution of thermogenic gas. Adjacent to one of the subtidal seeps, rocky substrates support a diverse community of microbial filaments, macroalgae, and benthic organisms. While stable carbon isotopic compositions of marine benthic organisms indicate a dominant photosynthesis-based food web, those of some hard-substrate invertebrates were in the range -48.8‰ to -36.8‰, suggesting assimilation of methane-derived carbon by some selected taxa. This work highlights the potential subsidy of the trophic web by CH 4-C, and that its emission to the atmosphere justifies the need of evaluating the use of methane to support the energy requirements of the local community.
Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio
Most human activities and hydrogeological information on small young volcanic islands are near the coastal area. There are almost no hydrological data from inland areas, where permanent springs and/or boreholes may be rare or nonexistent. A major concern is the excessive salinity of near-the-coast wells. Obtaining a conceptual hydrogeological model is crucial for groundwater resources development and management. Surveys of water seepages and rain for chemical and environmental isotope contents may provide information on the whole island groundwater flow conditions, in spite of remaining geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. New data from Easter Island (Isla de Pascua), in the Pacific Ocean, are considered. Whether Easter Island has a central low permeability volcanic “core” sustaining an elevated water table remains unknown. Average recharge is estimated at 300-400 mm/year, with a low salinity of 15-50 mg/L Cl. There is an apron of highly permeable volcanics that extends to the coast. The salinity of near-the-coast wells, >1,000 mg/L Cl, is marine in origin. This is the result of a thick mixing zone of island groundwater and encroached seawater, locally enhanced by upconings below pumping wells. This conceptual model explains what is observed, in the absence of inland boreholes and springs.
Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB
Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line
Margottini, C.; Delmonaco, G.; Spizzichino, D.; Pandolfi, O.; Crisostomo, R.; Nohe, S.
Easter Island forms part of the Easter Line, a continuous latitudinal chain of volcanic seamounts and islands in the Pacific Sea. The island's roughly triangular shape is determined by the merging of lava flows produced by its three main volcanoes (Rano Kau, Terevaka, Poike) which form its main mass. The Rano Kau volcano, sited in the SW vertex of the island, is made up of numerous basaltic lava flows and has been reduced in size by faulting and marine erosion. Its crater (1.4 km wide) is a small caldera that collapsed after a late, large explosive phase, as attested by the presence of breccia deposits around the eastern rim of the crater. The archaeological stone village of Orongo is located above the inner wall of the crater at an altitude of ca. 300m a.s.l. Prominent historical remains are the numerous petroglyphs that represent the ancient ceremonial of the birdman cult (tangata manu). Rano Kau is mainly composed of sequences of basaltic and intermediate lavas and pyroclastics. Most of the of the original caldera area, especially in the southern flank, has been disrupted by marine erosion. This has caused a dramatic change of the original morphology, resulting in a sub-vertical cliff and steep slopes, especially in the middle-low portions. In the upper part of the slopes weathered soils and regolith are outcropping. Topographical and geomorphological analysis of the area conducted by a direct field surveys in January and July 2008 have provided clear evidences of slope instability along the southern external flank of the caldera. Different landslide areas have been detected. The most active area is located at east of the village in correspondence of the crest zone of Rano Kau where a debris slide/fall has recently occurred. The analysis of photos taken in Nov. 2007 in the same area evidences that the landslide crown area was originated at an elevation of ca. 200m a.s.l. along a probable contact between basaltic layers on the top and weathered lava. Other minor
Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo
This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions.
Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Piatek, Jennifer; Stubbs, Kristin; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Chen, Yong; McKay, Christopher P.
Plant landscape ecology studies have been carried out for decades and are fundamental to biological research. In contrast, few corollary spatial landscape studies exist for microorganisms, particularly in extreme environments. To address this gap, we mapped the abundance and spatial distribution of photoautotrophs colonizing translucent rocks in several sites in the Atacama Desert, including the hyperarid core. Cyanobacterial communities at all sites are predominantly (≥75%) `perilithic' (confined to the periphery of rocks) and occur in non-random spatial patterns ("island patches") at multiple scales. Cyanobacterial patches typically contain 1-5 colonized rocks but in some cases support much higher numbers. A high resolution mapping of a single 18-m2 rock cluster at the Aguas Calientes study site (25°S, 69°W) revealed colonization of 5.2% (49 of 948 quartz rocks) and showed colonized rocks to be much larger (˜2X) than the available mean rock size. Ripley's K and point pattern analyses show that quartz rocks are not "selected" or occupied by cyanobacteria randomly, but that non-random processes distinct from those creating the background rock pattern must be invoked to explain microbial patchiness in the Atacama Desert. These processes include physical controls (rock size/orientation, microtopography) that reflect resource (water) limitations, and biological dispersal via rainfall, fog and wind.
Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N
Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park.
Sellanes, Javier; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Pantoja, Silvio; Jessen, Gerdhard L.
We analyzed C and N stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna and their potential food sources at an intertidal methane seep site and a control site without emanation at Mocha Island (central Chile). The objective was to trace the origin of the main food sources used by the local heterotrophic fauna, based on the hypothesis that chemosynthetic production could be partially fueling the local food web at the seep site. Food sources sampled at both sites included macroalgae, particulate organic matter and bacteria-like filaments found growing over the red algae Gelidium lingulatum within the areas of active methane release. At the control site, located 11 km away from the gas emanation, fauna exhibited moderate δ 13C values ranging from -16.2‰ (in a nereid polychaete) to -14.8‰ (in a cirolanid isopod), which were consistent with those of the potential photosynthetic food sources sampled at this site (-20.2 to -16.5‰). δ 13C values of the photosynthetic food sources at the seep site similarly ranged between -25.4 and -17.9‰. However, a portion of the animals at this site were consistently more 13C-depleted, with δ 13C values close to that of the seeping methane (-43.8‰) and the bacteria-like filaments (-39.2 ± 2.5‰) also collected at this site. Specific examples were the Marphysa sp. polychaetes (δ 13C = -44.7 ± 0.6‰), the Schistomeringos sp. dorvilleid polychaetes (δ 13C = -42.9‰), and the tanaid crustacean Zeuxo marmoratus (δ 13C = -37.3 ± 0.2‰). The significantly higher δ 13C values of the herbivorous gastropod Tegula atra at the seep site (-29.3 ± 3.1‰) than at the control site (-12.6 ± 0.3‰) also indicated differences among sites of the preferred carbon sources of this species. Mixing model estimates indicate that at the seep site bacteria-like filaments could be contributing up to ˜60% of the assimilated diet of selected invertebrates. Furthermore, several indicators of trophic structure, based in isotopic niche metrics, indicate a
Reichert, Chr.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party, The
Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompanying conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The present status of data allows the following observations: the oceanic crust is seg- mented by features like the Juan Fernandez Ridge, the Mocha and Valdivia Fracture Zones, accumulations of seamounts and by distinct parallel fault patterns with various azimuths. From north to south the subduction-induced inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench decreases while the trench proper widens and the margin slope an- gle increase significantly. In the north clearly extensional normal faulting occurs on the upper and middle slopes, very similar to that observed off North Chile where sub- duction erosion is active. While in the north no bottom simulating reflectors could be observed they occur in the south as local patches. The slope area in the south is over- printed by a faint lineation pattern with a dominant azimuth of some 120 degrees that neatly fits with a mapped pattern onshore with the same azimuth. The pronounced forearc basins in the south are often accompanied by outer arc highs and strikingly narrow accretionary wedges. The latter are in contrast with the high convergence rate of more than 8 cm/yr and the relatively thick trench filling of up to more than 2.000 m. Thus, a non-accretionary subduction type is suggested, here.
The spider genus Cyrioctea Simon on Chañaral Island (Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve, Atacama, Chile): description of a new species, and the male of Cyrioctea cruz Platnick (Araneae, Zodariidae).
Grismado, Cristian J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
A faunistic survey on Chañaral Island, Atacama, near the northern Pacific coast of Chile, allowed the discovery and description of a new species of the spider genus Cyrioctea: C. islachanaral sp. nov., based on females collected by pitfall traps. Strikingly, this new species shares morphological characters with some Southern African representatives of this genus rather than with the species of continental South America. The male of the species C. cruz Platnick, previously known from continental Chile (northern Coquimbo), is described for the first time based on specimens collected in the same locality.
Chowell, G.; Fuentes, R.; Olea, A.; Aguilera, X.; Nesse, H.; Hyman, J. M.
We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number ℛ0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated ℛ0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics. PMID:24245625
Chowell, Gerardo; Fuentes, R; Olea, A; Aguilera, X; Nesse, H; Hyman, J M
We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number R0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated R0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics.
Perez-Quezada, Jorge; Brito, Carla; Cabezas, Julian; Salvo, Patricia; Lemunao, Pedro; Flores, Ernesto; Valdés, Ariel; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Pérez, Cecilia
The distribution of carbon in the different ecosystem stocks may change with direct human perturbation or climate change. We present a detailed description of the carbon stocks of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland (i.e., created by flooding, as a consequence of forest fires or logging). The study area was located in a private reserve in the Chiloé Island, southern Chile (41° 52' S, 73° 40' W). Sampling was done on plots separated 60 m from each other, in areas of approximately 30 ha for each ecosystem type. Total C was 1523 ± 117 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 ± 13.8 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, with 69.7% and 91.7% of this found belowground, respectively. In the forest, the necromass stock composed by logs and snags was high (183 Mg C ha-1), compared with the live-tree stock (264 Mg C ha-1) and with the C stored in the understory vegetation (14 Mg C ha-1). In the peatland, most of the C was stored in the most decomposed layer of peat, deeper in the ground. Because the anthropogenic peatland is experiencing a secondary succession, there is great potential to sequester back the C lost due to the perturbation. However, in most of the area where these ecosystems are found, the moss is being harvested for horticultural purposes.
Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric
1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.
Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Ulutaş, Ergin
The finite-fault source rupture models and numerical simulations of tsunami waves generated by 28 October 2012 Queen Charlotte Islands (Mw: 7.8), and 16 September 2015 Illapel-Chile (Mw: 8.3) earthquakes are presented. These subduction zone earthquakes have reverse faulting mechanisms with small amount of strike-slip components which clearly reflect the characteristics of convergence zones. The finite-fault slip models of the 2012 Queen Charlotte and 2015 Chile earthquakes are estimated from a back-projection method that uses teleseismic P- waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source. Non-uniform rupture models of the fault plane, which are obtained from the finite fault modeling, are used in order to describe the vertical displacement on seabed. In general, the vertical displacement of water surface was considered to be the same as ocean bottom displacement, and it is assumed to be responsible for the initial water surface deformation gives rise to occurrence of tsunami waves. In this study, it was calculated by using the elastic dislocation algorithm. The results of numerical tsunami simulations are compared with tide gauges and Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoy records. De-tiding, de-trending, low-pass and high-pass filters were applied to detect tsunami waves in deep ocean sensors and tide gauge records. As an example, the observed records and results of simulations showed that the 2012 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake generated about 1 meter tsunami-waves in Maui and Hilo (Hawaii), 5 hours and 30 minutes after the earthquake. Furthermore, the calculated amplitudes and time series of the tsunami waves of the recent 2015 Illapel (Chile) earthquake are exhibiting good agreement with the records of tide and DART gauges except at stations Valparaiso and Pichidangui (Chile). This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK
Soto, K. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Richter, D. H.
Many coastal areas in the South Pacific Ocean can provide significant marine energy resources in the near future. The installation of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in these regions will require new approaches to understand physical and environmental processes that are relevant for the installation of turbine arrays, which are also specific of each site. The coastal morphology of the Chacao channel in southern Chile, which separates the Chiloé island from the main continent (41º47'S, 73º31'W) stands out as an important energy resource that can potentially contribute a significant power capacity. This coastal area not only sustains delicate ecosystems with limited anthropic intervention, but it is characterized by a complex bathymetry that can have important effects on the performance of MHK devices and their local impacts. To understand the interactions of the local bathymetry and ambient turbulence with turbine arrays, we carry out a series of numerical simulations with a coherent-structure resolving turbulence model using the actuator disk parameterization. The main objective of this study is to further our understanding on the physical processes associated with the installation of the turbine arrays. We perform simulations with different geometries and inlet boundary conditions, from simple cases in a rectangular channel, to more complex cases that include the high-resolution bathymetry of an extensive area of the Chacao channel. The results show how the interactions between the MHK devices, the local flow, and the bed can affect the energy flux and potential generation in specific sites. The results also provide new insights of local impacts of MHK devices and they can also help to optimize turbine arrays in natural environments. This work has been supported by Fondecyt project 1130940, and the Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) financed by Corfo and based in Santiago, Chile.
Kempf, Philipp; Moernaut, Jasper; Van Daele, Maarten; Vandoorne, Willem; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; De Batist, Marc
We present an exceptionally long and continuous coastal lacustrine record of ∼5500 years from Lake Huelde on the west coast of Chiloé Island in south central Chile. The study area is located within the rupture zone of the giant 1960 CE Great Chilean Earthquake (MW 9.5). The subsequent earthquake-induced tsunami inundated Lake Huelde and deposited mud rip-up clasts, massive sand and a mud cap in the lake. Long sediment cores from 8 core sites within Lake Huelde reveal 16 additional sandy layers in the 5500 year long record. The sandy layers share sedimentological similarities with the deposit of the 1960 CE tsunami and other coastal lake tsunami deposits elsewhere. On the basis of general and site-specific criteria we interpret the sandy layers as tsunami deposits. Age-control is provided by four different methods, 1) 210Pb-dating, 2) the identification of the 137Cs-peak, 3) an infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) date and 4) 22 radiocarbon dates. The ages of each tsunami deposit are modelled using the Bayesian statistic tools of OxCal and Bacon. The record from Lake Huelde matches the 8 regionally known tsunami deposits from documented history and geological evidence from the last ∼2000 years without over- or underrepresentation. We extend the existing tsunami history by 9 tsunami deposits. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various sedimentary environments for tsunami deposition and preservation, e.g. we find that Lake Huelde is 2-3 times less sensitive to relative sea-level change in comparison to coastal marshes in the same region.
Wesson, R. L.; Melnick, D.; Cisternas, M.; Ely, L. L.; Moreno, M.
Repeated bathymetric surveys, historical nautical charts, geologic observations, interviews with local residents, and modern GPS measurements all support a pattern of coseismic uplift, followed by post-seismic and inter-seismic subsidence, at Santa María Island off the coast of south-central Chile. The island is located approximately 75 km landward of the Chile trench and about 12 km above the megathrust fault. Six weeks after the February 20, 1835 Concepcion earthquake (~M 8.5), Captain Robert FitzRoy and the HMS Beagle visited the island and reported 2.4-3 m of uplift based primarily on observations of elevated, newly dead, intratidal and subtidal shellfish attached to rocks. The February 27, 2010 Maule earthquake (M 8.8) earthquake produced similar effects. Several lines of evidence suggest significant subsidence between 1835 and 2010. First, the extensive wave-cut platform at the northern end of island that FitzRoy vividly describes as being exposed and covered with dead shellfish in 1835, lay at the lower level of the island’s 2-m tidal range in January 2010. The nautical chart prepared by officers of the Beagle suggests that the platform was above high tide in 1835. An elderly resident reports that in the first half of the twentieth century part of the platform was above high tide. While some lowering of the bedrock platform could be explained by erosion, the amount of required erosion would be very rapid and extensive. GPS measurements for the interval 2004-2008 indicate that the island subsided at a rate of 10 +/- 1 mm/a as well as moving landward at a rate of 42 mm/a. On January 13 and 15, 2010, we carried out a simple echo-sounder survey in the bay off the southeastern coast of Santa María Island. The same bay, Rada Santa Maria, was surveyed by the Beagle in 1835 using a lead line and pole. The bay has a smooth and very gently sloping bottom, an average depth of about 8 m, and dimensions of about 3 x 5 km. Comparison of our measured depths with those
To provide a foundation for national resistance management of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), a systematic study was carried out to determine dose response and susceptibility changes over a five-year period in the insect from representative rice production regions. A total of eleve...
The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.
Tokro, P G; Saxena, K N
Feeding responses of Chilo partellus larvae to different food sources, were studied. Maize and sorghum were more preferred to artificial diet by the larvae irrespective of their rearing media. Larvae fed on maize and sorghum leaves as well as maize and sorghum stems. The rearing medium did not have any effect on the feeding preference; it could only improve but not induce the feeding behaviour.
Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Lopresti, Massimo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo
ChiloKey is a matrix-based, interactive key to all 179 species of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) recorded from Europe, including species of uncertain identity and those whose morphology is known partially only. The key is intended to assist in identification of subadult and adult specimens, by means of microscopy and simple dissection techniques whenever necessary. The key is freely available through the web at: http://www.biologia.unipd.it/chilokey/ and at http://www.interactive-keys.eu/chilokey/.
Moghaieb, Reda E A
The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.
Drake, Paul W.
Annotated bibliography on the history of Chile during 60 years in the middle of the twentieth century is presented. A general outline of major Chilean developments during this period is presented to aid college level history instructors develop curriculum on Chile. Outline topics are the end of the Parliamentary Republic, 1920-31; popular front…
Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D
Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context.
Singh, Ramkumar; Channappa, Ravi K; Deeba, Farah; Nagaraj, Nandi J; Sukavaneaswaran, Mohan K; Manjunath, T M
Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the susceptibility of C. partellus to the Cry1Ab protein in laboratory bioassays. The implications of the tissue concentrations of Cry1Ab in MON 810, and baseline susceptibility recorded in the current study, for insect-resistance management are discussed.
Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Wei, Jinjin; Liao, Xinyan; Walker, William B; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong
Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by multiple proteins in the antenna, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, an economically important agricultural pest, which inflicts great damage to the rice yield in south and east part of Asia, especially in Southern China. By Illumina sequencing of male and female antennal transcriptomes, we identified 47 odorant receptors, 20 ionotropic receptors, 26 odorant binding proteins, 21 chemosensory proteins and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of C. suppressalis at the molecular level.
Yuan, Zheming; Fu, Wei; Li, Fangyi
Two original samples of Chilo suppressalis and their grid, random and sequence samples were analyzed by classical method and geostatistics to characterize the spatial distribution pattern of C. suppressalis. The limitations of spatial distribution analysis with classical method, especially influenced by the original position of grid, were summarized rather completely. On the contrary, geostatistics characterized well the spatial distribution pattern, congregation intensity and spatial heterogeneity of C. suppressalis. According to geostatistics, the population was up to Poisson distribution in low density. As for higher density population, its distribution was up to aggregative, and the aggregation intensity and dependence range were 0.1056 and 193 cm, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity was also found in the higher density population. Its spatial correlativity in line direction was more closely than that in row direction, and the dependence ranges in line and row direction were 115 and 264 cm, respectively.
