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Sample records for chimeric mice provide

  1. Manufacture of diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T Y; Markert, C L

    1980-01-01

    Tetraploid mouse embryos were produced by cytochalasin B treatment. These embryos usually die before completion of embryonic development and are abnormal morphologically and physiologically. The tetraploid embryos can be rescued to develop to maturity by aggregating them with normal diploid embryos to produce diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice. The diploid/tetraploid chimeric embryos are frequently abnormal: the larger the proportion of tetraploid cells, the greater the abnormality. By karyotype analysis and by the use of appropriate pigment cell markers, we have demonstrated that two of our surviving chimeras are in fact diploid/tetraploid chimeras. One surviving chimera is retarded in growth and displays neurological abnormalities. The coat color chimerism suggests that this chimera is about 50% tetraploid. Another chimera with about 10% tetraploid pigment cells in the coat is only slightly retarded in growth and is a fertile male. Tetraploid cells are distributed in many, if not all, tissues of embryos but evidently are physiologically inadequate to support completely normal development and function in the absence of substantial numbers of normal diploid cells. Images PMID:6934528

  2. Steroid metabolism in chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Lootens, Leen; Van Eenoo, Peter; Meuleman, Philip; Pozo, Oscar J; Van Renterghem, Pieter; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are considered to be doping agents and are prohibited in sports. Their metabolism needs to be elucidated to allow for urinary detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Steroid metabolism was assessed using uPA(+/+) SCID mice with humanized livers (chimeric mice). This study presents the results of 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (19-norAD) administration to these in vivo mice. As in humans, 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone are the major detectable metabolites of 19-norAD in the urine of chimeric mice.A summary is given of the metabolic pathways found in chimeric mice after administration of three model steroid compounds (methandienone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione). From these studies we can conclude that all major metabolic pathways for anabolic steroids in humans are present in the chimeric mouse. It is hoped that, in future, this promising chimeric mouse model might assist the discovery of new and possible longer detectable metabolites of (designer) steroids. PMID:20355169

  3. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S

    2015-08-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our ability to construct human glial chimeras with the production of patient-specific hGPCs derived from pluripotential stem cells, we may now establish mice in which a substantial proportion of resident glia are both human and disease-derived. These mice in particular may provide us new opportunities for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human neurological and neuropsychiatric disease.

  4. Chimeric Plantibody Passively Protects Mice against Aerosolized Ricin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sully, Erin K.; Whaley, Kevin J.; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H.; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Hiatt, Ernie; Morton, Josh; Swope, Kelsi; Roy, Chad J.; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Recent incidents in the United States and abroad have heightened concerns about the use of ricin toxin as a bioterrorism agent. In this study, we produced, using a robust plant-based platform, four chimeric toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that were then evaluated for the ability to passively protect mice from a lethal-dose ricin challenge. The most effective antibody, c-PB10, was further evaluated in mice as a therapeutic following ricin exposure by injection and inhalation. PMID:24574537

  5. Chimeric plantibody passively protects mice against aerosolized ricin challenge.

    PubMed

    Sully, Erin K; Whaley, Kevin J; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Hiatt, Ernie; Morton, Josh; Swope, Kelsi; Roy, Chad J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Recent incidents in the United States and abroad have heightened concerns about the use of ricin toxin as a bioterrorism agent. In this study, we produced, using a robust plant-based platform, four chimeric toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that were then evaluated for the ability to passively protect mice from a lethal-dose ricin challenge. The most effective antibody, c-PB10, was further evaluated in mice as a therapeutic following ricin exposure by injection and inhalation. PMID:24574537

  6. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions.

  7. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions. PMID:23100369

  8. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Smyllie, Nicola J.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Hastings, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  9. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Smyllie, Nicola J; Chesham, Johanna E; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Michael H

    2016-03-29

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  10. Chimeric mice with a humanized liver as an animal model of troglitazone-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Kakuni, Masakazu; Morita, Mayu; Matsuo, Kentaro; Katoh, Yumiko; Nakajima, Miki; Tateno, Chise; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Troglitazone (Tro) is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug that was withdrawn from the market due to its association with idiosyncratic severe liver injury. Tro has never induced liver injury in experimental animals in vivo. It was assumed that the species differences between human and experimental animals in the pharmaco- or toxicokinetics of Tro might be associated with these observations. In this study, we investigated whether a chimeric mouse with a humanized liver that we previously established, whose replacement index with human hepatocytes is up to 92% can reproduce Tro-induced liver injury. When the chimeric mice were orally administered Tro for 14 or 23 days (1000mg/kg/day), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased by 2.1- and 3.6-fold, respectively. Co-administration of l-buthionine sulfoximine (10mM in drinking water), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, unexpectedly prevented the Tro-dependent increase of ALT, which suggests that the GSH scavenging pathway will not be involved in Tro-induced liver injury. To elucidate the mechanism of the onset of liver injury, hepatic GSH content, the level of oxidative stress markers and phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes were determined. However, these factors were not associated with Tro-induced liver injury. An immune-mediated reaction may be associated with Tro-induced liver toxicity in vivo, because the chimeric mouse is derived from an immunodeficient SCID mouse. In conclusion, we successfully reproduced Tro-induced liver injury using chimeric mice with a humanized liver, which provides a new animal model for studying idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury.

  11. The Macrophage-depleting Agent Clodronate Promotes Durable Hematopoietic Chimerism and Donor-specific Skin Allograft Tolerance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanzhuo; Xu, Xin; Feng, Xingmin; Murphy, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism is known to promote donor-specific organ allograft tolerance; however, clinical translation has been impeded by the requirement for toxic immunosuppression and large doses of donor bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we investigated in mice whether durable chimerism might be enhanced by pre-treatment of the recipient with liposomal clodronate, a macrophage depleting agent, with the goal of vacating BM niches for preferential reoccupation by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We found that liposomal clodronate pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice permitted establishment of durable hematopoietic chimerism when the mice were given a low dose of donor BM cells and transient immunosuppression. Moreover, clodronate pre-treatment increased durable donor-specific BALB/c skin allograft tolerance. These results provide proof-of-principle that clodronate is effective at sparing the number of donor BM cells required to achieve durable hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific skin allograft tolerance and justify further development of a tolerance protocol based on this principle. PMID:26917238

  12. Generation of progeny from embryonic stem cells by microinsemination of male germ cells from chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Kishigami, Satoshi; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Hikichi, Takafusa; Wakayama, Sayaka; Sato, Eimei; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2005-09-01

    Mice chimeric for embryonic stem (ES) cells have not always successfully produced ES-derived offspring. Here we show that the male gametes from ES cells could be selected in male chimeric mice testes by labeling donor ES cells or host blastocytes with GFP. Male GFP-expressing ES-derived germ cells occurred as colonies in the chimeric testes, where the seminiferous tubules were separated into green and non-green regions. When mature spermatozoa from green tubules were used for microinsemination, GFP-expressing offspring were efficiently obtained. Using a reverse study, we also obtained ES-derived progeny from GFP-negative ES cells in GFP-labeled host chimeras. Furthermore, we showed this approach could be accelerated by using round spermatids from the testes of 20-day-old chimeric mice. Thus, this technique allowed us to generate the ES cell-derived progeny even from the low contributed chimeric mice, which cannot produce ES-origin offspring by natural mating.

  13. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Westwood, Jennifer A.; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  14. Mixed chimerism and transplant tolerance are not effectively induced in C3a-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Rogińska, Dorota; Piecyk, Katarzyna; Hałasa, Maciej; Lejkowska, Renata; Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Mixed chimerism, a phenomenon involved in the development of specific alloantigen tolerance, could be achieved through the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells into properly prepared recipients. Because the C3a complement component modulates hematopoietic cell trafficking after transplantation, in the present study, we investigated the influence of the C3a deficiency on mixed chimerism and alloantigen tolerance induction. To induce mixed chimerism, C57BL/6J (wild-type strain; H-2K(b); I-E(-)) and B6.129S4-C3(tm1Crr)/J (C3a-deficient) mice were exposed to 3 G total body irradiation (day -1). Subsequently, these mice were treated with CD8-blocking (day -2) and CD40L-blocking (days 0 and 4) antibodies, followed by transplantation with 20 × 10(6) Balb/c (H-2K(d); I-E(+)) bone marrow cells (day 0). The degree of mixed chimerism in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured several times during the 20-week experiment. The tolerance to Balb/c mouse antigens was assessed based on the number of lymphocytes expressing Vβ5 and Vβ11 T-cell receptor and on skin-graft (day 0) acceptance. Applying our experimental model, mixed chimerism and alloantigen tolerance were effectively induced in C57BL/6J (wild-type) mice, but not in C3a(-/-) animals. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that C3a is vital for achieving stable mixed chimerism and related to this induction of transplant tolerance.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.

  16. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  17. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  18. Chimeric anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies and lovastatin act synergistically to provide in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Mulualem E; Kwan, Alan; Natarajan, Kannan; Quinn, Megan; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Xie, Chen; Margulies, David H; Osborne, Barbara A; Goldsby, Richard A; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of a family of toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that act as superantigens, activating a large fraction of the T-cell population and inducing production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and death. Extracellular engagement of the TCR of T-cells and class II MHC of antigen presenting cells by SEB triggers the activation of many intracellular signaling processes. We engineered chimeric antibodies to block the extracellular engagement of cellular receptors by SEB and used a statin to inhibit intracellular signaling. Chimeric human-mouse antibodies directed against different neutralizing epitopes of SEB synergistically inhibited its activation of human T-cells in vitro. In the in vivo model of lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, two of these antibodies conferred significant partial protection when administered individually, but offered complete protection in a synergistic manner when given together. Similarly, in vivo, lovastatin alone conferred only partial protection from TSS similar to single anti-SEB antibodies. However, used in combination with one chimeric neutralizing anti-SEB antibody, lovastatin provided complete protection against lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. These experiments demonstrate that in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB can be achieved by a statin of proven clinical safety and chimeric human-mouse antibodies, agents now widely used and known to be of low immunogenicity in human hosts.

  19. Transbronchial biopsies provide longitudinal evidence for epithelial chimerism in children following sex mismatched lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, H; Rampling, D; Aurora, P; Bonnet, D; Hart, S; Jaffe, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent reports have shown evidence of host derived parenchymal engraftment in several human allografts including the lung, leading to speculation that stem cell therapy may be useful for lung repair in diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). To date, previous studies have looked at single surgical or autopsy specimens and no longitudinal studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether transbronchial biopsies could be used to study the time course of chimerism following lung transplantation. Methods: Specimens of archived transbronchial lung biopsies from five time points taken for clinical purposes from two boys who had received a sex mismatched heart-lung transplant for end stage CF were examined. Sections were dual stained for cytokeratin (epithelium) and a mixture of leucocyte common antigen and CD68 for inflammatory cells. Co-localisation of cells containing a Y chromosome was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Results: Evidence of chimerism was found in up to 6.6% of epithelial cells in bronchial (median 1.4% (range 0–6.6)) and alveolar (median 3.6% (range 2.3–5.5) tissue without apparent evidence of fusion. This engraftment was seen as early as 3 weeks and remained relatively constant up to 37 months. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated proof of principle for long term chimerism in lung epithelium. Transbronchial biopsies may provide a new method for studying the kinetics of stem cell engraftment in the lung. PMID:15618585

  20. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  1. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  2. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelschenbach, Jennifer L; Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Chao, Wei; Bentsman, Galina; Hong, Jessie P; Hanke, Tomas; Sharer, Leroy R; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2012-06-01

    Infection by some viruses induces immunity to reinfection, providing a means to identify protective epitopes. To investigate resistance to reinfection in an animal model of HIV disease and its control, we employed infection of mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV. When immunocompetent mice were infected by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EcoHIV, they resisted subsequent secondary infection by IP injection, consistent with a systemic antiviral immune response. To investigate the potential role of these responses in restricting neurotropic HIV infection, we established a protocol for efficient EcoHIV expression in the brain following intracranial (IC) inoculation of virus. When mice were inoculated by IP injection and secondarily by IC injection, they also controlled EcoHIV replication in the brain. To investigate their role in EcoHIV antiviral responses, CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from spleens of EcoHIV infected and uninfected mice and adoptively transferred to isogenic recipients. Recipients of EcoHIV primed CD8+ cells resisted subsequent EcoHIV infection compared to recipients of cells from uninfected donors. CD8+ spleen cells from EcoHIV-infected mice also mounted modest but significant interferon-γ responses to two HIV Gag peptide pools. These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in ES cells and its application for chimeric analysis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oji, Asami; Noda, Taichi; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Miyata, Haruhiko; Kim, Yeon Joo; Muto, Masanaga; Nozawa, Kaori; Matsumura, Takafumi; Isotani, Ayako; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Targeted gene disrupted mice can be efficiently generated by expressing a single guide RNA (sgRNA)/CAS9 complex in the zygote. However, the limited success of complicated genome editing, such as large deletions, point mutations, and knockins, remains to be improved. Further, the mosaicism in founder generations complicates the genotypic and phenotypic analyses in these animals. Here we show that large deletions with two sgRNAs as well as dsDNA-mediated point mutations are efficient in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The dsDNA-mediated gene knockins are also feasible in ESCs. Finally, we generated chimeric mice with biallelic mutant ESCs for a lethal gene, Dnajb13, and analyzed their phenotypes. Not only was the lethal phenotype of hydrocephalus suppressed, but we also found that Dnajb13 is required for sperm cilia formation. The combination of biallelic genome editing in ESCs and subsequent chimeric analysis provides a useful tool for rapid gene function analysis in the whole organism. PMID:27530713

  4. Plasmodium vivax liver stage development and hypnozoite persistence in human liver-chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Vaughan, Ashley M; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E; Adams, John H; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites-hypnozoites. The lack of tractable P. vivax animal models constitutes an obstacle in examining P. vivax liver stage infection and drug efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we have used human liver-chimeric (huHep) FRG KO mice as a model for P. vivax infection. FRG KO huHep mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, liver stage development, and hypnozoite formation. We show complete P. vivax liver stage development, including maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites as well as the formation and persistence of hypnozoites. Prophylaxis or treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can prevent and eliminate liver stage infection, respectively. Thus, P. vivax-infected FRG KO huHep mice are a model to investigate liver stage development and dormancy and may facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting relapsing malaria.

  5. Selective autoantibody production by Yaa+ B cells in autoimmune Yaa(+)- Yaa- bone marrow chimeric mice

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The accelerated autoimmune syndrome observed in BXSB/MpJ male mice is associated with the presence on the Y chromosome of an as yet unidentified mutant gene, designated Y chromosome-linked autoimmune acceleration (Yaa). To study the mechanisms by which the Yaa gene accelerates and/or induces the production of autoantibodies, we have developed double-congenic bone marrow chimeras containing B cells from autoimmune males carrying the Yaa gene, and from nonautoimmune male or female mice lacking it and differing by the Igh allotype. The analysis of the allotype of total immunoglobulins and anti-DNA antibodies in Yaa+ male-normal female (Yaa-) chimeric mice revealed that the selective activation of B cells from autoimmune Yaa+ male mice was responsible for the hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. This phenomenon was not due to an anti-HY interaction between female T helper cells and male B cells, because first, Yaa+ B cells were selectively stimulated to produce autoantibodies in Yaa+ male-Yaa- male chimeric mice; and second, normal male and female chimeras failed to develop an autoimmune syndrome. In addition, the fact that both B cell populations in Yaa(+)-Yaa- chimeras similarly responded to a foreign antigen, human IgG, argues against the possibility that the selective activation of Yaa+ B cells may be due to their hyper-responsiveness to T helper signals. We propose that a cognate interaction of T helper cells with Yaa+ B cells, because of possible T cell recognition of a Yaa-related molecule expressed on Yaa+ B cells, may be responsible for the acceleration and/or induction of autoantibodies in BXSB/MpJ mice. PMID:1834759

  6. Induction of mixed chimerism depletes pre-existing and de novo-developed autoreactive B cells in autoimmune NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Racine, Jeremy J; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zeng, Defu

    2014-06-01

    Destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is mainly mediated by autoimmune T and B lymphocytes. We reported that induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mixed chimerism reversed autoimmunity and reestablished thymic negative selection of autoreactive T cells in NOD mice, but it is still unclear how mixed chimerism tolerizes autoreactive B cells. The current studies were designed to reveal the mechanisms on how mixed chimerism tolerizes autoreactive B cells in T1D. Accordingly, mixed chimerism was induced in NOD mice through radiation-free nonmyeloablative anti-CD3/CD8 conditioning and infusion of donor CD4(+) T cell-depleted spleen and whole bone marrow (BM) cells or through myeloablative total body irradiation conditioning and reconstitution with T cell-depleted BM cells from donor and host. Kinetic analysis of percentage and yield of preplasma and plasma B cells, newly developed B-cell subsets, and their apoptosis was performed 30-60 days after transplantation. Induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism results in depleting host-type pre-existing preplasma and plasma B cells as well as augmenting apoptosis of immature transitional T1 B cells, including insulin-specific B cells in a donor B cell-dependent manner. Therefore, induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism depletes pre-existing and de novo-developed autoreactive B cells.

  7. Chimeric Mice with Competent Hematopoietic Immunity Reproduce Key Features of Severe Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Pallasch, Elisa; Kerber, Romy; Rieger, Toni; Wurr, Stephanie; Bockholt, Sabrina; Krasemann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever (LASF) is a highly severe viral syndrome endemic to West African countries. Despite the annual high morbidity and mortality caused by LASF, very little is known about the pathophysiology of the disease. Basic research on LASF has been precluded due to the lack of relevant small animal models that reproduce the human disease. Immunocompetent laboratory mice are resistant to infection with Lassa virus (LASV) and, to date, only immunodeficient mice, or mice expressing human HLA, have shown some degree of susceptibility to experimental infection. Here, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells into irradiated type I interferon receptor knockout mice (IFNAR-/-) was used to generate chimeric mice that reproduced important features of severe LASF in humans. This included high lethality, liver damage, vascular leakage and systemic virus dissemination. In addition, this model indicated that T cell-mediated immunopathology was an important component of LASF pathogenesis that was directly correlated with vascular leakage. Our strategy allows easy generation of a suitable small animal model to test new vaccines and antivirals and to dissect the basic components of LASF pathophysiology. PMID:27191716

  8. An H1-H3 chimeric influenza virosome confers complete protection against lethal challenge with PR8 (H1N1) and X47 (H3N2) viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Asghar; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Tavassoti Kheiri, Masoumeh; Jamali, Abbas; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad

    2014-12-01

    Annual health threats and economic damages caused by influenza virus are still a main concern of the World Health Organization and other health departments all over the world. An influenza virosome is a highly efficient immunomodulating carrier mimicking the natural antigen presentation pathway and has shown an excellent tolerability profile due to its biocompatibility and purity. The major purpose of this study was to construct a new chimeric virosome influenza vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins derived from the A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) and A/X/47 (H3N2) (X47) viruses, and to evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate in mice. A single intramuscular vaccination with the chimeric virosomes provided complete protection against lethal challenge with the PR8 and X47 viruses. The chimeric virosomes induced high IgG antibody responses as well as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. HAI titers following the chimeric virosome vaccination were at the same level as the whole inactivated influenza vaccine. Mice immunized with the chimeric virosomes displayed considerably less weight loss and exhibited significantly reduced viral load in their lungs compared with the controls. The chimeric virosomes can be used as an innovative vaccine formulation to confer protection against a broad range of influenza viruses. PMID:25066138

  9. An H1-H3 chimeric influenza virosome confers complete protection against lethal challenge with PR8 (H1N1) and X47 (H3N2) viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Asghar; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Tavassoti Kheiri, Masoumeh; Jamali, Abbas; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad

    2014-12-01

    Annual health threats and economic damages caused by influenza virus are still a main concern of the World Health Organization and other health departments all over the world. An influenza virosome is a highly efficient immunomodulating carrier mimicking the natural antigen presentation pathway and has shown an excellent tolerability profile due to its biocompatibility and purity. The major purpose of this study was to construct a new chimeric virosome influenza vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins derived from the A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) and A/X/47 (H3N2) (X47) viruses, and to evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate in mice. A single intramuscular vaccination with the chimeric virosomes provided complete protection against lethal challenge with the PR8 and X47 viruses. The chimeric virosomes induced high IgG antibody responses as well as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. HAI titers following the chimeric virosome vaccination were at the same level as the whole inactivated influenza vaccine. Mice immunized with the chimeric virosomes displayed considerably less weight loss and exhibited significantly reduced viral load in their lungs compared with the controls. The chimeric virosomes can be used as an innovative vaccine formulation to confer protection against a broad range of influenza viruses.

  10. Chimeric DCL1-Partnering Proteins Provide Insights into the MicroRNA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Eamens, Andrew L; Roberts, Thomas H; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, efficient microRNA (miRNA) production requires DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) with the assistance of a partnering protein, DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA BINDING1 (DRB1) or DRB2. The presence of either of these DRB proteins is crucial to determine the mode of action of a miRNA; i.e., cleavage or translation inhibition. Here we studied the structural determinants for the role of DRB1 and DRB2 in the miRNA pathway. We developed a series of chimeric vectors encoding different functional domains of DRB1 and DRB2, and expressed these in the drb1 mutant background in Arabidopsis under the control of the native DRB1 promoter. Complementation of the drb1 developmental phenotype was used to assess the biological role that each functional domain of DRB1 and DRB2 mediates in the miRNA-guided transcript cleavage pathway. The DRB1 amino acid sequence differs considerably to that of DRB2, and analysis of drb1 transgenic lines revealed that the first dsRNA-binding domains of DRB1 and DRB2 are functionally similar; in contrast, the dsRBD2 of DRB1 and DRB2 appear functionally distinct. Our bioinformatic analysis further suggests that the C-terminal domain of DRB2 mediates a functional role in the miRNA pathway, whereas its counterpart in DRB1 is known to be dispensable. Our results provide evidence for the differences between DRB1 and DRB2 proteins in vivo, which may be essential for the selection of the miRNA regulatory mechanisms, and suggest that these features are conserved among land plants. PMID:26779232

  11. Immunogenicity and therapeutic effects of Ag85A/B chimeric DNA vaccine in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xueqiong; Zhang, Junxian; Xiao, Li; Yang, Yourong; Bai, Xuejuan; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhongming; Bi, Lan; Li, Ning; Wu, Xiaoli

    2012-12-01

    The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is very severe in China. New therapeutic agents or regimens to treat TB are urgently needed. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were given immunotherapy intramuscularly with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA or saline, plasmid vector pVAX1, or Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine. The mice treated with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA showed significantly higher numbers of T cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), more IFN-γ in splenocyte culture supernatant, more Th1 and Tc1 cells, and higher ratios of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in whole blood, indicating a predominant Th1 immune response to treatment. Infected mice treated with doses of 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA had an extended time until death of 50% of the animals that was markedly longer than the saline and vector control groups, and the death rate at 1 month after the last dose was lower than that in the other groups. Compared with the saline group, 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA and 100 μg Ag85A DNA reduced the pulmonary bacterial loads by 0.79 and 0.45 logs, and the liver bacterial loads by 0.52 and 0.50 logs, respectively. Pathological changes in the lungs were less, and the lesions were more limited. These results show that Ag85A/B chimeric DNA was effective for the treatment of TB, significantly increasing the cellular immune response and inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis.

  12. Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from humans to transgenic mice expressing chimeric human-mouse prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Telling, G C; Scott, M; Hsiao, K K; Foster, D; Yang, S L; Torchia, M; Sidle, K C; Collinge, J; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice were constructed that express a chimeric prion protein (PrP) in which a segment of mouse (Mo) PrP was replaced with the corresponding human (Hu) PrP sequence. The chimeric PrP, designated MHu2MPrP, differs from MoPrP by 9 amino acids between residues 96 and 167. All of the Tg(MHu2M) mice developed neurologic disease approximately 200 days after inoculation with brain homogenates from three patients dying of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Inoculation of Tg(MHu2M) mice with CJD prions produced MHu2MPrPSc (where PrPSc is the scrapie isoform of PrP); inoculation with Mo prions produced Mo-PrPSc. The patterns of MHu2MPrPSc and MoPrPSc accumulation in the brains of Tg(MHu2M) mice were different. About 10% of Tg(HuPrP) mice expressing HuPrP and non-Tg mice developed neurologic disease > 500 days after inoculation with CJD prions. The different susceptibilities of Tg(HuPrP) and Tg(MHu2M) mice to Hu prions indicate that additional species-specific factors are involved in prion replication. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Hu prion diseases should be facilitated by Tg(MHu2M) mice. Images PMID:7937921

  13. HSV-Mediated Transgene Expression of Chimeric Constructs to Study Behavioral Function of GPCR Heteromers in Mice.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Terrell; Moreno, Jose L; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The heteromeric receptor complex between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 has been implicated in some of the behavioral phenotypes in mouse models of psychosis(1,2). Consequently, investigation of structural details of the interaction between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 affecting schizophrenia-related behaviors represents a powerful translational tool. As previously shown, the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice is elicited by hallucinogenic drugs and this behavioral response is absent in 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice(3,4). Additionally, by conditionally expressing the 5-HT2A receptor only in cortex, it was demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptor-dependent signaling pathways on cortical pyramidal neurons are sufficient to elicit head-twitch behavior in response to hallucinogenic drugs(3). Finally, it has been shown that the head-twitch behavioral response induced by the hallucinogens DOI and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is significantly decreased in mGlu2-KO mice(5). These findings suggest that mGlu2 is at least in part necessary for the 5-HT2A receptor-dependent psychosis-like behavioral effects induced by LSD-like drugs. However, this does not provide evidence as to whether the 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complex is necessary for this behavioral phenotype. To address this question, herpes simplex virus (HSV) constructs to express either mGlu2 or mGlu2ΔTM4N (mGlu2/mGlu3 chimeric construct that does not form the 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complex) in the frontal cortex of mGlu2-KO mice were used to examine whether this GPCR heteromeric complex is needed for the behavioral effects induced by LSD-like drugs(6). PMID:27501227

  14. Vaccination with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Chimeric Hemagglutinins Protects Mice against Divergent Influenza Virus Challenge Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Alex B.; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Buonocore, Linda; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seasonal influenza virus infections continue to cause significant disease each year, and there is a constant threat of the emergence of reassortant influenza strains causing a new pandemic. Available influenza vaccines are variably effective each season, are of limited scope at protecting against viruses that have undergone significant antigenic drift, and offer low protection against newly emergent pandemic strains. “Universal” influenza vaccine strategies that focus on the development of humoral immunity directed against the stalk domains of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) show promise for protecting against diverse influenza viruses. Here, we describe such a strategy that utilizes vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a vector for chimeric hemagglutinin (cHA) antigens. This vaccination strategy is effective at generating HA stalk-specific, broadly cross-reactive serum antibodies by both intramuscular and intranasal routes of vaccination. We show that prime-boost vaccination strategies provide protection against both lethal homologous and heterosubtypic influenza challenge and that protection is significantly improved with intranasal vaccine administration. Additionally, we show that vaccination with VSV-cHAs generates greater stalk-specific and cross-reactive serum antibodies than does vaccination with VSV-vectored full-length HAs, confirming that cHA-based vaccination strategies are superior at generating stalk-specific humoral immunity. VSV-vectored influenza vaccines that express chimeric hemagglutinin antigens offer a novel means for protecting against widely diverging influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccination strategies should be capable of protecting against a wide array of influenza viruses, and we have developed such an approach utilizing a single viral vector system. The potent antibody responses that these vaccines generate are shown to protect mice against lethal influenza challenges with highly divergent viruses. Notably

  15. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Genotype 3 Infection of Human Liver Chimeric Mice as a Model for Chronic HEV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pas, Suzan D.; van der Net, Guido; de Man, Robert A.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Boonstra, Andre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genotype 3 (gt3) hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are emerging in Western countries. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of chronic HEV infection and progressive liver damage, but no adequate model system currently mimics this disease course. Here we explore the possibilities of in vivo HEV studies in a human liver chimeric mouse model (uPA+/+Nod-SCID-IL2Rγ−/−) next to the A549 cell culture system, using HEV RNA-positive EDTA-plasma, feces, or liver biopsy specimens from 8 immunocompromised patients with chronic gt3 HEV. HEV from feces- or liver-derived inocula showed clear virus propagation within 2 weeks after inoculation onto A549 cells, compared to slow or no HEV propagation of HEV RNA-positive, EDTA-plasma samples. These in vitro HEV infectivity differences were mirrored in human-liver chimeric mice after intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of selected samples. HEV RNA levels of up to 8 log IU HEV RNA/gram were consistently present in 100% of chimeric mouse livers from week 2 to week 14 after inoculation with human feces- or liver-derived HEV. Feces and bile of infected mice contained moderate to large amounts of HEV RNA, while HEV viremia was low and inconsistently detected. Mouse-passaged HEV could subsequently be propagated for up to 100 days in vitro. In contrast, cell culture-derived or seronegative EDTA-plasma-derived HEV was not infectious in inoculated animals. In conclusion, the infectivity of feces-derived human HEV is higher than that of EDTA-plasma-derived HEV both in vitro and in vivo. Persistent HEV gt3 infections in chimeric mice show preferential viral shedding toward mouse bile and feces, paralleling the course of infection in humans. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 infections are emerging in Western countries and are of great concern for immunosuppressed patients at risk for developing chronic HEV infection. Lack of adequate model systems for chronic HEV infection hampers studies on HEV infectivity and transmission

  16. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; Xue, Sheng-Li; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D; Zeng, Defu

    2015-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with demyelination, axon damage, and paralysis. Induction of mixed chimerism with allogeneic donors has been shown to not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models and humans. We have reported that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can cure autoimmunity in autoimmune NOD mice, but this approach has not yet been tested in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor in SJL/J (H-2(s)) EAE recipients eliminates clinical symptoms and prevents relapse. This cure is demonstrated by not only disappearance of clinical signs but also reversal of autoimmunity; elimination of infiltrating T, B, and macrophage cells in the spinal cord; and regeneration of myelin sheath. The reversal of autoimmunity is associated with a marked reduction of autoreactivity of CD4(+) T cells and significant increase in the percentage of Foxp3(+) Treg among host-type CD4(+) T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The latter is associated with a marked reduction of the percentage of host-type CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes and an increase of Treg percentage among the CD4(+)CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes. Thymectomy leads to loss of prevention of EAE relapse by induction of mixed chimerism, although there is a dramatic expansion of host-type Treg cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can restore thymic negative selection of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells, augment production of Foxp3(+) Treg, and cure EAE. PMID:26647186

  17. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; Xue, Sheng-Li; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D; Zeng, Defu

    2015-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with demyelination, axon damage, and paralysis. Induction of mixed chimerism with allogeneic donors has been shown to not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models and humans. We have reported that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can cure autoimmunity in autoimmune NOD mice, but this approach has not yet been tested in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor in SJL/J (H-2(s)) EAE recipients eliminates clinical symptoms and prevents relapse. This cure is demonstrated by not only disappearance of clinical signs but also reversal of autoimmunity; elimination of infiltrating T, B, and macrophage cells in the spinal cord; and regeneration of myelin sheath. The reversal of autoimmunity is associated with a marked reduction of autoreactivity of CD4(+) T cells and significant increase in the percentage of Foxp3(+) Treg among host-type CD4(+) T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The latter is associated with a marked reduction of the percentage of host-type CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes and an increase of Treg percentage among the CD4(+)CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes. Thymectomy leads to loss of prevention of EAE relapse by induction of mixed chimerism, although there is a dramatic expansion of host-type Treg cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can restore thymic negative selection of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells, augment production of Foxp3(+) Treg, and cure EAE.