Available from <http://www.rr.ee.gov.bo/ministerio/ POLITICA EXTERIOR /memoria.htm >. Internet. Accessed 28 October 2004. Gray, Colin. “Thinking...Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at
Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca
Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chiles history in euthanasia and the populations opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.
Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valdés, Pablo; Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago
Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysén to 100% in the Seno de Reloncaví zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncaví (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirén (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chiloé norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysén (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones.
EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.
Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong
Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach. PMID:26310773
Xiao, Hai-Jun; Mou, Feng-Chen; Zhu, Xing-Fen; Xue, Fang-Sen
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees C, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees C, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees C). The diapause incidence declined in ultra-long nights (18-22 h scotophases) and DD, and increased in ultra-short nights (2-6 h scotophases) and LL. Moreover, we found that the third instar was the stage most sensitive to the photoperiod, and night length played an essential role in the initiation of diapause. Night-interruption experiments with a 1-h light pulse at LD 12:12 (light 12:dark 12) exhibited two troughs of diapause inhibition, with one occurring in early scotophase and the other in late scotophase. Field observations for six years showed that most larvae entered winter diapause in August in response to declining day lengths, despite the high temperatures prevailing during August. By periodically transferring the field-collected overwintering larvae to different photoperiods and temperatures, the results showed that photoperiod had a significant influence on diapause development during the early phase of diapause, while high temperature significantly accelerated the termination of larval diapause.
Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei
Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.
Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Cheng, Xiong-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Li, Guo-Qing; Han, Zhao-Jun
Serpins, also called serine proteinase inhibitors, are widely distributed in eukaryotes. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses, gut physiology, and other processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of 12 serpin-like cDNAs from the striped rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), a major rice pest. The putative proteins share significant sequence similarity with known insect serpins, especially those from lepidopterons. Analysis of functional domains revealed that nine of the cloned serpins are putative trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like inhibitors; two are mixed-type serpins that may act as inhibitors for trypsins, elastases, or thrombin; and the remaining one is truncate. The potential functions of these serpins in interacting with host plants were also investigated by analyzing tissue-specific expression and the impact of different host plant genotypes on gene expression. Our results provide a foundation for future studies on the role of serpins in gut physiology in the striped rice stem borer, and also useful information for comparative analyses of serpins from different insect species.
Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong
Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at -3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis.
Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing; Xia, Yong-Gui; Han, Zhao-Jun
The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major pest for rice production in China and the rest of Southeast Asia. Chemical control is the main means to alleviate losses due to this pest, which causes serious environmental pollution. An effective and environmentally friendly approach is needed for the management of the striped rice stem borer. Cysteine proteases in insects could be useful targets for pest management either through engineering plant protease inhibitors, targeting insect digestive cysteine proteases, or through RNA interference-based silencing of cysteine proteases, disrupting developmental regulation of insects. In this study, eight cysteine protease-like genes were identified and partially characterized. The genes CCO2 and CCL4 were exclusively expressed in the larval gut, and their expression was affected by the state of nutrition in the insect. The expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CCO1 was significantly affected by the type of host plant, suggesting a role in host plant - insect interactions. Our initial characterization of the striped rice stem borer cysteine protease-like genes provides a foundation for further research on this important group of genes in this major insect pest of rice.
Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Jia
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. A complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP levels. In the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3, from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. All three receptors show considerable sequence identity with orthologous dopamine receptors. The phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptors within their respective groups. Transcript levels of CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were all expressed at high levels in the central nervous system, indicating their important roles in neural processes. After heterologous expression in HEK 293 cells, CsDOP1, CsDOP2 and CsDOP3 were dose-dependently activated by dopamine and synthetic dopamine receptor agonists. They can also be blocked by different series of antagonists. This study offers important information on three dopamine receptors from C. suppressalis that will provide the basis for forthcoming studies investigating their roles in behaviors and physiology, and facilitate the development of new insecticides for pest control.
Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Ota, Noboru; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Hutchison, William D
Chilo partellus is a major crop pest in Asia and Africa, and has recently spread to the Mediterranean region. Knowledge of its potential distribution can inform biosecurity policies aimed at limiting its further spread and efforts to reduce its impact in areas that are already invaded. Three models of the potential distribution of this insect have been published, each with significant shortcomings. We re-parameterized an existing CLIMEX model to address some parameter inconsistencies and to improve the fit to the known distribution of C. partellus. The resulting model fits the known distribution better than previous models, highlights additional risks in equatorial regions and reduces modelled risks in wet and extremely dry regions. We bring new insights into the role of irrigation in the potential spread of this invasive insect and compare its potential distribution with the present known distribution of its hosts. We also distinguish regions that are suitable for supporting persistent populations from those that may be at risk from ephemeral populations during favourable seasons. We present one of the first demonstrations of a new capability in CLIMEX to automatically estimate parameter sensitivity and model uncertainty. Our CLIMEX model highlights the substantial invasion risk posed by C. partellus to cropping regions in the Americas, Australia, China, Europe, New Zealand and West Africa. Its broad host range and reported impacts suggest that it should be a pest of significant concern to biosecurity agencies in these presently uninvaded regions.
Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N
Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer.
Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong
Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach.
both sides, Argentina’s ruling military junta pulled back just short of attacking the territory occupied by Chile, and eventually both sides reached...Chile, Territorial Disputes, Beagle Channel, Falkland Islands, Malvinas, Junta, Governmental Decision Making, Prospect Theory 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...junta pulled back just short of attacking the territory occupied by Chile, and eventually both sides reached a peaceful settlement. Only four years
The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.
Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L.; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime
Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258
The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...
Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Ye, Gong-Yin
Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. Biogenic amines such as octopamine (OA), tyramine (TA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. OA and 5-HT have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Here, we showed that TA increase hemocyte spreading in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a tyramine receptor type 2 from the hemocytes in the C. suppressalis, viz., CsTA2, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine receptor family. The CsTA2 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with TA induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells, with an EC50 value of 18.7±5.3 nM, whereas OA, DA, 5-HT and other potential agonists did not have this response. The mRNA is present in various tissues including nerve cord, hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and epidermis in the larval stage. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that CsTA2 was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that TA induced Ca(2+) release from the hemocytes of C. suppressalis.
Wu, Shun-Fan; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin
Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOctβ2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stem borers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides.
Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide.
Zibaee, A; Malagoli, D
The current study reports mortality and effects on cellular immune response of several entomopathogenic fungi including isoleates BB1, BB2 and BB3 of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Lecanicilium lecanii against larvae of Chilo suppressalis. Prohemocytes, granulocytes, plasmatocytes and oenocytoids were identified as the main circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph of larvae using Giemsa staining solution. Entomopathogenic fungi caused differential mortality on larvae: BB1, BB3, M. anisopliae lead to the highest mortality on larvae and L. lecanii caused the lowest mortality. The highest numbers of total hemocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of B. bassiana isolates and 6 h for the other treatments. The highest numbers of plasmatocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of BB1 and Tween 80, whereas BB2, BB3, M. anisopliae, I. fumosoroseus and L. lecani caused plasmatocyte increase 6 h post-injection. Similar results were obtained in case of granulocytes but only Tween 80 showed the highest number of hemocytes 3 h post-injection. The highest numbers of nodules were found at various time intervals after injection of fungal isolates and latex bead. The highest activities of phenoloxidase were observed 12 h post-injection by BbB1, BbB3, M. anisopliae and latex bead; 3-6 h post-injection by BbB2, 6 h post-injection by I. fumosoroseus and 3-6 h post-injection by L. lecanii. Our data demonstrate the possibility of utilizing different fungal extracts in the field to help reduce the risk of resistance evolution in C. suppressalis and encourage experimentations aimed to increase the number of biological control agent for insect pests such as the striped rice stem borer C. suppressalis.
Gao, Yulin; Hu, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Oppert, Brenda; Lai, Fengxiang; Peng, Yufa; Zhang, Zhitao
Transgenic rice to control stem borer damage is under development in China. To assess the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes in stem borer control, the toxicity of five Bt protoxins (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba and Cry1Ca) against two rice stem borers, Sesamia inferens (pink stem borer) and Chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer), was evaluated in the laboratory by feeding neonate larvae on artificial diets containing Bt protoxins. The results indicated that Cry1Ca exhibited the highest level of toxicity to both stem borers, with an LC(50) of 0.24 and 0.30 microg/g for C. suppressalis and S. inferens, respectively. However, S. inferens was 4-fold lower in susceptibility to Cry1Aa, and 6- and 47-fold less susceptible to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba, respectively, compared to C. suppressalis. To evaluate interactions among Bt protoxins in stem borer larvae, toxicity assays were performed with mixtures of Cry1Aa/Cry1Ab, Cry1Aa/Cry1Ca, Cry1Ac/Cry1Ca, Cry1Ac/Cry1Ba, Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab/Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ab/Cry1Ca at 1:1 (w/w) ratios. All protoxin mixtures demonstrated significant synergistic toxicity activity against C. suppressalis, with values of 1.6- to 11-fold higher toxicity than the theoretical additive effect. Surprisingly, all but one of the Bt protoxin mixtures were antagonistic in toxicity to S. inferens. In mortality-time response experiments, S. inferens demonstrated increased tolerance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compared to C. suppressalis when treated with low or high protoxin concentrations. The data indicate the utility of Cry1Ca protoxin and a Cry1Ac/Cry1Ca mixture to control both stem borer populations.
Luo, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Huan; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao
Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01). In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3) of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns.
Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J
Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution.
On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Calvin, M E
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.
ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country . THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council  decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed
Landrace cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum, are widely distributed in the mid to high elevations of the Andes from Venezuela south to northern Argentina, and then with a break in distribution in the lowlands of central Chile in Chiloé Island and the Chonos Archipelago immediately to the south. ...
Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou; Zhai, Bao-Ping
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)(13)' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid
This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.
Confidentiality is a critical issue in the conduct of HIV tests in Chile. Though HIV testing is confidential in the public health system (through the use of a coding system), syphilis tests which are conducted simultaneously with HIV, require clients to provide their identity as well as address. In response to this concern, the National AIDS Commission has launched training programs in all 26 public health services for staff involved with HIV/AIDS programs. The training programs allow professional staff and volunteers to understand the importance of confidentiality. Nevertheless, cases of breaches of confidentiality have been reported, raising doubts as to the ability of the system to maintain confidentiality. These cases often occur at the hospitals or clinics where staff is insensitive to the needs of their clients and oblivious of their rights. Hence, it is highlighted that to reinforce confidentiality, patients, advocacy groups, human rights activists and health care administrators must pay attention to the many ways in which confidentiality is breached.
Montoya Leiva, M
Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.
Hahn Ibanez, M
In anticipation of social discrimination, an estimated 65% of parents of HIV-infected children in Chile do not inform school authorities of their child's infection. In several well-publicized cases, disclosure of a child's HIV status resulted in the child's expulsion from a preschool or primary school. In response to this situation, the Faculty of Education of Bias Canas Catholic University launched a program in 1992 aimed at educating teachers about HIV/AIDS and the special needs of infected children. The program is being implemented, in conjunction with the Interdisciplinary Project on Children and HIV/AIDS, in the cities with the highest HIV prevalences: Antafagasta, Concepcion, Valparaiso, and Santiago. Community-based educational programs have been organized to dispel misinformation about HIV/AIDS and counter prejudice. In addition, programs for teachers focused on the integration of HIV-infected children into the school system have been held. Costs for the teacher training are shared by the participating teachers, their school, and the program. A second program--Integral Attention for Seropositive Children--has been initiated and university students connected to the program are serving as interns in Santiago preschools. The experiences of both these programs have been recounted in a manual and video.
Reyes B, Humberto
One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.
Carretier, Sebastien; Tolorza, Violeta; Regard, Vincent; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Aguilar, German
Erosion and sediment transport in arid environments is thought to depend on the frequency of large floods as well as on mean precipitation rate and slope, but their relative impact remains a matter of active debate. The Chilean Andes are elongated along a sharp precipitation rate gradient, offering the possibility to rank these factors over different time spans. We compare suspended load measurements-derived decennial erosion rates and 10Be-derived millennial erosion rates along this gradient. Both parameters follow the same latitudinal trend and peak where the climate is Mediterranean (mean runoff ~0.55 m/m), confirming that slope is the main factor even along this contrasted climate. The comparison of these erosion rates documents the progressive contribution of rare and strong climatic events on the millennial erosion from humid to arid catchments. In the wetter BíoBio catchment, the separation of suspended sediment yield during base and direct flows shows that the dynamics of groundwater circulation controls most of the sediment hysteresis at gauging stations at annual scale. In addition, the mega El Maule earthquake (Mw8.8 in 2010), in front of humid to semi-arid catchments, has not increased the suspended sediment concentration in rivers, excepted in the steepest and driest catchments. Over millennial scales, preliminary 10Be concentrations in individual gravels and cobbles suggest mean river transport rates of several m/yr in an arid canyon of north Chile.
Sharma, Priyanka; Nain, Vikrant; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Kumar, P A
Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a major insect pest of maize and sorghum in Asia and Africa. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins have been found effective against C. partellus, both in diet-overlay assay and in transgenic plants. Gene stacking as one of the resistance management strategies in Bt maize requires an understanding of receptor sharing and binding affinity of δ-endotoxins. In the present study, binding affinity of three fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled Cry1A toxins showed high correlation with the toxicity of respective δ-endotoxins. Competitive binding studies showed that Cry1Ab toxins share some of the binding sites with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac with low affinity and that Cry1Ab may have additional binding sites that are unavailable to the other two toxins tested.
In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.
Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo
This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.
Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile – PDI). Carabineros de Chile is the uniformed Chilean national police force created in...Chile also has an investigative police force, the Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile, PDI). This is the civil police... Investigaciones de Chile Homepage, http://www.investigaciones.cl/ (accessed February 20, 2011). 56 CONACE Homepage http://www.conacedrogas.cl/portal
2000-01-01This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud
Guzmán, Jonathan A; D'Elía, Guillermo; Ortiz, Juan Carlos
We studied the geographic variation of skulls of Lycalopex culpaeus using qualitative and quantative analyses. The sampling area covered Chile, from its northern portion, to Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring Hoste Island, as well as part of Argentina. Five subespecies are currently recognized from this large area. We found two morphotypes that are segregated geographically. Both groups mostly differ by morphometric attributes, followed by qualitative features. Specimens from northern Chile (Tarapacá and Antofagasta) have small skulls, short rostrum, a liriform sagital zone, and lack the interparietal crest. The second group is formed by specimens from north-western and central Argentina, central-south Chile, Patagonia, and the austral islands of Tierra del Fuego and Hoste. This group presents a strong sagital crest, large rostrum, and a large skull. Our results agree with observed patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation. We propose to retain the name L. c. andinus for the populations of northern Chile and to synonymize L. c. magellanicus, L. c. lycoides, and L. c. smithersi under L. c. culpaeus.
2002-01-01A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A
This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.
Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W
The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.
Wang, X Y; Du, L X; Liu, C X; Gong, L; Han, L Z; Peng, Y F
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance. In this work, we identified the putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, aminopeptidase-N (APN), in the midgut of C. suppressalis by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. After cloning the full-length cDNAs encoding APN isoforms from the C. suppressalis larval midgut, we studied their spatiotemporal expression in different gut tissues and developmental stages. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) against C. suppressalis aminopeptidases (CsAPNs) was employed to illustrate a functional role for CsAPNs in Cry1Ab toxicity to C. suppressalis larvae using injection and oral delivery of Stealth™ siRNA. Down-regulating the expression of CsAPNs by RNAi was closely associated with reduced susceptibility of C. suppressalis to Cry1Ab. These data provide the first direct evidence that CsAPNs participate in the mode of Cry1Ab action and may act as the functional receptor of Cry1A in C. suppressalis larvae.
Ge, Zhao-Yu; Wan, Pin-Jun; Han, Zhao-Jun
Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects, including food digestion, immune defense, and zymogen activation. Studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference (polyphagous and monophagous) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors, which can be engineered for pest management. In this paper, 11 transcripts encoding trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans, and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases. Among the 11 cloned genes, six were expressed predominantly and one exclusively in the midgut of the insect, three were expressed relatively evenly in examined tissues, and one was not expressed in either the gut or hemolymph based on RT-PCR results. The seven genes that were predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut were also affected by feeding on different host plants. The genes that were expressed in the gut and were affected by host plants are likely to encode digestive proteinases. The identification of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors, which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer, which is one of the destructive pests of rice.
Fu, Dao-Meng; He, Hai-Min; Zou, Chao; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xue, Fang-Sen
Temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. In the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°C under L18:D 6. Larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. Larval and pupal developmental times were not significantly different between females and males. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in C. suppressalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR), both males and females gained the highest body weight at 31°C. Females were significantly larger than males at all temperatures, showing a female biased sex size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, SSD and body weight in C. suppressalis tended to increase with rising temperature. Male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. We discuss the adaptive significance of the reverse-TSR in the moth's life history.
Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. Field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. Data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (Taylor and Iwao). All of the indices and Taylor's model indicated random spatial distribution pattern of the rice stem borer overwintering larvae. Iwao's patchiness regression was inappropriate for our data as shown by the non-homogeneity of variance, whereas Taylor's power law fitted the data well. The coefficients of Taylor's power law for a combined 2 years of data were a = -0.1118, b = 0.9202 ± 0.02, and r (2) = 96.81. Taylor's power law parameters were used to compute minimum sample size needed to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels, 5, 10, and 25% at 0.05 probabilities. Results based on this equation parameters suggesting that minimum sample sizes needed for a precision level of 0.25 were 74 and 20 rice stubble for rice stem borer larvae when the average larvae is near 0.10 and 0.20 larvae per rice stubble, respectively.