  18. Ag85A/ESAT-6 chimeric DNA vaccine induces an adverse response in tuberculosis-infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Bai, Xuejuang; Zhang, Junxian; Song, Jingying; Yang, Yourong; Yu, Qi; Li, Ning; Wu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) antigens encoded by the 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (esat-6) and antigen 85A (ag85a) genes are known to exert protective effects against tuberculosis in animal models. In addition, these antigens represent vaccine components that were tested in early human clinical trials. In the present study, a chimeric DNA vaccine was constructed that contained two copies of the esat-6 gene inserted into the ag85a gene from M. tb. BALB/c mice were treated with this chimeric vaccine following infection with either M. tb H37Rv or a clinical multi drug resistant tuberculosis isolate. Treatment of both groups of mice with the chimeric vaccine resulted in accelerated mortality. These findings are in contrast with previous results, which indicated that DNA vaccines expressing the individual antigens were either beneficial or at least not harmful. The results of the present study suggested that the ESAT-6 antigen is not suitable for inclusion in therapeutic vaccines. PMID:27279275

  19. Novel recombinant chimeric virus-like particle is immunogenic and protective against both enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Hao-Yang; Han, Jian-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hui-Qin; Li, Yue-Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Qin, E-De; Chen, Rong; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as an important global public health issue, which is predominantly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). There is no available vaccine against HFMD. An ideal HFMD vaccine should be bivalent against both EV-A71 and CVA16. Here, a novel strategy to produce bivalent HFMD vaccine based on chimeric EV-A71 virus-like particles (ChiEV-A71 VLPs) was proposed and illustrated. The neutralizing epitope SP70 within the capsid protein VP1 of EV-A71 was replaced with that of CVA16 in ChiEV-A71 VLPs. Structural modeling revealed that the replaced CVA16-SP70 epitope is well exposed on the surface of ChiEV-A71 VLPs. These VLPs produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited similarity in both protein composition and morphology as naive EV-A71 VLPs. Immunization with ChiEV-A71 VLPs in mice elicited robust Th1/Th2 dependent immune responses against EV-A71 and CVA16. Furthermore, passive immunization with anti-ChiEV-A71 VLPs sera conferred full protection against lethal challenge of both EV-A71 and CVA16 infection in neonatal mice. These results suggested that this chimeric vaccine, ChiEV-A71 might have the potential to be further developed as a bivalent HFMD vaccine in the near future. Such chimeric enterovirus VLPs provide an alternative platform for bivalent HFMD vaccine development. PMID:25597595

  20. Intrinsic Viral Factors Are the Dominant Determinants of the Hepatitis C Virus Response to Interferon Alpha Treatment in Chimeric Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Kobewka, Michelle; Addison, William; Lachance, Gerald; Tyrrell, D. Lorne

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem. New direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved. However, due to their high cost and some genotypes remaining difficult to treat, interferon-based therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin likely may remain a component of hepatitis C virus treatment for some patients. Unfortunately, pegylated interferon / ribavirin treatment achieved favorable outcomes in less than 50% of patients. Factors determining the outcome to pegylated interferon / ribavirin include both host and viral factors. It has been a major challenge to separate the host and viral factors in most in vivo systems. Aims & Methods We used two hepatitis C virus strains from patients with different interferon-sensitivities and three hepatocyte donors, each with distinct interleukin 28B and interferon lambda 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate the contributions of viral and host factors to the response of hepatitis C virus to interferon treatment in chimeric mice. Results and Conclusions We found that viral factors were the dominant factors in determining the interferon treatment outcomes in chimeric mice. Host factors, such as pre-treatment liver interferon-stimulated gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms near interleukin 28B and interferon lambda 4 coding regions, were less important determinants of the response to interferon in the chimeric mice than they were in patients. Our results also suggest that a complete immune system as seen in patients may be required for host factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms near interleukin 28B / interferon lambda 4 and pre-treatment liver interferon-stimulated gene upregulation to have an effect on the interferon response. PMID:26765841

  1. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem-cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. PMID:27423145

  2. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolite profiling of liver extracts from SCID and chimeric humanized mice following repeated oral administration of troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Alan J; Baker, David R; Hobby, Kirsten; Ashton, Simon; Michopoulos, Filippos; Spagou, Konstantina; Loftus, Neil J; Wilson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    1. Metabonomic analysis, via a combination of untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and untargeted (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling, was performed on aqueous (AQ) and organic liver extracts from control (SCID) and chimeric humanized (PXB) mice dosed with troglitazone at 0, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day for seven days. 2. LC-MS analysis of AQ liver extracts showed a more "human-like" profile for troglitazone metabolites for PXB, compared with SCID, mice. 3. LC-MS detected differences in endogenous metabolites, particularly lipid species in dosed mice, including elevated triacylglycerols and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphates as well as lowered diacylglycerophosphocholines and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphocholines for PXB compared with SCID mouse liver extracts. Following drug administration changes in the relative proportions of the ions for various unsaturated fatty acids were observed for both types of mouse, some of which were specific to PXB or SCID mice. 4.  (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that AQ PXB mouse liver extracts had elevated amounts of inosine, fumarate, creatine, aspartate, trimethylamine N-oxide, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, choline, glutamine, glutamate, acetate, alanine and lactate relative to SCID mice and decreased histidine, glycogen, α- and β-glucose, taurine, and glutathione. Increased uracil and tyrosine concentrations were detected for PXB mice on troglitazone administration. 5. Metabonomic profiling thus showed clear differences between humanized and SCID mice, including after administration of troglitazone.

  3. Prevention of Birch Pollen-Related Food Allergy by Mucosal Treatment with Multi-Allergen-Chimers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. Methodology BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Results Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Conclusion Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:22768077

  4. Complete Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage development in liver-chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Grompe, Markus; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Bial, John; Ploss, Alexander; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2012-10-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most lethal form of human malaria, replicates in the host liver during the initial stage of infection. However, in vivo malaria liver-stage (LS) studies in humans are virtually impossible, and in vitro models of LS development do not reconstitute relevant parasite growth conditions. To overcome these obstacles, we have adopted a robust mouse model for the study of P. falciparum LS in vivo: the immunocompromised and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient mouse (Fah-/-, Rag2-/-, Il2rg-/-, termed the FRG mouse) engrafted with human hepatocytes (FRG huHep). FRG huHep mice supported vigorous, quantifiable P. falciparum LS development that culminated in complete maturation of LS at approximately 7 days after infection, providing a relevant model for LS development in humans. The infections allowed observations of previously unknown expression of proteins in LS, including P. falciparum translocon of exported proteins 150 (PTEX150) and exported protein-2 (EXP-2), components of a known parasite protein export machinery. LS schizonts exhibited exoerythrocytic merozoite formation and merosome release. Furthermore, FRG mice backcrossed to the NOD background and repopulated with huHeps and human red blood cells supported reproducible transition from LS infection to blood-stage infection. Thus, these mice constitute reliable models to study human LS directly in vivo and demonstrate utility for studies of LS-to-blood-stage transition of a human malaria parasite.

  5. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia.

    PubMed

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo.

  6. Invariant NKT cells with chimeric antigen receptor provide a novel platform for safe and effective cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Heczey, Andras; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Courtney, Amy N; Wei, Jie; Marinova, Ekaterina; Gao, Xiuhua; Guo, Linjie; Yvon, Eric; Hicks, John; Liu, Hao; Dotti, Gianpietro; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-10-30

    Advances in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have improved the antitumor efficacy of redirected T cells. However, functional heterogeneity of CAR T cells limits their therapeutic potential and is associated with toxicity. We proposed that CAR expression in Vα24-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells can build on the natural antitumor properties of these cells while their restriction by monomorphic CD1d limits toxicity. Primary human NKT cells were engineered to express a CAR against the GD2 ganglioside (CAR.GD2), which is highly expressed by neuroblastoma (NB). We compared CAR.GD2 constructs that encoded the CD3ζ chain alone, with CD28, 4-1BB, or CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory endodomains. CAR.GD2 expression rendered NKT cells highly cytotoxic against NB cells without affecting their CD1d-dependent reactivity. We observed a striking T helper 1-like polarization of NKT cells by 4-1BB-containing CARs. Importantly, expression of both CD28 and 4-1BB endodomains in the CAR.GD2 enhanced in vivo persistence of NKT cells. These CAR.GD2 NKT cells effectively localized to the tumor site had potent antitumor activity, and repeat injections significantly improved the long-term survival of mice with metastatic NB. Unlike T cells, CAR.GD2 NKT cells did not induce graft-versus-host disease. These results establish the potential of NKT cells to serve as a safe and effective platform for CAR-directed cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Invariant NKT cells with chimeric antigen receptor provide a novel platform for safe and effective cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Heczey, Andras; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Courtney, Amy N.; Wei, Jie; Marinova, Ekaterina; Gao, Xiuhua; Guo, Linjie; Yvon, Eric; Hicks, John; Liu, Hao; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have improved the antitumor efficacy of redirected T cells. However, functional heterogeneity of CAR T cells limits their therapeutic potential and is associated with toxicity. We proposed that CAR expression in Vα24-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells can build on the natural antitumor properties of these cells while their restriction by monomorphic CD1d limits toxicity. Primary human NKT cells were engineered to express a CAR against the GD2 ganglioside (CAR.GD2), which is highly expressed by neuroblastoma (NB). We compared CAR.GD2 constructs that encoded the CD3ζ chain alone, with CD28, 4-1BB, or CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory endodomains. CAR.GD2 expression rendered NKT cells highly cytotoxic against NB cells without affecting their CD1d-dependent reactivity. We observed a striking T helper 1–like polarization of NKT cells by 4-1BB-containing CARs. Importantly, expression of both CD28 and 4-1BB endodomains in the CAR.GD2 enhanced in vivo persistence of NKT cells. These CAR.GD2 NKT cells effectively localized to the tumor site had potent antitumor activity, and repeat injections significantly improved the long-term survival of mice with metastatic NB. Unlike T cells, CAR.GD2 NKT cells did not induce graft-versus-host disease. These results establish the potential of NKT cells to serve as a safe and effective platform for CAR-directed cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25049283

  8. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  9. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  10. Human urine and plasma concentrations of bisphenol A extrapolated from pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Takamori; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Makiko; Shida, Satomi; Nishiyama, Sayako; Takano, Ryohji; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate to humans the pharmacokinetics of estrogen analog bisphenol A determined in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Higher plasma concentrations and urinary excretions of bisphenol A glucuronide (a primary metabolite of bisphenol A) were observed in chimeric mice than in control mice after oral administrations, presumably because of enterohepatic circulation of bisphenol A glucuronide in control mice. Bisphenol A glucuronidation was faster in mouse liver microsomes than in human liver microsomes. These findings suggest a predominantly urinary excretion route of bisphenol A glucuronide in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Reported human plasma and urine data for bisphenol A glucuronide after single oral administration of 0.1mg/kg bisphenol A were reasonably estimated using the current semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model extrapolated from humanized mice data using algometric scaling. The reported geometric mean urinary bisphenol A concentration in the U.S. population of 2.64μg/L underwent reverse dosimetry modeling with the current human semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model. This yielded an estimated exposure of 0.024μg/kg/day, which was less than the daily tolerable intake of bisphenol A (50μg/kg/day), implying little risk to humans. Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling will likely prove useful for determining the species-dependent toxicological risk of bisphenol A.

  11. Assessment of chimeric mice with humanized livers in new drug development: generation of pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity data for selecting the final candidate compound.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Chimeric mice with humanized livers are expected to be a novel tool for new drug development. This review discusses four applications where these animals can be used efficiently to collect supportive data for selecting the best compound in the final stage of drug discovery. 2. The first application is selection of the final compound based on estimated pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. Since chimeric mouse livers are highly repopulated with human hepatocytes, hepatic clearance values in vivo could be used preferentially to estimate pharmacokinetic profiles for humans. 3. The second is prediction of human-specific or disproportionate metabolites. Chimeric mice reproduce human-specific metabolites of drugs under development to conform to ICH guidance M3(R2), except for compounds that were extensively eliminated by co-existing mouse hepatocytes. 4. The third is identifying metabolites with distinct pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Slow metabolite elimination specifically in humans increases its exposure level, but if its elimination is faster in laboratory animals, the animal exposure level might not satisfy ICH guidance M3(R2). 5. Finally, two examples of reproducing acute liver toxicity in chimeric mice are introduced. Integrated pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity information are expected to assist pharmaceutical scientists in selecting the best candidate compound in new drug development.

  12. Combinatorial RNA Interference Therapy Prevents Selection of Pre-existing HBV Variants in Human Liver Chimeric Mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yao-Ming; Sun, Cheng-Pu; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Wu, Ping-Yi; Enya Chen, Yu-Chen; Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Selection of escape mutants with mutations within the target sequence could abolish the antiviral RNA interference activity. Here, we investigated the impact of a pre-existing shRNA-resistant HBV variant on the efficacy of shRNA therapy. We previously identified a highly potent shRNA, S1, which, when delivered by an adeno-associated viral vector, effectively inhibits HBV replication in HBV transgenic mice. We applied the "PICKY" software to systemically screen the HBV genome, then used hydrodynamic transfection and HBV transgenic mice to identify additional six highly potent shRNAs. Human liver chimeric mice were infected with a mixture of wild-type and T472C HBV, a S1-resistant HBV variant, and then treated with a single or combined shRNAs. The presence of T472C mutant compromised the therapeutic efficacy of S1 and resulted in replacement of serum wild-type HBV by T472C HBV. In contrast, combinatorial therapy using S1 and P28, one of six potent shRNAs, markedly reduced titers for both wild-type and T472C HBV. Interestingly, treatment with P28 alone led to the emergence of escape mutants with mutations in the P28 target region. Our results demonstrate that combinatorial RNAi therapy can minimize the escape of resistant viral mutants in chronic HBV patients.

  13. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27130449

  14. The peripheral chimerism of bone marrow-derived stem cells after transplantation: regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues in lethally irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Filip, Stanislav; Mokrý, Jaroslav; Vávrová, Jiřina; Sinkorová, Zuzana; Mičuda, Stanislav; Sponer, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Hrebíková, Hana; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2014-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells represent a heterogeneous cell population containing haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. These cells have been identified as potential candidates for use in cell therapy for the regeneration of damaged tissues caused by trauma, degenerative diseases, ischaemia and inflammation or cancer treatment. In our study, we examined a model using whole-body irradiation and the transplantation of bone marrow (BM) or haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to study the repair of haematopoiesis, extramedullary haematopoiesis and the migration of green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)) transplanted cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. We investigated the repair of damage to the BM, peripheral blood, spleen and thymus and assessed the ability of this treatment to induce the entry of BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells into non-haematopoietic tissues. The transplantation of BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells from GFP transgenic mice successfully repopulated haematopoiesis and the haematopoietic niche in haematopoietic tissues, specifically the BM, spleen and thymus. The transplanted GFP(+) cells also entered the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following whole-body irradiation. Our results demonstrate that whole-body irradiation does not significantly alter the integrity of tissues such as those in the small intestine and liver. Whole-body irradiation also induced myeloablation and chimerism in tissues, and induced the entry of transplanted cells into the small intestine and liver. This result demonstrates that grafted BM cells or GFP(+) lin(-) Sca-1(+) cells are not transient in the GIT. Thus, these transplanted cells could be used for the long-term treatment of various pathologies or as a one-time treatment option if myeloablation-induced chimerism alone is not sufficient to induce the entry of transplanted cells into non-haematopoietic tissues.

  15. Chimeric mice with hepatocyte-humanized liver as an appropriate model to study human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Utoh, Rie; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Ishida, Yuji; Myoken, Yuka; Oofusa, Ken; Okada, Miyoko; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2015-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator (PP)-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists exhibit species-specific effects on livers of the rodent and human (h), which has been considered to reside in the difference of PPARα gene structures. However, the contribution of h-hepatocytes (heps) to the species-specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, the effects of fenofibrate were investigated using a hepatocyte-humanized chimeric mouse (m) model whose livers were replaced with h-heps at >70%. Fenofibrate induced hepatocellular hypertrophy, cell proliferation, and peroxisome proliferation in livers of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, but not in the h-hep of chimeric mouse livers. Fenofibrate increased the expression of the enzymes of β- and ω-hydroxylation and deoxygenation of lipids at both gene and protein levels in SCID mouse livers, but not in the h-heps of chimeric mouse livers, supporting the studies with h-PPARα-transgenic mice, a hitherto reliable model for studying the regulation of h-PPARα in the h-liver in most respects, except the induction of the peroxisome proliferation. This study indicates the importance of not only h-PPARα gene but also h-heps themselves to correctly predict effects of fibrates on h-livers, and, therefore, suggests that the chimeric mouse is a currently available, consistent, and reliable model to obtain pharmaceutical data concerning the effects of fibrates on h-livers.

  16. A Recombinant Chimeric La Crosse Virus Expressing the Surface Glycoproteins of Jamestown Canyon Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective against Challenge with either Parental Virus in Mice or Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, R. S.; Gresko, A. K.; Nelson, J. T.; Murphy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), family Bunyaviridae, are mosquito-borne viruses that are endemic in North America and recognized as etiologic agents of encephalitis in humans. Both viruses belong to the California encephalitis virus serogroup, which causes 70 to 100 cases of encephalitis a year. As a first step in creating live attenuated viral vaccine candidates for this serogroup, we have generated a recombinant LACV expressing the attachment/fusion glycoproteins of JCV. The JCV/LACV chimeric virus contains full-length S and L segments derived from LACV. For the M segment, the open reading frame (ORF) of LACV is replaced with that derived from JCV and is flanked by the untranslated regions of LACV. The resulting chimeric virus retained the same robust growth kinetics in tissue culture as observed for either parent virus, and the virus remains highly infectious and immunogenic in mice. Although both LACV and JCV are highly neurovirulent in 21 day-old mice, with 50% lethal dose (LD50) values of 0.1 and 0.5 log10 PFU, respectively, chimeric JCV/LACV is highly attenuated and does not cause disease even after intracerebral inoculation of 103 PFU. Parenteral vaccination of mice with 101 or 103 PFU of JCV/LACV protected against lethal challenge with LACV, JCV, and Tahyna virus (TAHV). The chimeric virus was infectious and immunogenic in rhesus monkeys and induced neutralizing antibodies to JCV, LACV, and TAHV. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with JCV, they were protected against the development of viremia. Generation of highly attenuated yet immunogenic chimeric bunyaviruses could be an efficient general method for development of vaccines effective against these pathogenic viruses. PMID:22013033

  17. T Cells Engineered With Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting NKG2D Ligands Display Lethal Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Hammill, Joanne A; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Tantalo, Daniela G M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Denisova, Galina F; Rabinovich, Brian; Wan, Yonghong; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-10-01

    Ligands for the NKG2D receptor are overexpressed on tumors, making them interesting immunotherapy targets. To assess the tumoricidal properties of T cells directed to attack NKG2D ligands, we engineered murine T cells with two distinct NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs): (i) a fusion between the NKG2D receptor and the CD3ζ chain and (ii) a conventional second-generation CAR, where the extracellular domain of NKG2D was fused to CD28 and CD3ζ. To enhance the CAR surface expression, we also engineered T cells to coexpress DAP10. In vitro functionality and surface expression levels of all three CARs was greater in BALB/c T cells than C57BL/6 T cells, indicating strain-specific differences. Upon adoptive transfer of NKG2D-CAR-T cells into syngeneic animals, we observed significant clinical toxicity resulting in morbidity and mortality. The severity of these toxicities varied between the CAR configurations and paralleled their in vitro NKG2D surface expression. BALB/c mice were more sensitive to these toxicities than C57BL/6 mice, consistent with the higher in vitro functionality of BALB/c T cells. Treatment with cyclophosphamide prior to adoptive transfer exacerbated the toxicity. We conclude that while NKG2D ligands may be useful targets for immunotherapy, the pursuit of NKG2D-based CAR-T cell therapies should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26122933

  18. Identification and characterization of metabolites of ASP015K, a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in rats, chimeric mice with humanized liver, and humans.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Naoyuki; Oda, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    1. Here, we elucidated the structure of metabolites of novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor ASP015K in rats and humans and evaluated the predictability of human metabolites using chimeric mice with humanized liver (PXB mice). 2. Rat biological samples collected after oral dosing of (14)C-labelled ASP015K were examined using a liquid chromatography-radiometric detector and mass spectrometer (LC-RAD/MS). The molecular weight of metabolites in human and the liver chimeric mouse biological samples collected after oral dosing of non-labelled ASP015K was also investigated via LC-MS. Metabolites were also isolated from rat bile samples and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. 3. Metabolic pathways of ASP015K in rats and humans were found to be glucuronide conjugation, methyl conjugation, sulfate conjugation, glutathione conjugation, hydroxylation of the adamantane ring and N-oxidation of the 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine ring. The main metabolite of ASP015K in rats was the glucuronide conjugate, while the main metabolite in humans was the sulfate conjugate. Given that human metabolites were produced by human hepatocytes in chimeric mice with humanized liver, this human model mouse was believed to be useful in predicting the human metabolic profile of various drug candidates.

  19. Cytolytic T cells recognize a chimeric MHC class I antigen expressed in influenza A infected transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, W A; Rüther, U; Wagner, E F; Kvist, S

    1988-01-01

    A chimeric H-2Kd/Kk gene, called pC31, contains the extracellular alpha 1 domain of Kd origin whereas the rest of the molecule is of Kk origin. Disruption of the syngeneic alpha 1-alpha 2 structure results in a total abrogation of the function of the C31 protein as a restriction element for H-2Kd and Kk restricted T cells during virus infection. In an attempt to obtain information on the functional polymorphism of MHC class I antigens as restriction elements, we have introduced the pC31 gene into the germ line of C3H/He mice (H-2k). The pC31 gene was transcribed in all tissues examined and the expression pattern paralleled the endogenous H-2Kk gene. However, the mRNA for the transgene was approximately 10-times more abundant, which was reflected in an elevated expression of the C31 protein in transgenic splenocytes. Most of the C31 antigen was found intracellularly. The C31 antigen could condition transgenic cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a specific manner during influenza A virus infection and functioned as the restricting element during T cell lysis of the infected cells. These results suggest that entire exons may be exchanged between MHC class I genes and that this exchange can generate novel and functional restriction elements. Images PMID:2850165

  20. Pain regulation of endokinin A/B or endokinin C/D on chimeric peptide MCRT in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Chunbo; Gong, Junbin; Yang, Lixia; Zhang, Hongwei; Dong, Shouliang; Zhou, Lanxia

    2016-09-01

    The present study focused on the interactive pain regulation of endokinin A/B (EKA/B, the common C-terminal decapeptide in EKA and EKB) or endokinin C/D (EKC/D, the common C-terminal duodecapeptide in EKC and EKD) on chimeric peptide MCRT (YPFPFRTic-NH2, based on YPFP-NH2 and PFRTic-NH2) at the supraspinal level in mice. Results demonstrated that the co-injection of nanomolar EKA/B and MCRT showed moderate regulation, whereas 30 pmol EKA/B had no effect on MCRT. The combination of EKC/D and MCRT produced enhanced antinociception, which was nearly equal to the sum of the mathematical values of single EKC/D and MCRT. Mechanism studies revealed that pre-injected naloxone attenuated the combination significantly compared with the equivalent analgesic effects of EKC/D alone, suggesting that EKC/D and MCRT might act on two totally independent pathways. Moreover, based on the above results and previous reports, we made two reasonable hypotheses to explain the cocktail-induced analgesia, which may potentially pave the way to explore the respective regulatory mechanisms of EKA/B, EKC/D, and MCRT and to better understand the complicated pain regulation of NK1 and μ opioid receptors, as follows: (1) MCRT and endomorphin-1 possibly activated different μ subtypes; and (2) picomolar EKA/B might motivate the endogenous NPFF system after NK1 activation.