Chai, Huan-Na; Wu, Hai-Yan; Du, Yu-Zhou
In this study, 23S rDNA from Arsenophonus and wsp gene from Wolbachia were amplified by PCR method using specific primers to study their symbiosis in Chilo suppressalis from 20 locations of China. The results indicated that Arsenophonus and Wolbachia infection rates differed widely in C. suppressalis populations. The infection rates of Arsenophonus ranged from 5.0% to 50.0% in five geographical populations from Harbin, Huishui, Jilin, Nanyang, and Yangzhou. Wolbachia ranged from 25.0% to 40.0% in three geographical populations from Hanzhong, Nanning, and Yangzhou. Their symbiosis was not observed in C. suppressalis of other locations. The sequences of 23S rDNA gene which named csArs were exactly the same in the five populations. However, the sequences of wsp from the three strains of Wolbachia showed wChisup1 belonged to supergroup A, wChisup5 and wChisup6 belonged to supergroup B. The results showed the strains of Arsenophonus from C. suppressalis of the five different locations were identical, whereas the strains of Wolbachia were phylogenetically diverse. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that 23S rDNA and wsp sequences found in C. suppressalis were exactly the same with or very closely related to relevant sequences in other species.
Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin
Dopamine (DA) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. However, DA actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. In this study, we found that DA modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (RSB), Chilo suppressalis. We investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo DA production. Here we show that exposing hemocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to induction of DA-generating enzymes. Exogenous DA induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in naïve hemocytes. Activation of ERK was inhibited by preincubating with a DOP1 receptor antagonist. Thus, DA signaling via the DOP1 receptor may contribute to early hemocyte activation. DA synthesized and released from hemocytes may act in an autocrine mechanism to stimulate or maintain phagocytic activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of DA synthesis with α-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride or blockage of DOP1 receptor with antagonist SCH23390 impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Topical DA application also significantly decreased RSB mortality following challenge with the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We infer that a DA-dependent signaling system operates in hemocytes to mediate phagocytotic functions.
Peng, Y C; Sheng, C W; Casida, John E; Zhao, C Q; Han, Z J
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%. One alternative splicing site (KENLG) unique to Lepidoptera was found and two exclusive exons of CsRyR (I /II) were revealed. Spatial and temporal expression of CsRyR mRNA was at the highest relative level in 3rd instar larvae and head (including brain and muscle), and at the lowest expression level in egg and fat body. The expression levels of whole body CsRyR mRNA were increased remarkably after injection of 4th instar larvae with chlorantraniliprole at 0.004 to 0.4μg/g. This structural and functional information on CsRyR provides the basis for further understanding the selective action of chlorantraniliprole and possibly other diamide insecticides.
Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi
In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors.
Wang, Baoju; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Han, Ping; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun
The striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a destructive pest of rice, has developed high levels of resistance to certain insecticides. Esterases are reported to be involved in insecticide resistance in several insects. Therefore, this study systematically analyzed esterase-like genes in C. suppressalis. Fifty-one esterase-like genes were identified in the draft genomic sequences of the species, and 20 cDNA sequences were derived which encoded full- or nearly full-length proteins. The putative esterase proteins derived from these full-length genes are overall highly diversified. However, key residues that are functionally important including the serine residue in the active site are conserved in 18 out of the 20 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of these genes have homologues in other lepidoptera insects. Genes CsuEst6, CsuEst10, CsuEst11, and CsuEst51 were induced by the insecticide triazophos, and genes CsuEst9, CsuEst11, CsuEst14, and CsuEst51 were induced by the insecticide chlorantraniliprole. Our results provide a foundation for future studies of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis and for comparative research with esterase genes from other insect species.
Arabjafari, K H; Jalali, S K
Twenty six popular varieties of maize in Karnataka state (India) were screened for resistance to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). In field trial, varieties CM132, CM137 and PMZ103 showed the highest level of resistance, respectively. While the varieties GK3014, HY4642 and DK984 had the lowest level of resistance, respectively. In glasshouse trial, the varieties CM137 and HY4642 had the highest and lowest level of resistance. A positive correlation equal to +0.111 (in field) and +0.521 (in glasshouse) was found between the Leaf Injury Score (LIS) and Stem Diameter (SD). Meanwhile, negative correlation equal to -0.432 (in field) and -0.896 (in glasshouse) was found between Leaf Injury Score (LIS) and Internodal Distance (InD). Results of the studies on major nutritional elements on resistant variety CM137 and susceptible variety HY4642 indicated higher percentage of P, K, Fe and Si in stem tissues of the variety CM137, while the variety HY4642 had higher percentage of N and Sugar, highlighting the role of these elements in conferring resistance and susceptibility to C. partellus. Studies on the impact of resistance factors on biological events of C. partellus revealed significant differences between percentage survival of larvae, percentage of pupation, pupal weight and pupal period (females only) on two varieties CM137 and HY4642. But there was no significant difference in the percentage of moth emergence on two varieties.
Luo, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jing; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Fang, Ji-Chao
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. This variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. It is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this variation. In this study, a laboratory population and a population recently established from the field were used to test variation in development time across instar stages. The duration of developmental time of C. suppressalis started to diverge from the 5th instar onward. Individuals pupated at the 5th, 6th, 7th or even 8th instar stage. In both populations, both the instar at which the larva pupated and the duration of the last larval instar stage determined total developmental time of an individual. There was little impact of the developmental time of early instars on total developmental duration or on instar number prior to pupation. Sex influenced the number of instars but not development time within this number. The biological and applied significance of uneven development in C. suppressalis are discussed. PMID:27731388
Quan, Wei-Li; Liu, Wen; Zhou, Rui-Qi; Chen, Rong; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping
Behavioral isolation in animals can be mediated by inherent mating preferences and assortative traits, such as divergence in the diel timing of mating activity. Although divergence in the diel mating time could, in principle, promote the reproductive isolation of sympatric, conspecific populations, there is currently no unequivocal evidence of this. We conducted different mate-choice experiments to investigate the contribution of differences in diel mating activity to the reproductive isolation of the rice and water-oat populations of Chilo suppressalis. The results show that inter-population difference in diel mating activity contributes to assortative mating in these populations. In the rice population, most mating activity occurred during the first half of the scotophase, whereas in the water-oat population virtually all mating activity was confined to the second half of the scotophase. However, when the photoperiod of individuals from the water-oat population was altered to more closely align their mating activity with that of the rice population, mate choice was random. We conclude that inter-population differences in diel mating time contribute to assortative mating, and thereby the partial reproductive isolation, of these host-associated populations of C. suppressalis. PMID:28338099
Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi
In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701
Atapour, M; Moharramipour, S
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, which is a key rice pest in northern parts of Iran, overwinters in rice stubble and weeds as mature larvae. Diapause of this pest is initiated between October to November and terminates in March. Seasonal variations in the supercooling point, survival at low temperatures, and sugar contents were studied in field-collected larvae during different phases of diapause. Ambient temperature was lowest in January and February when larvae were at the highest diapause intensity and achieved a high degree of cold hardiness at -10, -15, and -20 degrees C. Glycerol, a major cryoprotectant, reached a peak in January. It appeared that cold hardiness in the larvae is closely associated with the diapause. For the first time, this study suggests that glucose and glycogen are converted to glycerol during cold seasons, but trehalose has no definite role in the interconversion. During the coldest months, supercooling points (SCPs) increased (around -11 degrees C), and larvae could survive below their SCP values, showing that overwintering larvae of C. suppressalis are freeze tolerant in Iran. Our findings suggest that cold hardiness and diapause are essential components for this species. The overwintering larvae have high capacity of cold hardiness and can overcome severe winters. Understanding of cold hardiness and overwintering behavior of this species may help in integrated pest management of the rice stem borer in paddy fields.
Liu, Su; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Li, Shi-Guang
In insects, rapid degradation of odorants in antennae is extremely important for the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant degradation in insect antennae is mediated by multiple enzymes, especially the carboxylesterases (CXEs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an economically important lepidopteran pest which causes great economic damage to cultivated rice crops in many Asian countries. In this study, we identified 19 putative CXE and 16 GST genes by analyzing previously constructed antennal transcriptomes of C. suppressalis. BLASTX best hit results showed that these genes are most homologous to their respective orthologs in other lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these CXE and GST genes were clustered into various clades. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that three CXE genes (CsupCXE8, CsupCXE13, and CsupCXE18) are antennae-enriched. These genes are candidates for involvement in odorant degradation. Unexpectedly, none of the GST genes were found to be antennae-specific. Our results pave the way for future researches of the odorant degradation mechanism of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:26198868
Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467
Huang, Qingchun; Deng, Yunfei; Zhan, Taisong; He, Yuan
Using the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil for selection in the laboratory, a resistant Wenzhou strain of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) had an LD50 at least 45.3 times greater than the susceptible Anhui strain. The realized resistant heritability (h2) of 0.213 showed that the tolerant phenotype was moderately heritable and had potential to develop higher tolerance to fipronil. Piperonyl butoxide decreased the effects of fipronil on the mortality of the susceptible larvae with 0.27–0.44 times synergistic rates, but increased the toxicity of fipronil on the resistant larvae with 1.85–2.53 times synergistic rates as compared to that of fipronil alone. The inhibitory effect of piperonyl butoxide on the activity of microsomal O-demethylase was greater in susceptible larvae than in the resistant larvae. The differential synergism of fipronil by piperonyl butoxide in the susceptible and resistant C. suppressalis may be caused by the reduced penetration of fipronil in the lab-selected Wenzhou strain. PMID:21062143
Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch
López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F
A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among populations of D. confertifolia and the continental species D. winteri and D. andina, and to test probable migration routes between the major islands. Population genetic analyses were conducted using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites of 421 individuals from 42 populations from the Juan Fernández islands and the continent. Drimys confertifolia shows a wide genetic variation within populations on both islands, and values of genetic diversity within populations are similar to those found within populations of the continental progenitor. The genetic results are compatible with the hypothesis of high levels of genetic variation accumulating within anagenetically derived species in oceanic islands, and with the concept of little or no geographical partitioning of this variation over the landscape. Analysis of the probability of migration within the archipelago confirms colonization from the older island, Robinson Crusoe, to the younger island Alejandro Selkirk.
Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.
On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline
At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…
Tokro, P G; Saxena, K N
The orientational responses of 4th instar larvae of Chilo partellus to different sources of stimuli being artificial diet, leaves and stems of maize and sorghum were tested, under free choice and no-choice situations. Larvae were attracted to maize and sorghum in a moderate to high degree dependent on what choice they were given. The orientational preference of the larvae, offered a choice between the visual and the odour sources, depended upon their stimulating capacities which were represented by the percentages of individuals responding to the sources of stimuli. Odour played a greater role than visual stimuli in this close range attraction when the two competed with each other.
Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima
Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…
15 1. Carabineros de Chile .............. 16 2. Policia de Investigaciones ........... 17 3. Direccion Nacional de Aduanas. ........ 17 4...institution is Investigaciones de Chile, the civilian police. It numbers close to 8,000 men. Its mission is crime investigation. Both institutions...currently depend on the Ministry of Defence and their scope is national. Carabineros and Investigaciones are the main agencies engaged in counter
Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.
On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.
Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime
Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.
Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Teng, Zi-Wen; Yao, Hong-Wei; Fang, Qi; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. Insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. Identification and characterization of the nAChR gene family in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important receptor gene family and contribute to the investigation of the molecular modes of insecticide action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. We searched our C. suppressalis transcriptome database using B. mori nAChR sequences in local BLAST searches and obtained the putative nAChR subunit cDNAs via RT-PCR and RACE methods. Similar to B. mori, C. suppressalis possesses 12 nAChR subunits, including nine α-type and three β-type subunits. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the expression profiles of the nAChR subunits in various tissues, including the brain, suboesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, hemocytes, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules. Developmental expression analyses showed clear differential expression of nAChR subunits throughout the C. suppressalis life cycle. The identification of nAChR subunits in this study will provide a foundation for investigating the diverse roles played by nAChRs in the C. suppressalis and for exploring specific target sites for chemicals that control agricultural pests while sparing beneficial species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Han, Chao; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Fajun; Hou, Maolin; Peng, Yufa
Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens are two important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently during outbreaks in paddy fields in the main rice-growing areas of China. Previous and current field tests demonstrate that the transgenic rice line Huahui 1 (HH1) producing a Cry1Ab-Cry1Ac hybrid toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis reduces egg and larval densities of C. suppressalis but not of S. inferens. This differential susceptibility to HH1 rice correlates with the reduced susceptibility to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in S. inferens larvae compared to C. suppressalis larvae. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanism responsible for this differential susceptibility. In saturation binding assays, both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins bound with high affinity and in a saturable manner to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from C. suppressalis and S. inferens larvae. While binding affinities were similar, a dramatically lower concentration of Cry1A toxin binding sites was detected for S. inferens BBMV than for C. suppressalis BBMV. In contrast, no significant differences between species were detected for Cry1Ca toxin binding to BBMV. Ligand blotting detected BBMV proteins binding Cry1Ac or Cry1Ca toxins, some of them unique to C. suppressalis or S. inferens. These data support that reduced Cry1A binding site concentration is associated with a lower susceptibility to Cry1A toxins and HH1 rice in S. inferens larvae than in C. suppressalis larvae. Moreover, our data support Cry1Ca as a candidate for pyramiding efforts with Cry1A-producing rice to extend the activity range and durability of this technology against rice stem borers. PMID:24928872
article title: Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...
... deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions until May 2003. The evacuation of the island's residents in 1990 was ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...
The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.
As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal
[Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning
Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L
The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.
This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.
The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since
García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana
This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…
Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre
In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.
Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.
Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.
Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin
RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus.
Sonoda, S; Fukumoto, K; Izumi, Y; Ashfaq, M; Yoshida, H; Tsumuki, H
Gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in Chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. A gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, CsSP1, was cloned and its complete cDNA sequence was determined. Potentially, CsSP1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kDa. The expression level of CsSP1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. The CsSP1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing larvae when the temperature of cold acclimation was shifted to 5 degrees C. The up-regulated level was maintained at 40 days after incubation at 5 degrees C. In nondiapausing larvae, CsSP1 expression was down-regulated when the temperature was below developmental zero. Involvement of CsSP1 in diapause, cold tolerance acquisition and postdiapause development in C. suppressalis is discussed.
Fiuza, L.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.; Goze, E.; Frutos, R.; Charles, J.
Binding and competition among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ba toxins were analyzed quantitatively in vitro by using (sup125)I-labeled activated toxins and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from Chilo suppressalis larval midguts. The three toxins bound specifically to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles. Direct binding experiments showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ba recognized a single class of binding sites with different affinities, whereas Cry1Aa recognized two classes of binding sites, one with a high affinity and a low concentration and the other with a lower affinity but higher concentration. Competition experiments showed that toxins Cry1Ac and Cry1Ba shared a binding site in the C. suppressalis midgut membranes and that this site was also the low-affinity binding site for Cry1Aa. PMID:16535306
O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa
Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile
The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.
D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.
Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (<30 km), relatively young (Paleozoic or more recent) continental crust beneath the volcanoes. The nature of the subduction-derived materials involved in the genesis of the Cay and Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (<1 wt%) of both subducted sediments and slab-released fluids were added to the mantle sources of the Cay and Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (<10 Ma) of the oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the volcanoes, slab melts were not involved in the magma genesis. Notwithstanding the proximity of the Cay and Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used
The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.
Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...armed forces. Argentine police arrested Edgardo Enriquez, whom they deported to Chile. Humberto Sotomayor apparently left the movement, leaving Andres...often either deport them or sentence them to jail or internal -14- exile. The government seems able to capture the miristas who infiltrate into Chile
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.
Slater, William F.
Presents an annotated bibliography of materials on the history of Chile from the 1500s to the twentieth century. The bibliography includes works from the United States, England, and Chile on a variety of topics, including the colonial period, Pre-Columbian Chile, Indian life, culture, political structure, the impact of Spanish Imperialism, land…
Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.
An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as
The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.
Synolakis, C. E.; Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J. C.; Barrientos, S. E.
On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile’s mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary ITST was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment per established protocols. The 3-25 March ITST covered an 800km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter Island), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21-23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile’s mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometers inland along rivers. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Coastal uplift measurements in Chile are compared with tectonic land level changes
Humanitarian Affairs, “Chile Earthquake: Situation Report #2,” March 1, 2010; Gobierno de Chile, “Situación terremoto zona centro sur (Actualiza...Earthquake: Situation Report #2,” March 1, 2010; Gobierno de Chile, “Situación terremoto zona centro sur (Actualiza reporte),” March 1, 2010...Catástrofe desde terremoto de 1985,” El Mercurio (Chile), March 1, 2010; “Amplían toque de queda en zonas más afectadas por terremoto en Chile
Reiswig, Henry M; Araya, Juan Francisco
All records of the 15 hexactinellid sponge species known to occur off Chile are reviewed, including the first record in the Southeastern Pacific of the genus Caulophacus Schulze, 1885, with the new species Caulophacus chilense sp. n. collected as bycatch in the deep water fisheries of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 off Caldera (27ºS), Region of Atacama, northern Chile. All Chilean hexactinellid species occur in bathyal to abyssal depths (from 256 up to 4142 m); nine of them are reported for the Sala y Gomez and Nazca Ridges, with one species each in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago and Easter Island. The Chilean hexactinellid fauna is still largely unknown, consisting of only 2.5 % of the known hexactinellid extant species. Further studies and deep water sampling are essential to assess their ecology and distribution, particularly in northern Chile.
EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.
EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Santiago, Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.
Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V
Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs.
Reyes, Miguel T.
This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…
Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...
assistant professor at the Pontifi cia Universidad Católica de Chile School of Medicine. Her research interests include tuberculosis diagnosis and...1596–9. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm092 13. Kikuchi Y, Fukatsu T. Rickettsia infection in natural leech popu- lations. Microb Ecol. 2005;49:265–71. doi
González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime
Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996. PMID:15705337
González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L; Vergara, Juan A; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T
Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.
In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.
Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia
The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…
Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose
Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.
Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important pest of rice in China and other parts of the world. To further explore the population genetic structure and genetic differentiation of C. suppressalis populations found on rice in China, we amplified 432 bp fragments of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene for 44 C. suppressalis populations. Nineteen variable sites in the mtDNA gene were observed, and 16 haplotypes were identified. Nucleotide diversity (π) and haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.00274 to 0.00786 and 0.72297 to 0.87604, respectively, while genetic structure analysis found significant genetic differentiation to be present among the five regions in China - northern China (NC), northeastern China (NEC), central China (CC), southern China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC) - where C. suppresalis was collected. In addition, molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that a relatively high proportion (57.6%) of the total genetic variance was attributable to variation within the populations. N(m) and F(ST) analyses suggested that the differentiation was not significantly different between NEC and NC, CC and SC, and SC and SWC regions, but was significant between NEC and CC, SC and SWC regions, corresponding well with the geographical distribution of the sampled populations. Phylogenetic analysis divided the populations into two indistinct clades: a NEC-NC-CC clade and a CC-SC-SWC clade, while CC region acted as a transition zone between north and south China, a finding different from previous work.
Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinxing; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Boyao; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Lin, Yongjun; Ma, Weihua
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces a wide range of toxins that are effective against a number of insect pests. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for resistance to Bt toxin will improve both our ability to control important insect pests and our understanding of bacterial toxicology. In this study, we investigated the role of MAPK pathways in resistance against Cry1Ca toxin in Chilo suppressalis, an important lepidopteran pest of rice crops. We first cloned the full-length of C. suppressalis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, ERK1, and ERK2, and a partial sequence of JNK (hereafter Csp38, CsERK1, CsERK2 and CsJNK). We could then measure the up-regulation of these MAPK genes in larvae at different times after ingestion of Cry1Ca toxin. Using RNA interference to knockdown Csp38, CsJNK, CsERK1 and CsERK2 showed that only knockdown of Csp38 significantly increased the mortality of larvae to Cry1Ca toxin ingested in either an artificial diet, or after feeding on transgenic rice expressed Cry1Ca. These results suggest that MAPK p38 is responsible for the resistance of C. suppressalis larvae to Bt Cry1Ca toxin. PMID:28262736
Cui, Ya-Dong; Du, Yu-Zhou; Lu, Ming-Xing; Qiang, Cheng-Kui
Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6 degrees Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%-86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39 degrees C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31 degrees C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36 degrees C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39 degrees C.
Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Xia; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xia; Li, Ran; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen
How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. The largest group comprised genes involved in metabolism, followed by cellular transport, transcription and cellular signaling. Infestation by SSBs modulated many genes responsible for the biosynthesis of plant hormones and plant signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene were the major hormones that shaped the SSB-induced defence responses of rice. Many secondary signal transduction components, such as those involved in Ca²⁺ signaling and G-protein signaling, receptor and non-receptor protein kinases, and transcription factors were involved in the SSB-induced responses of rice. Photosynthesis and ATP synthesis from photophosphorylation were restricted by SSB feeding. In addition, SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatile organic compounds. These results demonstrate that SSB-induced defences required rice to reconfigure a wide variety of its metabolic, physiological and biochemical processes.
Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Tsumuki, Hisaaki
Overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of Chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees C, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. We reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the Saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern Japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. However, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. We compared the extent of tissue damage, accumulation of glycerol, and transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues between cold-acclimated and non-acclimated non-diapausing and diapausing larvae. The tissue from cold-acclimated diapausing larvae could survive only when frozen in Grace's insect medium with 0.25 M glycerol at -20 degrees C. The protection provided by glycerol was offset by mercuric chloride, which is a water-channel inhibitor. Fat body tissue isolated from non-acclimated diapausing larvae was injured by freezing even though glycerol was added to the medium, but the level of freezing injury was significantly lower than in non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays in cold-acclimated diapausing larvae showed that during freezing, water left the cells into the medium and glycerol entered the cells from the medium at the same time. Therefore, in Saigoku ecotype larvae of the rice stem borer, both diapause and cold-acclimation are essential to accumulate glycerol and activate aquaporin for the avoidance of freezing injury.
Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).
VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A
The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F1F0ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development.
Wang, Baoju; Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Zhang, Zan; Sun, Haina; Han, Ping; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun
The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 CYP genes from rice striped stem borer (SSB) through genome and transcriptome sequence analyses. All these CYP genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Twenty-eight CYP transcripts have full open reading frame (ORF) and four additional transcripts have a nearly full length coding region. The SSB CYP genes were classified into four clans, the mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3, and CYP4. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was an apparent expansion of the CYP3 clan in insects. The CYP6AB subfamily of the CYP3 clan had nine members in SSB. Evolutionary analysis showed that this subfamily was expanded only in lepidopteran insects. In this study, we identified a new P450 subfamily, CYP321F, which is unique to SSB and located in the genome as tandem repeats. Our work provided a foundation for future studies on the functions and mechanism of P450s in the destructive rice pest.
Vila, Laura; Quilis, Jordi; Meynard, Donaldo; Breitler, Jean Christophe; Marfà, Victoria; Murillo, Isabel; Vassal, Jean Michel; Messeguer, Joaquima; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca
The maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties. Both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of MPI protein in the transgenic plants. No effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines. The stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines (up to the T(4) generation) and the production of functional MPI protein were confirmed. Expression of the mpi gene in rice enhanced resistance to the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), one of the most important pests of rice. In addition, transgenic mpi plants were evaluated in terms of their effects on the growth of C. suppressalis larvae and the insect digestive proteolytic system. An important dose-dependent reduction of larval weight of C. suppressalis larvae fed on mpi rice, compared with larvae fed on untransformed rice plants, was observed. Analysis of the digestive proteolytic activity from the gut of C. suppressalis demonstrated that larvae adapted to mpi transgene expression by increasing the complement of digestive proteolytic activity: the serine and cysteine endoproteinases as well as the exopeptidases leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases A and B. However, the induction of such proteolytic activity did not prevent the deleterious effects of MPI on larval growth. The introduction of the mpi gene into rice plants can thus be considered as a promising strategy to protect rice plants against striped stem borer.
Hari, N S; Jindal, J
Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.
He, Yueping; Zhang, Juefeng; Gao, Congfen; Su, Jianya; Chen, Jianming; Shen, Jinliang
To understand the evolution of insecticide resistance in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in field, regression analysis based on a linear or nonlinear model was adopted for analyzing resistance dynamics to six insecticides of two field populations of the Lianyungang (LYG) and Ruian (RA) populations during 2002-2011. For the low-level resistance population, LYG population, sustained susceptibilities to abamectin and fipronil were seen for 10 yr; a polynomial curve regression model showed an increase in resistance to chlorpyrifos; exponential growth models fit to the resistance dynamics to triazophos and deltamethrin, and a sigmoidal growth curve for monosultap. For the high-level multiple resistance population, RA population, a slight increase from susceptible to a minor resistance to abamectin could be modeled by a polynomial cubic equation; an exponential growth model fit to the increase of resistance to fipronil from 8.7-fold to 33.6-fold; a sine waveform model fit to the vibrating tendency of resistance to chlorpyrifos; the dynamics of resistance to triazophos could be modeled by two combined curves, with a polynomial growth model and a sine waveform model; the high level of resistance to monosultap could be modeled with a sine waveform model; and a significant linear growth relationship of the resistance to deltamethrin of the RA population over years was found. Then, the relationship between dynamics of resistance development to insecticides among the field populations of C. suppressalis and the application history of pesticides for controlling rice borers was discussed.
Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.
Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin
The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.
Sun, Yang; Huang, Shuijin; Wang, Shuping; Guo, Dianhao; Ge, Chang; Xiao, Huamei; Jie, Wencai; Yang, Qiupu; Teng, Xiaolu; Li, Fei
Insects undergo metamorphosis, involving an abrupt change in body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Rice stem stripped borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis, is one of the most destructive rice pests. However, little is known about the regulation mechanism of metamorphosis development in this notorious insect pest. Here, we studied the expression of 22,197 SSB genes at seven time points during pupa development with a customized microarray, identifying 622 differentially expressed genes (DEG) during pupa development. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these DEGs indicated that the genes related to substance metabolism were highly expressed in the early pupa, which participate in the physiological processes of larval tissue disintegration at these stages. In comparison, highly expressed genes in the late pupal stages were mainly associated with substance biosynthesis, consistent with adult organ formation at these stages. There were 27 solute carrier (SLC) genes that were highly expressed during pupa development. We knocked down SLC22A3 at the prepupal stage, demonstrating that silencing SLC22A3 induced a deficiency in pupa stiffness and pigmentation. The RNAi-treated individuals had white and soft pupa, suggesting that this gene has an essential role in pupal development.
Zhu, Jian; Dong, Yong-Cheng; Li, Ping; Niu, Chang-Ying
RNA interference (RNAi) is a robust tool to study gene functions as well as potential for insect pest control. Finding suitable target genes is the key step in the development of an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique. Based on the transcriptome of Chilo suppressalis, 24 unigenes which putatively associated with insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. Amongst these, four genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis i.e., ptth, torso, spook and nm-g were evaluated as candidate targets for function study. The partial cDNA of these four genes were cloned and their bacterially expressed dsRNA were fed to the insects. Results revealed a significant reduction in mRNA abundance of target genes after 3 days. Furthermore, knocked down of these four genes resulted in abnormal phenotypes and high larval mortality. After 15 days, the survival rates of insects in dsspook, dsptth, dstorso, and dsnm-g groups were significantly reduced by 32%, 38%, 56%, and 67% respectively, compared with control. Moreover, about 80% of surviving larvae showed retarded development in dsRNA-treated groups. These results suggest that oral ingestion of bacterially expressed dsRNA in C. suppressalis could silence ptth, torso, spook and nm-g. Oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsRNA provides a simple and potential management scheme against C. suppressalis. PMID:27352880
Cui, Ya-Dong; Du, Yu-Zhou; Lu, Ming-Xing; Qiang, Cheng-Kui
Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6°Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%–86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39°C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31°C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36°C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39°C. PMID:20673188
Xia, Yi-Han; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Hou, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fei; Dong, Shuang-Lin
The chemoreception role of moth ovipositor has long been suggested, but its molecular mechanism is mostly unknown. By transcriptomic analysis of the female ovipositor-pheromone glands (OV-PG) of Chilo suppressalis, we obtained 31 putative chemoreception genes (9 OBPs, 10 CSPs, 2 ORs, 1 SNMP, 8 CXEs and 1 AOX), in addition to 32 genes related to sex pheromone biosynthesis (1 FAS, 6 Dess, 10 FARs, 2 ACOs, 1 ACC, 4 FATPs, 3 ACBPs and 5 ELOs). Tissue expression profiles further revealed that CsupCSP2 and CsupCSP10 were OV-PG biased, while most chemoreception genes were highly and preferably expressed in antennae. This suggests that OV-PG employs mostly the same chemoreception proteins as in antennae, although the physiological roles of these proteins might be different in OV-PG. Of the 32 pheromone biosynthesis related genes, CsupDes4, CsupDes5 and CsupFAR2 are strongly OV-PG biased, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, strongly indicating their involvement in specific step of the pheromone biosynthesis. Our study for the first time identified a large number of putative chemoreception genes, and provided an important basis for exploring the chemoreception mechanisms of OV-PG in C. suppressalis, as well as other moth species.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global and national problem. In Chile the incidence rate has remained at 13 per 100,000 inhabitants for several years without tendency to the expected decline that would allow their elimination by 2020. As a low prevalence country, TB cases have been concentrated in risk groups, reaching 33% in 2013, and this proportion increases as younger people are analyzed. The main risk groups in Chile are HIV co-infection, foreigners and population of prisons. By 2013, the proportion of cases for these three groups was 8.7%, 8.4% and 3.9% respectively, and these percentages vary significantly when regional situation is analyzed. In addition, many of these patients have more than one risk factor, demons-rating the existence of clusters more vulnerable to TB.
The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it.
Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge
Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile. PMID:28105078
Ebaugh, Cameron D.
Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…
Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to
him to return. During his absence Chile was ruled by a junta lead by General Carlos Ibanez del Campo . Welcomed back in March 1925, Alessandri kept...of the Radicals, a previous agreement be made that the President come from the parties which had formed the Popular Action Front (Frente de Accion ...dictatorship of Colonel (later General) Carlos Ibanez del Campo in 1931-32. The first two were the product of divisions within the political community; the last
Chile's tuberculosis morbidity notification statistics suggest that there has been a 3% average annual decrease in tuberculosis cases in the last 5 years (1978-82). In addition, over the period 1974-83, there was a 50% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. In 1982, there were 6941 recorded cases of tuberculosis in Chile, only 6.5% of which involved children under 15 years of age; in that same year, there were 984 deaths from tuberculosis, 14.4% of which occurred in children. The majority of cases reported (78%) involve pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 90% of children under 15 years of age are covered by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. This was achieved by immunizing 91% of all newborns, 83% of children in their first year of school, and 98% of those in their final year. Laboratories capable of case-finding now cover 95% of Chile's total area. Since 1975, an average of 47 bacilloscopies have been performed per 1000 consultations. Abandonment of treatment has been reduced to 12% and fewer than 20% of cases require hospitalization. Finally, the introduction of shortened rifampicin treatment has reduced the case-fatality rate from 6% to 3%.
Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes C, Jorge; Bustos F, Verónica
The availability and planning of Human Resources are important issues in many countries, as it is a key factor to cope with the critical challenges of Health Care Systems. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has undertaken several studies in order to improve knowledge about the medical workforce both in public and private sectors. The aim of this paper is to update and systematize the existing data on physicians and specialists availability in Chile. Several information sources were crossed to obtain new and more precise figures about this topic. According to the Internal Revenue System, 29.996 physicians practice medicine in the country, 43% of them hired in public services, part or full time. There is a high concentration of professionals in the central regions of Chile. Being the overall density of physicians of one per 559 inhabitants, the figures in the central region is one per 471 and one per more than 800 in the South and North. Between 2004 and 2008, the public sector increased its physician workforce by more than 80% in primary health care and more than 20% in the secondary and tertiary levels. This paper presents a method for a more rigorous identification of the categories of general practitioner and specialist respectively, and the results obtained from the databases used.
In 1994, Chile had 15,451 active physicians (less than 70 years old) for a population of 14,027,344 with a ratio of 1 physician per 908 inhabitants, a satisfactory figure compared to other countries of similar socio-economical development. Ratios of 1:880 and 1:843 are projected for 1999 and 2004 respectively. The annual rate of physician's population growth (2.2%), that is superior to the general population's growth rate (1.6%), will increase to about 2.5% per annum in 2001 as a consequence of the creation of three new medical schools. However, the distribution of physicians along the country is unsatisfactory. While the capital (Metropolitan Region) has a ratio of 1 physician per 629 inhabitants, the figure for the Region of Maule is 1:2,113. Only two of ten regions, excepting the capital, have a ratio lower than 1:1,000. Sixty percent of physicians live in Santiago while only 40% of the general population does so, illustrating their high concentration. Median ratio in Chile, that better reflects the reality than the mean, is 1:1,280. The heterogeneous distribution of physicians in Chile is a sign of social inequity that must be corrected. In a free society a better physician distribution is achieved with economical and professional incentives given by health institutions.
Nelson, A.R.; Manley, W.F.
During the past 6000 years Isla Mocha, a 12 km-long island 30 km off the coast of south-central Chile, experienced a 38 m fall of relative sea level caused primarily by rapid tectonic uplift of the island. As many as 18 raised shorelines (strandlines) record this uplift. Historic accounts of uplift during the great earthquakes (M > 8) of 1835 and 1960 suggest some of the more prominent prehistoric strandlines also emerged during great earthquakes on the interface between the Nazca and South America plates. But the close elevational spacing of strandlines, subdued morphology of strandline beaches, scarcity of exposed bedrock wave-cut platforms, and the extremely high rates of aseismic uplift (ca. 70 mm/yr) of the island since the last great earthquake suggest that many strandlines were raised by aseismic rather than coseismic uplift. Strandline heights and 14 new radiocarbon ages on marine shells show that the present-day uplift rate is more than three times the net rate (ca. 20 mm/yr) of the past 1000 years. The recent high rate probably reflects increased aseismic slip on an inferred thrust fault in the overriding South America plate. Isla Mocha overlies an area of high stress concentration between two major segments of the Chilean subduction zone. The inferred high rate of slip on the thrust fault may be a response to stress changes on the plate interface near the boundary between the segments. ?? 1992.
Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Knapp, Michael
In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called "chilihueque" played a major role in the island's society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that "chilihueque" was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.
Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.
Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)
This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...
Whitmore, Marilyn P.
This paper assessing the development of libraries in Chile focuses on the public library movement. An introductory section on the historical, economic, technological, and educational background of Chile is provided, as well as a discussion of the adverse effect of the military regime on the country's cultural life. The main part of the paper…
Manuel Contreras, was sentenced to two life prison terms in July 2008 for organizing the 1974 double assassination of General Carlos Prats and his wife...Hornbeck. 48 Eva Vergara , “EEUU Vuelve a Escuchar a Latinoamérica, Dice Biden en Chile,” Associated Press, March 28, 2009. Chile: Political and
Walter, Amy R.
This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…
Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.
Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…
McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.
In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…
Intelligence Unit, September 2010. 30 Gobierno de Chile, “Situación terremoto zona centro sur (Actualiza reporte),” March 1, 2010; “Bachelet decreta...desde terremoto de 1985,” El Mercurio, March 1, 2010. 31 President Sebastian Piñera, “Del Chile del bicentenario al país de las oportunidades
This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.
This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.
Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.
The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.
The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.
2008-01-01The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah
Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for
Su, C; Tu, G; Huang, S; Yang, Q; Shahzad, M F; Li, F
Some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. Although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. Here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. After amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified 12 chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. All these genes had the conserved domains and motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 18 and grouped phylogenetically into five subgroups. C. suppressalis chitinase 1 (CsCht1) was highly expressed in late pupae, whereas CsCht3 was abundant in early pupae. Both CsCht2 and CsCht4 were highly expressed in larvae. CsCht2 was abundant specifically in the third-instar larvae and CsCht4 showed periodic high expression in 2- to 5-day-old larvae in each instar. Tissue specific expression analysis indicated that CsCht1 and CsCht3 were highly expressed in epidermis whereas CsCht2 and CsCht4 were specifically abundant in the midgut. Knockdown of CsCht1 resulted in adults with curled wings, indicating that CsCht1 might have an important role in wing expansion. Silencing of CsCht2 or CsCht4 arrested moulting, suggesting essential roles in larval development. When the expression of CsCht3 was interfered, defects in pupation occurred. Overall, we provide here the first catalogue of chitinase genes in the rice striped stem borer and have elucidated the functions of four chitinases in metamorphosis.
Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yunhe; Liu, Yanmin; Han, Lanzhi; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yufa
A marker-free Bt transgenic rice line, mfb-MH86, was recently developed in China, which contains a cry1Ab gene driven by a ubiquitin promoter. This Bt gene confers resistance to a range of lepidopteran species, including the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The expression of Cry1Ab protein in mfb-MH86 leaves, stems and leaf sheaths (hereinafter referred to as stems), and roots was evaluated throughout the rice-growing season using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mfb-MH86 resistance to C. suppressalis, a major pest of rice, was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay with field-collected rice stems. Cry1Ab protein levels of mfb-MH86 were highest in leaves (9.71-34.09 μg/g dry weight [DW]), intermediate in stems (7.66-18.51 μg/g DW), and lowest in roots (1.95-13.40 μg/g DW). In all tissues, Cry1Ab levels in mfb-MH86 were higher in seedling and tillering stages than in subsequent growth stages. In the laboratory bioassay, mortality of C. suppressalis after 6 d of feeding on mfb-MH86 stems was 100% throughout the rice-growing season; mortality of C. suppressalis when feeding on stems of the nontransformed isoline, MH86, ranged from 15.0 to 38.3%. The results indicate that Cry1Ab protein levels in mfb-MH86 stems are sufficient to protect plants against C. suppressalis throughout the rice-growing season. Although our results are promising, further comprehensive evaluations of mfb-MH86, including field surveys, will be needed before commercial use.
Liu, Su; Liang, Qing-Mei; Huang, Yuan-Jie; Yuan, Xin; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Qiao, Fei; Cheng, Jiaan; Gurr, Geoff M; Zhu, Zeng-Rong
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is one of the most important components of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. It catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known P450s, thus plays central roles not only in the metabolism of exogenous xenobiotics but also in the regulation of endogenous hormones in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding of a CPR (named CsCPR) was isolated from the Asiatic rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA contains a 2061 bp open reading frame, which encodes an enzyme of 686 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 77.6 kDa. The deduced peptide has hallmarks of typical CPR, including an N-terminal membrane anchor and the FMN, FAD and NADPH binding domains. The N-terminal-truncated protein fused with a 6 × His·tag was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells and purified, specific activity and the Km values of the recombinant enzyme were determined. Tissue- and developmental stage-dependent expression of CsCPR mRNA was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. The CsCPR mRNA was noticeably expressed in the digestive, metabolic, and olfactory organs of the larvae and adults of C. suppressalis. Our initial results would provide valuable information for further study on the interactions between CPR and cytochrome P450 enzyme systems.
Yang, Xu; Qu, Yu-Li; Wu, Zhi-Yi; Lin, Ying; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Desneux, Nicolas; Zang, Lian-Sheng
Parasitoids can utilize the nutrition of host eggs to culture their own offsprings. Host qualities, including size, age, and species, influence parasitism preference and fitness of the parasitoid offsprings. However, an interesting question here is whether the parasitoids have the ability of recognizing fertilized and nonfertilized host eggs. In this study, we investigated the performance of three indigenous Trichogramma species (Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead, Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, and Trichogramma chilonis Ishii) on fertilized and nonfertilized eggs of their native host, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The results showed that the three Trichogramma species tested could recognize fertilized and nonfertilized eggs of C. suppressalis The different fertilization status eggs of C. suppressalis were all accepted by T. japonicum, T. chilonis, and T. dendrolimi with a clear tendency that they preferred to parasitize fertilized eggs whether under no-choice or choice conditions. All Trichogramma species successfully completed development in parasitized eggs of C. suppressalis regardless if the host eggs were fertilized or not. There was similar adult emergence rate, development time, and female progeny between fertilized and nonfertilized eggs for all Trichogramma species with an exception of development for T. chilonis Trichogramma chilonis had shorter developmental time in fertilized eggs than in nonfertilized ones. Whether in fertilized or nonfertilized eggs, T. dendrolimi had longer development time than other two Trichogramma species. However, T. dendrolimi had the largest percentage of female progeny on fertilized eggs, followed by T. japonicum, and T. chilonis had the least percentage of female progeny. The present study indicates that Trichogramma can recognize fertilized and nonfertilized host eggs and use the nonfertilized eggs to finish offspring development.
Tefera, Tadele; Mugo, Stephen; Mwimali, Murenga; Anani, Bruce; Tende, Regina; Beyene, Yoseph; Gichuki, Simon; Oikeh, Sylvester O; Nang'ayo, Francis; Okeno, James; Njeru, Evans; Pillay, Kiru; Meisel, Barbara; Prasanna, B M
A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013-2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae. In CFT, plants were infested with C. partellus 14 and 24 days after planting; in BGH, plants were infested with B. fusca 21 and 31 days after planting. In CFT, the seven Bt hybrids significantly differed from their non-Bt counterparts for leaf damage, number of exit holes, percent tunnel length, and grain yield. When averaged over three seasons, Bt-hybrids gave the highest grain yield (9.7 t ha(-1)), followed by non-Bt hybrids (6.9 t ha(-1)) and commercial checks (6 t ha(-1)). Bt-hybrids had the least number of exit holes and percent tunnel length in all the seasons as compared to the non-Bt hybrids and commercial checks. In BGH trials, Bt-hybrids consistently suffered less leaf damage than their non-Bt near isolines. The study demonstrated that MON810 was effective in controlling B. fusca and C. partellus. Bt-maize, therefore, has great potential to reduce the risk of maize grain losses in Africa due to stem borers, and will enable the smallholder farmers to produce high-quality grain with increased yield, reduced insecticide inputs, and improved food security.
Wang, Ya-Nan; Ke, Kai-Qie; Li, Yun-He; Han, Lan-Zhi; Liu, Yan-Min; Hua, Hong-Xia; Peng, Yu-Fa
Two transgenic rice lines (T2A-1 and T1C-19b) expressing cry2A and cry1C genes, respectively, were developed in China, targeting lepidopteran pests including Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The seasonal expression of Cry proteins in different tissues of the rice lines and their resistance to C. suppressalis were assessed in comparison to a Bt rice line expressing a cry1Ab/Ac fusion gene, Huahui 1, which has been granted a biosafety certificate. In general, levels of Cry proteins were T2A-1 > Huahui 1 > T1C-19b among rice lines, and leaf > stem > root among rice tissues. The expression patterns of Cry protein in the rice line plants were similar: higher level at early stages than at later stages with an exception that high Cry1C level in T1C-19b stems at the maturing stage. The bioassay results revealed that the three transgenic rice lines exhibited significantly high resistance against C. suppressalis larvae throughout the rice growing season. According to Cry protein levels in rice tissues, the raw and corrected mortalities of C. suppressalis caused by each Bt rice line were the highest in the seedling and declined through the jointing stage with an exception for T1C-19b providing an excellent performance at the maturing stage. By comparison, T1C-19b exhibited more stable and greater resistance to C. suppressalis larvae than T2A-1, being close to Huahui 1. The results suggest cry1C is an ideal Bt gene for plant transformation for lepidopteran pest control, and T1C-19b is a promising Bt rice line for commercial use for tolerating lepidopteran rice pests.
Cabrera, Ileana; And Others
A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…
Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo
This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…
Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Fuchs, Annika; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens
The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The numerical simulation of prototypical tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priory risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is based on a finite element discretization, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview of the model itself and presents two applications. For GITEWS, the existing scenario database covering 528 epicenters / 3450 scenarios from Sumatra to Bali was extended by 187 epicenters / 1100 scenarios in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Furthermore, about 1100 scenarios for the Western Sunda Arc were recomputed on the new model domain covering the whole Indonesian Seas. These computations would not have been feasible in the beginning of the project. The unstructured computational grid contains 7 million nodes and resolves all coastal regions with 150m, some project regions and the surrounding of tide gauges with 50m, and the deep ocean with 12km edge length. While in the Western Sunda Arc, the large islands of Sumatra and Java shield the Northern Indonesian Archipelago, tsunamis in the Eastern Sunda Arc can propagate to the North. The unstructured grid approach allows TsunAWI to easily simulate the complex propagation patterns with the self-interactions and the reflections at the coastal regions of myriads of islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) to provide data for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). This work is part of the initiation project "Multi hazard information and early warning system in cooperation with Chile" and aims at sharing our experience from GITEWS with the Chilean partners.
... Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile Environmental....-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement; (2) the U.S.-Chile 2009-2011 Work Program for...
Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.
Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.
Vargas Fernández, Luis
When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah
Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.
Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.
Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.
Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina
The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate
Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin
The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management.
Comte, D.; Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R.; Vandecar, J.
The Aysen seismic swarm began January 23, 2007, with a magnitude 5.2 (USGS) earthquake and, after an apparent decrease in activity, continued with a magnitude 5.6 event on February 26. The swarm is characterized by numerous felt earthquakes of small to moderate magnitude, located at crustal depths beneath the Aysen Canal, a prominent fiord of the Chilean littoral. The region is characterized by the subduction of an active oceanic spreading ridge: the Chile Ridge, the divergent Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary, is currently subducting beneath continental South America along the Chile Trench at approximately 46.5°S, forming a plate triple junction in the vicinity of the Taitao Peninsula, somewhat south and west of the swarm. Also, the Liquine-Ofqui dextral strike- slip fault traverses the Aysen Canal in the vicinity of the swarm. This fault has been interpreted as a 1000 km long dextral intra-arc strike-slip fault zone, consisting of two major strands which extend north from the Chile Margin triple junction. The Liquiñe-Ofqui system is marked by several pull-apart basins along its trace through the area. Seismic activity along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone has been poorly studied to date, largely because teleseismic events clearly related to the fault have been few, and southern hemisphere seismic stations are lacking. However, we deployed a dense temporary broad-band seismic network both onland and on the islands in the Aysen region, which allowed us to capture the initial phases of the swarm on some 20 stations, and to determine the background seismicity patterns in this area for the two years preceding the swarm. The swarm could be caused by several processes: the spatial and depth distribution of the events suggests that they are well correlated with reactivation of the southern end of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, as defined by geologic studies and onshore gravity data collected in southern Chile. The swarm may be related to formation of new volcanic center between
ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the
Gutierrez Roldan, H G
"The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Knapp, Michael
In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called “chilihueque” played a major role in the island’s society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that “chilihueque” was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals. PMID:27929050
Internal Medicine, as a comprehensive discipline, has become increasingly dismembered during the last decades due to several reasons, some of which are the growing complexities of its practice, its obstinate confinement to hospital-based practice, its generation of and subsequent disfunction from general internal medicine and the medical subspecialities. In Chile internal medicine is currently organized in three levels of patient care, each of anarchical and distortioned proportions. These levels do not constitute a fluent network of progressive patient care but rather an heterogeneous combination of ironclad compartments in search of their own autonomy. A few of the many problems and challenges that internal medicine faces in Chile are: (a) in primary care medicine, problem-solving abilities must be improved and programmed care must be privileged over free choice. Specialist in general medicine must be assigned to primary care and multiprofessional teams must be strengthened; (b) Secondary care is underdeveloped due to the waning prestige of internal medicine and waxing attractiveness of its subspecialities. Programmed formation of specialist in internal medicine has been so far rigorous and demanding, but excessive in number in relation to available post. This leads trained internist to practice as subspecialist, without having the adequate conditions for such a practice. To avoid this situation, the scope of internal medicine emergency wards, integral medicine clinics, and medical student teaching should be handed over to it; (c) Tertiary care is a task of subspecialist. It is not known how many subspecialist are required, or how many physicians are currently practicing as a subspecialist. Most of the currently practicing subspecialist are self-qualified or have received quick training through short rotations by not always well-qualified centers. Many are only former internal medicine residents. In this setting, it is not possible to devise a prospective plan of
Holmgren, J; Reyes, J; Colombo, M; Blanco, M A
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the best known forms of muscular dystrophy. The incidence in different countries varies from 130 to 390 per million male live births. Becker variety may be considered a mild form of Duchenne dystrophy, with an incidence 10 times lower. A sex linked recessive inheritance is involved in both forms, the affected gene is placed at locus X21. The incidence of both forms in Chile is similar to that reported worldwide, and has been increasing since 1950. Increased CK and LDH levels are confirmed in patients, and overall, they are also higher in female carriers. However only 26% of carriers have increased CK levels and 21% increased LDH levels, compared to normal subjects. Electromyograms show myopathic characteristics in all carrier women. The scope of a prospective clinical, genetic and epidemiologic study currently underway is discussed.
The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.
Moreno M, Claudia
Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25% and of scabies 1-5%. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis.
Rojo, Patricio; Jenkins, James; Hoyer, Sergio; Jones, Matías
We present and highlight the first results of the three main exoplanet surveys we are currently conducting at Universidad de Chile: CHEPS, Red Giant Exoplanets (radial velocity), and TraMoS (transit lightcurves). We have several interesting candidates at the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search (CHEPS) project, which is aimed at searching for the currently missing southern bright transiting planets at a few m/s radial velocity precision. Using the same technique, we are also characterizing the planetary population in a constrained sample of Red Giant stars. The Transit Monitoring from the South (TraMoS) project is aimed both at improving transit parameters and at detecting any kind of lightcurve variability from several known southern exoplanet systems.
Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando
The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.
Preston, Sandra Lee; Arnett, Dinah; Hardy, Eduardo; Cabezón, Sergio; Spuck, Tim; Fields, Mary Sue; Smith, R. Chris
The first Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit occurred March 22-28, 2015. The Summit was organized and supported by the U.S. Embassy in Chile, Associated Universities Inc., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Image of Chile Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and La Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. The Summit brought together a team of leading experts and officials from Chile and the U.S. to share best practices in astronomy education and outreach. In addition, Summit participants discussed enhancing existing partnerships, and building new collaborations between U.S. Observatories and astronomy education outreach leaders in Chile.The Summit was an exciting and intense week of work and travel. Discussions opened in Santiago on March 22 with a variety of astronomy education and public outreach work sessions, a public forum, and on March 23 the U.S. Embassy sponsored a Star Party. On Tuesday, March 24, the Summit moved to San Pedro de Atacama, where activities included work sessions, a visit to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array telescope facilities, and a second public forum. From San Pedro, the team traveled to La Serena for additional work sessions, visits to Gemini and Cerro Tololo, a third public forum, and the closing session. At each stop, authorities and the broader community were invited to participate and provide valuable input on the current state, and the future, of astronomy education and public outreach.Following the Summit a core working committee has continued meeting to draft a “roadmap document” based on findings from the Summit. This document will help to identify potential gaps in astronomy outreach efforts, and how the U.S. facilities and Chilean institutions might work together strategically to address these needs. The first draft of this “roadmap document” will be made available for comment in both Spanish and
Xu, Shu; Wang, Ming-Liang; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Li, Yan-Ning; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, overwinters in China as a larva in facultative diapause. The instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. In this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwintering larvae were divided into five groups based on body weight (I, up to 35.0mg; II, 35.1-57.0mg; III, 57.1-79.0mg; IV, 79.1-101.0mg; and V, over 101.1mg) for further analysis. The body water content of the lighter group (I) was significantly higher than that of the heavier groups (IV-V). However, the mean supercooling point decreased with an increase of the mean larval body weight in five groups; mean supercooling point of group I was significantly lower than that of group V, except in January 2009. After transfer of overwintering larvae to 15, 20 and 25°C on different dates, smaller individuals pupated slightly faster than larger ones at the same temperature, suggesting that diapause was less intense in smaller overwintering larvae. On 19 March 2009 there was a strong positive correlation between larval body weight and the weight of 3 day-old pupae, and the number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females at 15, 20 and 25°C. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females differed significantly among different groups. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females in group V was significantly greater than those of other groups, and that of group I was significantly lower than those of other groups, suggesting that post-diapause reproductive potential was determined, to a certain extent, by body weight of the overwintering larvae.
Vargas, Héctor A; Hausmann, Axel
Three species of geometrid moths are reported from the extreme North of Chile. All three are new for the Chilean fauna: Scopula umbilicata (Fabricius, 1794) (Sterrhinae), Cataspilates grisescens Warren, 1897, and Pero obtusaria Prout, 1928 (Ennominae).
Reyes Budelovsky, H
The first issue of Revista Médica de Chile was printed in July, 1872. Since then, it has been published monthly, interrupted only for a few months during a Chilean civil war (1891). This medical journal has been devoted mainly to clinical topics in internal medicine, but currently it includes an increasing proportion of research papers in other biomedical and preclinical subjects. This journal is included in the most important international indexes of biomedical publications. Most issues cover also medical education, public health, the ethics of clinical and experimental research, medical administration and the history of medicine. The evolution of medicine in Chile along 125 years is clearly reflected in the contents of this journal. Revista Médica de Chile is one of the oldest medical journals in the world, particularly among those published in Spanish, and a top ranking biomedical publication in Chile.
... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...
... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...
Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel
This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.
Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN
Rakowsky, Natalja; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Androsov, Alexey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens
The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The Numerical simulation of prototypic tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is suited for both tasks. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution presents two fields of applications. In the Indonesian tsunami early warning system, the existing TsunAWI scenario database covers the Sunda subduction zone from Sumatra to the Lesser Sunda Islands with 715 epicenters and 4500 scenarios. In a collaboration with Geoscience Australia, we support the scientific staff at the Indonesian warning center to extend the data base to the remaining tectonic zones in the Indonesian Archipelago. The extentension started for North Sulawesi, West and East Maluku Islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). The earthquake and tsunami events on 1 April 2014 and 16 November 2016 showed the practical use of this approach in comparison to hind casts of these events.
Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás
The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.
Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel
Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.
Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).
Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…
... an obstacle to the westerly winds, and wake patterns in the cloud layers are visible downstream of the island's location. In the lower left ... the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by cumulus clouds, and a spiral cloud pattern associated with an atmospheric ...
In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…
Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others
Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…
Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinxing; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Lin, Yongjun; Ma, Weihua
Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa). This suggests that APN1 and APN2 are receptors for Cry1A and Cry1C toxins in C. suppressalis.
Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.
Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition
Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis.
Stuessy, Tod F.; Foland, K.A.; Sutter, John F.; Sanders, Roger W.; Silva, O. Mario
Potassium-argon dating of five basalts from the three main islands of the Juan Fernández (or Robinson Crusoe) Islands of Chile in the southeastern Pacific gives ages of 1.01 ± 0.12 and 2.44 ± 0.14 million years for Masafuera, 3.79 ± 0.20 and 4.23 ± 0.16 for Masatierra, and 5.8 ± 2.1 for Santa Clara. These ages are much younger than that of the underlying oceanic plate and are consistent with the origin of the island-seamount chain from a mantle hot spot beneath the eastward moving Nazca plate. The young age for the archipelago suggests that speciation within endemic genera has occurred within the past 4 to 5 million years. Endemic genera of apparently more ancient origins, such as Lactoris and Thyrsopteris, have apparently dispersed to the islands and survive refugially.
Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN
Celis, José E; Espejo, Winfred; González-Acuña, Daniel; Jara, Solange; Barra, Ricardo
To add data on trace metal contamination of Humboldt penguins in the South Pacific, levels of trace metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) and porphyrins (copro-, uro-, and proto-) in excreta of Humboldt penguins that inhabit some important nesting sites on the northern coast of Chile were determined. Fresh excreta were collected on Pan de Azúcar Island, Chañaral Island, and Cachagua Island, from December 2011 to January 2012. Concentration of metals was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas porphyrins levels were measured by fluorimetric analysis. Concentrations (dry weight) of Cu (199.67 μg g(-1)), As (7.85 μg g(-1)), and Pb (12.78 μg g(-1)) were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in Cachagua Island. Colonies from Pan de Azúcar Island showed the highest levels of Hg (0.76 μg g(-1)), Cd (47.70 μg g(-1)), and Zn (487.10 μg g(-1)). Samples from Cachagua Island showed the highest (p ≤ 0.05) levels of copro- (2.16 nmol g(-1)), uro- (2.20 nmol g(-1)), and protoporphyrins (2.23 nmol g(-1)). There was a positive correlation between the metals As, Pb, and Cu with uro-, copro-, and protoporphyrins. The results indicated that penguin colonies from Cachagua Island are more exposed to metal contamination than penguin colonies from Pan de Azúcar and Chañaral Islands, thus being more likely to develop certain diseases caused by contamination with metals. Considering biomagnification, the metals detected in the excreta of Humboldt penguins can be a source of contamination from marine environments to terrestrial ecosystems, which could also affect other living organisms.
Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Navarrette, Gonzalo; Veloso, Paula; Torres, Silverio
Background Psychiatric epidemiological surveys in developing countries are rare and are frequently conducted in regions that are not necessarily representative of the entire country. In addition, in large countries with dispersed populations national rates may have low value for estimating the need for mental health services and programs. Methods The Chile Psychiatric Prevalence Study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted in four distinct regions of the country on a stratified random sample of 2,978 people. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and service utilization rates were estimated. Results Significant differences in the rates of major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorders, non-affective psychosis, and service utilization were found across the regions. The differential prevalence rates could not be accounted by socio-demographic differences between sites. Conclusions Regional differences across countries may exist that have both implications for prevalence rates and service utilization. Planning mental health services for population centers that span wide geographical areas based on studies conducted in a single region may be misleading, and may result in areas with high need being underserved. PMID:17036264
One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894
Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei
One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly.
Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.
It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.
Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F.; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C. P.; Malik, Javed K.; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad
It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.
Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.
Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…
Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián
This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finlands experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.
Schlyter, F; Svensson, M; Zhang, Q H; Knízek, M; Krokene, P; Ivarsson, P; Birgersson, G
Pheromone communication systems have a reliable signal with a restricted window of amounts and ratios released and perceived. We propose a model based on a Gaussian response profile that allows a quantification of the response peak (location of optimum) and a measure of the peak width (response window). Interpreting the Gaussian curve, fitted by nonlinear regression (NLR), as a standard normal distribution, the peak location equals the mean (it) and the window width equals 2 x the standard deviation (2sigma). The NLR procedure can provide an objective measure for both peak location and width for a wide range of data sets. Four empirical data sets as well as 10 literature data sets were analyzed. The double-spined spruce engraver, Ips duplicatus, was field tested in four populations to find the optimum proportion for attraction to the two male aggregation pheromone components, ipsdienol (Id) and (E)-myrcenol(EM), ranging from 0 to 100% of Id. Tests in Norway and the Czech Republic confirmed the preference of western populations for a blend between 50 and 90% Id. A population in Inner Mongolia showed a preference for traps with the 10 and 50% Id baits. The NLR fitted values for response peak and width (mu; 2sigma) were: Norway 0.64, 0.73; Czech Republic 0.53, 0.73; NE China 0.77, 0.29; and Inner Mongolia 0.33, 0.50. The signal produced by Norwegian field-collected males had a narrower window width (2sigma = 0.12). Males of the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus, were tested in a flight tunnel for their response to variation in the two major female sex pheromone gland components, (Z)- l1-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol (OH). Variation of the alcohol in seven levels from 2 to 29% OH showed the highest male response for 17% OH. For all behavioral steps, the peak of male response was near mu = 0.14, while the window width fell from 2sigma = 0.5 to 0.2 for eight sequential behavioral steps from take-off to copulation. Female production had a similar peak location
... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead...
... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...
... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...
Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…
... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...
... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...
With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.
Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)
2008-01-01The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old. The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used
Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5,...
Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
Toscanini, Ulises; Moreno, Fabián; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Morales, Eugenia Aguirre; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio
We estimated the allele frequencies for the 15 autosomal STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler (Applied Biosystems, USA) in a sample of 986 unrelated non-Native American individuals collected at five different localities from Chile, namely, Iquique, Santiago, Concepción, Temuco and Punta Arenas. Frequency distributions and several forensic parameters were estimated at each recruitment site. In addition, analyses were carried out merging the data into five sample locations. No significant statistical differences could be detected between different regions in Chile. These data represent one of the very few studies performed on autosomal STRs in Chile and therefore provide a useful tool for forensic casework carried out in the country.
and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse
Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio
In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient
Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich
Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation.
Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Comte, D.
The SPOC experiment was carried out as a combined on- /offshore experiment using FS SONNE (cruise SO 161) to investigate the effects of subducting seamounts and fracture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean margin off Valparaiso, Chile. The working area is characterised by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate under the South American continent and shows highly segmentation. North of Valparaiso the subduction angle is very low (flat slab) and we observe only minor sediment input into the trench. In contrast we observe a steep dip angle and high sedimentation rates in the south. Segment boundaries commonly coincide with e.g. bathymetric highs as in this case the Juan Fernandez Ridge which interrupts the lateral, south-north going material flow along the trench. Local earthquake monitoring was carried out for a period of ten weeks using two marine subarrays totally comprising 23 ocean bottom instruments (OBH and OBS). Seismological land data from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary land stations supplement the marine data set. We present results of about 600 hypocenter determinations detected on the marine OBH/S recordings and the temporary land stations. The hypocenter distribution shows a considerable seismic activity below the upper part of the continental margin. Due to the geometry of the arrays which focus on the transitional domain of the slope we can map the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone using a compilation of both data sets. The southern marine subarray registered a swarm of shallow earthquakes, located on top of the already subducted Topocalma Knoll. A relation to this seamount subduction is strongly indicated. Next to the Juan Fernandez Seamount on the outer rise, we observe considerable seismic activity.
Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Mechie, J.; Lueth, S.; Wigger, P.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Bataille, K.
Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36\\deg and 39\\deg S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and a narrow accretionary wedge. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-frontally accreting subduction mode. Along the westernmost part of the southernmost E-W refraction seismic line, the profile spread of the active reflection seismic survey at 38\\deg 15' S was 54 km long, and also recorded the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of its spread. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed. Between 5-25 km depth the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge is described. Reflections between 16-42 km correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are interpreted as imaging the top of the downgoing plate. In the central part of the profile a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling. These new seismic data provide the geometry of the subduction zone in the area, and hence
In the context of a festschrift to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Revista Médica de Chile, "radiography" of the journal has been depicted using several scientometric indicators. Among the mainstream journals in the category of Medicine, General & Internal and taking into account the wide editorial coverage and the language of the publication that fulfills the need for the required social appropriation of science that the country requires, the Revista Médica de Chile portrays healthy and quite relevant. Among the articles published between 1981 and 1995, some concerning public health have reached, particularly, an impact which surpasses their mean expected citation rate.
Bennett, K D; Haberle, S G; Lumley, S H
Warming at the last glacial termination in the North Atlantic region was interrupted by a period of renewed glacial activity during the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). The underlying mechanism of this cooling remains elusive, but hypotheses turn on whether it was a global or a North Atlantic phenomenon. Chronological, sedimentological, and palaeoecological records from sediments of small lakes in oceanic southern Chile demonstrate that there was no YDC cooling in southern Chile. It is therefore likely that there was little or no cooling in southern Pacific surface waters and hence that YDC cooling in the North Atlantic was a regional, rather than global, phenomenon.
Situación terremoto zona centro sur (Actualiza reporte),” March 1, 2010; Hillary Rodham Clinton, “Remarks With Chilean President Michelle Bachelet...U.S. Department of State, March 2, 2010. 6 “Bachelet decreta primer Estado de Catástrofe desde terremoto de 1985,” El Mercurio (Chile), March 1...2010; “Amplían toque de queda en zonas más afectadas por terremoto en Chile,” Agence France Presse, March 1, 2010; “160 detained, one killed during
Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno
The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one
Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.
Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will
Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging
Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas
Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (< 2 Hz) P-wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate
Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.
The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously
Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P
MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).
Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan
This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…
Aedo-Richmond, Ruth; Richmond, Mark
Reports on curriculum reform in Chile following the 1990 replacement of the Pinochet military regime with the democratically elected government of Patricio Aylwin. Significant reforms occurred in primary and rural education. Other improvements included increased professionalization of teaching, and funding for the Ministry of Education. (MJP)
Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán
Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…
One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…
Zhu, Xiao-San; Lu, Min-Jie
Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic-magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic-magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic-intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.
Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador
Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…
Many of the most primitive Neotropical bush katydids (Phaneropterinae) — including species of Cosmophyllum Blanchard, Stenophylla Brunner von Wattenwyl, Marenestha Brunner von Wattenwyl, Anisophya Karabag, Coryphoda Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Burgilis Stål — are endemic in Chile. The Chilean species...
Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.
This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…
McEwan, Patrick J.
Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…
1994.21 Nonetheless, Mapuche communities maintain that land transfers have been slow and represent only a fraction of their ancestral territory .22 As a... Conflicto Mapuche Preocupa Pero No Hay Una ‘Guerra Civil’, Según Gobierno,” EFE News Service, October 21, 2009. 24 “Chile Arrests Mapuche Militant
Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy
Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…
Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…
access to education. Despite these actions, some Chileans felt more radical change was needed. In 1970 , Salvador Allende, a Socialist and the leader of...Chile: Country Report,” Economist Intelligence Unit, December 2008. 32 Eva Vergara, “Bachelet Crea Comisión para Enfrenter Desempleo por Crisis
The paper focuses on the growth and development of special education for learning disabled children in Chile with particular emphasis on the contribution of child psychiatry and pediatric neurology departments of hospitals and the contribution of universities in training specialists. Initial sections provide a background on primary education in…
Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela
This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...
The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…
This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…
Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo
Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.
Coomans, A. V.; Raski, D. J.
Two new species of Prismatolaimus are described from Orange Bay, Hoste Island, Chile. Prismatolaimus novoporus sp. n. is distinguished by its females being 1.08-1.28 mm long and monovarial with a long postvulvar sac, and having a long tail (c' = 21.5-32.2); males have 11-20 supplements confined to the posterior part of the body. Prismatolaimus chilensis sp. n. is distinguished by its amphidelphic reproductive system, short tail (c' = 9.5), V = 63.4; males have 23 supplements reaching up to the neck region. A well-developed dorsal body pore behind the cardia connected with an apparently glandular organ is reported in P. novoporus sp. n. Function of the organ is unknown, and it is not a general feature in the genus. The generic diagnosis of Prismatolaimus is emended and keys to species, both females and males, are presented. The systematic position of Prismatolaimus is discussed, and it is judged to be the only genus of Prismatolaimidae. Also, it is concluded that Prismatolaimidae and Bastianidae represent two sister taxa in Araeolaimida or Leptolaimina. PMID:19290212
Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.
The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.
This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.
Hertzberg, Ruth A.
This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…
Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.
The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.
Fica, Alberto; Potin, Marcela; Moreno, Gabriela; Véliz, Liliana; Cerda, Jaime; Escobar, Carola; Wilhelm, Jan
Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.
Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kaiser, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ninnemann, U.
A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental margin allows detailed reconstructions of the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last ca. 120,000 years. Based on several sediment cores recovered during two German cruises and ODP Leg 202 (Site 1233), we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature and salinity changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying for example generally more humid conditions during the LGM and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. North of 33°S, these general productivity patterns are complicated by additional impacts from the tropics resulting in maximum paleoproductivity during the deglaciation and prior to the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate variability with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Recently drilled ODP Site 1233 allowed to prolong these records into the last glacial. The available data show millennial-scale SST changes that closely follow the temperature pattern known from Antarctic ice-cores. Including other records from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, our data suggest a quasi-hemisphere-wide response that is consistent with the
Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M
Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.
Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.
A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…
This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)
The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.
Wulff, Barry L.; And Others
Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…
Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.
Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new centre for astronomical observation in Chile.
Construction and analysis of antennal cDNA library from rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and expression profiles of putative odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein genes.
Gong, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Su; Jiang, Yan-Dong; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Liang, Qing-Mei; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Gurr, Geoff M
In this study, we constructed a high-quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed.
The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain , the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers).  See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres
FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL
Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.
Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.
Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter
Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island
Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio
Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time.
A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America.
Rudnick, H. )
This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.
Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J
In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile.
Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.
Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.
This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.
Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.
Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures
Ramírez, María Soledad; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Stietz, María Silvina; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Jeric, Paola; Limansky, Adriana S; Márquez, Carolina; Bello, Helia; Catalano, Mariana; Centrón, Daniela
In order to determine the occurrence of AbaR-type genomic island in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) strains circulating in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, we studied 51 MDRAb isolates recovered from several hospitals over 30 years. AbaR-type genomic resistance islands were found in 36 MDRAb isolates since 1986 till now. MLST technique allowed us to identify the presence of four different Clonal Complexes (109, 104, 119, 113) among the positive AbaR-type island positive strains. This is the first description of AbaR-type islands in the CC104 and CC113 that are the most widespread Clonal Complexes in Argentina. In addition, PCR mapping exposed different arrays to those previously described, evidencing the plasticity of this island. Our results evidence a widespread distribution of the AbaR-type genomic islands along the time in the MDRAb population, including the epidemic global clone 1 (GC1) as well as different clonal complexes to those already described in the literature.
relationship between criminal groups and drug dealers. Carabineros (Uniformed Police Force) and Investigaciones de Chile (Investigation Police) have...2004; available from <http://www.latercera.cl/ articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html>; Internet; accessed 02 Feb 2004. 21 Military Studies and... articulo /0,5819,3255_5664_49521165,00.html> Internet. Accessed 02 February 2004. Williams, Phil. “New Contexts, Smart Enemies” in Non-State Threats and Future Wars, ed. Robert Bunker, Portland: Frank Cass & Co., 2003
Toro, J.; Vega, J. D.; Khan, A. S.; Mills, J. N.; Padula, P.; Terry, W.; Yadón, Z.; Valderrama, R.; Ellis, B. A.; Pavletic, C.; Cerda, R.; Zaki, S.; Shieh, W. J.; Meyer, R.; Tapia, M.; Mansilla, C.; Baro, M.; Vergara, J. A.; Concha, M.; Calderon, G.; Enria, D.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G.
An outbreak of 25 cases of Andes virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was recognized in southern Chile from July 1997 through January 1998. In addition to the HPS patients, three persons with mild hantaviral disease and one person with asymptomatic acute infection were identified. Epidemiologic studies suggested person-to-person transmission in two of three family clusters. Ecologic studies showed very high densities of several species of sigmodontine rodents in the area. PMID:9866751
immunologic familiarity with I this antigen, sera collected 10 days after immunization were examined by IgM "ELISA. In this instance significant rises of 0...do not have the same immunologic familiarity with S. typhi 0 antigen as Chilean children. U.S. adults respond to immun.zation as often with a primary...vaccination between May 3 and June 18, 1982. -25- REFERENCES 1. Departamento Planificacion Estadistica, Mjnisterio de Salud, Santiago Chile. 2. Ristori
The author examines the status of female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, in the 1980s, with a focus on the level of poverty and social inequalities. Aspects considered include "the dramatic transformation in domestic service, the increase in the number of non-migrant, lower class women participating in the economy, and the limited and precarious status of women's employment in the more dynamic sectors of the economy." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara
The aim of this study is to describe the trends of transport accident mortality in Chile from 2000 to 2012 by year, geographic distribution, gender, age group, and type of accident. Population-based study. Data for transport accident mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used. The crude and adjusted per region transport accident mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates and relative risks (RR) were calculated. The average transport accident mortality rate (TAMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 12.2. The rates were greater in men (19.7) than in women (4.8), with a RR of 4.1. The rates were higher in the country's southern zone (15.9), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC in the northern and central zones. The Maule region had the highest rate (21.1), although Coquimbo was the region with the most significant APC (2.2%). The highest rate (20.3) was verified in the 25-40 age group. The highest rate (14.3) was recorded in 2008. The most frequent type of accident was pedestrian. In general the APC trends of the rates are increasing significantly. This, added to rapid annual automotive growth, will only exacerbate mortality due to transport accidents.
Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia
While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.
Soto-Azat, Claudio; Peñafiel-Ricaurte, Alexandra; Price, Stephen J; Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; García, María Pía; Alvarado-Rybak, Mario; Cunningham, Andrew A
Amphibians face an extinction crisis with no precedence. Two emerging infectious diseases, ranaviral disease caused by viruses within the genus Ranavirus and chytridiomycosis due to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), have been linked with amphibian mass mortalities and population declines in many regions of the globe. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) has been indicated as a vector for the spread of these pathogens. Since the 1970s, this species has been invasive in central Chile. We collected X. laevis and dead native amphibians in Chile between 2011 and 2013. We conducted post-mortem examinations and molecular tests for Ranavirus and Bd. Eight of 187 individuals (4.3 %) tested positive for Ranavirus: seven X. laevis and a giant Chilean frog (Calyptocephallela gayi). All positive cases were from the original area of X. laevis invasion. Bd was found to be more prevalent (14.4 %) and widespread than Ranavirus, and all X. laevis Bd-positive animals presented low to moderate levels of infection. Sequencing of a partial Ranavirus gene revealed 100 % sequence identity with Frog Virus 3. This is the first report of Ranavirus in Chile, and these preliminary results are consistent with a role for X. laevis as an infection reservoir for both Ranavirus and Bd.