  1. Influence of radiation field and fractionation schedule of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the induction of suppressor cells and stable chimerism after bone marrow transplantation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-02-01

    When BALB/c mice received 17 daily fractions of 2 Gy each of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, total dose 34 Gy) and 30 x 10/sup 6/ C/sub 57/ B1 bone marrow cells (BM) on the day after the last fraction, stable bone marrow chimerism without signs of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was obtained in 84% of the animals. On the contrary, in BALB/c mice receiving only seven fractions of TLI (total dose 14 Gy), all bone marrow grafts were rejected. When the last two fractions of a 14-Gy TLI course were given without shielding the extra lymphatic tissues (combined total lymphoid + total body irradiation, TLBI), chimerism could be induced in 53% of the animals. When this 14-Gy TLBI schedule was used, it was even possible to administer four fractions per day (multiple fractions per day schedule, MFD), thus reducing the overall treatment time to 2 consecutive days. After this concentrated form of TLBI, chimerism was detected in 35% of the animals. As in the 34-Gy TLI schedule, graft-vs-host reaction could not be prevented in the 14-Gy TLBI schedule when spleen lymphocytes (10 x 10/sup 6/) were added to the BM inocolum. Leucopenia or suppression of the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced blastogenesis could not predict which schedule would result in a successful allogeneic bone marrow take. Suppressor cells of the mixed lymphocyte reaction, on the other hand, were only found in the spleen of BALB/c mice treated with the TLI or TLBI schedules, which also resulted in stable bone marrow chimerism.

  2. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates thymic deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive T cells and prevents insulitis in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Racine, Jeremy J; Zhang, Mingfeng; Wang, Miao; Morales, William; Shen, Christine; Zeng, Defu

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetic NOD mice have defects in both thymic negative selection and peripheral regulation of autoreactive T cells, and induction of mixed chimerism can effectively reverse these defects. Our recent studies suggest that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes in wild-type NOD and TCR-transgenic NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 mice. However, it remains unknown how mismatched I-A(b) MHC class II can mediate deletion of autoreactive T cells positively selected by I-A(g7). In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that mismatched MHC class II in mixed chimeras mediates deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive thymocytes. We first identify that transgenic BDC2.5 T cells from NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 but not NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 mice possess cross-reactive TCRs with endogenous TCRα-chains; MHC-mismatched H-2(b) but not matched H-2(g7) mixed chimerism mediates thymic deletion of the cross-reactive transgenic T cells in NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 mice. Second, by transplanting T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) cells from NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 or NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 mice into lethally irradiated MHC-mismatched H-2(b) C57BL/6 or MHC-matched congenic B6.H-2(g7) recipients, we demonstrate that NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 BM-derived cross-reactive transgenic T cells, but not NOD.Rag1(-/-).BDC2.5 BM-derived non-cross-reactive transgenic T cells, can be positively selected in MHC-mismatched H-2(b) thymus. Third, by cotransplanting NOD.Rag1(+/+).BDC2.5 TCD BM cells with BM cells from MHC-mismatched T cell-deficient C57BL/6 mice into lethally irradiated MHC-matched B6.H-2(g7) recipients, we demonstrate that thymic deletion of the cross-reactive transgenic T cells is dependent on MHC-mismatched donor BM-derived APCs but not on donor BM-derived T cells. Taken together, our studies indicate that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can mediate thymic deletion of cross-reactive autoreactive T cells that express more than one TCR.

  3. A T cell-independent antitumor response in mice with bone marrow cells retrovirally transduced with an antibody/Fc-gamma chain chimeric receptor gene recognizing a human ovarian cancer antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Chopra, R K; Royal, R E; Yang, J C; Rosenberg, S A; Hwu, P

    1998-02-01

    In order to treat common cancers with immunotherapy, chimeric receptors have been developed that combine the tumor specificity of antibodies with T-cell effector functions. Previously, we demonstrated that T cells transduced with a chimeric receptor gene against human ovarian cancer were able to recognize ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We now report that recipients of bone marrow cells transduced with these genes exhibited significant antitumor activity in vivo. Moreover, in vivo depletion of T cells in reconstituted mice did not affect antitumor activity, suggesting that other immune cells expressing the chimeric receptor gene may play an important role in tumor rejection.

  4. Factors influencing the vaccinia-specific cytotoxic response of thymocytes from normal and chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, P.C.; Schwartz, D.H.; Bennink, J.R.; Korngold, R.

    1981-12-01

    Following adoptive transfer into irradiated recipients, thymocytes can be induced to respond strongly to vaccinia virus. High levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity may be generated from thymus, but not from spleen, of 3-day-old mice. The capacity of thymocytes to differentiate into effector CTL tends to be lost with age. Some of this loss may reflect positive suppression: a single, low dose of cyclophosphamide allows the reemergence of responsiveness in at least one mouse strain. Thymocytes from (A leads to (A x B)F1) and ((A x B)F1 leads to A) chimeras show the response patterns that would by predicted from previous studies of lymph node and spleen cells. However, thymic function seems to be rapidly lost in the (A leads to (A x B)F1) Chimeras.

  5. Inappropriate splicing of a chimeric gene containing a large internal exon results in exon skipping in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Davisson, R L; Nuutinen, N; Coleman, S T; Sigmund, C D

    1996-10-15

    We generated transgenic mice containing a chimeric construct consisting of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain (alpha cMHC) promoter and the human renin (hRen) gene in order to target hRen synthesis specifically to the heart. The construct consisted of three segments: (i) an alpha cMHC DNA segment including 4.5 kb of 5' flanking DNA and an additional 1.1 kb of genomic DNA encompassing exons I-III (non-coding) and the first two introns; (ii) a partial hRen cDNA consisting of exons I-VI; and (iii) a hRen genomic segment containing exons VII through IX, their intervening introns, and 400 bp of 3' flanking DNA. This results in the formation of a 909 bp internal fusion exon consisting of alpha cMHC, polylinker, and hRen sequences. Despite the presence of splice acceptor and donor sites bracketing this exon, transcription of this transgene resulted in a major alternatively spliced mRNA lacking the exon and therefore a majority of the hRen coding sequence. Cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products from several heart samples from two independent transgenic lines confirmed accurate and faithful splicing of alpha cMHC exon II to hRen exon VII thus bypassing the internal fusion exon. All other exons (alpha cMHC exons I and II and hRen exons VII, VIII and IX) were appropriately spliced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis on exon definition which states that internal exons have a size limitation. Moreover, the results demonstrate that transgenes present in the genome at independent insertion sites and in either a single copy or multiple copies can be subject to exon skipping. The implications for transgene design will be discussed.

  6. Titration of hepatitis B virus infectivity in the sera of pre-acute and late acute phases of HBV infection: transmission experiments to chimeric mice with human liver repopulated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Ayako; Tanaka, Junko; Katayama, Keiko; Mizui, Masaaki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Yugi, Hisao; Shimada, Takashi; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in non-human primates such as chimpanzees are no longer possible due to ethical considerations and the endangered status of chimpanzees since April 2007 in Japan. A human hepatocyte transplanted chimeric mouse was used to characterize HBV infectivity in serial stages of acute infection. Chimeric mice were inoculated intravenously with serum samples obtained from an experimentally infected chimpanzee with HBV. Sera from the pre-acute phases (i.e., rump-up viremia prior to anti-HBc) and late acute phases (i.e., declining phase of HBsAg and anti-HBcAb positive) were collected from the chimpanzees 57 and 244 days after inoculation. These sera contained 2.6 x 10(6) and 2.8 x 10(6) copies/ml of HBV DNA, respectively. Three chimeric mice inoculated intravenously with 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(0) copy of HBV DNA) developed an HBV infection. The three chimeric mice that received 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA), developed high levels of serum HBV DNA. None of the three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(4) dilution (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum was infected, while only one of three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(3) dilution (equivalent to 10(2) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum developed an HBV infection. Based on these results, chimeric mice can be used as animal models for the study of HBV infectivity, pathogenesis and control. The results show that pre-acute phase HBV serum is about 100-times more infectious than late acute phase serum.

  7. Immunization with an HPV-16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing HPV-16 E6 and E7 epitopes elicits long-lasting prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in an HPV-16 tumor mice model.

    PubMed

    Monroy-García, Alberto; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Rangel-Santiago, Jesús F; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mora García, María de Lourdes

    2014-02-01

    HPV L1-based virus-like particles vaccines (VLPs) efficiently induce temporary prophylactic activity through the induction of neutralizing antibodies; however, VLPs that can provide prophylactic as well as therapeutic properties for longer periods of time are needed. For this purpose, we generated a novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) produced in plants that contains a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to its C-terminus. In the present study, we analyzed the persistence of specific IgG antibodies with neutralizing activity induced by immunization with these cVLPs, as well as their therapeutic potential in a tumor model of C57BL/6 mice. We observed that these cVLPs induced persistent IgG antibodies for over 12 months, with reactivity and neutralizing activity for VLPs composed of only the HPV-16 L1 protein. Efficient protection for long periods of time and inhibition of tumor growth induced by TC-1 tumor cells expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins, as well as significant tumor reduction (57 %), were observed in mice immunized with these cVLPs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that chimeric particles of the type described in this work may be the basis for developing HPV prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with high efficacy.

  8. Role of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) receptor murine CEACAM1 in the resistance of mice to MHV infection: studies of mice with chimeric mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Asuka; Ohtsuka, Nobuhisa; Ikeda, Toshio; Taniguchi, Rie; Blau, Dianna; Nakagaki, Keiko; Miura, Hideka S; Ami, Yasushi; Yamada, Yasuko K; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Holmes, Kathryn V; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2010-07-01

    Although most inbred mouse strains are highly susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection, the inbred SJL line of mice is highly resistant to its infection. The principal receptor for MHV is murine CEACAM1 (mCEACAM1). Susceptible strains of mice are homozygous for the 1a allele of mCeacam1, while SJL mice are homozygous for the 1b allele. mCEACAM1a (1a) has a 10- to 100-fold-higher receptor activity than does mCEACAM1b (1b). To explore the hypothesis that MHV susceptibility is due to the different MHV receptor activities of 1a and 1b, we established a chimeric C57BL/6 mouse (cB61ba) in which a part of the N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the mCeacam1a (1a) gene, which is responsible for MHV receptor function, is replaced by the corresponding region of mCeacam1b (1b). We compared the MHV susceptibility of these chimeric mice to that of SJL and B6 mice. B6 mice that are homozygous for 1a are highly susceptible to MHV-A59 infection, with a 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of 10(2.5) PFU, while chimeric cB61ba mice and SJL mice homozygous for 1ba and 1b, respectively, survived following inoculation with 10(5) PFU. Unexpectedly, cB61ba mice were more resistant to MHV-A59 infection than SJL mice as measured by virus replication in target organs, including liver and brain. No infectious virus or viral RNA was detected in the organs of cB61ba mice, while viral RNA and infectious virus were detected in target organs of SJL mice. Furthermore, SJL mice produced antiviral antibodies after MHV-A59 inoculation with 10(5) PFU, but cB61ba mice did not. Thus, cB61ba mice are apparently completely resistant to MHV-A59 infection, while SJL mice permit low levels of MHV-A59 virus replication during self-limited, asymptomatic infection. When expressed on cultured BHK cells, the mCEACAM1b and mCEACAM1ba proteins had similar levels of MHV-A59 receptor activity. These results strongly support the hypothesis that although alleles of mCEACAM1 are the principal determinants of

  9. Human biofluid concentrations of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in chimeric mice with humanized liver administered with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Koichiro; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a reproductive toxicant in male rodents. The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP, a primary metabolite of DEHP) in humans by using data from oral administration of DEHP to chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. MEHP and its glucuronide were detected in plasma from control mice and chimeric mice after single oral doses of 250mg DEHP/kg body weight. Biphasic plasma concentration-time curves of MEHP and its glucuronide were seen only in control mice. MEHP and its glucuronide were extensively excreted in urine within 24h in mice with humanized liver. In contrast, fecal excretion levels of MEHP glucuronide were high in control mice compared with those with humanized liver. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated urine MEHP concentrations in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. This research illustrates how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of the primary or secondary metabolites of DEHP.

  10. Human plasma concentrations of herbicidal carbamate molinate extrapolated from the pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masanao; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Nishiyama, Sayako; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To predict concentrations in humans of the herbicidal carbamate molinate, used exclusively in rice cultivation, a forward dosimetry approach was carried out using data from lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses orally administered to rats, wild type mice, and chimeric mice with humanized liver and from in vitro human and rodent experiments. Human liver microsomes preferentially mediated hydroxylation of molinate, but rat livers additionally produced molinate sulfoxide and an unidentified metabolite. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents for molinate and its primary sulfoxide from animal studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and human metabolic data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The slower disposition of molinate and accumulation of molinate sulfoxide in humans were estimated by modeling after single and multiple doses compared with elimination in rodents. The results from simplified PBPK modeling in combination with chimeric mice with humanized liver suggest that ratios of estimated parameters of molinate sulfoxide exposure in humans to those in rats were three times as many as general safety factor of 10 for species difference in toxicokinetics. Thus, careful regulatory decision is needed when evaluating the human risk resulting from exposure to low doses of molinate and related carbamates based on data obtained from rats. PMID:25016177

  11. Human plasma concentrations of herbicidal carbamate molinate extrapolated from the pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masanao; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Nishiyama, Sayako; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To predict concentrations in humans of the herbicidal carbamate molinate, used exclusively in rice cultivation, a forward dosimetry approach was carried out using data from lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses orally administered to rats, wild type mice, and chimeric mice with humanized liver and from in vitro human and rodent experiments. Human liver microsomes preferentially mediated hydroxylation of molinate, but rat livers additionally produced molinate sulfoxide and an unidentified metabolite. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents for molinate and its primary sulfoxide from animal studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and human metabolic data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The slower disposition of molinate and accumulation of molinate sulfoxide in humans were estimated by modeling after single and multiple doses compared with elimination in rodents. The results from simplified PBPK modeling in combination with chimeric mice with humanized liver suggest that ratios of estimated parameters of molinate sulfoxide exposure in humans to those in rats were three times as many as general safety factor of 10 for species difference in toxicokinetics. Thus, careful regulatory decision is needed when evaluating the human risk resulting from exposure to low doses of molinate and related carbamates based on data obtained from rats.

  12. Elimination of HCV via a non-ISG-mediated mechanism by vaniprevir and BMS-788329 combination therapy in human hepatocyte chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takuro; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Kan, Hiromi; Miyaki, Eisuke; Tsuge, Masataka; Abe, Hiromi; Hayes, C Nelson; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Ellis, Joan D; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral combination treatment succeeded in eradicating genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human hepatocyte chimeric mice. In this study, we examined the effect of vaniprevir (MK7009, NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and BMS-788329 (NS5A inhibitor) combination treatment on HCV genotype 1b and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) using a subgenomic replicon system and the same animal model. Combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 significantly reduced HCV replication compared to vaniprevir monotherapy in HCV replicon cells (Huh7/Rep-Feo cells). HCV genotype 1b-infected human hepatocyte chimeric mice were treated with vaniprevir alone or in combination with BMS-788329 for four weeks. Vaniprevir monotherapy reduced serum HCV RNA titers in mice, but viral breakthrough was observed in mice with high HCV titers. Ultra-deep sequence analysis revealed a predominant replacement by drug-resistant substitutions at 168 in HCV NS3 region in these mice. Conversely, in mice with low HCV titers, HCV was eradicated by vaniprevir monotherapy without viral breakthrough. In contrast to monotherapy, combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 succeeded in completely eradicating HCV regardless of serum viral titer. IFN-alpha treatment significantly increased ISG expression; however, vaniprevir and BMS-788329 combination treatment caused no increase in ISG expression both in cultured cells and in mouse livers. Therefore, combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 eliminated HCV via a non-ISG-mediated mechanism. This oral treatment might offer an alternative DAA combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26569595

  13. Partial rescue of a lethal phenotype of fragile bones in transgenic mice with a chimeric antisense gene directed against a mutated collagen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Khillan, J S; Li, S W; Prockop, D J

    1994-01-01

    Previously, transgenic mice were prepared that developed a lethal phenotype of fragile bones because they expressed an internally deleted mini-gene for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of human type I procollagen. The shortened pro alpha 1(I) chains synthesized from the human transgene bound to and produced degradation of normal pro alpha 1(I) chains synthesized from the normal mouse alleles. Here we assembled an antisense gene that was similar to the internally deleted COL1A1 minigene but the 3' half of the gene was inverted so as to code for an antisense RNA. Transgenic mice expressing the antisense gene had a normal phenotype, apparently because the antisense gene contained human sequences instead of mouse sequences. Two lines of mice expressing the antisense gene were bred to two lines of transgenic mice expressing the mini-gene. In mice that inherited both genes, the incidence of the lethal fragile bone phenotype was reduced from 92% to 27%. The effects of the antisense gene were directly demonstrated by an increase in the ratio of normal mouse pro alpha 1(I) chains to human mini-pro alpha 1(I) chains in tissues from mice that inherited both genes and had a normal phenotype. The results raise the possibility that chimeric gene constructs that contain intron sequences and in which only the second half of a gene is inverted may be particularly effective as antisense genes. Images PMID:8022775

  14. Formation of the accumulative human metabolite and human-specific glutathione conjugate of diclofenac in TK-NOG chimeric mice with humanized livers.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi; Nozawa, Kohei; Nakamura, Shota; Chijiwa, Hiroyuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-ichiro; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxydiclofenac (VI) is a human-specific metabolite known to accumulate in the plasma of patients after repeated administration of diclofenac sodium. Diclofenac also produces glutathione-conjugated metabolites, some of which are human-specific. In the present study, we investigated whether these metabolites could be generated in humanized chimeric mice produced from TK-NOG mice. After a single oral administration of diclofenac to humanized mice, the unchanged drug in plasma peaked at 0.25 hour and then declined with a half-life (t1/2) of 2.4 hours. 4'-Hydroxydiclofenac (II) and 3'-hydroxydiclofenac also peaked at 0.25 hour and were undetectable within 24 hours. However, VI peaked at 8 hours and declined with a t1/2 of 13 hours. When diclofenac was given once per day, peak and trough levels of VI reached plateau within 3 days. Studies with administration of II suggested VI was generated via II as an intermediate. Among six reported glutathione-conjugated metabolites of diclofenac, M1 (5-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac) to M6 (2'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac), we found three dichlorinated conjugates [M1, M2 (4'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac), and M3 (5-hydroxy-6-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac)], and a single monochlorinated conjugate [M4 (2'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac) or M5 (4'-hydroxy-2'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac)], in the bile of humanized chimeric mice. M4 and M5 are positional isomers and have been previously reported as human-specific in vitro metabolites likely generated via arene oxide and quinone imine-type intermediates, respectively. The biliary monochlorinated metabolite exhibited the same mass spectrum as those of M4 and M5, and we discuss whether this conjugate corresponded to M4 or M5. Overall, humanized TK-NOG chimeric mice were considered to be a functional tool for the study of drug metabolism of diclofenac in humans.

  15. Survival of host mast cells after establishment of hematopoietic chimerism by graft-versus-host reaction in nonirradiated F1 hybrid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuyama, K.; Sonoda, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Inoue, R.; Ochi, T.; Ono, K.

    1982-10-01

    Since the tissue mast cell has been shown to be progeny of the multipotential hematopoietic stem cell (CFU-S), and the CFU-S is a sensitive target of graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, we examined whether or not the mast cell is also the target of GVH reaction. Giant granules of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ mice were used as a marker of donor cells. When 10(8) spleen cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ mice were injected into nonirradiated (C57BL/6 X CBA)F1 hybrid mice, erythrocytes and neutrophils became of donor type in about one-half of the recipient mice. In the bone marrow and spleen of the chimeric mice, the CFU-S was of donor type as well. In contrast, mast cells of host type remained in many tissues of the chimeras. Moreover, mast cell precursors with capabilities of proliferation and differentiation were preserved in the skin of chimeras. The present results suggest that the effect of systemic GVH reaction on mature mast cells and the mast cell precursor fixed in the skin is significantly less severe than that on the CFU-S itself.

  16. A chimeric protein comprising the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of toxin B and the receptor binding domain of toxin A induces protective immunity against Clostridium difficile infection in mice and hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Kai; Yan, Ya-Xian; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Ju, Xianghong; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Keshan; Tzipori, Saul; Sun, Xingmin

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea and colitis in developed countries. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is mainly mediated by the release of 2 large potent exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), both of which require neutralization to prevent disease occurrence. We have generated a novel chimeric protein, designated mTcd138, comprised of the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of TcdB and the receptor binding domain of TcdA and expressed it in Bacillus megaterium. To ensure that mTcd138 is atoxic, 2 point mutations were introduced to the glucosyltransferase domain of TcdB, which essentially eliminates toxicity of mTcd138. Parenteral immunizations of mice and hamsters with mTcd138 induced protective antibodies to both toxins and provided protection against infection with the hyper-virulent C. difficile strain UK6. PMID:26036797

  17. A chimeric protein comprising the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of toxin B and the receptor binding domain of toxin A induces protective immunity against Clostridium difficile infection in mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Kai; Yan, Ya-Xian; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Ju, Xianghong; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Keshan; Tzipori, Saul; Sun, Xingmin

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea and colitis in developed countries. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is mainly mediated by the release of 2 large potent exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), both of which require neutralization to prevent disease occurrence. We have generated a novel chimeric protein, designated mTcd138, comprised of the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of TcdB and the receptor binding domain of TcdA and expressed it in Bacillus megaterium. To ensure that mTcd138 is atoxic, 2 point mutations were introduced to the glucosyltransferase domain of TcdB, which essentially eliminates toxicity of mTcd138. Parenteral immunizations of mice and hamsters with mTcd138 induced protective antibodies to both toxins and provided protection against infection with the hyper-virulent C. difficile strain UK6.

  18. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, inhibits bone resorption and increases BMD in knock-in mice that express chimeric (murine/human) RANKL.

    PubMed

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Nguyen, Hung Q; McCabe, James; Warmington, Kelly S; Kurahara, Carol; Sun, Ning; Chen, Ching; Li, Luke; Cattley, Russ C; Van, Gwyneth; Scully, Shelia; Elliott, Robin; Grisanti, Mario; Morony, Sean; Tan, Hong Lin; Asuncion, Frank; Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Stolina, Marina; Dwyer, Denise; Dougall, William C; Hawkins, Nessa; Boyle, William J; Simonet, William S; Sullivan, John K

    2009-02-01

    RANKL is a TNF family member that mediates osteoclast formation, activation, and survival by activating RANK. The proresorptive effects of RANKL are prevented by binding to its soluble inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG). Recombinant human OPG-Fc recognizes RANKL from multiple species and reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume, density, and strength in a number of rodent models of bone disease. The clinical development of OPG-Fc was discontinued in favor of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits primate RANKL. Direct binding assays showed that denosumab bound to human RANKL but not to murine RANKL, human TRAIL, or other human TNF family members. Denosumab did not suppress bone resorption in normal mice or rats but did prevent the resorptive response in mice challenged with a human RANKL fragment encoded primarily by the fifth exon of the RANKL gene. To create mice that were responsive to denosumab, knock-in technology was used to replace exon 5 from murine RANKL with its human ortholog. The resulting "huRANKL" mice exclusively express chimeric (human/murine) RANKL that was measurable with a human RANKL assay and that maintained bone resorption at slightly reduced levels versus wildtype controls. In young huRANKL mice, denosumab and OPG-Fc each reduced trabecular osteoclast surfaces by 95% and increased bone density and volume. In adult huRANKL mice, denosumab reduced bone resorption, increased cortical and cancellous bone mass, and improved trabecular microarchitecture. These huRANKL mice have potential utility for characterizing the activity of denosumab in a variety of murine bone disease models.

  19. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal death. Expression of T antigen was tissue specific and in the main characteristic of the mouse alpha 1(II) collagen gene. Chondrocyte densities and levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs were reduced in the transgenic mice. Islands of cells which express cartilage characteristic genes such as type IIB procollagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, alpha 2(XI) collagen, and aggrecan were found in the articular and growth cartilages of pAL21 chimeric fetuses and neonates. But these cells, which were expressing T antigen, were not properly organized into columns of proliferating chondrocytes. Levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNA were reduced in these chondrocytes. In addition, these cells did not express type X collagen, a marker for hypertrophic chondrocytes. The skeletal abnormality in pAL21 mice may therefore be due to a retardation of chondrocyte maturation or an impaired ability of chondrocytes to complete terminal differentiation and an associated paucity of some cartilage matrix components. PMID:7822417

  20. Assessment of bacterial contamination of drinking water provided to mice.

    PubMed

    Haist, Carrie; Cadillac, Joan; Dysko, Robert

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an 240-ml water bottle provided to individually housed mice would remain potable for a 2-week interval (based on absence of coliforms). The study used inbred C57BL/6 mice and CB6F1 x C3D2F1 hybrid mice. Test groups were assigned to minimize the variables of strain, caging type (non-ventilated static versus ventilated) and building location. A 3-cc sample of drinking water was removed aseptically from the bottles and vacuum-filtered using a 250-ml filter funnel with a 0.45-mum pore size. The membrane filter was removed using sterile forceps and placed on a blood agar plate for 10 min. The plate was streaked and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. The plates were observed daily, and if growth had occurred, further testing was done to determine specific organisms. Of the 148 samples only 23 had any bacterial growth. Typical bacteria were unspeciated gram-positive bacilli and Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, and Pantoea species. The absence of coliforms and low percentage of bacterial contamination suggest that drinking water will remain potable for 2 weeks when supplied to an individual mouse.

  1. Assessment of bacterial contamination of drinking water provided to mice.

    PubMed

    Haist, Carrie; Cadillac, Joan; Dysko, Robert

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an 240-ml water bottle provided to individually housed mice would remain potable for a 2-week interval (based on absence of coliforms). The study used inbred C57BL/6 mice and CB6F1 x C3D2F1 hybrid mice. Test groups were assigned to minimize the variables of strain, caging type (non-ventilated static versus ventilated) and building location. A 3-cc sample of drinking water was removed aseptically from the bottles and vacuum-filtered using a 250-ml filter funnel with a 0.45-mum pore size. The membrane filter was removed using sterile forceps and placed on a blood agar plate for 10 min. The plate was streaked and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. The plates were observed daily, and if growth had occurred, further testing was done to determine specific organisms. Of the 148 samples only 23 had any bacterial growth. Typical bacteria were unspeciated gram-positive bacilli and Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, and Pantoea species. The absence of coliforms and low percentage of bacterial contamination suggest that drinking water will remain potable for 2 weeks when supplied to an individual mouse. PMID:15636548

  2. Donor Chimerism of B Cells and Nature Killer Cells Provides Useful Information to Predict Hematologic Relapse following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Wan, Liping; Qin, Youwen; Wang, Xiaorui; Yan, Shike; Xie, Kuangcheng; Wang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between donor chimerism status and disease relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The chimerism of Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) sorted CD3+T lymphocytes of 153 cases, CD56+CD16+NK lymphocytes of 153 cases and CD19+B lymphocytes of 31 cases with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) was analyzed post-transplant utilizing polymerase chain reaction amplification of short tandem repeats (PCR-STR). A total of 33 patients (33/153, 21.6%) had recurrent disease. The positive predictive values of declining donor chimerism for hematologic and isolated extramedullary relapse were 58.8% and 10% (P=0.018, Chi-Square). The positive predictive values of declining donor chimerism in BMB, BMT, BMNK and PBB for hematologic relapse were 11.6%, 0%, 0% and 0% under close monitoring in patients with B-ALL. Only the donor chimerism in BMB significantly decreased in the group with hematologic relapse as compared with the group without hematologic relapse (P=0.00, Independent-samples T test) in patients with B-ALL. The median drop of donor chimerism in PBT, BMT, PBNK and BMNK were 0%, 0%, 5.9% and 2.8% one or two weeks prior to hematologic relapse in patients with non-B-ALL. The donor chimerism in PBNK significantly decreased prior to hematologic relapse in the group with hematologic relapse as compared with the group without hematologic relapse (P=0.022, Independent-samples T test).These data suggest donor chimerism of BMB can be used to predict the occurrence of hematologic relapse in patients with B-ALL. Donor chimerism decrease in PBNK was associated with a somewhat increased risk of hematologic relapse in patients with non-B-ALL. Therefore, our results reveal a more effective path to individually predict for hematologic relapse by dynamic monitoring different cell lineages in different disease.

  3. A tripartite cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies passively protects mice against ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

    PubMed

    Sully, Erin K; Whaley, Kevin; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Stavale, Eric; Aman, M Javad; Tangudu, Chandra; Uzal, Francisco A; Mantis, Nicholas J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-12-15

    Due to the fast-acting nature of ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), it is necessary that therapeutic interventions following a bioterrorism incident by one of these toxins occur as soon as possible after intoxication. Moreover, because the clinical manifestations of intoxication by these agents are likely to be indistinguishable from each other, especially following aerosol exposure, we have developed a cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies that is capable of neutralizing all three toxins. The efficacy of this cocktail was demonstrated in mouse models of lethal dose toxin challenge. PMID:25260254

  4. A Tripartite Cocktail of Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies Passively Protects Mice against Ricin, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B and Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Sully, Erin K.; Whaley, Kevin; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Stavale, Eric; Aman, M. Javad; Tangudu, Chandra; Uzal, Francisco A.; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fast-acting nature of ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), it is necessary that therapeutic interventions following a bioterrorism incident by one of these toxins occur as soon as possible after intoxication. Moreover, because the clinical manifestations of intoxication by these toxins are likely to be indistinguishable from each other, especially following aerosol exposure, we have developed a cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies that is capable of neutralizing all three toxins. The efficacy of this cocktail was demonstrated in mouse models of lethal dose toxin challenge. PMID:25260254

  5. A tripartite cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies passively protects mice against ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

    PubMed

    Sully, Erin K; Whaley, Kevin; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Stavale, Eric; Aman, M Javad; Tangudu, Chandra; Uzal, Francisco A; Mantis, Nicholas J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-12-15

    Due to the fast-acting nature of ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), it is necessary that therapeutic interventions following a bioterrorism incident by one of these toxins occur as soon as possible after intoxication. Moreover, because the clinical manifestations of intoxication by these agents are likely to be indistinguishable from each other, especially following aerosol exposure, we have developed a cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies that is capable of neutralizing all three toxins. The efficacy of this cocktail was demonstrated in mouse models of lethal dose toxin challenge.

  6. NSG Mice Provide a Better Spontaneous Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis than Athymic (Nude) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puchalapalli, Madhavi; Zeng, Xianke; Mu, Liang; Anderson, Aubree; Hix Glickman, Laura; Zhang, Ming; Sayyad, Megan R.; Mosticone Wangensteen, Sierra; Clevenger, Charles V.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of mortality in breast cancer patients worldwide. To identify improved mouse models for breast cancer growth and spontaneous metastasis, we examined growth and metastasis of both estrogen receptor positive (T47D) and negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and CN34BrM) human breast cancer cells in nude and NSG mice. Both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastases were increased in NSG mice compared to nude mice. In addition, a pattern of metastasis similar to that observed in human breast cancer patients (metastases to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and lymph nodes) was found in NSG mice. Furthermore, there was an increase in the metastatic burden in NSG compared to nude mice that were injected with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in an intracardiac experimental metastasis model. This data demonstrates that NSG mice provide a better model for studying human breast cancer metastasis compared to the current nude mouse model. PMID:27662655

  7. Bleomycin-Treated Chimeric Thy1-Deficient Mice with Thy1-Deficient Myofibroblasts and Thy-Positive Lymphocytes Resolve Inflammation without Affecting the Fibrotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pazit Y.; Breuer, Raphael; Zisman, Philip; Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit B.

    2015-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of fibroblasts in the interstitium of the alveolar space. Two populations of myofibroblasts, distinguished by Thy1 expression, are detected in human and murine lungs. Accumulation of Thy1-negative (Thy1−) myofibroblasts was shown in the lungs of humans with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and of bleomycin-treated mice. We aimed to identify genetic changes in lung myofibroblasts following Thy1 crosslinking and assess the impact of specific lung myofibroblast Thy1-deficiency, in vivo, in bleomycin-injured mouse lungs. Thy1 increased in mouse lung lymphocytes following bleomycin injury but decreased in myofibroblasts when fibrosis was at the highest point (14 days), as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Using gene chip analysis, we detected that myofibroblast Thy1 crosslinking mediates downregulation of genes promoting cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and reduces production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, while concurrently mediating the upregulation of genes known to foster inflammation and immunological functions. Chimeric Thy1-deficient mice with Thy1+ lymphocytes and Thy1− myofibroblasts showed fibrosis similar to wild-type mice and an increased number of CD4/CD25 regulatory T cells, with a concomitant decrease in inflammation. Lung myofibroblasts downregulate Thy1 expression to increase their proliferation but to diminish the in vivo inflammatory milieu. Inflammation is not essential for evolution of fibrosis as was previously stated. PMID:26300593

  8. Vaccine-induced protection from infection of mice by chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1, EcoHIV/NL4-3.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Volsky, David J; Potash, Mary Jane

    2007-12-17

    EcoHIV/NL4-3 is a chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that can productively infect mice. This study tests the utility of EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection to reveal protective immune responses to an HIV-1 vaccine. Immunocompetent mice were first immunized with VRC 4306 which encodes subtype B consensus sequences of gag, pol, and nef and then were infected by EcoHIV/NL4-3. Anti-Gag antibodies were sampled during immunization and infection. The extent of EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection in spleen cells and peritoneal macrophages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Although antibody titres were not significantly different in control and vaccinated groups, VRC 4306 immunization induced protective responses that significantly reduced virus burden in both lymphocyte and macrophage compartments. These results indicate that EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection can be controlled by HIV-1 vaccine-induced responses, introducing a small animal model to test vaccine efficacy against HIV-1 infection.

  9. Clinical significance of chimerism.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, Dianne

    2009-05-15

    Twins have been previously classified as either monozygotic or dizygotic. In recent years, fascinating, non-traditional mechanisms of twinning have been uncovered. We define chimerism versus mosaicism, touch on chimerism in the animal world, and explain timing of chimerism in humans. In addition, we discuss when to suspect chimerism in patients, and how to proceed with diagnostic evaluation and confirmation.

  10. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  11. Protective efficacy and pharmacokinetics of human/mouse chimeric anti-Stx1 and anti-Stx2 antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Carvalho, H M; Thuning-Roberson, Claire; O'Brien, A D

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the most frequent infectious cause of hemorrhagic colitis. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious sequela that may develop after STEC infection that can lead to renal failure and death in up to 10% of cases. STEC can produce one or more types of Stx, Stx1 and/or Stx2, and Stx1 and Stx2 are responsible for HUS-mediated kidney damage. We previously generated two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralize the toxicity of Stx1 or Stx2. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of human/mouse chimeric versions of those monoclonal antibodies, named cαStx1 and cαStx2. Mice given an otherwise lethal dose of Stx1 were protected from death when injected with cαStx1 either 1 h before or 1 h after toxin injection. Additionally, streptomycin-treated mice fed the mouse-lethal STEC strain B2F1 that produces the Stx2 variant Stx2d were protected when given a dose of 0.1 mg of cαStx2/kg of body weight administered up to 72 h post-oral bacterial challenge. Since many STEC strains produce both Stx1 and Stx2 and since either toxin may lead to the HUS, we also assessed the protective efficacy of the combined MAbs. We found that both antibodies were required to protect mice from the presence of both Stx1 and Stx2. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that cαStx1 and cαStx2 had serum half-lives (t1/2) of about 50 and 145 h, respectively. We propose that cαStx1 and cαStx2, both of which have been tested for safety in humans, could be used therapeutically for prevention or treatment early in the development of HUS. PMID:25716230

  12. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    DebRoy, Swati; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Hayes, C. Nelson; Akamatsu, Sakura; Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S.; Pohl, Ralf T.; Persiani, Stefano; Uprichard, Susan L.; et al

    2016-06-08

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. In this paper, to elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and human albuminmore » (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. Finally, the results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes.« less

  13. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

  14. Transmission of chimeric HIV by mating in conventional mice: prevention by pre-exposure antiretroviral therapy and reduced susceptibility during estrus.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Eran; Chao, Wei; He, Hongxia; Saini, Manisha; Daley, Eleen; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Bentsman, Galina; Ganz, Eric; Volsky, David J; Potash, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of transmission. We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. Here we investigated whether EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice transmit virus to females during coitus, and the sensitivity of this transmission to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the estrus state. Our general approach was to allow mating between EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice and uninfected females for 1-7 nights. At 1-6 weeks after mating, mice were euthanized and virus burdens were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of HIV RNA or DNA in peritoneal macrophages, inguinal lymph node cells, spleen cells or vas deferens, or by ELISA for antibodies to HIV Gag. We found that 70-100% of female mice mated to EcoHIV/NDK-infected males acquired infection. Pericoital treatment of females with either 2',3'-dideoxcytidine (ddC) or tenofovir largely prevented their EcoHIV/NDK infection by mating (P<0.05 and P<0.003, respectively). In males, T cells were dispensable for virus transmission. The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply (P=0.003) but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. We conclude that this system of EcoHIV/NDK transmission during mouse mating reproduces key features of heterosexual transmission of HIV in humans and can be used to investigate its biology and control.

  15. L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected Human T Cells Exhibit Specific and Efficient Antitumor Activity against Human Ovarian Cancer in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E; Ostberg, Julie R; Priceman, Saul J; Chang, Wen-Chung; Weng, Lihong; Lin, Paul; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Jensen, Michael C; Forman, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    New therapeutic modalities are needed for ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the impressive therapeutic potential of adoptive therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells to target hematological cancers, and emerging studies suggest a similar impact may be achieved for solid cancers. We sought determine whether genetically-modified T cells targeting the CE7-epitope of L1-CAM, a cell adhesion molecule aberrantly expressed in several cancers, have promise as an immunotherapy for ovarian cancer, first demonstrating that L1-CAM was highly over-expressed on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, primary ovarian tumor tissue specimens, and ascites-derived primary cancer cells. Human central memory derived T cells (TCM) were then genetically modified to express an anti-L1-CAM CAR (CE7R), which directed effector function upon tumor antigen stimulation as assessed by in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. We also found that CE7R+ T cells were able to target primary ovarian cancer cells. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CE7R+ TCM induced a significant regression of i.p. established SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors in mice, inhibited ascites formation, and conferred a significant survival advantage compared with control-treated animals. Taken together, these studies indicate that adoptive transfer of L1-CAM-specific CE7R+ T cells may offer a novel and effective immunotherapy strategy for advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:26761817

  16. Chimerism analysis following nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas; Watzinger, Franz

    2006-01-01

    Molecular monitoring of hematopoietic chimerism has become a routine diagnostic approach in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Chimerism testing permits the documentation and surveillance of engraftment and facilitates early detection of impending graft rejection. In patients transplanted for treatment of malignant hematological disorders, monitoring of chimerism can provide an early indication of incipient disease relapse. The investigation of chimerism has therefore become an indispensable tool for the management of patients during the posttransplant period. Growing use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, which is associated with prolonged duration of mixed hematopoietic chimerism, has further increased the clinical importance of chimerism analysis. At present, the most commonly used technical approaches to the investigation of chimerism include microsatellite analysis by polymerase chain reaction and, in the gender-mismatched transplant setting, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of sex chromosomes. The investigation of chimerism within specific leukocyte subsets isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow samples by flow-sorting or magnetic bead-based techniques provides more specific information on processes underlying the dynamics of donor/recipient chimerism. Moreover, cell subset-specific analysis permits the assessment of impending complications at a significantly higher sensitivity, thus providing a basis for earlier treatment decisions.

  17. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/β-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  18. Induction of tolerance through mixed chimerism.

    PubMed

    Sachs, David H; Kawai, Tatsuo; Sykes, Megan

    2014-01-01

    "Mixed chimerism" refers to a state in which the lymphohematopoietic system of the recipient of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells comprises a mixture of host and donor cells. This state is usually attained through either bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Although numerous treatment regimens have led to transplantation tolerance in mice, the induction of mixed chimerism is currently the only treatment modality that has been successfully extended to large animals and to the clinic. Here we describe and compare the use of mixed chimerism to establish transplantation tolerance in mice, pigs, monkeys, and in the clinic. We also attempt to correlate the mechanisms involved in achieving tolerance with the nature of the tolerance that has resulted in each case.

  19. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-15

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

  20. Protective Immunity Against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Lethal Challenge by Immunization with New Recombinant Chimeric HA2-M2e Fusion Protein in BALB/C Mice.

    PubMed

    Ameghi, Ali; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Baradaran, Behzad; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Aghaiypour, Khosrow

    2016-05-01

    Influenza is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease. The error prone RNA polymerase and segmented nature of the influenza A virus genome allow antigenic drift and shift, respectively. Therefore, most influenza vaccines are inefficient along time and against different viral subtypes. In this study, for the first time, protection properties of a new recombinant fusion of HA2 and M2e peptides originated from influenza virus A/Brisbane/59/2007-like (H1N1) in BALB/c mice model were investigated. After immunization of the BALB/c mice, the protection property of fusion peptide was determined by a neutralizing assay test. For further study, mice were lethal challenged by the (mouse adapted, A/PR8/34 [H1N1]) and heterologous (mouse adapted, A/Brisbane/10/2007 [H3N2]) influenza virus subtypes. Then, the lung viral titers, body weight, and survival rate of the immunized mice were monitored. The results showed that immunization by the M2e-HA2 recombinant fusion peptide provides strong protection against homologous challenge and an infirm protection against heterologous. These protections against homologous and heterologous influenza A virus challenges meant the universal nature of these recombinant peptides in an immunity manner against influenza A virus. However, more studies are needed to optimize this recombinant construction, and this experiment recommends HA2-M2e fusion peptide as a universal influenza A vaccine candidate. PMID:27058011

  1. Quo vadis chimerism?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although immunity in multicellular organisms is efficient in dealing with alien agents, it may fail for allogeneic chimerism. Natural chimerism is widely documented in nature, distributed in at least ten phyla of protists, invertebrates and plants, vertebrates and mammals, including humans; it is an important ecological/evolutionary tool manipulating metazoans' life history portraits. Instead of purging allogeneic nascent selfish cells, a ‘double edged sword’ chimerism emerges, displaying environmental dictated costs and benefits for the genotypes involved. Benefits include the development of synergistic complementation, the increase of genetic variability, the assurance of mate location, improved size-dependent ecological qualities (growth rates, reproduction, survivorship, competition, environmental tolerance) and more. Costs include the threat of somatic and germ cell parasitism, developmental instability, death, diseases, autoimmunity, sexual sterility and organ malformations, which develop as well in mammalian natural chimerism, including humans. Because of its importance, medical sciences should study and harness natural chimerism properties for clinical purposes. PMID:21547028

  2. Quo vadis chimerism?

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    Although immunity in multicellular organisms is efficient in dealing with alien agents, it may fail for allogeneic chimerism. Natural chimerism is widely documented in nature, distributed in at least ten phyla of protists, invertebrates and plants, vertebrates and mammals, including humans; it is an important ecological/evolutionary tool manipulating metazoans' life history portraits. Instead of purging allogeneic nascent selfish cells, a 'double edged sword' chimerism emerges, displaying environmental dictated costs and benefits for the genotypes involved. Benefits include the development of synergistic complementation, the increase of genetic variability, the assurance of mate location, improved size-dependent ecological qualities (growth rates, reproduction, survivorship, competition, environmental tolerance) and more. Costs include the threat of somatic and germ cell parasitism, developmental instability, death, diseases, autoimmunity, sexual sterility and organ malformations, which develop as well in mammalian natural chimerism, including humans. Because of its importance, medical sciences should study and harness natural chimerism properties for clinical purposes.

  3. A novel recombinant 6Aβ15-THc-C chimeric vaccine (rCV02) mitigates Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology, cognitive decline and synaptic loss in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Liu, Si; Wang, Hai-Chao; Shi, Dan-Yang; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Pei-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and cognition. Targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) may be currently the most promising immunotherapeutic strategy for AD. In this study, a recombinant chimeric 6Aβ15-THc-C immunogen was formulated with alum adjuvant as a novel Aβ B-cell epitope candidate vaccine (rCV02) for AD. We examined its efficacy in preventing the cognitive deficit and synaptic impairment in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Using a toxin-derived carrier protein, the rCV02 vaccine elicited robust Aβ-specific antibodies that markedly reduced AD-like pathology and improved behavioral performance in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Along with the behavioral improvement in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice, rCV02 significantly decreased calpain activation concurrent with reduced soluble Aβ or oligomeric forms of Aβ, probably by preventing dynamin 1 and PSD-95 degradation. Our data support the hypothesis that reducing Aβ levels in rCV02-immunized AD mice increases the levels of presynaptic dynamin 1 and postsynaptic PSD-95 allowing functional recovery of cognition. In conclusion, this novel and highly immunogenic rCV02 shows promise as a new candidate prophylactic vaccine for AD and may be useful for generating rapid and strong Aβ-specific antibodies in AD patients with pre-existing memory Th cells generated after immunization with conventional tetanus toxoid vaccine. PMID:27255752

  4. A novel recombinant 6Aβ15-THc-C chimeric vaccine (rCV02) mitigates Alzheimer's disease-like pathology, cognitive decline and synaptic loss in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Liu, Si; Wang, Hai-Chao; Shi, Dan-Yang; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Pei-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and cognition. Targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) may be currently the most promising immunotherapeutic strategy for AD. In this study, a recombinant chimeric 6Aβ15-THc-C immunogen was formulated with alum adjuvant as a novel Aβ B-cell epitope candidate vaccine (rCV02) for AD. We examined its efficacy in preventing the cognitive deficit and synaptic impairment in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Using a toxin-derived carrier protein, the rCV02 vaccine elicited robust Aβ-specific antibodies that markedly reduced AD-like pathology and improved behavioral performance in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Along with the behavioral improvement in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice, rCV02 significantly decreased calpain activation concurrent with reduced soluble Aβ or oligomeric forms of Aβ, probably by preventing dynamin 1 and PSD-95 degradation. Our data support the hypothesis that reducing Aβ levels in rCV02-immunized AD mice increases the levels of presynaptic dynamin 1 and postsynaptic PSD-95 allowing functional recovery of cognition. In conclusion, this novel and highly immunogenic rCV02 shows promise as a new candidate prophylactic vaccine for AD and may be useful for generating rapid and strong Aβ-specific antibodies in AD patients with pre-existing memory Th cells generated after immunization with conventional tetanus toxoid vaccine. PMID:27255752

  5. Increased gastrin gene expression provides a physiological advantage to mice under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Laval, Marie; Baldwin, Graham S; Shulkes, Arthur; Marshall, Kathryn M

    2015-01-15

    Hypoxia, or a low concentration of O2, is encountered in humans undertaking activities such as mountain climbing and scuba diving and is important pathophysiologically as a limiting factor in tumor growth. Although data on the interplay between hypoxia and gastrins are limited, gastrin expression is upregulated by hypoxia in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, and gastrins counterbalance hypoxia by stimulating angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine if higher concentrations of the gastrin precursor progastrin are protective against hypoxia in vivo. hGAS mice, which overexpress progastrin in the liver, and mice of the corresponding wild-type FVB/N strain were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. Iron status was assessed by measurement of serum iron parameters, real-time PCR for mRNAs encoding critical iron regulatory proteins, and Perls' stain and atomic absorption spectrometry for tissue iron concentrations. FVB/N mice lost weight at a faster rate and had higher sickness scores than hGAS mice exposed to hypoxia. Serum iron levels were lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice and decreased further when the animals were exposed to hypoxia. The concentration of iron in the liver was strikingly lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice. We conclude that increased circulating concentrations of progastrin provide a physiological advantage against systemic hypoxia in mice, possibly by increasing the availability of iron stores. This is the first report of an association between progastrin overexpression, hypoxia, and iron homeostasis.

  6. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  7. A Recombinant Chimeric Ad5/3 Vector Expressing a Multistage Plasmodium Antigen Induces Protective Immunity in Mice Using Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunization Regimens.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Singh, Balwan; Zhao, Chunxia; Makarova, Natalia; Dmitriev, Igor; Curiel, David T; Blackwell, Jerry; Moreno, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    An ideal malaria vaccine should target several stages of the parasite life cycle and induce antiparasite and antidisease immunity. We have reported a Plasmodium yoelii chimeric multistage recombinant protein (P. yoelii linear peptide chimera/recombinant modular chimera), engineered to express several autologous T cell epitopes and sequences derived from the circumsporozoite protein and the merozoite surface protein 1. This chimeric protein elicits protective immunity, mediated by CD4(+) T cells and neutralizing Abs. However, experimental evidence, from pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidates and irradiated sporozoites, has shown that CD8(+) T cells play a significant role in protection. Recombinant viral vectors have been used as a vaccine platform to elicit effective CD8(+) T cell responses. The human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 has been tested in malaria vaccine clinical trials with excellent safety profile. Nevertheless, a major concern for the use of Ad5 is the high prevalence of anti-vector neutralizing Abs in humans, hampering its immunogenicity. To minimize the impact of anti-vector pre-existing immunity, we developed a chimeric Ad5/3 vector in which the knob region of Ad5 was replaced with that of Ad3, conferring partial resistance to anti-Ad5 neutralizing Abs. Furthermore, we implemented heterologous Ad/protein immunization regimens that include a single immunization with recombinant Ad vectors. Our data show that immunization with the recombinant Ad5/3 vector induces protective efficacy indistinguishable from that elicited by Ad5. Our study also demonstrates that the dose of the Ad vectors has an impact on the memory profile and protective efficacy. The results support further studies with Ad5/3 for malaria vaccine development. PMID:27574299

  8. Investigation of drug-drug interactions caused by human pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2C subfamilies in chimeric mice with a humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Maki; Tahara, Harunobu; Inoue, Ryo; Kakuni, Masakazu; Tateno, Chise; Ushiki, Junko

    2012-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is one of the risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To date, the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction has been well studied. In addition to CYP3A4, the expression of CYP2C subfamily is also regulated by PXR, and the DDIs caused by the induction of CYP2C enzymes have been reported to have a major clinical impact. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether chimeric mice with a humanized liver (PXB mice) can be a suitable animal model for investigating the PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C subfamily, together with CYP3A4. We evaluated the inductive effect of rifampicin (RIF), a typical human PXR ligand, on the plasma exposure to the four P450 substrate drugs (triazolam/CYP3A4, pioglitazone/CYP2C8, (S)-warfarin/CYP2C9, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin/CYP2C19) by cassette dosing in PXB mice. The induction of several drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver was also examined by measuring the enzyme activity and mRNA expression levels. Significant reductions in the exposure to triazolam, pioglitazone, and (S)-(-)-mephenytoin, but not to (S)-warfarin, were observed. In contrast to the in vivo results, all the four P450 isoforms, including CYP2C9, were elevated by RIF treatment. The discrepancy in the (S)-warfarin results between in vivo and in vitro studies may be attributed to the relatively small contribution of CYP2C9 to (S)-warfarin elimination in the PXB mice used in this study. In summary, PXB mice are a useful animal model to examine DDIs caused by PXR-mediated induction of CYP2C and CYP3A4. PMID:22126990

  9. A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaolin; Pickens, Jennifer; Mousa, Jarrod J; Leser, George P; Lamb, Robert A; Crowe, James E; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. PMID:27224013

  10. A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaolin; Pickens, Jennifer; Mousa, Jarrod J.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Crowe, James E.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. PMID:27224013

  11. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and provides pulmonary restoration.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kengo; Ishigami, Akihito; Sato, Yasunori; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yuan, Yiming; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Tobino, Kazunori; Sato, Tadashi; Sekiya, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Maruyama, Naoki; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant and is essential for collagen synthesis. We investigated whether VC treatment prevents and cures smoke-induced emphysema in senescence marker protein-30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice, which cannot synthesize VC. Two smoke-exposure experiments using SMP30-KO mice were conducted. In the first one (a preventive study), 4-month-old mice received minimal VC (0.0375 g/l) [VC(L)] or physiologically sufficient VC (1.5 g/l) [VC(S)] and exposed to cigarette smoke or smoke-free air for 2 months. Pulmonary evaluations followed when the mice were 6 months of age. The second study began after the establishment of smoke-induced emphysema (a treatment study). These mice no longer underwent smoke exposure but received VC(S) or VC(L) treatment for 2 months. Morphometric analysis was performed, and measurements of oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the lungs were evaluated. Chronic smoke exposure caused emphysema (29.6% increases of mean linear intercepts [MLI] and 106.5% increases of destructive index compared with the air-only group) in 6-month-old SMP30-KO mice, and this emphysema closely resembled human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoke-induced emphysema persisted in the VC(L) group after smoking cessation, whereas VC treatment provided pulmonary restoration (18.5% decrease of MLI and 41.3% decrease of destructive index compared with VC(L) group). VC treatment diminished oxidative stress, increased collagen synthesis, and improved vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the lungs. Our results suggest that VC not only prevents smoke-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice but also restores emphysematous lungs. Therefore, VC may provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans.

  12. Increased gastrin gene expression provides a physiological advantage to mice under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Laval, Marie; Baldwin, Graham S; Shulkes, Arthur; Marshall, Kathryn M

    2015-01-15

    Hypoxia, or a low concentration of O2, is encountered in humans undertaking activities such as mountain climbing and scuba diving and is important pathophysiologically as a limiting factor in tumor growth. Although data on the interplay between hypoxia and gastrins are limited, gastrin expression is upregulated by hypoxia in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, and gastrins counterbalance hypoxia by stimulating angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine if higher concentrations of the gastrin precursor progastrin are protective against hypoxia in vivo. hGAS mice, which overexpress progastrin in the liver, and mice of the corresponding wild-type FVB/N strain were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. Iron status was assessed by measurement of serum iron parameters, real-time PCR for mRNAs encoding critical iron regulatory proteins, and Perls' stain and atomic absorption spectrometry for tissue iron concentrations. FVB/N mice lost weight at a faster rate and had higher sickness scores than hGAS mice exposed to hypoxia. Serum iron levels were lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice and decreased further when the animals were exposed to hypoxia. The concentration of iron in the liver was strikingly lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice. We conclude that increased circulating concentrations of progastrin provide a physiological advantage against systemic hypoxia in mice, possibly by increasing the availability of iron stores. This is the first report of an association between progastrin overexpression, hypoxia, and iron homeostasis. PMID:25394662

  13. Mouse-hamster chimeric prion protein (PrP) devoid of N-terminal residues 23-88 restores susceptibility to 22L prions, but not to RML prions in PrP-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Miyata, Hironori; Yano, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Morikazu; Muramatsu, Naomi; Das, Nandita Rani; Chida, Junji; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2014-01-01

    Prion infection induces conformational conversion of the normal prion protein PrPC, into the pathogenic isoform PrPSc, in prion diseases. It has been shown that PrP-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice transgenically reconstituted with a mouse-hamster chimeric PrP lacking N-terminal residues 23-88, or Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice, neither developed the disease nor accumulated MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains after inoculation with RML prions. In contrast, RML-inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice developed the disease with abundant accumulation of MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains. These results indicate that MHM2Δ23-88 itself might either lose or greatly reduce the converting capacity to MHM2ScΔ23-88, and that the co-expressing wild-type PrPC can stimulate the conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 to MHM2ScΔ23-88 in trans. In the present study, we confirmed that Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice remained resistant to RML prions for up to 730 days after inoculation. However, we found that Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice were susceptible to 22L prions, developing the disease with prolonged incubation times and accumulating MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains. We also found accelerated conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 into MHM2ScΔ23-88 in the brains of RML- and 22L-inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice. However, wild-type PrPSc accumulated less in the brains of these inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice, compared with RML- and 22L-inoculated Prnp 0/+ mice. These results show that MHM2Δ23-88 itself can convert into MHM2ScΔ23-88 without the help of the trans-acting PrPC, and that, irrespective of prion strains inoculated, the co-expressing wild-type PrPC stimulates the conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 into MHM2ScΔ23-88, but to the contrary, the co-expressing MHM2Δ23-88 disturbs the conversion of wild-type PrPC into PrPSc.