Arriagada, G; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J; Vanderstichel, R; Campistó, J L; Rees, E E; Ibarra, R; St-Hilaire, S
The sea louse is considered an important ectoparasite that affects farmed salmonids around the world. Sea lice control relies heavily on pharmacological treatments in several salmon-producing countries, including Chile. Among options for drug administration, immersion treatments represent the majority of antiparasitic control strategies used in Chile. As a topical procedure, immersion treatments do not induce a long lasting effect; therefore, re-infestation from neighbouring farms may undermine their efficacy. Synchronization of treatments has been proposed as a strategy to improve immersion treatment performance, but it has not been evaluated so far. Using a repeated-measures linear mixed-effect model, we evaluated the impact of treatment synchronization of neighbouring farms (within 10km seaway distance) on the adult lice mean abundance from weeks 2 to 8 post-treatment on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, while controlling for external and internal sources of lice before the treatments, and also for environmental and fish-related variables. Results indicate that treatment synchronization was significantly associated with lower adult lice levels from weeks 5 to 7 after treatment. This relationship appeared to be linear, suggesting that higher levels of synchronization may result in lower adult sea lice levels during these weeks. These findings suggest that synchronization can improve the performance of immersion delousing treatments by keeping sea lice levels low for a longer period of time. Our results may be applicable to other regions of the world where immersion treatments are widely used.
Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina
Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.
Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.
In 1999, after 6 years of intense work wirh Chilean authoritie Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the then President of Chile signed into law Supreme Decree 686, the environmentally-linked "Norma Luminica". This, in effect, required that lighting in the three astronomically-sensitive Regions of Northern Chile (II Paranal,Armazones III Las Campanas IV La Silla, Tololo, Pachon) be directed downwards instead of into the sky. Various grace periods up to a maximum of five years were specified for different types of lighting. Street lighting was due to be fully compliant by 1st October, 2005. 70% of the street lighting in these 3 Regions now meets specifications and work continues towards full compliance. More sophisticated draft legislation is under consideration with several Chilean national authorities. This may include international lighting norms, energy-saving caps and measures to address energy-saving, environmental and human-health issues. With vigilance, these measures are likely to extend the useful life of all existing and major planned observatories in Chile by several decades.
Robinson, Daryl C.
It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.
Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.
... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...
Rodriguez, E. E.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Murdie, R.; Comte, D.
The Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary, the Chile spreading ridge, subducts beneath South America, forming the northward-migrating Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), now at ~46.5°S, where an actively spreading segment is currently in the Nazca trench. Ridge subduction is associated with diachronously developed variable structure and magmatism of overriding South America. To assess the effects of ridge subduction, we deployed a network of 39 broadband seismometers in southern Chile between 43 - 49°S and 71 - 76°W from Dec. 2004 - Feb. 2007, recording 102 earthquakes suitable for receiver function analyses, i.e., M > 5.9, of various backazimuths, and at epicentral distances of 30 - 90°. The network encompassed onland portions of the current triple junction and ridge subduction, areas to the south of the CTJ where ridge segments subducted during the last 6 m.y., and regions north of the CTJ not yet affected by ridge subduction, allowing the assessment of the effects of ridge subduction on crustal structure of overriding South America. We constructed 551 teleseismic receiver functions to estimate crustal thicknesses, H, and average compressional to shear wave velocity ratios, Vp/Vs = k, using the iterative time deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999). H and k were calculated using the grid search method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000). Beneath stations closest to the trench, where the Nazca plate subducts, we found Moho depths between 28 and 55 km, thickening northward. At the locus of current ridge subduction, in the Taitao Pennisula, thinner crust ranges from 27 - 36 km. H is 36-38 km where the Antarctic plate subducts and the Chile ridge recently subducted. The direct effect of the subducting ridge on South America can be seen in H differences between forearc regions that have sustained ridge subduction versus those that have not. South American forearc crust above the subducted Nazca plate is as much as 28 km thicker than forearc crust recently affected by ridge
Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.
On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The
Ritter, Benedikt; Dunai, Tibor; Stuart, Finlay; Wennrich, Volker; Melles, Martin
Cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of ancient lake-level shoreline terraces of the Quillagua-Llamara Lake in the central Atacama Desert (N-Chile) provides new insights in the paleohydrology of the driest desert on earth. The lake developed from a paleo-exohereic drainage system in the Central Depression, before it opened towards the Pacific and an endohereic drainage system became established due to incision by the Rio Loa. The duration of the lake stages was long enough to cut erosive shoreline terraces into exposed islands. These shoreline features are preserved due to 250 m uplift of islands (Cerro Soledad, Cerro Mogote). Exposure dating of the shorelines reveals the existence of pluvial lake stages in the Atacama Desert during parts of the Late Pliocene and several Pleistocene interglacials (MIS 7, 9, 11, possibly 31, 87-93). These interglacials at least partly coincide with episodes of strong sea-ice retreat or even collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This correlation is traced back to dramatic changes in the oceanographic and atmospheric circulation system in the Equatorial-SE Pacific with implications for global climate. A strong reduction in West Antarctic sea ice, followed by a weakening of the Peru-Chile Current and reduced supply of cold water, may have enabled expansion of the Pacific Warm Pool and thus increased sea-surface temperatures along the west coast of South America. These long-lasting, El Niño-like conditions may have in turn decreased the temperature inversion and enabled moisture transport towards the western Andean flanks. Our findings are compatible with evidence from the ANDRILL 1B record from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and warm-water faunal assemblages on marine shoreline terraces from northern Chile. Furthermore, the exposure ages of the pluvial lake stages narrow the maximum incision age the of Rio Loa canyon and break through the Coastal Cordillera, and imply rock uplift rates of isolated islands in the Central Depression in the
Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.
The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....
... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....
... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....
... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....
Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Franco, Marcela; Rodríguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Rivarola, M. Daniela; Amico, Guillermo C.
Dromiciops gliroides is an arboreal marsupial found in the temperate forests of South America (36-43 °S). This species is the sole extant representative of the order Microbiotheria, and is a key seed disperser of many native plant species, including the keystone mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus. Here, we synthesized the current knowledge on the ecological aspects of this species, and compared the available information from Argentina and Chile. Population density (23 ± 2 (mean ± SE) individual/ha) and home range (1.6 ± 0.6 ha) appear to be relatively similar across a marked ecological gradient in the mainland, but lower densities (7 ± 2 individual/ha) and smaller home ranges (0.26 ± 0.04 ha) were detected at island sites. We detected regional variation in body condition in Chile, but there were no significant differences across a wider E-W gradient. Movement patterns fit a random walk model; such behavior might have important consequences in shaping plant's spatial patterns. Although our data suggest that D. gliroides is more tolerant to habitat disturbance than previously thought, its incapability to disperse across non-forested areas suggests that the rapid rate of habitat loss and fragmentation that characterizes southern temperate forests likely poses a serious threat to this species. These ecological similarities are surprising given that forests studied receive dramatically different rainfall and correspond to distinct forest types. The evidence synthetized here dispels some of the myths about this species but also stresses the need for more comprehensive ecological studies across its distribution range.
Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.
... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on...
Bedregal, Paula; Hernández, Viviana; Mingo, M Verónica; Castañón, Carla; Valenzuela, Patricia; Moore, Rosario; de la Cruz, Rolando; Castro, Daniela
Early child development is a population determinant of physical, mental and social health. To know the base line situation prior to the implementation of "Chile grows with you" (Chile Crece Contigo) is key to its evaluation.
Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.
Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792
Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B
For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.
Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant
To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.
Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant
To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017
Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael
The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).
On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Spectroscopic observations of the solar corona were performed during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010 in the green line at 5303 Å [Fe XIV] and the red line at 6374 Å [Fe X] from Easter Island, Chile. The data is analyzed to study the periodic variations in the intensity, line width and doppler velocity using wavelet analysis at all pixels within our field of view. We have found that there are few locations where significant oscillations are present. These oscillations can be interpreted in terms of the presence of magnetoacoustic waves or Alfvén waves in the corona.
... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...
Kim, Hongsuk H.
The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.
This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack
Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F
The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.
Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd
These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).
Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.
A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow
... Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA Joint Commission... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... States Trade Representative (``USTR'') are providing notice that the United States and Chile intend...
... (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and... determines that revocation of the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not...
The work of Dr. Claudio Costa Casaretto covers a broad field in the history of Medicine in Chile. He contributed with the historical aspects in the Centennial issue of Revista Médica de Chile in July, 1972. He published 85 papers in this journal in a lapse of 20 years. In his works, he investigated about medical personalities with the highest relevance for Chilean medicine such as Dr. William Blest, graduated in Edinburgh and director of the first Medicine Course in Chile in 1833, the French obstetrician Dr. Lorenzo Sazie, first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile in 1843 and Dr. Eloisa Díaz, first physician graduated in Chile and South America in 1887. He published the translation from Latin of Juan Ignacio Molina's verses "Elegies to smallpox", Chilean writer and erudite of the XVIII century. He also undertook the origins of Universidad de San Felipe (1737), Universidad de Chile (1842) and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (1889) and the main educational events occurred in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, during the past century. He also published about the public health situation and sanitary care during the XIX century, about the conflict between private and public teaching and other political events of the past century. The work of Dr. Costa as a whole, is a real history textbook of Chilean Medicine. Dr. Costa and Dr. Enrique Laval are the most important Chilean medical historians of the XX century.
... pomegranates from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with methyl bromide. DATES: We will... with methyl bromide. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) also received a request... fresh figs and pomegranates from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with...
... baby kiwi from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with methyl bromide. DATES... (Actinidia arguta) from Chile was allowed only if the fruit was fumigated with methyl bromide. On March 21... United States under a systems approach. The systems approach provides an alternative to fumigation...
Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...
Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.
The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…
Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T.
Abstract Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided. PMID:25061355
Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros
The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…
Boldt, Katherine V.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Hallet, Bernard; Koppes, Michele N.; Forrest, Brittany K.; Wellner, Julia S.; Anderson, John B.
of glacial erosion in temperate climates rank among the highest worldwide, and the sedimentary products of such erosion record climatic and tectonic signals in many glaciated settings, as well as temporal changes in glacier behavior. Glacial sediment yields are expected to decrease with increasing latitude because decreased temperature and meltwater production reduce glacial sliding, erosion, and sediment transfer; however, this expectation lacks a solid supportive database. Herein we present modern 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates on decadal to century time scales for 12 fjords spanning 15° of latitude from the Antarctic Peninsula to southern Chile and interpret the results in light of glacimarine sediment accumulation worldwide. 210Pb records from the Antarctic Peninsula show surprisingly steady sediment accumulation throughout the past century at rates of 1-7 mm yr-1, despite rapid warming and glacial retreat. Cores from the South Shetland Islands reveal accelerated sediment accumulation over the past few decades, likely due to changes in the thermal state of the glaciers in this region, which straddles the boundary between subpolar and temperate conditions. In Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, sediment accumulates faster (11-24 mm yr-1), and previously collected seismic profiles show that rates reach meters per year close to the glacier termini. This increase in sediment accumulation rates with decreasing latitude reflects the gradient from subpolar to temperate climates and is consistent with glacial erosion being much faster in the temperate climate of southern Chile than in the polar climate of the Antarctic Peninsula.
With this issue, Revista Médica de Chile will have been published uninterruptedly, for 130 years. Formal medical education had an early development since Chile became independent from Spain (1817). The first Medical Sciences Course was organized in 1833 by the Irish physician William C Blest. The Santiago Medical Society was founded in 1869 and its journal-Revista Médica de Chile--in 1872. Its first director was Dr. German Schneider. Revista Medica is the oldest serial publication in South America and the second oldest in the Spanish speaking world. This is a remarkable fact for a comparatively young country. With the creation of the Medical Society and Revista Medica, a process of continuous medical education was started and they became a real Graduate School. The Journal has adopted the main changes in knowledge and technology. Some important milestones of its development, during the second half of the 20th century, were the definition of its objectives and structure, the incorporation of peer review of manuscripts (even with foreign reviewers) the adoption of international guidelines for publication, its incorporation into the main biomedical journal indexes, the modernization of its printing process, the making of a computer generated index of all papers published since 1872, its incorporation into a digital library in INTERNET and the active participation of its editors in the World Association of Medical Journal Editors. The success of the journal is influenced by the independence that the Medical Society has conferred to the editors (all outstanding University Professors), as well as to the characteristics of an educational campus "invisible and without tumult" (Ingelfinger).
Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention.
Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura
This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas.
Ashton, Tom; Riascos, Jose M.; Pacheco, Aldo
Cymatium ( Monoplex) keenae Beu, 1970, the neopolitan triton, is a Ranellidae predator distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. In this study we report this species for the first time in Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile. Adult specimens have been found since June 2003 at depths ranging from 5 to 15 m in La Rinconada Marine Reserve (23°28'18″S, 70°30'46″W) in Antofagasta Bay, near a scallop farming facility. The present findings clearly extend the geographic range of C. keenae, which previously had been reported from La Paz, Gulf of California (Mexico) to Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the SE Pacific. Previous evidence strongly suggests that the intrusion of this tropical immigrant can be related to warm El Niño episodes. We analyze the key role of the oceanographic characteristics of Antofagasta Bay as potential temporal refuge for this species.
Mortality by abortion has continuously decreased over the past fifty years in Chile. In fact, maternal death as a result of an induced abortion has become an exceptionally rare phenomenon in epidemiological terms (a risk of 1 in 4 million pregnant women of fertile age or 0.4 per 100,000 life births for abortion of any type, excluding ectopic pregnancy). After abortion became illegal in 1989, deaths related to abortion continued to decrease from 10.8 to 0.39 per 100,000 live births. This scientific fact challenges the common notion that less permissive abortion laws lead to greater mortality associated with abortion.
Heusser, C J
Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate today, wet in winter and dry in summer, supports broad sclerophyll vegetation that developed during the Holocene with the arrival of paleo-Indians and the extinction of mastodon and horse.
Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299
Aguilera, Pablo; Garrido, Marcela; Lessard, Eli; Swanson, Julian; Mallon, William K.; Saldias, Fernando; Basaure, Carlos; Lara, Barbara; Swadron, Stuart P.
Introduction While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO) that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED) presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%). Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2%) of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8%) cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine). Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39%) patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a relatively low rate
Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.
2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME
Armand Stanica, Dragos, ,, Dr.; Stanica, Dumitru, ,, Dr.; Vladimirescu, Nicoleta
In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the geomagnetic data collected, via internet (www.intermagnet.com), on the interval 01 July-30 September 2015 at the observatories Easter Island (IMP) and Pilar (PIL), placed in Chile and Argentina, respectively, to emphasize a possible relationship between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M8.3 earthquake, that occurred in Offshore Coquimbo (Chile) on September 16-th, 2015. The daily mean distributions of the normalized function Bzn=Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectrical strike) and its standard deviation (STDEV) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis. It was demonstrated that in pre-seismic conditions the Bzn has a significant enhancement due to the crustal electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting system developed inside the foci and its neighboring area. After analyzing the anomalous values of the normalized function Bzn obtained at Easter Island and Pilar observatories, the second one taken as reference, we used a statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, to identify on 1-2 September 2015 a pre-seismic signature related to the M8.3 earthquake. The lead time was 14 days before the M8.3 earthquake occurrence. The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme earthquake hazard assessment.
Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore
One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...
2006-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.
2008-01-01In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater. The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile
Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056
Martínez, Jessica; Leal, Germán; Conget, Paulette
The microsporidian Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae have been associated with colony disorders of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana, respectively. N. apis is endemic in South America. Recently, N. ceranae has been detected in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. No report of its presence, distribution and prevalence in Chile is available. Here, we present a real-time PCR-based method that was able to discriminate between N. apis and N. ceranae. The dynamic range of this assay was 100 to 100,000 spores per honeybee. False-negative results were avoided due to the use of ACTIN gene as internal standard. False-positive results were obtained neither in experimentally nor in naturally contaminated samples. Using this method, we screened 240 beehives from the Chilean region where 42% of the total country honey production take places (Región del Biobío). Nosema spp. were detected in the four provinces and in 20 of the 26 communes of the region. Among the samples analysed, 49% were positive for N. ceranae. Their infection level ranged from 200 to more than 100,000 spores per honeybee. N. apis was not detected in this region. Hence, our data show that in Chile N. ceranae is an emergent pathogen that is been replacing N. apis. Also, they support that N. ceranae maybe the actual responsible for nosemosis in A. mellifera in South America.
Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali
The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.
From 1984, when the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in Chile, to December 2003, 6.060 patients with AIDS and 6.514 with asymptomatic HIV infection have been notified to a passive national surveillance system; around 3,800 have died due to the infection. Magnitude of the under reporting is discussed. Assumed routes of the infection have been: sexual (94.1%), blood--largely intravenous drug use--(4.3%) and vertical transmission (1.6%). According to analysis performed by the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), a governmental office, HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chile is characterized by: predominance in male homo/bisexuals, urban and rural distribution, impoverishment of the affected people, diagnosis made mainly during adulthood and a steady trend to affecting more women and heterosexuals at large. Since 2001 there has been a continuous increase in access to standard antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for those cared for by the public health system, reaching free coverage for 100% of this population by 2003, which has determined a significant decrease in the rate AIDS-associated clinical manifestations while reaching an stop of the previously increasing lethality of the infection (from a 15% increase from 1993-1997 to 0.2% from 1998-2003).
Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S
We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439
Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta
This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.
Vásquez, Marcela; Maldonado, Mónica; Tagle, Federico; León, Sergio; Soto, Alejandra; Mena, Aaron; Toro, Carla
A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the Maule regional blood production center. The results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. A change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. In Chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. There was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.
Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian
The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.
Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.
In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.
Reyes B, Humberto; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín
During the first semester of 2009 Revista Médica de Chile has received an increasing number of manuscripts. Close to 30% were rejected while most other are in the process of being improved by the authors after receiving criticisms by external peer reviewers and the editors. The time lag between acceptance and publication of manuscripts is on an average six months. During 2008, 10% of articles published were submitted by authors from countries other than Chile and most of them were printed in English. Impact factor and other indexes provided by the ISI Web of Knowledge showed a promising improvement in 2008. The International Advisory Committee and the National Editorial Committee were renewed, a new Section on Laboratory Medicine was incorporated and several minor changes were done in design and format, in the title page and the issues' content. The main problems to be faced relate to the increasing cost of editing and printing, with a reduction in commercial advertising historically contributed by the pharmaceutical industry. Another major concern is to stimulate governmental agencies, scientific societies and universities to establish a national independent registry of clinical trials, that should become a mandatory requisite for every manuscript submitted to Chilean medical journals, reporting clinical trials performed in the country; foreign manuscripts should document the satisfaction of an identical requisite in their original source.
Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.
In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.