  14. Toward minimal conditioning protocols for allogeneic chimerism in tolerance resistant recipients.

    PubMed

    Al-Adra, David P; Anderson, Colin C

    2013-01-01

    Mixed chimerism is a promising approach toward generating donor-specific immunological tolerance. However, chimerism induction can be toxic; therefore, there is an effort to develop non-myeloablative, minimal intensity protocols that can generate chimerism without the toxic side effects. Recently, with the goal of creating a minimalistic chimerism induction protocol in the tolerance resistant non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, we identified pre-existing T cells as cells that resist fully allogeneic chimerism. With monoclonals targeting NOD T cells, we showed that long-term chimerism and tolerance toward donor islets could be established. However, this promising new protocol relied on the administration of a single dose of anti-CD40 ligand, which is not clinically applicable. In refining protocols to move even closer to clinical utility, we report here initial success at generating fully allogeneic mixed chimerism in NOD mice by adding cyclophosphamide to the conditioning regimen in place of anti-CD40 ligand antibodies.

  15. Affinity-tuned ErbB2 or EGFR chimeric antigen receptor T cells exhibit an increased therapeutic index against tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Shuguang; Fang, Chongyun; Yang, Shiyu; Olalere, Devvora; Pequignot, Edward C.; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Li, Na; Ramones, Melissa; Granda, Brian; Zhou, Li; Loew, Andreas; Young, Regina M.; June, Carl H.; Zhao, Yangbing

    2015-01-01

    Target-mediated toxicity is a major limitation in the development of chimeric antigen T cell receptors (CAR) for adoptive cell therapy of solid tumors. In this study, we developed a strategy to adjust the affinities of the scFv component of CAR to discriminate tumors overexpressing the target from normal tissues which express it at physiologic levels. A CAR-expressing T cell panel was generated with target antigen affinities varying over three orders of magnitude. High-affinity cells recognized target expressed at any level, including at levels in normal cells that were undetectable by flow cytometry. Affinity-tuned cells exhibited robust antitumor efficacy similar to high-affinity cells, but spared normal cells expressing physiologic target levels. The use of affinity-tuned scFvs offers a strategy to empower wider use of CAR T cells against validated targets widely overexpressed on solid tumors, including those considered undruggable by this approach. PMID:26330166

  16. The novel chimeric anti-NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) antibody ch.MK1 displays antitumor activity in SCID mice but does not activate complement-dependent cytolysis (CDC).

    PubMed

    Klehr, Martin; Koehl, Ulrike; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Tawadros, Samir; Fischer, Thomas; Schomäcker, Klaus; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Bochennek, Konrad; Jensen, Markus

    2009-06-01

    A monoclonal chimeric antibody ch.MK1 was generated by immunizing F004 mice expressing human instead of murine IgG1/kappa immunoglobulin constant regions. The novel antibody specifically binds cell surface-expressed human neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as shown by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry and cytospins. Functional analysis revealed nearly complete absence of complement-dependent cytolysis in ch.MK1 and in all other anti-NCAM antibodies tested for reference (UJ13a, ERIC1, 123C3, ch.5A2, B159), indicating an unexpected and group-specific property of anti-NCAM antibodies. As a most plausible mechanism, posttranslational modification of NCAM by complement-inhibiting polysialic acid is discussed. The antibody ch.MK1 demonstrated significant in vivo activity against NCAM-positive neuroblastoma in SCID mice in presence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell. In absence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell no distinct antitumor activity of the antibody alone was observed. In ch.MK1 the cellular component of the immune system seems to be the dominant effector mechanism, whereas complement-dependent cytolysis seems not to be necessarily required for antitumor activity. These observations help us to understand immunotherapeutic mechanisms of native anti-NCAM antibodies and may additionally contribute to the understanding of results of currently ongoing clinical studies with conjugated anti-NCAM antibodies.

  17. Distinct and separable roles of the complement system in factor H-deficient bone marrow chimeric mice with immune complex disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Aneziokoro, O G B; Chang, Anthony; Hack, Bradley K; Markaryan, Adam; Jacob, Alexander; Luo, Roger; Thirman, Michael; Haas, Mark; Quigg, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Plasma complement factor H (Cfh) is a potent complement regulator, whereas Cfh on the surface of rodent platelets is responsible for immune complex processing. For dissection between the two, bone marrow chimeras between Cfh-deficient (Cfh(-/-)) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were created. Platelet Cfh protein was tracked with the Cfh status of the bone marrow donor, indicating that platelet Cfh is of intrinsic origin. In an active model of immune complex disease, Cfh(-/-) mice that were reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow had levels of platelet-associated immune complexes comparable to those of wild-type mice and were protected against the excessive glomerular deposition of immune complexes seen in Cfh(-/-) mice, yet these mice still developed glomerular inflammation. In contrast, wild-type mice with Cfh(-/-) bone marrow had reduced platelet-associated immune complexes and extensive glomerular deposition of complement-activating immune complexes, but they did not develop glomerular pathology. The large quantities of glomerular C3 in wild-type mice with Cfh(-/-) bone marrow were in the form of iC3b and C3dg, whereas active C3b remained in Cfh(-/-) recipients of wild-type bone marrow. These data show that plasma Cfh limits complement activation in the circulation and other accessible sites such as the glomerulus, whereas platelet Cfh is responsible for immune complex processing.

  18. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  19. A chimeric human-mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicholas A; Wu, Lai-Chu; Bruss, Michael; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Hampton, Jeffrey; Bolon, Brad; Jarjour, Wael N

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS), the pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive and an ideal model for early drug discovery is not yet available. To establish a humanized mouse model of SjS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers or patients with SjS were transferred into immunodeficient NOD-scid IL-2rγ(null) mouse recipients to produce chimeric mice. While no difference was observed in the distribution of cells, chimeric mice transferred with PBMCs from SjS patients produced enhanced cytokine levels, most significantly IFN-γ and IL-10. Histological examination revealed enhanced inflammatory responses in the lacrimal and salivary glands of SjS chimeras, as measured by digital image analysis and blinded histopathological scoring. Infiltrates were primarily CD4+, with minimal detection of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells. These results demonstrate a novel chimeric mouse model of human SjS that provides a unique in vivo environment to test experimental therapeutics and investigate T-cell disease pathology.

  20. A Human-Mouse Chimeric Model of Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianmin; Zhu, Xuehai; George, M. Patricia; Myerburg, Michael M.; Stoner, Michael W.; Pilewski, Joseph W.; Duncan, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis is a frequent, morbid, and usually refractory complication of lung transplantation. Mechanistic study of obliterative bronchiolitis would be aided by development of a relevant model that uses human immune effector cells and airway targets. Our objective was to develop a murine chimera model that mimics obliterative bronchiolitis of lung allograft recipients in human airways in vivo. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were adoptively transferred to immunodeficient mice lacking activity of T, B, and NK cells, with and without concurrent transplantations of human small airways dissected from allogeneic cadaveric lungs. Chimerism with human T cells occurred in the majority of recipient animals. The chimeric T cells became highly activated, rapidly infiltrated into the small human airway grafts, and caused obliterative bronchiolitis. In contrast, airways implanted into control mice that did not also receive human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transfers remained intact. In vitro proliferation assays indicated that the chimeric T cells had enhanced specific proliferative responses to donor airway alloantigens. This model confirms the critical role of T cells in development of obliterative bronchiolitis among human lung allograft recipients and provides a novel and easily implemented mechanism for detailed, reductionist in vivo studies of human T-cell responses to allogeneic human small airways. PMID:21801868

  1. Chimerism in monochorionic dizygotic twins: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kristen; Chmait, Ramen H; Vanderbilt, Douglas; Wu, Samuel; Randolph, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Chimerism occurs when an organism contains cells derived from more than one distinct zygote. We focus on monochorionic dizygotic twin blood chimerism, and particularly twin-twin transfusion syndrome in such pregnancies. For years, researchers have understood chimerism to be a common phenomenon in cattle. Although, this review will not delve deeply into animal chimerism, an understanding of chimerism in the animal world can provide clues regarding health implications for human chimeras. This report serves two purposes: an update and assessment of the twins we reported previously in 2010 [Assaf et al., 2010] and a review on dizygotic monochorionic chimeric twins. First, our updated assessment of the twins shows no identifiable regression of Müllerian sex derivatives in the female, and normal neurodevelopment was documented in both. Our research has suggested several key points; one that blood chimerism persists from fetal life to at least age two years. Second, chimerism in humans is not as rare as previously thought, although it has been studied only recently. Third, assisted reproductive technologies appear to increase the risk of monochorionic dizygotic twin pregnancies.

  2. Divalent flagellin immunotherapy provides homologous and heterologous protection in experimental urinary tract infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy employs selected prokaryotic elements which are specially targeted because of their designated important role in the pathogenicity of the microbes. Among these is the flagellin of P. aeruginosa, which plays a major role in establishment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In this study we envisage divalent flagellin (a combination of flagellin subtypes, 'a' and 'b') as an immunotherapeutic candidate against UTIs caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Flagellin proteins were isolated from P. aeruginosa strains and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Their efficacy was checked in an ascending model of UTI. Divalent flagellin ('a' and 'b') when given together (intraperitoneally, i.p.) to female LACA mice at a concentration of 5 μg each, protected mice against pyelonephritis due to P. aeruginosa strains with no bacterial load at peak day of infection. Tissue destruction was minimum, as assessed by MDA levels and renal histopathology. Divalent flagellin immunization also drastically reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF α and IL-1β) in renal homogenates as determined by ELISA. It also prevented UTI caused by heterologous strain Escherichia coli. Antibodies against both flagellin proteins were assessed by ELISA. Passive immunization protected mice against UTI induced by either of the strains, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. These results confirmed homologous and heterologous protection provided by divalent flagellin. PMID:26655680

  3. Garlic provides protection to mice heart against isoproterenol-induced oxidative damage: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Padiya, Raju; Karnewar, Santosh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Agawane, Sachin B; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-06-30

    Garlic has been widely recognized as a cardioprotective agent. However, the molecular mechanism of its cardioprotective effects is not well established. Here we hypothesized that aqueous garlic homogenate may mediate cardioprotection via nitric oxide (NO). Mice were fed with saline and aqueous garlic homogenate (250 and 500 mgkg(-1)day(-1) orally) for 30 days. In another set of experiment, mice were pre-treated with saline, aqueous garlic homogenate (AGH) (250 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 30 days), and AGH (30 days) along with L-NAME (20 mgkg(-1)day(-1) i.p. for last 7 days) before inducing acute myocardial infarction by isoproterenol (s.c. injection of isoproterenol 150 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 2 days) and sacrificed after 48 h. Dose dependent increase in serum NO level was observed after garlic 250 and 500 mgkg(-1) dose feeding. While no change in serum SGPT and SGOT level, a significant decrease in serum LDH level was observed after garlic feeding. Garlic-induced NO formation was further confirmed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Administration of isoproterenol caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants i.e., myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx activity, and mitochondrial enzyme activities like citrate synthase and β hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase. All those deleterious cardiac changes induced by isoproterenol were significantly attenuated by garlic homogenate. However this beneficial effect of garlic was blunted when garlic was administered with L-NAME, a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Further, a significant increase in myocardial TBARS and decrease in total antioxidant activity was observed in L-NAME treated group compared to isoproterenol treated group. Administration of L-NAME in mice from control group lowered serum and cardiac NO levels without any change of oxidative stress parameters. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence that garlic homogenate is protective in myocardial infarction via NO-signaling pathway in mice.

  4. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Envelope Protein of Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue 1 Vaccine Virus Reduces Neurovirulence for Suckling Mice and Viremia/Viscerotropism for Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Guirakhoo, F.; Zhang, Z.; Myers, G.; Johnson, B. W.; Pugachev, K.; Nichols, R.; Brown, N.; Levenbook, I.; Draper, K.; Cyrek, S.; Lang, J.; Fournier, C.; Barrere, B.; Delagrave, S.; Monath, T. P.

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric yellow fever-dengue 1 (ChimeriVax-DEN1) virus was produced by the transfection of Vero cells with chimeric in vitro RNA transcripts. The cell culture supernatant was subjected to plaque purification for the identification of a vaccine candidate without mutations. Of 10 plaque-purified clones, 1 containing no mutation (clone J) was selected for production of the vaccine virus. During subsequent cell culture passaging of this clone for vaccine production, a single amino acid substitution (K to R) occurred in the envelope (E) protein at residue 204 (E204) (F. Guirakhoo, K. Pugachev, Z. Zhang, G. Myers, I. Levenbook, K. Draper, J. Lang, S. Ocran, F. Mitchell, M. Parsons, N. Brown, S. Brandler, C. Fournier, B. Barrere, F. Rizvi, A. Travassos, R. Nichols, D. Trent, and T. Monath, J. Virol. 78:4761-4775, 2004). The same mutation was observed in another clone (clone E). This mutation attenuated the virus in 4-day-old suckling mice inoculated by the intracerebral (i.c.) route and led to reduced viremia in monkeys inoculated by the subcutaneous or i.c. route. The histopathology scores of lesions in the brain tissue of monkeys inoculated with either the E204K or E204R virus were reduced compared to those for monkeys inoculated with the reference virus, a commercial yellow fever 17D vaccine (YF-VAX). Both viruses grew to significantly lower titers than YF-VAX in HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line. After intrathoracic inoculation into mosquitoes, both viruses grew to a similar level as YF-VAX, which was significantly lower than that of their wild-type DEN1 parent virus. A comparison of the E-protein structures of nonmutant and mutant viruses suggested the appearance of new intramolecular bonds between residues 204R, 261H, and 257E in the mutant virus. These changes may be responsible for virus attenuation through a change in the pH threshold for virus envelope fusion with the host cell membrane. PMID:15331733

  5. Insights into wild-type and mutant p53 functions provided by genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Donehower, Lawrence A

    2014-06-01

    Recent whole-exome sequencing studies of numerous human cancers have now conclusively shown that the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Despite extensive studies of the TP53 gene and its encoded protein (p53), our understanding of how TP53 mutations contribute to cancer initiation and progression remain incomplete. Genetically engineered mice with germline or inducible Trp53 somatic mutations have provided important insights into the mechanisms by which different types of p53 mutation influence cancer development. Trp53 germline mutations that alter specific p53 structural domains or posttranslation modification sites have benefitted our understanding of wild-type p53 functions in a whole organism context. Moreover, genetic approaches to reestablish functional wild-type p53 to p53-deficient tissues and tumors have increased our understanding of the therapeutic potential of restoring functional p53 signaling to cancers. This review outlines many of the key insights provided by the various categories of Trp53 mutant mice that have been generated by multiple genetic engineering approaches.

  6. Soleus muscles of SAMP8 mice provide an accelerated model of skeletal muscle senescence.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Eijnde, Bert O; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Animal models are valuable research tools towards effective prevention of sarcopenia and towards a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging. We investigated whether senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains provide valid models for skeletal muscle aging studies. Male senescence-prone mice SAMP6 and SAMP8 were studied at age 10, 25 and 60 weeks and compared with senescence-resistant strain, SAMR1. Soleus and EDL muscles were tested for in vitro contractile properties, phosphocreatine content, muscle mass and fiber-type distribution. Declined muscle mass and contractility were observed at 60 weeks, the differences being more pronounced in SAMP8 than SAMP6 and more pronounced in soleus than EDL. Likewise, age-related decreases in muscle phosphocreatine content and type-II fiber size were most pronounced in SAMP8 soleus. In conclusion, typical features of muscular senescence occur at relatively young age in SAMP8 and nearly twice as fast as compared with other models. We suggest that soleus muscles of SAMP8 mice provide a cost-effective model for muscular aging studies. PMID:16023814

  7. Chimeric Measles Viruses with a Foreign Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Spielhofer, Pius; Bächi, Thomas; Fehr, Thomas; Christiansen, Gudrun; Cattaneo, Roberto; Kaelin, Karin; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    1998-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are both members of the Mononegavirales but are only distantly related. We generated two genetically stable chimeric viruses. In MGV, the reading frames of the MV envelope glycoproteins H and F were substituted by a single reading frame encoding the VSV G glycoprotein; MG/FV is similar but encodes a G/F hybrid in which the VSV G cytoplasmic tail was replaced by that of MV F. In contrast to MG/FV, MGV virions do not contain the MV matrix (M) protein. This demonstrates that virus assembly is possible in the absence of M; conversely, the cytoplasmic domain of F allows incorporation of M and enhances assembly. The formation of chimeric viruses was substantially delayed and the titers obtained were reduced about 50-fold in comparison to standard MV. In the novel chimeras, transcription and replication are mediated by the MV ribonucleoproteins but the envelope glycoproteins dictate the host range. Mice immunized with the chimeric viruses were protected against lethal doses of wild-type VSV. These findings suggest that it is feasible to construct MV variants bearing a variety of different envelopes for use as vaccines or for gene therapeutic purposes. PMID:9499071

  8. Tests in mice of a dengue vaccine candidate made of chimeric Junin virus-like particles and conserved dengue virus envelope sequences.

    PubMed

    Mareze, Vania Aparecida; Borio, Cristina Silvia; Bilen, Marcos F; Fleith, Renata; Mirazo, Santiago; Mansur, Daniel Santos; Arbiza, Juan; Lozano, Mario Enrique; Bruña-Romero, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Two new vaccine candidates against dengue virus (DENV) infection were generated by fusing the coding sequences of the self-budding Z protein from Junin virus (Z-JUNV) to those of two cryptic peptides (Z/DENV-P1 and Z/DENV-P2) conserved on the envelope protein of all serotypes of DENV. The capacity of these chimeras to generate virus-like particles (VLPs) and to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies in mice was determined. First, recombinant proteins that displayed reactivity with a Z-JUNV-specific serum by immunofluorescence were detected in HEK-293 cells transfected with each of the two plasmids and VLP formation was also observed by transmission electron microscopy. Next, we determined the presence of antibodies against the envelope peptides of DENV in the sera of immunized C57BL/6 mice. Results showed that those animals that received Z/DENV-P2 DNA coding sequences followed by a boost with DENV-P2 synthetic peptides elicited significant specific antibody titers (≥6.400). Finally, DENV plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) were performed. Although no significant protective effect was observed when using sera of Z/DENV-P1-immunized animals, antibodies raised against vaccine candidate Z/DENV-P2 (diluted 1:320) were able to reduce in over 50 % the number of viral plaques generated by infectious DENV particles. This reduction was comparable to that of the 4G2 DENV-specific monoclonal cross-reactive (all serotypes) neutralizing antibody. We conclude that Z-JUNV-VLP is a valid carrier to induce antibody-mediated immune responses in mice and that Z/DENV-P2 is not only immunogenic but also protective in vitro against infection of cells with DENV, deserving further studies. On the other side, DENV's fusion peptide-derived chimera Z/DENV-P1 did not display similar protective properties.

  9. Stable mixed chimerism and tolerance to human organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Strober, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Tolerance to combined kidney and hematopoietic cell transplant has been achieved in humans after establishment of mixed chimerism allowing for the withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs. The seminal contributions of Ray Owen provided the scientific basis for the human protocol.

  10. Electromagnetic treatment to old Alzheimer's mice reverses β-amyloid deposition, modifies cerebral blood flow, and provides selected cognitive benefit.

    PubMed

    Arendash, Gary W; Mori, Takashi; Dorsey, Maggie; Gonzalez, Rich; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated physiologic and cognitive effects of "long-term" electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in humans or animals. Our recent studies have provided initial insight into the long-term impact of adulthood EMF exposure (GSM, pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.25-1.05 W/kg) by showing 6+ months of daily EMF treatment protects against or reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's transgenic (Tg) mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. Mechanistically, EMF-induced cognitive benefits involve suppression of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation/deposition in Tg mice and brain mitochondrial enhancement in both Tg and normal mice. The present study extends this work by showing that daily EMF treatment given to very old (21-27 month) Tg mice over a 2-month period reverses their very advanced brain Aβ aggregation/deposition. These very old Tg mice and their normal littermates together showed an increase in general memory function in the Y-maze task, although not in more complex tasks. Measurement of both body and brain temperature at intervals during the 2-month EMF treatment, as well as in a separate group of Tg mice during a 12-day treatment period, revealed no appreciable increases in brain temperature (and no/slight increases in body temperature) during EMF "ON" periods. Thus, the neuropathologic/cognitive benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. Finally, regional cerebral blood flow in cerebral cortex was determined to be reduced in both Tg and normal mice after 2 months of EMF treatment, most probably through cerebrovascular constriction induced by freed/disaggregated Aβ (Tg mice) and slight body hyperthermia during "ON" periods. These results demonstrate that long-term EMF treatment can provide general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer's Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Aβ neuropathology in Tg mice without brain heating. Results further underscore the potential for EMF treatment

  11. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  12. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  13. Facilitating cells: Translation of hematopoietic chimerism to achieve clinical tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ildstad, Suzanne T; Leventhal, Joseph; Wen, Yujie; Yolcu, Esma

    2015-04-01

    For over 50 y the association between hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance has been recognized. This originated with the brilliant observation by Dr. Ray Owen that freemartin cattle twins that shared a common placental blood supply were red blood cell chimeras, which led to the discovery that hematopoietic chimerism resulted in actively acquired tolerance. This was first confirmed in neonatal mice by Medawar et al. and subsequently in adult rodents. Fifty years later this concept has been successfully translated to solid organ transplant recipients in the clinic. The field is new, but cell-based therapies are being used with increasing frequency to induce tolerance and immunomodulation. The future is bright. This review focuses on chimerism and tolerance: past, present and prospects for the future.

  14. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    PubMed

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  15. Multifunctional PEG Retinylamine Conjugate Provides Prolonged Protection against Retinal Degeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) retinylamine (Ret-NH2) conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret with a glycine-phenylalanine-leucine (GFL) spacer was synthesized for controlled oral delivery of Ret-NH2 to treat retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The peptide spacer was introduced for sustained release of the drug by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetics experiments showed that the PEG conjugate could control the sustained drug release after oral administration and had much lower nonspecific liver drug accumulation than the free drug in wild-type female C57BL mice. In the mean time, the conjugate maintained the same concentration of Ret-NH2 in the eye as the free drug. Also, PEG-GFL-NH-Ret at a Ret-NH2 equivalent dose of 25 mg/kg produced complete protection of Abca4–/–Rdh8–/– mouse retinas against light-induced retinal degeneration for 3 days after oral administration, as revealed by OCT retina imaging, whereas free Ret-NH2 did not provide any protection under identical conditions. The polymer conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret has great potential for controlled delivery of Ret-NH2 to the eye for effective protection against retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25390360

  16. Multifunctional PEG retinylamine conjugate provides prolonged protection against retinal degeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanping; Wu, Xueming; Ayat, Nadia; Maeda, Akiko; Gao, Song-Qi; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2014-12-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) retinylamine (Ret-NH2) conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret with a glycine-phenylalanine-leucine (GFL) spacer was synthesized for controlled oral delivery of Ret-NH2 to treat retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The peptide spacer was introduced for sustained release of the drug by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetics experiments showed that the PEG conjugate could control the sustained drug release after oral administration and had much lower nonspecific liver drug accumulation than the free drug in wild-type female C57BL mice. In the mean time, the conjugate maintained the same concentration of Ret-NH2 in the eye as the free drug. Also, PEG-GFL-NH-Ret at a Ret-NH2 equivalent dose of 25 mg/kg produced complete protection of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mouse retinas against light-induced retinal degeneration for 3 days after oral administration, as revealed by OCT retina imaging, whereas free Ret-NH2 did not provide any protection under identical conditions. The polymer conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret has great potential for controlled delivery of Ret-NH2 to the eye for effective protection against retinal degenerative diseases.

  17. Centromere strength provides the cell biological basis for meiotic drive and karyotype evolution in mice.

    PubMed

    Chmátal, Lukáš; Gabriel, Sofia I; Mitsainas, George P; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Ventura, Jacint; Searle, Jeremy B; Schultz, Richard M; Lampson, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian karyotypes (number and structure of chromosomes) can vary dramatically over short evolutionary time frames. There are examples of massive karyotype conversion, from mostly telocentric (centromere terminal) to mostly metacentric (centromere internal), in 10(2)-10(5) years. These changes typically reflect rapid fixation of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, a common chromosomal rearrangement that joins two telocentric chromosomes at their centromeres to create one metacentric. Fixation of Rb fusions can be explained by meiotic drive: biased chromosome segregation during female meiosis in violation of Mendel's first law. However, there is no mechanistic explanation of why fusions would preferentially segregate to the egg in some populations, leading to fixation and karyotype change, while other populations preferentially eliminate the fusions and maintain a telocentric karyotype. Here we show, using both laboratory models and wild mice, that differences in centromere strength predict the direction of drive. Stronger centromeres, manifested by increased kinetochore protein levels and altered interactions with spindle microtubules, are preferentially retained in the egg. We find that fusions preferentially segregate to the polar body in laboratory mouse strains when the fusion centromeres are weaker than those of telocentrics. Conversely, fusion centromeres are stronger relative to telocentrics in natural house mouse populations that have changed karyotype by accumulating metacentric fusions. Our findings suggest that natural variation in centromere strength explains how the direction of drive can switch between populations. They also provide a cell biological basis of centromere drive and karyotype evolution.

  18. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I.; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2007-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice. PMID:17283342

  19. The EuroChimerism concept for a standardized approach to chimerism analysis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lion, T; Watzinger, F; Preuner, S; Kreyenberg, H; Tilanus, M; de Weger, R; van Loon, J; de Vries, L; Cavé, H; Acquaviva, C; Lawler, M; Crampe, M; Serra, A; Saglio, B; Colnaghi, F; Biondi, A; van Dongen, J J M; van der Burg, M; Gonzalez, M; Alcoceba, M; Barbany, G; Hermanson, M; Roosnek, E; Steward, C; Harvey, J; Frommlet, F; Bader, P

    2012-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is becoming an increasingly important approach to treatment of different malignant and non-malignant disorders. There is thus growing demand for diagnostic assays permitting the surveillance of donor/recipient chimerism posttransplant. Current techniques are heterogeneous, rendering uniform evaluation and comparison of diagnostic results between centers difficult. Leading laboratories from 10 European countries have therefore performed a collaborative study supported by a European grant, the EuroChimerism Concerted Action, with the aim to develop a standardized diagnostic methodology for the detection and monitoring of chimerism in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Following extensive analysis of a large set of microsatellite/short tandem repeat (STR) loci, the EuroChimerism (EUC) panel comprising 13 STR markers was established with the aim to optimally meet the specific requirements of quantitative chimerism analysis. Based on highly stringent selection criteria, the EUC panel provides multiple informative markers in any transplant setting. The standardized STR-PCR tests permit detection of donor- or recipient-derived cells at a sensitivity ranging between 0.8 and 1.6%. Moreover, the EUC assay facilitates accurate and reproducible quantification of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells. Wide use of the European-harmonized protocol for chimerism analysis presented will provide a basis for optimal diagnostic support and timely treatment decisions.

  20. Analyzing cell fusion events within the central nervous system using bone marrow chimerism.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    It has emerged that cells which typically reside in the bone marrow have the capacity to cross the blood brain barrier and contribute genetic material to a range of neuronal cell types within the central nervous system. One such mechanism to account for this phenomenon is cellular fusion, occurring between migrating bone marrow-derived stem cells and neuronal cells in-situ. Biologically, the significance as to why cells from distinct lineages fuse with cells of the central nervous system is, as yet, unclear. Growing evidence however suggests that these cell fusion events could provide an efficient means of rescuing the highly complex and differentiated neuronal cell types that cannot be replaced in adulthood. To facilitate further understanding of cell fusion within the central nervous system, we describe here a technique to establish chimeric mice that are stably reconstituted with green fluorescent protein expressing sex-mismatched bone marrow. These chimeric mice are known to represent an excellent model for studying bone marrow cell migration and infiltration throughout the body, while in parallel, as will be described here, also provide a means to neatly analyze both bone marrow-derived cell fusion and trans-differentiation events within the central nervous system.

  1. T-and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset.

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, G D; Kateley, J R; Gengozian, N

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vasular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields greater than 95 per cent T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yeilds greater than 95 per cent B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens. PMID:139360

  2. Huperzine A Provides Robust and Sustained Protection against Induced Seizures in Scn1a Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Dutton, Stacey B. B.; Collins, Stephen D.; Schachter, Steven; Escayg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    De novo loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) SCN1A (encoding Nav1.1) are the main cause of Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic early-life encephalopathy associated with prolonged and recurrent early-life febrile seizures (FSs), refractory afebrile epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and a 15–20% mortality rate. SCN1A mutations also lead to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), which is an inherited disorder characterized by early-life FSs and the development of a range of adult epilepsy subtypes. Current antiepileptic drugs often fail to protect against the severe seizures and behavioral and cognitive deficits found in patients with SCN1A mutations. To address the need for more efficacious treatments for SCN1A-derived epilepsies, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A, a naturally occurring reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In CF1 mice, Hup A (0.56 or 1 mg/kg) was found to confer protection against 6 Hz-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. Robust protection against 6 Hz-, MES-, and hyperthermia-induced seizures was also achieved following Hup A administration in mouse models of DS (Scn1a+/−) and GEFS+ (Scn1aRH/+). Furthermore, Hup A-mediated seizure protection was sustained during 3 weeks of daily injections in Scn1aRH/+ mutants. Finally, we determined that muscarinic and GABAA receptors play a role in Hup A-mediated seizure protection. These findings indicate that Hup A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy. PMID:27799911

  3. Detection of impending graft rejection and relapse by lineage-specific chimerism analysis.

    PubMed

    Lion, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Molecular surveillance of hematopoietic chimerism has become part of the routine diagnostic program in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Chimerism testing permits early prediction and documentation of successful engraftment, and facilitates early detection of impending graft rejection. In patients transplanted for treatment of malignant hematological disorders, monitoring of chimerism can provide an early indication of incipient disease relapse. The investigation of chimerism has therefore become an indispensable tool for the management of patients during the posttransplant period. Growing use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, which is associated with prolonged duration of mixed hematopoietic chimerism, has further increased the clinical importance of chimerism analysis. At present, the most commonly used technical approach to the investigation of chimerism is microsatellite analysis by PCR. The investigation of chimerism within specific leukocyte subsets isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow samples by flow-sorting or magnetic beads-based techniques provides more specific information on processes underlying the dynamics of donor/recipient chimerism. Moreover, cell subset-specific analysis permits the assessment of impending complications at a significantly higher sensitivity, thus providing a basis for earlier treatment decisions.

  4. Post-transplant monitoring of chimerism by lineage-specific analysis.

    PubMed

    Preuner, Sandra; Lion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Molecular surveillance of hematopoietic chimerism is an important part of the routine diagnostic program in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Chimerism testing permits early prediction and documentation of successful engraftment and facilitates early risk assessment of impending graft rejection. In patients transplanted for treatment of malignant hematologic disorders, monitoring of chimerism can provide an early indication of incipient disease relapse. The investigation of chimerism has therefore become an indispensable tool for the management of patients during the post-transplant period. Increasing use of reduced-intensity conditioning, which is associated with prolonged duration of mixed hematopoietic chimerism, has further increased the clinical importance of chimerism analysis. At present, the most commonly used technical approach to the investigation of chimerism is microsatellite analysis by polymerase chain reaction. The investigation of chimerism within specific leukocyte subsets isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow samples by flow sorting- or magnetic bead-based techniques provides more specific information on processes underlying the dynamics of donor/recipient chimerism. Moreover, cell subset-specific analysis permits the assessment of impending complications at a significantly higher sensitivity, thus providing a basis for earlier treatment decisions.

  5. Mixed chimerism and permanent specific transplantation tolerance induced by a nonlethal preparative regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Sharabi, Y.; Sachs, D.H.

    1989-02-01

    The use of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a means of inducing donor-specific tolerance across MHC barriers could provide an immunologically specific conditioning regimen for organ transplantation. However, a major limitation to this approach is the toxicity of whole body irradiation as currently used to abrogate host resistance and permit marrow engraftment. The present study describes methodology for abrogating host resistance and permitting marrow engraftment without lethal irradiation. Our preparative protocol involves administration of anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAbs in vivo, 300-rad WBI, 700-rad thymic irradiation, and unmanipulated fully MHC-disparate bone marrow. B10 mice prepared by this regimen developed stable mixed lymphohematopoetic chimerism without any clinical evidence of graft-vs.-host disease. Engraftment was accompanied by induction of specific tolerance to donor skin grafts (B10.D2), while third-party skin grafts (B10.BR) were promptly rejected. Mice treated with the complete regimen without bone marrow transplantation appeared healthy and enjoyed long-term survival. This study therefore demonstrates that stable mixed chimerism with donor-specific tolerance can be induced across an MHC barrier after a nonlethal preparative regimen, without clinical GVHD and without the risk of aplasia.

  6. Molecular chimerism in IgE-mediated allergy: B-and T-cell tolerance toward highly immunogenic exogenous antigens.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment currently available for IgE-mediated allergy and preventive strategies are lacking altogether. We have recently reported that molecular chimerism induces durable tolerance in experimental models of allergy, thus potentially providing a new approach for the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases. Molecular chimerism is a gene-therapy approach for tolerance induction toward defined disease-causing antigens. In proof-of-concept studies, we introduced a clinically relevant grass pollen allergen into hematopoietic stem cells and transplanted those modified cells into preconditioned syngeneic mice. Long-lasting and robust tolerance toward the allergen was achieved. In our most recent studies published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy we demonstrated that milder, non-myeloablative conditioning is sufficient to induce tolerance. Our results revealed that, in contrast to other rodent models of chimerism, persistent microchimerism suffices to induce lasting tolerance at the T cell, B cell and effector cell levels in IgE-mediated allergy. This article addendum provides a summary of the recent paper and its implications.

  7. Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 activation shortens erythrocyte half-life and provides malaria resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hortle, Elinor; Nijagal, Brunda; Bauer, Denis C; Jensen, Lora M; Ahn, Seong Beom; Cockburn, Ian A; Lampkin, Shelley; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2016-09-01

    The factors that determine red blood cell (RBC) lifespan and the rate of RBC aging have not been fully elucidated. In several genetic conditions, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and G6PD deficiency, erythrocyte lifespan is significantly shortened. Many of these diseases are also associated with protection from severe malaria, suggesting a role for accelerated RBC senescence and clearance in malaria resistance. Here, we report a novel, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutation that causes a gain of function in adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD3). Mice carrying the mutation exhibit rapid RBC turnover, with increased erythropoiesis, dramatically shortened RBC lifespan, and signs of increased RBC senescence/eryptosis, suggesting a key role for AMPD3 in determining RBC half-life. Mice were also found to be resistant to infection with the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi. We propose that resistance to P. chabaudi is mediated by increased RBC turnover and higher rates of erythropoiesis during infection. PMID:27465915

  8. Chimeric enzymes with improved cellulase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qi; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E

    2015-03-31

    Nucleic acid molecules encoding chimeric cellulase polypeptides that exhibit improved cellulase activities are disclosed herein. The chimeric cellulase polypeptides encoded by these nucleic acids and methods to produce the cellulases are also described, along with methods of using chimeric cellulases for the conversion of cellulose to sugars such as glucose.

  9. Abeta-specific Th2 cells provide cognitive and pathological benefits to Alzheimer's mice without infiltrating the CNS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Arendash, Gary W; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Lin, Xiaoyang; Ethell, Douglas W

    2009-04-01

    We have found that a small number of purified Th2-biased Abeta-specific T cells are sufficient to provide profound cognitive and pathological benefits in an APP+PS1 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Six weeks after receiving T cell infusions, cognitively-impaired mice performed significantly better in working memory tasks, which correlated with higher plasma levels of soluble Abeta. Pathological analysis of the hippocampus revealed a 30% decrease of plaque-associated microglia and less vascular amyloidosis in T cell treated mice. The infusion of Abeta-specific Th2 cells also reduced plasma levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4, which are elevated in untreated APP+PS1 mice. No significant immune cell infiltration and no anti-Abeta antibody titers occurred in the T cell treated mice. These results demonstrate that Abeta-specific Th2 cells are sufficient to reverse cognitive impairment and provide multiple pathological benefits in an Alzheimer's mouse model.

  10. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Sayo; Suyama, Haruka; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ito, Toshihiro; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  11. Opportunistic reproduction by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) provided with supplemental food

    SciTech Connect

    Ormiston, B.G.

    1984-07-01

    The role of food supply in determining P. leucopus habitat suitability was investigated in xeric upland (oak-pine) forest habitat, which previously has been shown to be relatively unfavorable for white-footed mice in summer. Food (Purina 5001 lab chow) was available to mice that visited feeders placed at 40 m intervals on two of four one-ha trapping grids. Grids were censused by trapping for three consecutive days prior to and following the treatment period, which occurred for about 30 days in July 1981. Population density increased on food supplied relative to control grids following treatment, but not significantly so. Adult sex ratio was nearer to unity in food augmented areas compared with control areas, which tended to yield more males than females. Significantly greater proportions of adult males and females were reproductive in food supplied relative to control areas after the treatment period. The results suggest that upland habitat is relatively food deficient in summer, and that the habitat occurrence of breeding P. leucopus depends in part on food supply. The significance of these findings for population organization and regulation in this species is discussed. 26 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus single-chain variable region fragments provide protection against mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent of bovine mastitis, which can result in significant economic losses to the dairy industry. However, available vaccines against bovine mastitis do not confer adequate protection, although passive immunization with antibodies may be useful to prevent disease. Hence, we constructed a bovine single-chain variable region fragment (scFv) phage display library using cDNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cows with S. aureus-induced mastitis. After four rounds of selection, eight scFvs that bound S. aureus antigens with high affinity were obtained. The framework regions of the variable domains (VH and VL) of the eight scFvs were highly conserved, and the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) displayed significant diversity, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. All eight scFvs inhibited S. aureus growth in culture medium. Lactating mice were challenged by injecting S. aureus into the fourth mammary gland. Histopathological analysis showed that treatment with these scFvs prior to bacterial challenge maintained the structure of the mammary acini, decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, increased levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in mammary tissues, as compared with mice treatment with physiological saline (P < 0.05). These novel bovine scFvs may be suitable candidates for therapeutic agents for the prevention of S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.

  13. Treatment with lutein provides neuroprotection in mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Xuan; Liu, Ting; Dai, Xue-Ling; Zheng, Qiu-Sheng; Hui, Bo-Di; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is known to be a nonprovitamin A carotenoid found in broccoli and spinach. The aim of present study was to investigate whether lutein can protect brain against ischemic injury by reducing oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into five experimental groups: model group, sham group, lutein high, middle, and low-dose groups (30, 15, and 7.5 mg/kg). Mice were subjected to a 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 22 h. The reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins in brain tissue were determined with colorimetric method. The 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression was measured by immunohistochemistry assay, and the neuron apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Then, the neurological deficit scores were measured at last. Treatment of lutein significantly elevated the ratio of GSH/GSSG as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase and obviously decreased the contents of MDA, brain carbonyl, the expression of 8-OHdG, the number of apoptotic cells, and neurological deficit scores. Our results demonstrate that administration of lutein affords strong neuroprotective effect against transient cerebral ischemic injury and that the effect might be associated with its antioxidant property.

  14. Assessment of chimerism in epithelial cancers in transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Leboeuf, Christophe; Ratajczak, Philippe; Vérine, Jérôme; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Plassa, François; Legrès, Luc; Ferreira, Irmine; Sandid, Wissam; Varna, Mariana; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Janin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is now the most severe complication in the long term in transplant recipients. As most solid-organ or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations are allogeneic, chimerism studies can be performed on cancers occurring in recipients. We summarize here the different methods used to study chimerism in cancers developing in allogeneic-transplant recipients, analyze their respective advantages and report the main results obtained from these studies. Chimerism analyses of cancers in transplant recipients require methods suited to tissue samples. In the case of gender-mismatched transplantation, the XY chromosomes can be explored using fluorescent in situ hybridization on whole-tissue sections or Y-sequence-specific PCR after the laser microdissection of tumor cells. For cancers occurring after gender-matched transplantation, laser microdissection of tumor cells enables studies of microsatellite markers and high-resolution melting analysis of mitochondrial DNA on genes with marked polymorphism, provided these are different in the donor and the recipient. The results of different studies address the cancers that develop in both recipients and in transplants. The presence of chimeric cells in these two types of cancer implies an exchange of progenitor/stem-cells between transplant and recipient, and the plasticity of these progenitor/stem-cells contributes to epithelial cancers. The presence of chimeric cells in concomitant cancers and preneoplastic lesions implies that the oncogenesis of these cancers progresses through a multistep process.

  15. Iron carrier proteins facilitate engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and enduring hemopoietic chimerism in the lethally irradiated host

    SciTech Connect

    Pierpaoli, W.; Dall'Ara, A.; Yi, C.X.; Neri, P.; Santucci, A.; Choay, J. )

    1991-04-15

    Cell-free supernatants of rabbit bone marrow were fractionated, separated, and purified by Ultrogel and Superose chromatography. A single fraction promoted engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and enduring hemopoietic chimerism across the H-2 barrier in lethally irradiated mice. This 'bio-active' fraction, analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and transblotted on PVDF membrane, and purified by reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis yielded a main prealbumin band that when examined for primary structure by Edman degradation, proved to be rabbit transferrin. This was also attested by highly specific precipitation of the prealbumin band with polyclonal antibodies to rabbit transferrin. Iron-saturated human transferrin, lactotransferrin, and egg transferrin (conalbumin) were assayed in irradiated C57BL/6 mice infused with bone marrow from histoincompatible BALB/c donors. Mice treated with iron-loaded transferrins survive and develop enduring allogeneic chimerism with no discernible signs of graft-versus-host disease. Iron carrier proteins thus provide an unique means of achieving successful engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow in immunologically hostile murine H-2 combinations.

  16. Direct observation of failing fibers in muscles of dystrophic mice provides mechanistic insight into muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Claflin, Dennis R; Brooks, Susan V

    2008-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by the absence of the protein dystrophin. Dystrophin's function is not known, but its cellular location and associations with both the force-generating contractile core and membrane-spanning entities suggest a role in mechanically coupling force from its intracellular origins to the fiber membrane and beyond. We report here the presence of destructive contractile activity in lumbrical muscles from dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice during nominally quiescent periods following exposure to mechanical stress. The ectopic activity, which was observable microscopically, resulted in longitudinal separation and clotting of fiber myoplasm and was absent when calcium (Ca(2+)) was removed from the bathing medium. Separation and clotting of myoplasm were also produced in dystrophin-deficient muscles by local application of a Ca(2+) ionophore to create membrane breaches in the absence of mechanical stress, whereas muscles from control mice tolerated ionophore-induced entry of Ca(2+) without damage. These observations suggest a failure cascade in dystrophin-deficient fibers that 1) is initiated by a stress-induced influx of extracellular Ca(2+), causing localized activation to continue after cessation of stimulation, and 2) proceeds as the persistent local activation, combined with reduced lateral mechanical coupling between the contractile core and the extracellular matrix, results in longitudinal separation of myoplasm in nonactivated regions of the fiber. This mechanism invokes both the membrane stabilization and the mechanical coupling functions frequently proposed for dystrophin and suggests that, whereas the absence of either function alone is not sufficient to cause fiber failure, their combined absence is catastrophic.

  17. Oxytocin and estrogen receptor alpha and beta knockout mice provide discriminably different odor cues in behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Agmo, A; Choleris, E; Gustafsson, J A; Korach, K S; Muglia, L J; Pfaff, D W; Ogawa, S

    2004-08-01

    Social behavior involves both the recognition and pro-duction of social cues. Mice with selective deletion(knockout) of either the gene for oxytocin (OT) or genes for the estrogen receptor (ER) -c or -B display impaired social recognition. In this study we demonstrate that these gene knockout mice also provide discriminably different social stimuli in behavioral assays. In an odor choice test, which is a measure of social interest and discrimination, outbred female Swiss-Webster mice discriminated the urine odors of male knock-outs IKO: OTKO, alphaERKO, betaERKO) from the odors of their wildtype littermates (WT: OTWT, alphaERWT, betaERWT). Females showed marked initial choices of the urine odors of OTWT and betaERWT males over those of OTKOand PERKO males, and alphaERKO males over alphaERWT males. The odors of OTKO and betaERKO males also induced aversive, analgesic responses, with the odors of WTs having no significant effects. Odors of both the alphaERWT andalphaERKO males induced aversive, analgesic responses,with the odors of the WT inducing significantly greater analgesia. The odors of restraint stressed WT and KO males also elicited analgesia with, again, females dis-playing significantly greater responses to the odors of stressed OTKO and betaERKO males than their WTs, and significantly lower analgesia to the odors of stressedalphaERKO than alphaERWT males. These findings show that the KO mice are discriminated from their WTs on the basis of odor and that the various KOs differ in the relative attractiveness/aversiveness of their odors. Therefore, in behavioral assays one causal route by which gene inactivation alters the social behavior of knockout mice may be mediated through the partners'modified responses to their odors.

  18. Effect of IL-2-Bax, a novel interleukin-2-receptor-targeted chimeric protein, on bleomycin lung injury1

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Michael J; Aqeilan, Rami; Zilka, Keren; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya; Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit B; Conner, Michael W; Christensen, Thomas G; Breuer, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    The role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis is not clear, but the weight of the evidence supports a pro-fibrotic effect for lymphocytes. The high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor (haIL-2R) is expressed on activated, but not quiescent, T lymphocytes. This selective expression of haIL-2R provides the basis for therapeutic strategies that target IL-2R-expressing cells. We hypothesized that elimination of activated lymphocytes by IL-2R-targeted chimeric proteins might ameliorate lung fibrosis. We investigated the effects of IL-2-Bax, a novel apoptosis-inducing IL-2R-targeted chimeric protein, on bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. Treatment groups included (i) a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin and twice-daily intraperitoneal injections of IL-2-Bax; (ii) intratracheal bleomycin and intraperitoneal IL-2-PE664Glu, an older-generation chimeric protein; (iii) intratracheal bleomycin/intraperitoneal PBS; (iv) intratracheal saline/intraperitoneal PBS. Lung injury was evaluated 14 days after intratracheal instillation by cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, semi-quantitative and quantitative histomorphological measurements and by biochemical analysis of lung hydroxyproline. Bleomycin induced a BAL lymphocytosis that was significantly attenuated by IL-2-Bax and IL-2-PE664Glu. However, morphometric parameters and lung hydroxyproline were unaffected by the chimeric proteins. These results show that IL-2-Bax reduces the lymphocytic infiltration of the lungs in response to bleomycin, but this effect is not accompanied by a decrease in lung fibrosis. PMID:16191100

  19. A chimeric protein composed of the binding domains of Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C and Trueperella pyogenes pyolysin induces partial immunoprotection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunhao; Zhang, Wenlong; Bao, Jun; Wu, Yuhong; Yan, Minghui; Xiao, Ya; Yang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Junwei

    2016-08-01

    Trueperella pyogenes and Clostridium perfringens are two kinds of conditional pathogens frequently associated with wound infections and succeeding lethal complications in various economic livestock. Pyolysin (PLO) and phospholipase C (PLC) are the key virulence factors of these two pathogens, respectively. In our study, a chimeric protein called rPC-PD4, which is composed of the binding regions of PLO and PLC, was synthesized. The toxicity of rPC-PD4 was evaluated. Results revealed that rPC-PD4 is a safe chimeric molecule that can be used to develop vaccines. Immunizing BALB/c mice with rPC-PD4 induced high titers of serum antibodies that could efficiently neutralize the hemolytic activity of recombinant PLO and PLC. After the challenge with T. pyogenes or C. perfringens was performed through the intraperitoneal route, we observed that rPC-PD4 immunization could provide partial immunoprotection and reduce lung, intestine, and liver tissue damage to mice. This work demonstrated the efficacy of the rationally designed rPC-PD4 chimeric protein as a potential vaccine candidate against C. perfringens and T. pyogenes. PMID:27473983

  20. RNAi-Mediated CCR5 Knockdown Provides HIV-1 Resistance to Memory T Cells in Humanized BLT Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Saki; Ringpis, Gene-Errol; Marsden, Matthew D; Cortado, Ruth V; Wilhalme, Holly M; Elashoff, David; Zack, Jerome A; Chen, Irvin S Y; An, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) modified with a lentiviral vector bearing a potent nontoxic short hairpin RNA (sh1005) directed to the HIV coreceptor CCR5 is capable of continuously producing CCR5 downregulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we characterized HIV-1 resistance of the sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo in humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu BLT) mice. The sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes were positively selected in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-challenged mice. The sh1005-modified memory CD4+ T lymphocytes (the primary target of CCR5-tropic HIV-1) expressing sh1005 were maintained in lymphoid tissues in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-challenged mice. Frequencies of HIV-1 p24 expressing cells were significantly reduced in the sh1005-modified splenocytes by ex vivo cell stimulation confirming that CCR5 downregulated sh1005 modified cells are protected from viral infection. These results demonstrate that stable CCR5 downregulation through genetic modification of human HSPC by lentivirally delivered sh1005 is highly effective in providing HIV-1 resistance. Our results provide in vivo evidence in a relevant small animal model that sh1005 is a potent early-step anti-HIV reagent that has potential as a novel anti-HIV-1 HSPC gene therapeutic reagent for human applications. PMID:25689223

  1. Quantitative chimerism: an independent acute leukemia prognosis indicator following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Qin, X-Y; Li, G-X; Qin, Y-Z; Wang, Y; Wang, F-R; Liu, D-H; Xu, L-P; Chen, H; Han, W; Wang, J-Z; Zhang, X-H; Li, J-L; Li, L-D; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic significance of quantitative chimerism to monitor minimal residual disease and predict relapse in acute leukemia (AL) patients following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). The quantitative chimerism levels of 129 AL patients were measured using RQ-PCR based on 29 sequence polymorphisms. Receiver-operating characteristic curve indicated that the optimal cutoff point to predict an inevitable relapse was 1.0%, which results in 100.0% sensitivity and 79.6% specificity.The relapse rate of patients with chimerism >1.0% at 2 years was 55.0%, whereas that for patients with chimerism <1.0% was 0%(P=0.000). Quantitative chimerism >1.00% indicated a higher probability of relapse. Cox multivariate analysis indicated that quantitative chimerism >1.00% was associated with lower disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR)=10.825; 95% confidence interval (CI) =4.704-24.912, P=0.000) and lower OS (HR=8.681; 95% CI=3.728-20.212, P=0.000). Patients (24/47 with quantitative chimerism >1.00%) who received preemptive modified DLI immunotherapy had significantly lower relapse rate (37.5%) than those (n=9) who did not (100%; P=0.001). Thus, quantitative chimerism is an independent prognostic factor that predicts clinical outcomes after HSCT and provides a guide for suitable interventions.

  2. Frontiers of stem cell transplantation monitoring: capturing graft dynamics through routine longitudinal chimerism analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristt, Don; Stein, Jerry; Klein, Tirza

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative chimerism testing has become an indispensable tool for following the course and success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. In this paper, we describe the current laboratory approach to quantitative chimerism testing based on an analysis of short tandem repeats, and explain why performing this analysis longitudinally is important and feasible. Longitudinal analysis focuses on relative changes appearing in the course of sequential samples, and as such exploits the ultimate potential of this intrinsically semi-quantitative platform. Such an analysis is more informative than single static values, less likely to be confused with platform artifacts, and is individualized to the particular patient. It is particularly useful with non-myeloablative conditioning, where mixed chimerism is common. When longitudinal chimerism analysis is performed on lineage-specific subpopulations, the sensitivity, specificity and mechanistic implications of the data are augmented. Importantly, longitudinal monitoring is a routinely feasible laboratory option because multiplex STR-PCR kits are available commercially, and modern software can be used to perform computation, reliability testing, and longitudinal tracking in a rapid, easy to use format. The ChimerTrack application, a shareware program developed in our laboratory for this purpose, produces a report that automatically summarizes and illustrates the quantitative temporal course of the patient's chimeric status. Such a longitudinal perspective enhances the value of quantitative chimerism monitoring for decisions regarding immunomodulatory post-transplant therapy. This information also provides unique insights into the biological dynamics of engraftment underlying the fluctuations in the temporal course of a patient's chimeric status.

  3. Chimerism and tolerance in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Starzl, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Studies in experimental models (1953-1956) demonstrated that acquired donor-specific allotolerance in immunologically immature or irradiated animals is strongly associated with donor leukocyte chimerism. Bone marrow transplantation in immune-deficient or cytoablated human recipients was a logical extension (1968). In contrast, clinical (1959) and then experimental organ transplantation was systematically accomplished in the apparent absence of leukocyte chimerism. Consequently, it was assumed for many years that success with organ and bone marrow transplantation involved fundamentally different mechanisms. With the discovery in 1992 of small numbers of donor leukocytes in the tissues or blood of long-surviving organ recipients (microchimerism), we concluded that organ engraftment was a form of leukocyte chimerism-dependent partial tolerance. In this initially controversial paradigm, alloengraftment after both kinds of transplantation is the product of a double immune reaction in which responses, each to the other, of coexisting donor and recipient immune systems results in variable reciprocal clonal exhaustion, followed by peripheral clonal deletion. It was proposed with Rolf Zinkernagel that the individual alloresponses are the equivalent of the MHC-restricted T cell recognition of, and host response to, intracellular parasites and that the mechanisms of immune responsiveness, or nonresponsiveness, are governed by the migration and localization of the respective antigens. Elucidation of the mechanisms of nonresponsiveness (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) and their regulation removed much of the historical mystique of transplantation. The insight was then applied to improve the timing and dosage of immunosuppression of current human transplant recipients.