García O, Maritza; Olea N, Andrea
In Chile, the first cases of AIDS were reported 23 years ago, and since then, through December 2006, 17.235 persons have been notified with HIV infection or AIDS1. To the year 2005, there have been 5.288 fatal cases of AIDS. The last available data indicates that notification rates for AIDS and HIV infection in 2006 were 2.5 and 4.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, respectively, and mortality rate for AIDS in 2005 was 2.4 per 100.000 inhabitants. Trend analysis shows a decline in the notification rate among men, both for HIV infection and AIDS, which could be a real decrease or a sub notification bias. In Chile, like in other countries of the region, variations in the epidemiologic pattern were observed considering age group, gender, educational level and geographic distribution of the population. Currently, the Chilean Ministry of Health has implemented both a surveillance and monitoring system on line, in order to improve the quality and opportunity of the information, therefore providing an important tool to HIV infection/AIDS prevention and control strategies.
Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos
Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries.
Williams, Julianne I; Urrutia, Paula M; Burreson, Eugene M
Austrobdella coliumicus n. sp. is described from Coliumo Bay, Chile. It is characterized by a continuous, external coelomic canal (= marginal lacuna), 5 pairs of testisacs, accessory gland cells, a body not distinctly divided into trachelosome and urosome, 2 pairs of dorsal ocelli on the trachelosome, dorsal and ventral segmental ocelli present on the urosome, green overall pigmentation with transverse brown bands, and the absence of conducting tissue. Austrobdella coliumicus is distinguished from other species of Austrobdella by the presence of 2 pairs of ocelli on the trachelosome and a more cylindrical body. It is unusual that this leech was collected from inside the mantle cavity of the razor clam, Ensis macha. Austrobdella losmoliniensis n. sp. is described from the electric ray, Discopyge tschudii, collected at Los Molinos, Chile. It is characterized by a continuous, external coelomic canal; 5 pairs of testisacs; accessory gland cells; a body distinctly divided into trachelosome and urosome; 1 pair of eyes on the oral sucker; overall black pigmentation with unpigmented areas; and the absence of conducting tissue. Austrobdella losmoliniensis can be distinguished from other species of Austrobdella by the combination of 1 pair of eyes on the oral sucker and black pigmentation.
Schaub, G A; Schottelius, J
Examination of 54 Triatoma infestans from a village near the European Southern Observatory La Silla in Chile and of 9 Triatoma spinolai from the territory of the observatory showed that 10 T. infestans were infected with trypanosomatids. Mice were infected with in vitro cultures initiated with five different trypanosomatid isolates and treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to increase the parasitemia of the flagellates. Evidence of the presence of T. cruzi was provided by a comparative biometrical analysis of blood trypomastigotes and the occurrence of intracellular amastigotes. Three methods for further identification were used: examination of kDNA ultrastructure, disc electrophoresis of soluble proteins and the Aaptos papillata II lectin induced agglutination. We obtained the following results for all isolates: (1) presence of a central band of the kDNA; (2) T. cruzi specific double bands of the protein patterns; (3) positive reaction with Aaptos papillata II. No differences between the five isolates from Chile and T. cruzi or T. cruzi-like strains from other countries could be observed. Based on these results an infection of the bugs with T. rangeli and T. conorhini could be excluded.
Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B
Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement.
Echternacht, Friedrich; Tauber, Sebastian; Eisel, Markus; Brasse, Heinrich; Schwarz, Gerhard; Haak, Volker
Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep sounding measurements were carried out in the magmatic arc and forearc regions of northern Chile between 19.5° and 22°S to study the electrical conductivity structures of this active continental margin. The instruments used covered a very broad period range from 10 -4 s to approx. 2 × 10 4 s and thus enabled a resolution of deep as well as shallow structures. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of data from an east-west profile crossing Chile from the Pacific coast to the Western Cordillera at 20.5°S. A decomposition of the impedance tensors using the Groom-Bailey decomposition scheme shows that a two-dimensional interpretation is possible. The resulting regional strike direction is N9°W. Two-dimensional models were calculated in this coordinate frame and include the significant bathymetry of the trench as well as the topography of the Andes. The final model shows a generally high resistivity in the forearc and a very good conductor below the Precordillera. Unlike earlier models from areas further south, a good conductor is not observed below the magmatic arc itself. This correlates with the so-called Pica gap in the volcanic chain and a higher age of volcanic activity compared with adjacent areas.
Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter
Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196
Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter
Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.
Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.
The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.
Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco
Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.
Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian
Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow
Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.
The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.
de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul
Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817
Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...
... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...
... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and... Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs. We started the process through a notice in the...
Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun
In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.
On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters
Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro
The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.
Osorio, Carlos G
The origin of bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the first experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.
large-scale wind field, and the oceanic general circulation in which the island is embedded. First, we plan to address the so- called “island rule...Figure 1). The gliders occupied two lines perpendicular to shore on the east side of the island. In addition to the standard Sea- Bird CTD and...of island wake effects to observe the difference in the eddy field on either side of the island. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS All temperature and
For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)
The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.
The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application to maize and sorghum on the bionomics of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the performance of its larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).
Jiang, N; Schulthess, F
Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of plant species (maize, sorghum), plant age (young, middle, old) and four different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0-N3) on the bionomics of the invasive crambid Chilo partellus and the performance of its braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes. Plant N varied significantly between N0 and N1-N3, but the differences among the latter were not significant. Intrinsic rates of increase and net-reproductive rates of C. partellus followed the same trends: they were lowest with N0 and similar among the other treatments. On maize only, mortality of C. partellus and parasitism by C. flavipes tended to decrease with age of the plant while the percentage of borers reaching adulthood (i.e. pupation) increased. Borer mortality and parasitism was lower and pupation higher on sorghum than on maize. On both host plants, percent dry matter content of frass, which could affect ingress of the parasitoid into the borer tunnel, did not vary with nitrogen level but varied with age of the host plants: on maize, it was highest on young plants and on sorghum on old plants. Tunnels were shorter on young maize and sorghum plants; longer tunnels on older plants indicated compensatory feeding by the larva as a result of lower nutritive value of the food source. Consequently, larval weight was lower on older than younger plants. The level of nitrogen fertilization had no effect on food conversion efficiency of C. partellus. Nitrogen did not affect number of C. flavipes progeny while egg load of progeny increased significantly with nitrogen level, on both plant species. Differences in egg load between sorghum and maize were mostly not significant. It was concluded that on depleted soils only, an increase in nitrogen via mulching, rotation with a leguminous crop or fertilization would increase survival of C. partellus on both maize and sorghum and an increase in acreage of maize and in application of nitrogen fertilizer in an
Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.
Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B
Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these
Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.
Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.
The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the
Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve
Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The
Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen
Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights
Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.
The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile
Meltzer, A.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S.; Russo, R. M.; Simpson, D. W.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Pardo, M. H.; Ruiz, J.; Aranda, C.; Slad, G.; Greschke, B.; Barstow, N.; Bonnet, B.; Reusch, A. M.; Bataille, K.; Cabello, O.; Velasco, A. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Tilmann, F.; Vilotte, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Heit, B.; Schurr, B.; Lange, D.
The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and the 2nd largest to be recorded by modern digital seismic networks. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of seismologists from Germany, France, the UK, and the US, working with seismologists in Chile, coordinated resources to deploy both broadband and short period seismometers and accelerometers above the rupture zone to capture aftershocks associated with this significant earthquake. The U.S. IRIS Community response involved deployment of 59 broadband and 4 combined broadband and accelerometer stations spanning the rupture region of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. Four of these stations were subsequently upgraded for real-time telemetry, and these data have been freely available from the IRIS DMC since shortly after they came online. Data recorded at these stations will be combined to produce an open international community data volume providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate processes associated with great earthquakes and to image the anatomy of a subduction zone. Scientific objectives potentially attainable using this unique data set fall into two general categories: (1) rupture processes of megathrusts, and (2) active tectonics and dynamics of an oceanic-continental (Andean) margin. For example, the relatively dense station spacing - 30 km - of the IRIS CHAMP (Chile RAMP) broadband seismic network will facilitate investigation into the character of the aftershock zone in the low-slip regions of the main shock to determine if these regions are locked or creeping, and whether these states are governed by variations in temperature or fluid content. The dataset also offers opportunities to generate higher resolution images of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge, and subducting slab, that can reveal the role that spatial changes in material properties play in
Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko
Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.
Bahlburg, H.; Spiske, M.
On February 27, 2010, at 3:34 am local time, an earthquake with Mw 8.8 occurred off the town of Constitución in Central Chile and caused a major tsunami beween Valaparaiso (c. 33°S) and Tirua (c. 38°S). Maximum runup heights of up to 10 m were measured on coastal plains. The cliff coast at Tirua recorded a runup height between 30 m and 40 m. Considering past tsunami events, respective deposits may be the only observable evidence, even though their preservation potential is limited. To understand how tsunami deposits form and how they can be identified in the geological record, it is of paramount importance to undertake detailed studies in the wake of such events. Here we report initial field data of a sedimentological post-tsunami field survey undertaken in Central Chile between March 31 and April 18, 2010. At selected localities we measured detailed topographic profiles including runup heights and inundation distances, and recorded the thickness, distribution and sedimentological features of the respective tsunami deposits, as well as erosional features caused by the tsunami. We found the most instructive and complete sedimentological record of the February 27, 2010 tsunami at the northern tip of Isla Mocha, a small island off the Chilean coast at c. 28.15°S. Runup distances vary between 400 m and 600 m, the flow depth exceeded 3 m at ca. 100 m from the coast. Runup heights reached up to 21 m above sea level. In a rare sedimentological case, deposits of tsunami runup and backwash could be distinguished. The runup phase was mainly documented by fields of boulders extending c. 360 m inland. Boulders had maximum weights of 12 t. They were oriented with their long axis parallel to the coast and the wave front. Algal veneers and barnacles on the boulder faces give evidence of entrainment in intertidal water depths. The boulders are now embedded in mostly structureless coarse shelly sand. These sands were originally entrained during near shore supratidal erosion of
García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...
Valdivieso D, Vicente; Montero L, Joaquín
Five years ago Chile implemented a Health Care Reform to reduce the great inequalities in health care provision that affects the low- income, high-risk segment of its population. A universal care plan ("AUGE") was designed to make medical coverage available to all Chilean citizens suffering from one of a specified, growing list of diseases (66 at present time). The diseases are prioritized by the Ministry of Health and its inclusion in the plan is revised periodically by an Advisory Committee according to four cardinal criteria: burden of disease, effectiveness of treatment, specific capacity of the health system and financial costs. The plan is funded by the state and enforced by law through a set of four specific guarantees: access, opportunity, quality and financial protection. This paper reviews the origin and development of the reform, the benefits and drawbacks of the application of the specific guarantees and the perception of the public regarding its strengths and weaknesses.
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François
In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the 'Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA' (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François
In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344
Espinoza, Ricardo; Quera, Rodrigo; Meyer, Lital; Rivera, Daniela
Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is increasing in frequency and severity in in-hospital and outpatient clinical settings, with a recurrence that can reach 30% after first episode. The recurrences are usually treated with longer courses of metronidazole or vancomycin. Other treatments have been used, such as probiotics, fidaxomicin, rifaximin, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies against toxins A and B. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising strategy in this group of patients, with effectiveness greater than 90%. We present the first case reported in Chile of this therapeutic strategy in a patient with Crohn's disease and recurrent CD infection who presented after the fecal transplantation an Escherichia coli bacteremia, suggesting the need for caution in the use of this strategy. 10 months after the FMT the patient presented a new episode of E. coli bacteremia and two episodes of diarrhea due to CD infection, treated both of them with vancomycin with good clinical response.
Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura
Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses. PMID:26107824
Reyes, Humberto; Palma, Joaquín; Andresen, Max
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of the experimental method in biological sciences have been progressively applied in biomedical and clinical research. After the pioneering work of AB Hill et al, biostatistics became a fundamental tool in the appraisal of new therapeutic agents or methods, and of diagnostic tests. From 1990 on, "Evidence based Medicine" has been added to it. This journal opens in this issue a section containing critical analysis of articles published in the medical literature deserving the attention of its readers. However, as several other medical journals have stressed, we recommend that the conclusions of these analysis should not be used as a substitute for clinical judgment and they do not represent an official position of our journal. Revista Médica de Chile welcomes the new Section and invites contributions to it.
Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.
The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a reciprocity principle, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures.
Pakozdi, Tamara; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; de la Maza, María Pía; Henriquez, Sandra; Hirsch, Sandra
Objetivo: evaluar el Gasto Energético Total (GET) en ancianos sanos que viven institucionalizados o independientes en Chile. Método: se evaluaron veintisiete jovenes (27-30 años), 27 adultos mayores institucionalizados (> 65 años ) y 27 ancianos independientes (> 65 años). Se midió la composición corporal utilizando absorciometría bifotónica de rayos X. Se calculó el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el gasto energético total (GET) utilizando acelerómetros Actiheart; se aplicó Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) y se midió el Timed Up and Go (TUG). Resultados: el GEAF fue 171, 320 y 497 kcal/día en ancianos institucionalizados, independientes y jóvenes, respectivamente (p.
This article starts by reviewing the setbacks that the recent Science and Technology Studies literature has identified in the functioning of technologies of democracy, the different arrangements that look to enact deliberation on technoscientific issues. Putting a focus on the Citizen Consensus Conference, it then proposes that several of these setbacks are related to the kind of "work" that these technologies are expected to do, identifying two kinds of it: performing a laboratory-based experiment and constituting a platform for the dissemination of facts. It then applies this framework to study a Citizen Consensus Conference carried out in Chile in 2003. After a detailed genealogy of the planning, implementation and afterlife of this exercise, the article concludes that several of the limitations experienced are derived from a "successful outcome" conceived as solely running a neat lab-based experiment, arguing for the need to incorporate its functioning as a platform with all the associated transformations and messiness.
Lazcano, J.; Godoy, B.; Aguilera, F.; Wilke, H.
to 7 km and come from the Young Cone summit, covering the lava flows erupted in the previous stage. Thus, according with the presented evolution, Paniri is similar to San Pedro, Cerro del León, and Toconce volcanoes, distributed in SPLVC. Stratigraphic relation, glacial erosion and radiometric dating indicate that this volcano is younger than Cerro del Leon and Toconce southwards, both showing a marked hydrothermal alteration (López et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2012), and older than Chao Dacite, and San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex. No historical activity have been observed for Paniri volcano. References López, C., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Toconce (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile. Silva, F., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Cerro del León (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile.
Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca
Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116
Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N
In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old.
Pizarro, Roberto; Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdes, Rodrigo; Dominguez, Francina; Hossain, Faisal; Ffolliott, Peter; Olivares, Claudio; Morales, Carolina; Balocchi, Francisco; Bro, Per
SummaryAnalysis of precipitation observations from Chile indicated that man-made water reservoirs might be affecting the intensity of extreme precipitation events. Fifty rain gauges were used to evaluate rainfall intensities under different climates, using the Gumbel method (T = 5 and 100 years) and average maximum recorded rainfall intensities to construct IDF curves for each station. A spatial analysis of the stations was undertaken to establish graphical relationships on documented maximum annual rainfall intensities for 1 h and those obtained by the Gumbel method as a function of latitude, longitude, elevation, and the distance from water bodies. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied with an error of 5%. Values obtained from stations located close to water bodies were compared to those located away from them. The results show significant changes in dryer climates.
The SPOC Team; Krawcyzk, C.
The southern central Chilean margin at the site of the largest historically recorded earthquake in the Valdivia region, in 1960 (Mw = 9.5), is part of the 5000-km-long active subduction system whose geodynamic evolution is controversially debated and poorly understood. Covering the area between 36° and 40°S, the oceanic crust is segmented by prominent fracture zones. The offshore forearc and its onshore continuation show a complex image with segments of varying geophysical character, and several fault systems active during the past 24 m.y.In autumn 2001, the project SPOC was organized to study the Subduction Processes Off Chile, with a focus on the seismogenic coupling zone and the forearc. The acquired seismic data crossing the Chilean subduction system were gathered in a combined offshore-onshore survey and provide new insights into the lithospheric structure and evolution of active margins with insignificant frontal accretion.
Valenzuela, M Teresa
The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.
Méndez, Claudio A
Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.
Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.
An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323
Bass del Campo, Germán Camilo
The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities.
Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín
During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.
Mesias, Jorge M.
The summer upwelling circulation off Central Chile between 34°--40°S is studied using the Princeton Ocean Circulation numerical model, implemented with realistic atmospheric forcings and bottom topography. The simulations are made for summers of years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sea surface temperature (SST) from the model results and satellite sensors (derived from NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Project datasets) are compared to determine regions where the numerical simulations more realistically represent the oceanic fields. The summer local winds are predominantly equatorward and fluctuate affected by the seasonal displacement of the Subtropical Anticyclone of the Southeast Pacific. The model ocean circulation shows the presence of a surface coastal equatorward jet flowing over a poleward undercurrent that spreads over the continental shelf and slope break. These currents resemble those historically observed off Central Chile, following a classical Ekman-geostrophy dynamics. The oceanic variability is strongly related to the variability of the local wind forcing, bottom relief, and coastline geometry. Strong wind fluctuations induce the formation of cyclonic/anticyclonic mesoscale eddies, favored by the separation of the equatorward jet from the coast, downstream of a prominent mid-domain cape. The flow variability between regions depends on the spatial variability of the wind forcing. The wind relaxation is larger in the southern regions, where the upwelling tends to disappear. In the northern areas, the separation of the jet and the formation of eddies induce a strong cross-shelf transport activity. Comparisons among SST fields for all years indicate that the model and satellite fields vary in similar patterns, especially in the northern coastal areas, and suggest that oceanic fields are largely affected by changes in local winds during El Nino events. During El Nino periods, the upwelling activity weakens due to a rapid decrease of the equatorward winds, and the passage of
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah
Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824
Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto
Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: February...
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Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.
In Chile equine influenza has been strongly related to continental epizootics. First outbreak was described in 1963; main outbreaks were reported in 1977, 1985 and 1992. Equine influenza virus was isolated in three opportunities: H7N7 (A/equi/1/Santiago, Chile/1977); H3N8 (A/equi/2/Santiago, Chile/1985) and H3N8 (A/equi/2/Quillota, Chile/1992). The most serious outbreak was caused by strain H7N7 in 1977. Since 1992 equine influenza has not been reported in our country. In 1973 was described a case of influenza and seroconversion in a human being related with horses suffering a respiratory distress diagnosed as equine influenza; unfortunately the isolated virus was not typed.
Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.
Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.