  4. Inhibition of Btk with CC-292 provides early pharmacodynamic assessment of activity in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Erica K; Tester, Richland; Aslanian, Sharon; Karp, Russell; Sheets, Michael; Labenski, Matthew T; Witowski, Steven R; Lounsbury, Heather; Chaturvedi, Prasoon; Mazdiyasni, Hormoz; Zhu, Zhendong; Nacht, Mariana; Freed, Martin I; Petter, Russell C; Dubrovskiy, Alex; Singh, Juswinder; Westlin, William F

    2013-08-01

    Targeted therapies that suppress B cell receptor (BCR) signaling have emerged as promising agents in autoimmune disease and B cell malignancies. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a crucial role in B cell development and activation through the BCR signaling pathway and represents a new target for diseases characterized by inappropriate B cell activity. N-(3-(5-fluoro-2-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl)acrylamide (CC-292) is a highly selective, covalent Btk inhibitor and a sensitive and quantitative assay that measures CC-292-Btk engagement has been developed. This translational pharmacodynamic assay has accompanied CC-292 through each step of drug discovery and development. These studies demonstrate the quantity of Btk bound by CC-292 correlates with the efficacy of CC-292 in vitro and in the collagen-induced arthritis model of autoimmune disease. Recently, CC-292 has entered human clinical trials with a trial design that has provided rapid insight into safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. This first-in-human healthy volunteer trial has demonstrated that a single oral dose of 2 mg/kg CC-292 consistently engaged all circulating Btk protein and provides the basis for rational dose selection in future clinical trials. This targeted covalent drug design approach has enabled the discovery and early clinical development of CC-292 and has provided support for Btk as a valuable drug target for B-cell mediated disorders.

  5. Transient mixed chimerism for allograft tolerance.

    PubMed

    Oura, Tetsu; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Mixed chimerism discovered in Freemartin cattle by Ray Owen 70 years ago paved the way for research on immune tolerance. Since his discovery, significant progress has been made in the effort to induce allograft tolerance via mixed chimerism in various murine models. However, induction of persistent mixed chimerism has proved to be extremely difficult in major histocompatibility complex mismatched humans. Chimerism induced in humans tends to either disappear or convert to full donor chimerism, depending on the intensity of the conditioning regimen. Nevertheless, our studies in both NHPs and humans have clearly demonstrated that renal allograft tolerance can be induced by transient mixed chimerism. Our studies have shown that solid organ allograft tolerance via transient mixed chimerism 1) requires induction of multilineage hematologic chimerism, 2) depends on peripheral regulatory mechanisms, rather than thymic deletion, for long-term maintenance, 3) is organ specific (kidney and lung but not heart allograft tolerance are feasible). A major advantage of tolerance induction via transient mixed chimerism is exclusion of the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Our ongoing studies are directed toward improving the consistency of tolerance induction, reducing the morbidity of the conditioning regimen, substituting clinically available agents, such as Belatacept for the now unavailable anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, and extending the protocol to recipients of deceased donor allografts.

  6. A Chimeric Virus-Mouse Model System for Evaluating the Function and Inhibition of Papain-Like Proteases of Emerging Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M.; Nichols, Daniel B.; Wilson, Michael W.; StJohn, Sarah E.; Larsen, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR−/−) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. IMPORTANCE Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus

  7. M2SR, a novel live single replication influenza virus vaccine, provides effective heterosubtypic protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarawar, Sally; Hatta, Yasuko; Watanabe, Shinji; Dias, Peter; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bilsel, Pamuk

    2016-09-30

    Despite the annual public health burden of seasonal influenza and the continuing threat of a global pandemic posed by the emergence of highly pathogenic/pandemic strains, conventional influenza vaccines do not provide universal protection, and exhibit suboptimal efficacy rates, even when they are well matched to circulating strains. To address the need for a highly effective universal influenza vaccine, we have developed a novel M2-deficient single replication vaccine virus (M2SR) that induces strong cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza strains in mice. M2SR is able to infect cells and expresses all viral proteins except M2, but is unable to generate progeny virus. M2SR generated from influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) protected mice against lethal challenge with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1, homosubtypic) and influenza A/Aichi/2/1968 (H3N2, heterosubtypic). The vaccine induced strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses of both IgA and IgG classes. Strong virus-specific T cell responses were also induced. Following heterologous challenge, significant numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells, with effector or effector/memory phenotypes and specific for conserved viral epitopes, were observed in the lungs of vaccinated mice. A substantial proportion of the CD8 T cells expressed Granzyme B, suggesting that they were capable of killing virus-infected cells. Thus, our data suggest that M2-deficient influenza viruses represent a promising new approach for developing a universal influenza vaccine. PMID:27595896

  8. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  9. Gamma-Irradiated Influenza A Virus Provides Adjuvant Activity to a Co-Administered Poorly Immunogenic SFV Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Rachelle; Chan, Jennifer; Khairat, Jasmine E.; Furuya, Yoichi; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Many currently available inactivated vaccines require “adjuvants” to maximize the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent interferon type-I (IFN-I) responses and the IFN-I-associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest virus (γ-SFV) as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titers by sixfold and greater neutralization efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU. PMID:24959166

  10. Multi-Stage Tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Candidate LT69 Provides High Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hongxia; Peng, Jinxiu; Bai, Chunxiang; Liu, Xun; Hu, Lina; Luo, Yanping; Wang, Bingxiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianzhu; Yu, Hongjuan; Xian, Qiaoyang; Zhu, Bingdong

    2015-01-01

    Effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine should target tubercle bacilli with various metabolic states and confer long-term protective immunity. In this study, we constructed a novel multi-stage TB subunit vaccine based on fusion protein ESAT6-Ag85B-MPT64(190-198)-Mtb8.4-HspX (LT69 for short) which combined early expressed antigens and latency-associated antigen. The fusion protein was mixed with an adjuvant being composed of N, N’-dimethyl-N, N’-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C) to construct subunit vaccine, whose immunogenicity and protective ability were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that LT69 had strong immunogenicity and high protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv aerosol challenge. Low-dose (2 μg) of LT69 generated long-term immune memory responses and provided effective protection, which was even higher than traditional vaccine BCG did at 30 weeks post the last vaccination. In conclusion, multistage subunit vaccine LT69 showed high and long-term protection against M. tuberculosis infection in mice, whose effect could be enhanced by using a relative low dosage of antigen. PMID:26098302

  11. Can Humanized Mice Predict Drug "Behavior" in Humans?

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Peltz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Most of what we know about a drug prior to human clinical studies is derived from animal testing. Because animals and humans have substantial differences in their physiology and in their drug metabolism pathways, we do not know very much about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of a drug in humans until after it is administered to many people. Hence, drug-induced liver injury has become a significant public health problem, and we have a very inefficient drug development process with a high failure rate. Because the human liver is at the heart of these problems, chimeric mice with humanized livers could be used to address these issues. We examine recent evidence indicating that drug testing in chimeric mice could provide better information about a drug's metabolism, disposition, and toxicity (i.e., its "behavior") in humans and could aid in developing personalized medicine strategies, which would improve drug efficacy and safety.

  12. Characterization of hemopoietic stem cell chimerism in antibody-facilitated bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Francescutti, L.H.; Gambel, P.; Wegmann, T.G.

    1985-07-01

    The authors have previously described a model for bone marrow transplantation that involves preparation of the host with monoclonal antibody against class I or class II antigens instead of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. This allows engraftment and subsequent repopulation of the host by donor tissue. They have previously reported on chimerism in the peripheral blood of P1----(P1 X P2)F1 animals. In this report, the authors describe the examination of the bone marrow and spleen stem cell chimerism of these antibody-facilitated (AF) chimeras, by determining, with an isozyme assay, the phenotype of methylcellulose colonies grown from stem cells. They have found a correlation between peripheral blood chimerism and the stem cell constitution of both spleen and bone marrow. The peripheral blood chimerism also correlates with the level of chimerism in macrophages derived from peritoneal exudate cells. These findings indicate that assaying the peripheral blood of such chimeras provides an excellent indication of the degree of chimerism at the stem cell level and stands in sharp contrast to the level of chimerism in certain lymphoid compartments.

  13. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  14. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  15. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models.

    PubMed

    Maawy, Ali A; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  16. A semiquinone glucoside derivative provides protection to male reproductive system of the mice against gamma radiation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dev Dutt; Bansal, Deen Dayal; Mishra, Saurabh; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Kumar, Raj

    2014-05-01

    Present investigation was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of a novel Semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD), isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1, in the male reproductive system of BALB/c mice. Animals were administered 50 mg/kg b.wt. (i.p.) SQGD 2 h before whole body γ-irradiation (10 Gy). Radiation-induced cellular toxicity and its modulation by SQGD pretreatment was evaluated in the mice testes by quantitative histological and protein expression analysis. SQGD pretreatment protects irradiated mice from radiation-induced testicular atrophy and germ cells degeneration, which may lead to emptiness of seminiferous tubules. Significant decrease in P53 and P21((Cip/WAF-1)) expression was observed in the irradiated mice pretreated (2 h) by SQGD at 6 h compared with only irradiated mice. However, contrary to P53, expressions of P21 at latter time, that is, 24-72 h was found to be increased significantly in the irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD. Significant increase in the intact PARP-1 protein expression were observed in the testes of the mice pretreated by SQGD 2 h before irradiation at 24-72 h compared with the only irradiated mice, whereas significant increase in PARP-1 cleaved fragment was noticed at 24 h. Similarly, significant increase in NF-kB and BCL-2/BAX expressions ratio was noticed in SQGD-treated mice (± irradiation) compared with irradiated mice, suggested a role of SQGD in the activation of prosurvival signaling in the testicular germinal cells population of the irradiated mice and thus contributed to protection against lethal γ-irradiation.

  17. Pre-treatment of allogeneic bone marrow recipients with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 transiently enhances hematopoietic chimerism without promoting donor-specific skin allograft tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanzhuo; Xu, Xin; Weiss, Ido D; Jacobson, Orit; Murphy, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism established by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is known to promote donor-specific organ allograft tolerance; however, clinical application is limited by the need for toxic host conditioning and "megadoses" of donor bone marrow cells. A potential solution to this problem has been suggested by the observation that recipient bone marrow mobilization by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 promotes chimerism in congenic bone marrow transplantation experiments in mice. Here we report that a single subcutaneous dose of 10 mg/kg AMD3100 in recipient C57BL/6 mice was able to enhance hematopoietic chimerism when complete MHC-mismatched BALB/c donor bone marrow cells were transplanted 1h after drug dosing. However, levels of chimerism measured 30 days post-transplantation were not sustained when mice were reexamined on day 90 post-transplantation. Moreover, transient chimerism induced by this protocol did not support robust donor-specific skin allograft tolerance. Using the same transient immunosuppression protocol, we confirmed that "megadoses" of donor bone marrow cells could induce durable chimerism associated with donor-specific skin allograft tolerance without AMD3100 pre-treatment. We conclude that in this protocol AMD3100 pretreatment may empty bone marrow niches that become reoccupied by allogeneic donor hematopoietic progenitor cells but not by true long-lived donor hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in short-lived chimerism and failure to support durable donor-specific allograft tolerance.

  18. The expression and genetic immunization of chimeric fragment of Hantaan virus M and S segments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fanglin; Wu Xingan; Luo Wen; Bai Wentao; Liu Yong; Yan Yan; Wang Haitao; Xu Zhikai . E-mail: zhikaixu@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-03-23

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is characterized by severe symptoms and high mortality, is caused by hantavirus. There are still no effective prophylactic vaccines directed to HFRS until now. In this research, we fused expressed G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment. We expect it could be a candidate vaccine. Chimeric gene G2S0.7 was first expressed in prokaryotic expression system pGEX-4T. After inducing expressed fusion proteins, GST-G2S0.7 was induced and its molecular weight was about 100 kDa. Meanwhile, the fusion protein kept the activity of its parental proteins. Further, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by the chimeric gene. ELISA, cell microculture neutralization test in vitro were used to detect the humoral immune response in immunized BALB/c mice. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was used to detect the cellular immune response. The results showed that the chimeric gene could simultaneously evoke specific antibody against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein (GP). And the immunized mice of every group elicited neutralizing antibodies with different titers. But the titers were low. Lymphocyte proliferation assay results showed that the stimulation indexes of splenocytes of chimeric gene to NP and GP were significantly higher than that of control. It suggested that the chimeric gene of Hantaan virus containing G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment could directly elicit specific anti-Hantaan virus humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice.

  19. Engineering bacterial microcompartment shells: chimeric shell proteins and chimeric carboxysome shells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fei; Sutter, Markus; Bernstein, Susan L; Kinney, James N; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-04-17

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are self-assembling organelles composed entirely of protein. Depending on the enzymes they encapsulate, BMCs function in either inorganic carbon fixation (carboxysomes) or organic carbon utilization (metabolosomes). The hallmark feature of all BMCs is a selectively permeable shell formed by multiple paralogous proteins, each proposed to confer specific flux characteristics. Gene clusters encoding diverse BMCs are distributed broadly across bacterial phyla, providing a rich variety of building blocks with a predicted range of permeability properties. In theory, shell permeability can be engineered by modifying residues flanking the pores (symmetry axes) of hexameric shell proteins or by combining shell proteins from different types of BMCs into chimeric shells. We undertook both approaches to altering shell properties using the carboxysome as a model system. There are two types of carboxysomes, α and β. In both, the predominant shell protein(s) contain a single copy of the BMC domain (pfam00936), but they are significantly different in primary structure. Indeed, phylogenetic analysis shows that the two types of carboxysome shell proteins are more similar to their counterparts in metabolosomes than to each other. We solved high resolution crystal structures of the major shell proteins, CsoS1 and CcmK2, and the presumed minor shell protein CcmK4, representing both types of cyanobacterial carboxysomes and then tested the interchangeability. The in vivo study presented here confirms that both engineering pores to mimic those of other shell proteins and the construction of chimeric shells is feasible.

  20. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of a recombinant chimeric protein containing epitopes of poliovirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Pan, X-X; Wang, J; Xia, W-Y; Li, X-F; Yang, L-J; Huang, C; Chen, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    To design a vaccine that simultaneously prevents both rotavirus (RV) and poliovirus (PV), a PV type 1 (PV1) chimeric protein using RV VP6 as a vector (VP6F) was constructed, expressed in Escherichia coli expression system and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, immunofluorescence assay and neutralization test. The results showed that the chimeric protein reacted with anti-VP6F and anti-PV1 antibodies and elicited production of serum antibodies against the chimeric protein in guinea pigs. Antibodies against the chimeric protein neutralized RV Wa and PV1 infection in vitro. The results provided a relevant possibility of developing novel approaches in the rational design of vaccines effective against both RV and PV. PMID:27640433

  1. Expression and purification of chimeric peptide comprising EGFR B-cell epitope and measles virus fusion protein T-cell epitope in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meizhi; Zhao, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Chen, Zhange; Li, Huangjin

    2013-03-01

    Chimeric peptide MVF-EGFR(237-267), comprising a B-cell epitope from the dimerization interface of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a promiscuous T-cell epitope from measles virus fusion protein (MVF), is a promising candidate antigen peptide for therapeutic vaccine. To establish a high-efficiency preparation process of this small peptide, the coding sequence was cloned into pET-21b and pET-32a respectively, to be expressed alone or in the form of fusion protein with thioredoxin (Trx) and His(6)-tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The chimeric peptide failed to be expressed alone, but over-expressed in the fusion form, which presented as soluble protein and took up more than 30% of total proteins of host cells. The fusion protein was seriously degraded during the cell disruption, in which endogenous metalloproteinase played a key role. Degradation of target peptide was inhibited by combined application of EDTA in the cell disruption buffer and a step of Source 30Q anion exchange chromatography (AEC) before metal-chelating chromatography (MCAC) for purifying His(6)-tagged fusion protein. The chimeric peptide was recovered from the purified fusion protein by enterokinase digestion at a yield of 3.0 mg/L bacteria culture with a purity of more than 95%. Immunogenicity analysis showed that the recombinant chimeric peptide was able to arouse more than 1×10(4) titers of specific antibody in BALB/c mice. Present work laid a solid foundation for the development of therapeutic peptide vaccine targeting EGFR dimerization and provided a convenient and low-cost preparation method for small peptides.

  2. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes. PMID:23576508

  3. Haematoporphyrin based photodynamic therapy combined with hyperthermia provided effective therapeutic vaccine effect against colon cancer growth in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Yaoming; Ge, Haiyan; Li, Shuping

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an attractive option used in tumor treatment via its direct tumoricidal activities or its immune-boosting activities. On the other hand, heat shock protein 70 has been found to be largely associated with the establishment of anti-tumor activities offered by hyperthermia treated tumor cells. In the present study, we found that injection of tumor-bearing mice with colon cancer cell line CT-26 treated with haematoporphyrin based photodynamic therapy (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether based PDT, HMME-PDT) together with hyperthermia demonstrated the most effective therapeutic effects against tumor growth, followed by cells treated by hyperthermia alone. CT-26 cells treated only with HMME-PDT failed to provide any therapeutic effects, although significant cell death was induced by HMME-PDT. Compared to hyperthermia treatment, HMME-PDT induced more efficient surface localization of HSP70 on CT-26 cells which correlated with efficient activation of cytolytic CD8 T cells and with effective anti-tumor responses. Thus, our study demonstrated that the surface expression of HSP70 may play a more important role than the total expression or release of this molecule in the activation of immune responses. And our study offered a novel modified PDT approach to the treatment of tumor cells intrinsically low on HSP70 expression. PMID:23055814

  4. Haematoporphyrin based photodynamic therapy combined with hyperthermia provided effective therapeutic vaccine effect against colon cancer growth in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Yaoming; Ge, Haiyan; Li, Shuping

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an attractive option used in tumor treatment via its direct tumoricidal activities or its immune-boosting activities. On the other hand, heat shock protein 70 has been found to be largely associated with the establishment of anti-tumor activities offered by hyperthermia treated tumor cells. In the present study, we found that injection of tumor-bearing mice with colon cancer cell line CT-26 treated with haematoporphyrin based photodynamic therapy (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether based PDT, HMME-PDT) together with hyperthermia demonstrated the most effective therapeutic effects against tumor growth, followed by cells treated by hyperthermia alone. CT-26 cells treated only with HMME-PDT failed to provide any therapeutic effects, although significant cell death was induced by HMME-PDT. Compared to hyperthermia treatment, HMME-PDT induced more efficient surface localization of HSP70 on CT-26 cells which correlated with efficient activation of cytolytic CD8 T cells and with effective anti-tumor responses. Thus, our study demonstrated that the surface expression of HSP70 may play a more important role than the total expression or release of this molecule in the activation of immune responses. And our study offered a novel modified PDT approach to the treatment of tumor cells intrinsically low on HSP70 expression.

  5. Murine neurovirulence studies with a chimeric poliovirus: in vivo generation of a mutant base-paired stable attenuated poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Young, C

    1998-10-01

    We investigated the neurovirulence of a chimeric poliovirus consisting of the coding region of Lansing type 2 poliovirus and the 5'NCR of type 3 poliovirus. Specifically we carried out studies on the effects of stable base pairing, between nucleotides 472 and 537, on neurovirulence. Mice were injected intracranially with the attenuated chimeric virus MAS 27 plaque 1 having the following nucleotide base pair at 472-537, G-G. Mutants recovered from the CNS of inoculated mice were divided into three groups according to the nucleotide sequence of the 5'NCR; MAS 27C type viruses having a single base change (G-C) at the position 472, MAS 27G type mutants having a single base change (G-C) at the position 537, and MAS 27U type viruses having a single base change (G-U) at the position 537. The isolate MAS 27C had back-mutated to the wild type, and 100 000 fold more virulent than attenuated MAS 27G and MAS 27U. MAS 27C type mutants were predominant, suggesting that base C at position 472 is favoured to form a stable secondary structure with guanine at position 537. Attenuated MAS 27G, however, carries guanine and cytosine at nucleotides 472 and 537 respectively, and was a stable attenuated virus following passage in four serial generations of mice. Furthermore, attenuated MAS 27G poliovirus produced viral proteins less efficiently and had slower growth rates than the revertant MAS 27C. The stable attenuated base paired MAS 27G might provide the basis for a prototype for a live attenuated stable type 3 poliovaccine.

  6. Deletional and regulatory mechanisms coalesce to drive transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism.

    PubMed

    Hock, Karin; Mahr, Benedikt; Schwarz, Christoph; Wekerle, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Establishing donor-specific immunological tolerance could improve long-term outcome by obviating the need for immunosuppressive drug therapy, which is currently required to control alloreactivity after organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism is defined as the engraftment of donor hematopoietic stem cells in the recipient, leading to viable coexistence of both donor and recipient leukocytes. In numerous experimental models, cotransplantation of donor bone marrow (BM) into preconditioned (e.g., through irradiation or cytotoxic drugs) recipients leads to transplantation tolerance through (mixed) chimerism. Mixed chimerism offers immunological advantages for clinical translation; pilot trials have established proof of concept by deliberately inducing tolerance in humans. Widespread clinical application is prevented, however, by the harsh preconditioning currently necessary for permitting BM engraftment. Recently, the immunological mechanisms inducing and maintaining tolerance in experimental mixed chimerism have been defined, revealing a more prominent role for regulation than historically assumed. The evidence from murine models suggests that both deletional and regulatory mechanisms are critical in promoting complete tolerance, encompassing also the minor histocompatibility antigens. Here, we review the current understanding of tolerance through mixed chimerism and provide an outlook on how to realize widespread clinical translation based on mechanistic insights gained from chimerism protocols, including cell therapy with polyclonal regulatory T cells.

  7. Assessing quantitative chimerism longitudinally: technical considerations, clinical applications and routine feasibility.

    PubMed

    Kristt, D; Stein, J; Yaniv, I; Klein, T

    2007-03-01

    In this review, we describe the current laboratory approach to quantitative chimerism testing based on short tandem repeats (STRs), focusing on a longitudinal analysis. The latter is based on relative changes appearing in the course of sequential samples, and as such exploits the ultimate potential of this intrinsically semiquantitative platform. Such an analysis is more informative than single static values, less likely to be confused with platform artifacts, and is individualized to the particular patient. It is particularly useful with non-myeloablative conditioning, where mixed chimerism is common. Importantly, longitudinal monitoring is a routinely feasible laboratory option because multiplex STR-polymerase chain reaction kits are available commercially, and modern software can be used to perform computation, reliability testing and longitudinal tracking in a rapid, easy to use format. The ChimerTrack application, a shareware, user friendly program developed for this purpose, produces a report that automatically summarizes and illustrates the quantitative temporal course of the patient's chimeric status. Such a longitudinal perspective enhances the value of quantitative chimerism monitoring for decisions regarding immunomodulatory post transplant therapy. This information also provides unique insights into the biological dynamics of engraftment underlying the fluctuations in the temporal course of a patient's chimeric status.

  8. Prognostic utility of routine chimerism testing at 2 to 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Ghada I; Kamel, Azza M; Storer, Barry; Martin, Paul J

    2009-03-01

    The utility of routine chimerism analysis as a prognostic indicator of subsequent outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning regimens remains controversial. To address this controversy, routine chimerism test results at 2 to 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens were evaluated for association with subsequent risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall mortality. Only 70 of 1304 patients (5%) had < 95% donor-derived cells in the marrow. Low donor chimerism in the marrow occurred more often in patients with low-risk diseases compared with those with higher-risk diseases and was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD. Among 673 patients evaluated, 164 (24%) had < 85% donor-derived T cells in the blood. Low donor T cell chimerism was more frequent in patients with low-risk diseases compared with those with higher-risk diseases, in those who received conditioning with busulfan compared with those who received conditioning with total body irradiation, and in those with lower-grade acute GVHD. Low donor T cell chimerism in the blood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD but not with a reduced risk of relapse, NRM, or overall mortality. Routine testing of chimerism in the marrow and blood at 2 to 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens may be helpful in documenting engraftment in clinical trials, but provides only limited prognostic information in clinical practice.

  9. Chimeric Protein Complexes in Hybrid Species Generate Novel Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Piatkowska, Elzbieta M.; Naseeb, Samina; Knight, David; Delneri, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization between species is an important mechanism for the origin of novel lineages and adaptation to new environments. Increased allelic variation and modification of the transcriptional network are the two recognized forces currently deemed to be responsible for the phenotypic properties seen in hybrids. However, since the majority of the biological functions in a cell are carried out by protein complexes, inter-specific protein assemblies therefore represent another important source of natural variation upon which evolutionary forces can act. Here we studied the composition of six protein complexes in two different Saccharomyces “sensu stricto” hybrids, to understand whether chimeric interactions can be freely formed in the cell in spite of species-specific co-evolutionary forces, and whether the different types of complexes cause a change in hybrid fitness. The protein assemblies were isolated from the hybrids via affinity chromatography and identified via mass spectrometry. We found evidence of spontaneous chimericity for four of the six protein assemblies tested and we showed that different types of complexes can cause a variety of phenotypes in selected environments. In the case of TRP2/TRP3 complex, the effect of such chimeric formation resulted in the fitness advantage of the hybrid in an environment lacking tryptophan, while only one type of parental combination of the MBF complex allowed the hybrid to grow under respiratory conditions. These phenotypes were dependent on both genetic and environmental backgrounds. This study provides empirical evidence that chimeric protein complexes can freely assemble in cells and reveals a new mechanism to generate phenotypic novelty and plasticity in hybrids to complement the genomic innovation resulting from gene duplication. The ability to exchange orthologous members has also important implications for the adaptation and subsequent genome evolution of the hybrids in terms of pattern of gene loss. PMID

  10. Construction of chimeric vaccinia viruses by molecular cloning and packaging.

    PubMed Central

    Scheiflinger, F; Dorner, F; Falkner, F G

    1992-01-01

    Foreign DNA was inserted into unique restriction endonuclease cleavage sites (Sma I or Not I) of the 200,000-base-pair vaccinia virus genome by direct molecular cloning. The modified vaccinia virus DNA was packaged in fowlpox virus-infected avian cells, and chimeric vaccinia virus was isolated from mammalian cells not supporting the growth of the fowlpox helper virus. In contrast to the classical "in vivo" recombination technique, chimeric viruses with inserts in both possible orientations and families of chimeras with multiple inserts were obtained. The different genomic configurations of chimeric viruses provide a broader basis for screening of optimal viruses. In addition to packaging in avian cells, a second packaging procedure for vaccinia DNA, based on the abortive infection of mammalian cells with the fowlpox helper virus, was developed. This procedure permits simultaneous packaging and host-range selection for the packaged virus. The cloning/packaging procedure allows the direct insertion of foreign DNA without the need for plasmids having flanking regions homologous to viral nonessential regions and is independent of inefficient in vivo recombination events. By direct cloning and packaging, about 5-10% of the total vaccinia virus yield consisted of chimeras. The procedure is, therefore, a useful tool in molecular virology. Images PMID:1438247

  11. Low dose of carbon monoxide intraperitoneal injection provides potent protection against GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongmei; Liu, Yan; Li, Feng; Wen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important effector-signaling molecule involved in various pathophysiological processes. Here we investigated the protective effects of exogenous CO in a murine model of acute liver damage induced by d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous CO gas was administered to mice via intraperitoneal injection (first at a dose of 15 ml kg(-1) and then, 6 h later, 8 ml kg(-1)), which caused a significant elevation of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of up to 12-14% for more than 12 h. GalN/LPS were given to induce acute liver damage in mice 30 min prior to CO exposure. This showed that GalN/LPS induced severe liver injury in mice, whereas CO injection remarkably improved the survival rate of mice and led to attenuated hepatocellular damage. CO exhibited anti-oxidative capabilities by inhibiting hepatic malondialdehyde contents and restoring superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as by reducing inducible NOS/NO production. The anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CO were substantial, characterized by a notable inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Our findings thus supported the hypothesis that exogenous CO provides protective effects against acute liver damage in mice, mainly dependent on its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.

  12. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance.

  13. A protective chimeric antibody to tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Baykov, Ivan K; Matveev, Andrey L; Stronin, Oleg V; Ryzhikov, Alexander B; Matveev, Leonid E; Kasakin, Marat F; Richter, Vladimir A; Tikunova, Nina V

    2014-06-17

    The efficiency of several mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) glycoprotein E in post-exposure prophylaxis was assessed, and mAb14D5 was shown to be the most active of all those studied. It was proven that the hybridoma cell line 14D5 produced one immunoglobulin H chain and two L chains. They were used to construct chimeric antibodies ch14D5a and ch14D5b, the affinity constants of which were 2.6 × 10(10)M(-1) and 1.0 × 10(7)M(-1), respectively, according to the SPR-based ProteOn biosensor assay. The neutralization index (IC50) of ch14D5a was 0.04 μg/ml in the focus reduction neutralization test. In in vivo experiments, ch14D5a at a dose of 10 μg/mouse resulted in a 100% survival of the mice infected with 240 LD50 of TBEV. This chimeric antibody is promising for further development of prevention and therapeutic drugs against TBEV. PMID:24837772

  14. Chimeric antigen receptor therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrett, David M; Singh, Nathan; Porter, David L; Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2014-01-01

    Improved outcomes for patients with cancer hinge on the development of new targeted therapies with acceptable short-term and long-term toxicity. Progress in basic, preclinical, and clinical arenas spanning cellular immunology, synthetic biology, and cell-processing technologies has paved the way for clinical applications of chimeric antigen receptor-based therapies. This new form of targeted immunotherapy merges the exquisite targeting specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the potent cytotoxicity and long-term persistence provided by cytotoxic T cells. Although this field is still in its infancy, clinical trials have already shown clinically significant antitumor activity in neuroblastoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and B cell lymphoma, and trials targeting a variety of other adult and pediatric malignancies are under way. Ongoing work is focused on identifying optimal tumor targets and on elucidating and manipulating both cell- and host-associated factors to support expansion and persistence of the genetically engineered cells in vivo. The potential to target essentially any tumor-associated cell-surface antigen for which a monoclonal antibody can be made opens up an entirely new arena for targeted therapy of cancer.

  15. A synthetic cGMP-sensitive gene switch providing Viagra(®)-controlled gene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeuk; Folcher, Marc; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a universal second messenger that is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and hydrolyzed into guanosine monophosphate (GMP) by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Small-molecule drugs that induce high cGMP levels in specialized tissues by boosting GC activity or inhibiting PDE activity have become the predominant treatment strategy for a wide range of medical conditions, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis-based claudication and erectile dysfunction. By fusing the cGMP receptor protein (CRP) of Rhodospirillum centenum to the Herpes simplex-derived transactivation domain VP16, we created a novel synthetic mammalian cGMP-sensing transcription factor (GTA) that activates synthetic promoters (PGTA) containing newly identified GTA-specific operator sites in a concentration-dependent manner. In cell lines expressing endogenous natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) (HeLa), GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression was induced by B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; Nesiritide(®)) in a concentration-dependent manner, which activated NPR-A׳s intracellular GC domain and triggered a corresponding cGMP surge. Ectopic expression of NPR-A in NPR-A-negative cell lines (HEK-293T) produced high cGMP levels and mediated maximum GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression, which was suppressed by co-expression of PDEs (PDE-3A, PDE-5A and PDE-9A) and was re-triggered by the corresponding PDE inhibitor drugs (Pletal(®), Perfan(®), Primacor(®) (PDE-3A), Viagra(®), Levitra(®), Cialis(®) (PDE-5A) and BAY73-6691 (PDE-9A)). Mice implanted with microencapsulated designer cells co-expressing the GTA/PGTA device with NPR-A and PDE-5A showed control of blood SEAP levels through administration of sildenafil (Viagra(®)). Designer cells engineered for PDE inhibitor-modulated transgene expression may provide a cell-based PDE-targeting drug discovery platform and enable drug-adjusted gene- and cell

  16. Chimerism and xenotransplantation. New concepts.

    PubMed

    Starzl, T E; Rao, A S; Murase, N; Demetris, A J; Thomson, A; Fung, J J

    1999-02-01

    In both transplant and infectious circumstances, the immune response is governed by migration and localization of the antigen. If the antigenic epitopes of transgenic xenografts are sufficiently altered to avoid evoking the destructive force of innate immunity, the mechanisms of engraftment should be the same as those that permit the chimerism-dependent immunologic confrontation and resolution that is the basis of allograft acceptance. In addition to "humanizing" the epitopes, one of the unanswered questions is whether the species restriction of complement described in 1994 by Valdivia and colleagues also necessitates the introduction of human complement regulatory genes in animal donors. Because the liver is the principal or sole source of most complement components, the complement quickly is transformed to that of the donor after hepatic transplantation. Thus, the need for complementary regulatory transgenes may vary according to the kind of xenograft used. Much evidence shows that physiologically important peptides produced by xenografts (e.g., insulin, clotting factors, and enzymes) are incorporated into the metabolic machinery of the recipient body. To the extent that this is not true, xenotransplantation could result in the production of diseases that are analogous to inborn errors of metabolism. In the climate of pessimism that followed the failures of baboon to human liver xenotransplantation in 1992-1993, it seemed inconceivable that the use of even more discordant donors, such as the pig, could ever be seriously entertained; however, this preceded insight into the xenogeneic and allogeneic barriers that has brought transplantation infectious immunity to common ground. With this new insight and the increasing ease of producing transgenic donors, the goal of clinical xenotransplantation may not be so distant.

  17. Neutropenic Mice Provide Insight into the Role of Skin-Infiltrating Neutrophils in the Host Protective Immunity against Filarial Infective Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Brotin, Emilie; Karadjian, Gregory; Hemon, Patrice; Gaudin-Nomé, Françoise; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Fercoq, Frédéric; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge and control of the pathogenesis induced by the filariae remain limited due to experimental obstacles presented by parasitic nematode biology and the lack of selective prophylactic or curative drugs. Here we thought to investigate the role of neutrophils in the host innate immune response to the infection caused by the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of human filariasis using mice harboring a gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and characterized by a profound blood neutropenia (Cxcr4+/1013). We provided manifold evidence emphasizing the major role of neutrophils in the control of the early stages of infection occurring in the skin. Firstly, we uncovered that the filarial parasitic success was dramatically decreased in Cxcr4+/1013 mice upon subcutaneous delivery of the infective stages of filariae (infective larvae, L3). This protection was linked to a larger number of neutrophils constitutively present in the skin of the mutant mice herein characterized as compared to wild type (wt) mice. Indeed, the parasitic success in Cxcr4+/1013 mice was normalized either upon depleting neutrophils, including the pool in the skin, or bypassing the skin via the intravenous infection of L3. Second, extending these observations to wt mice we found that subcutaneous delivery of L3 elicited an increase of neutrophils in the skin. Finally, living L3 larvae were able to promote in both wt and mutant mice, an oxidative burst response and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). This response of neutrophils, which is adapted to the large size of the L3 infective stages, likely directly contributes to the anti-parasitic strategies implemented by the host. Collectively, our results are demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils in early anti-filarial host responses through their capacity to undertake different anti-filarial strategies such as oxidative burst, degranulation and NETosis. PMID:27111140

  18. Neutropenic Mice Provide Insight into the Role of Skin-Infiltrating Neutrophils in the Host Protective Immunity against Filarial Infective Larvae.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Brotin, Emilie; Karadjian, Gregory; Hemon, Patrice; Gaudin-Nomé, Françoise; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Fercoq, Frédéric; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Bachelerie, Françoise; Martin, Coralie

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge and control of the pathogenesis induced by the filariae remain limited due to experimental obstacles presented by parasitic nematode biology and the lack of selective prophylactic or curative drugs. Here we thought to investigate the role of neutrophils in the host innate immune response to the infection caused by the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of human filariasis using mice harboring a gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and characterized by a profound blood neutropenia (Cxcr4(+/1013)). We provided manifold evidence emphasizing the major role of neutrophils in the control of the early stages of infection occurring in the skin. Firstly, we uncovered that the filarial parasitic success was dramatically decreased in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice upon subcutaneous delivery of the infective stages of filariae (infective larvae, L3). This protection was linked to a larger number of neutrophils constitutively present in the skin of the mutant mice herein characterized as compared to wild type (wt) mice. Indeed, the parasitic success in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice was normalized either upon depleting neutrophils, including the pool in the skin, or bypassing the skin via the intravenous infection of L3. Second, extending these observations to wt mice we found that subcutaneous delivery of L3 elicited an increase of neutrophils in the skin. Finally, living L3 larvae were able to promote in both wt and mutant mice, an oxidative burst response and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). This response of neutrophils, which is adapted to the large size of the L3 infective stages, likely directly contributes to the anti-parasitic strategies implemented by the host. Collectively, our results are demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils in early anti-filarial host responses through their capacity to undertake different anti-filarial strategies such as oxidative burst, degranulation and NETosis. PMID:27111140

  19. Neutropenic Mice Provide Insight into the Role of Skin-Infiltrating Neutrophils in the Host Protective Immunity against Filarial Infective Larvae.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Brotin, Emilie; Karadjian, Gregory; Hemon, Patrice; Gaudin-Nomé, Françoise; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Fercoq, Frédéric; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Bachelerie, Françoise; Martin, Coralie

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge and control of the pathogenesis induced by the filariae remain limited due to experimental obstacles presented by parasitic nematode biology and the lack of selective prophylactic or curative drugs. Here we thought to investigate the role of neutrophils in the host innate immune response to the infection caused by the Litomosoides sigmodontis murine model of human filariasis using mice harboring a gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and characterized by a profound blood neutropenia (Cxcr4(+/1013)). We provided manifold evidence emphasizing the major role of neutrophils in the control of the early stages of infection occurring in the skin. Firstly, we uncovered that the filarial parasitic success was dramatically decreased in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice upon subcutaneous delivery of the infective stages of filariae (infective larvae, L3). This protection was linked to a larger number of neutrophils constitutively present in the skin of the mutant mice herein characterized as compared to wild type (wt) mice. Indeed, the parasitic success in Cxcr4(+/1013) mice was normalized either upon depleting neutrophils, including the pool in the skin, or bypassing the skin via the intravenous infection of L3. Second, extending these observations to wt mice we found that subcutaneous delivery of L3 elicited an increase of neutrophils in the skin. Finally, living L3 larvae were able to promote in both wt and mutant mice, an oxidative burst response and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). This response of neutrophils, which is adapted to the large size of the L3 infective stages, likely directly contributes to the anti-parasitic strategies implemented by the host. Collectively, our results are demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils in early anti-filarial host responses through their capacity to undertake different anti-filarial strategies such as oxidative burst, degranulation and NETosis.

  20. Immuno-intervention for the induction of transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism.

    PubMed

    Sachs, David H; Sykes, Megan; Kawai, Tatsuo; Cosimi, A Benedict

    2011-06-01

    The induction of transplantation tolerance could liberate organ transplant recipients from the complications of life-long chronic immunosuppression. The original description of tolerance induction through mixed hematopoietic chimerism in mice utilized lethal whole body irradiation as the preparative regimen for achieving mixed chimerism. While such a regimen might be acceptable for treatment of patients with malignancies, which might also respond to the therapeutic effects of radiation, its toxicity would be unacceptable for patients in need only of an organ transplant. Graft-vs.-host disease, which is frequently a complication of mismatched bone marrow transplantation, would likewise be unacceptable for ordinary clinical transplantation. Therefore, as we have extended the use of this modality for tolerance induction from mice to large animal models, we have attempted to design preparative regimens that avoid both of these complications. In this article, we review our studies of mixed chimerism in mice, miniature swine and monkeys, as well as the results of our recent clinical studies that have extended this treatment modality to a series of kidney transplant patients who have been successfully weaned from all immunosuppression while maintaining stable renal function for up to 8 years.

  1. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) provides protection against whole-body γ-irradiation in mice via restoration of hematopoietic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K.; Abdel Fattah, Salma M.; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the protective effect of MGN-3 on overall maintenance of hematopoietic tissue after γ-irradiation. MGN-3 is an arabinoxylan from rice bran that has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant and immune modulator. Swiss albino mice were treated with MGN-3 prior to irradiation and continued to receive MGN-3 for 1 or 4 weeks. Results were compared with mice that received radiation (5 Gy γ rays) only, MGN-3 (40 mg/kg) only and control mice (receiving neither radiation nor MGN-3). At 1 and 4 weeks post-irradiation, different hematological, histopathological and biochemical parameters were examined. Mice exposed to irradiation alone showed significant depression in their complete blood count (CBC) except for neutrophilia. Additionally, histopathological studies showed hypocellularity of their bone marrow, as well as a remarkable decrease in splenic weight/relative size and in number of megakaryocytes. In contrast, pre-treatment with MGN-3 resulted in protection against irradiation-induced damage to the CBC parameters associated with complete bone marrow cellularity, as well as protection of the aforementioned splenic changes. Furthermore, MGN-3 exerted antioxidative activity in whole-body irradiated mice, and provided protection from irradiation-induced loss of body and organ weight. In conclusion, MGN-3 has the potential to protect progenitor cells in the bone marrow, which suggests the possible use of MGN-3/Biobran as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the severe adverse side effects associated with radiation therapy. PMID:23287771

  2. A role for multiple chimeric antigen receptor-expressing leukocytes in antigen-specific responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S.M.; John, Liza B.; Devaud, Christel; Prince, Miles H.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Trapani, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells can induce remission of some tumors, the role of other CAR-modified leukocytes is not well characterized. In this study, we characterize the function of leukocytes including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and CAR T cells from transgenic mice expressing a CAR under the control of the pan-hematopoietic promoter, vav, and determine the ability of these mice to respond to ERB expressing tumors. We demonstrate the anti-tumor functions of leukocytes, including antigen specific cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. The adoptive transfer of CAR T cells provided a greater survival advantage in the E0771ERB tumor model than their wildtype (WT) counterparts. In addition, CAR NK cells and CAR T cells also mediated increased survival in the RMAERB tumor model. When challenged with Her2 expressing tumors, F38 mice were shown to mount an effective immune response, resulting in tumor rejection and long-term survival. This was shown to be predominantly dependent on both CD8+ T cells and NK cells. However, macrophages and CD4+ T cells were also shown to contribute to this response. Overall, this study highlights the use of the vav-CAR mouse model as a unique tool to determine the anti-tumor function of various immune subsets, either alone or when acting alongside CAR T cells in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27153556

  3. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  4. Alloreactive Regulatory T Cells Allow the Generation of Mixed Chimerism and Transplant Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Paulina; Maldonado, Paula; Hidalgo, Yessia; Sauma, Daniela; Rosemblatt, Mario; Bono, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance is one of the main goals of modern immunology. Establishment of a mixed chimerism state in the transplant recipient has proven to be a suitable strategy for the induction of long-term allograft tolerance; however, current experimental recipient preconditioning protocols have many side effects, and are not feasible for use in future therapies. In order to improve the current mixed chimerism induction protocols, we developed a non-myeloablative bone-marrow transplant (NM-BMT) protocol using retinoic acid (RA)-induced alloantigen-specific Tregs, clinically available immunosuppressive drugs, and lower doses of irradiation. We demonstrate that RA-induced alloantigen-specific Tregs in addition to a NM-BMT protocol generates stable mixed chimerism and induces tolerance to allogeneic secondary skin allografts in mice. Therefore, the establishment of mixed chimerism through the use of donor-specific Tregs rather than non-specific immunosuppression could have a potential use in organ transplantation. PMID:26635810

  5. Early donor chimerism levels predict relapse and survival after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, Ran; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Loren, Alison W.; Frey, Noelle V.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Luger, Selina M.; Mangan, James K.; Gill, Saar I.; Vassilev, Pavel; Lafferty, Kathryn A.; Smith, Jacqueline; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Mick, Rosemarie; Porter, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The success of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is limited by a high rate of disease relapse. Early risk assessment could potentially improve outcomes by identifying appropriate patients for pre-emptive strategies that may ameliorate this high risk. Using a series of landmark analyses, we investigated the predictive value of early (day-30) donor chimerism measurements on disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease and survival in a cohort of 121 patients who were allografted with a uniform RIC regimen. Chimerism levels were analyzed as continuous variables. In multivariate analysis, day-30 whole blood chimerism levels were significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.90, p<0.001), relapse-free survival (HR=0.89, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.94, p=0.01). Day-30 T-cell chimerism levels were also significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.97, p=0.002), relapse-free survival (HR=0.97, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.99, p=0.05). Multivariate models that included T-cell chimerism provided a better prediction for these outcomes compared to whole blood chimerism. Day-30 chimerism levels were not associated with acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. We found that high donor chimerism levels were significantly associated with a low lymphocyte count in the recipient prior to transplant, highlighting the impact of pre-transplant lymphopenia on the kinetics of engraftment after RIC HSCT. In summary, low donor chimerism levels are associated with relapse and mortality and can potentially be used as an early predictive and prognostic marker. These findings can be used to design novel approaches to prevent relapse and to improve survival after RIC HSCT. PMID:25016197

  6. Chimeric hERG channels containing a tetramerization domain are functional and stable.

    PubMed

    Hausammann, Georg J; Grütter, Markus G

    2013-12-23

    Biochemical and detailed structural information of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels are scarce but are a prerequisite to understand the unwanted interactions of hERG with drugs and the effect of mutations that lead to long QT syndrome. Despite the huge interest in hERG, to our knowledge, procedures that provide a purified, functional, and tetrameric hERG channel are not available. Here, we describe hybrid hERG molecules, termed chimeric hERG channels, in which the N-terminal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain is deleted and the C-terminal C-linker as well as the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) portion is replaced by an artificial tetramerization domain. These chimeric hERG channels can be overexpressed in HEK cells, solubilized in detergent, and purified as tetramers. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the chimeric channels exhibit efficient trafficking to the cell surface, whereas a hERG construct lacking the PAS and C-linker/CNBD domains is retained in the cytoplasm. The chimeric hERG channels retain essential hERG functions such as voltage-dependent gating and inhibition by astemizole and the scorpion toxin BeKm-1. The chimeric channels are thus powerful tools for helping to understand the contribution of the cytoplasmic hERG domains to the gating process and are suitable for in vitro biochemical and structural studies. PMID:24325597

  7. Generation and evaluation of a chimeric classical swine fever virus expressing a visible marker gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Yuan; Li, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Lingkai; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a noncytopathogenic virus, and the incorporation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag into the viral genome provides a means of direct monitoring of viral infection without immunostaining. It is well established that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the CSFV plays an important role in viral RNA replication. Although CSFV carrying a reporter gene and chimeric CSFV have been generated and evaluated, a chimeric CSFV with a visible marker has not yet been reported. Here, we generated and evaluated a chimeric virus containing the EGFP tag and the 3'-UTR from vaccine strain HCLV (C-strain) in the genetic background of the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. The chimeric marker CSFV was fluorescent and had an approximately 100-fold lower viral titer, lower replication level of viral genome, and weaker fluorescence intensity than the recombinant CSFV with only the EGFP tag or the parental virus. Furthermore, the marker chimera was avirulent and displayed no viremia in inoculated pigs, which were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge as early as 15 days post-inoculation. The chimeric marker virus was visible in vitro and attenuated in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that CSFV can be engineered to produce attenuated variants with a visible marker to facilitate in vitro studies of CSFV infection and replication and to develop of novel vaccines against CSF. PMID:26614259

  8. Novel nanocomposites from spider silk–silica fusion (chimeric) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Patwardhan, Siddharth V.; Belton, David J.; Kitchel, Brandon; Anastasiades, Daphne; Huang, Jia; Naik, Rajesh R.; Perry, Carole C.; Kaplan, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Silica skeletal architectures in diatoms are characterized by remarkable morphological and nanostructural details. Silk proteins from spiders and silkworms form strong and intricate self-assembling fibrous biomaterials in nature. We combined the features of silk with biosilica through the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel family of chimeric proteins for subsequent use in model materials forming reactions. The domains from the major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) protein of Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk provide control over structural and morphological details because it can be self-assembled through diverse processing methods including film casting and fiber electrospinning. Biosilica nanostructures in diatoms are formed in aqueous ambient conditions at neutral pH and low temperatures. The R5 peptide derived from the silaffin protein of Cylindrotheca fusiformis induces and regulates silica precipitation in the chimeric protein designs under similar ambient conditions. Whereas mineralization reactions performed in the presence of R5 peptide alone form silica particles with a size distribution of 0.5–10 μm in diameter, reactions performed in the presence of the new fusion proteins generate nanocomposite materials containing silica particles with a narrower size distribution of 0.5–2 μm in diameter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that composite morphology and structure could be regulated by controlling processing conditions to produce films and fibers. These results suggest that the chimeric protein provides new options for processing and control over silica particle sizes, important benefits for biomedical and specialty materials, particularly in light of the all aqueous processing and the nanocomposite features of these new materials. PMID:16769898

  9. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  10. Evaluation of medicated gel as a supplement to providing acetaminophen in the drinking water of C57BL/6 mice after surgery.

    PubMed

    Christy, Amanda C; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Settle, Timothy L

    2014-03-01

    After surgery, rodents frequently receive acetaminophen-treated drinking water for pain relief, but the effectiveness of this practice is often questioned. Gel products are now available to facilitate the delivery of oral medication to rodents after surgery. We sought to compare consumption of flavored medicated gel and medicated water after surgery and to determine whether providing supplemental acetaminophen in gel form ensures the ingestion of a therapeutic dose of an analgesic after surgery. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into 3 groups after surgery: those that received acetaminophen-treated water and untreated gel (MW group); those that received medicated gel and untreated water (MG group); and those that received acetaminophen in both forms (MWG group). Total water and gel consumption were monitored daily from the day before surgery until 2 d thereafter. Mice in the MG group consumed significantly less gel than water, and consequently, the total acetaminophen dose per mouse in the MG group (49 mg/kg) was significantly less than that of the MWG group (347 mg/kg). Although the dose consumed by mice in the MW group (158 mg/kg) approached the targeted acetaminophen dose of 200 mg/kg, only mice in the MWG group actually achieved the desired dose. The results of this study indicate that flavored acetaminophen-containing gel can be used in combination with medicated water to ensure that rodents ingest the targeted dose of medication.

  11. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Kashentseva, Elena A.; Yeh, Anthony J.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Curiel, David T.; Leppla, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  12. Repetitive behavior and increased activity in mice with Purkinje cell loss: a model for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren A; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy

    2010-02-01

    Repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity are common features of developmental disorders, including autism. Neuropathology of the cerebellum is also a frequent occurrence in autism and other developmental disorders. Recent studies have indicated that cerebellar pathology may play a causal role in the generation of repetitive and hyperactive behaviors. In this study, we examined the relationship between cerebellar pathology and these behaviors in a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mutant embryos and +/+ embryos. Lc/+ mice lose 100% of their Purkinje cells postnatally due to a cell-intrinsic gain-of-function mutation. Through our histological examination, we demonstrated that Lc/+<-->+/+ chimeric mice have Purkinje cells ranging from zero to normal numbers. Our analysis of these chimeric cerebella confirmed previous studies on Purkinje cell lineage. The results of both open-field activity and hole-board exploration testing indicated negative relationships between Purkinje cell number and measures of activity and investigatory nose-poking. Additionally, in a progressive-ratio operant paradigm, we found that Lc/+ mice lever-pressed significantly less than +/+ controls, which led to significantly lower breakpoints in this group. In contrast, chimeric mice lever-pressed significantly more than controls and this repetitive lever-pressing behavior was significantly and negatively correlated with total Purkinje cell numbers. Although the performance of Lc/+ mice is probably related to their motor deficits, the significant relationships between Purkinje cell number and repetitive lever-pressing behavior as well as open-field activity measures provide support for a role of cerebellar pathology in generating repetitive behavior and increased activity in chimeric mice. PMID:20105240

  13. Repetitive behavior and increased activity in mice with Purkinje cell loss: a model for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren A; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy

    2010-02-01

    Repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity are common features of developmental disorders, including autism. Neuropathology of the cerebellum is also a frequent occurrence in autism and other developmental disorders. Recent studies have indicated that cerebellar pathology may play a causal role in the generation of repetitive and hyperactive behaviors. In this study, we examined the relationship between cerebellar pathology and these behaviors in a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mutant embryos and +/+ embryos. Lc/+ mice lose 100% of their Purkinje cells postnatally due to a cell-intrinsic gain-of-function mutation. Through our histological examination, we demonstrated that Lc/+<-->+/+ chimeric mice have Purkinje cells ranging from zero to normal numbers. Our analysis of these chimeric cerebella confirmed previous studies on Purkinje cell lineage. The results of both open-field activity and hole-board exploration testing indicated negative relationships between Purkinje cell number and measures of activity and investigatory nose-poking. Additionally, in a progressive-ratio operant paradigm, we found that Lc/+ mice lever-pressed significantly less than +/+ controls, which led to significantly lower breakpoints in this group. In contrast, chimeric mice lever-pressed significantly more than controls and this repetitive lever-pressing behavior was significantly and negatively correlated with total Purkinje cell numbers. Although the performance of Lc/+ mice is probably related to their motor deficits, the significant relationships between Purkinje cell number and repetitive lever-pressing behavior as well as open-field activity measures provide support for a role of cerebellar pathology in generating repetitive behavior and increased activity in chimeric mice.

  14. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs.

    PubMed

    Blignaut, Belinda; Visser, Nico; Theron, Jacques; Rieder, Elizabeth; Maree, Francois F

    2011-04-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South African Territories (SAT) type viruses, which exist as distinct genetic and antigenic variants in different geographical regions. A cross-serotype chimeric virus, vKNP/SAT2, was engineered by replacing the external capsid-encoding region (1B-1D/2A) of an infectious cDNA clone of the SAT2 vaccine strain, ZIM/7/83, with that of SAT1 virus KNP/196/91. The vKNP/SAT2 virus exhibited comparable infection kinetics, virion stability and antigenic profiles to the KNP/196/91 parental virus, thus indicating that the functions provided by the capsid can be readily exchanged between serotypes. As these qualities are necessary for vaccine manufacturing, high titres of stable chimeric virus were obtained. Chemically inactivated vaccines, formulated as double-oil-in-water emulsions, were produced from intact 146S virion particles of both the chimeric and parental viruses. Inoculation of guinea pigs with the respective vaccines induced similar antibody responses. In order to show compliance with commercial vaccine requirements, the vaccines were evaluated in a full potency test. Pigs vaccinated with the chimeric vaccine produced neutralizing antibodies and showed protection against homologous FMDV challenge, albeit not to the same extent as for the vaccine prepared from the parental virus. These results provide support that chimeric vaccines containing the external capsid of field isolates can be successfully produced and that they induce protective immune responses in FMD host species. PMID:21177923

  15. Association of pigmentary anomalies with chromosomal and genetic mosaicism and chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, I T; Frias, J L; Cantu, E S; Lafer, C Z; Flannery, D B; Graham, J G

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated eight patients with pigmentary anomalies reminiscent of incontinentia pigmenti or hypomelanosis of Ito. All demonstrated abnormal lymphocyte karyotypes with chromosomal mosaicism in lymphocytes and/or skin fibroblasts. In seven the skin was darkly pigmented, and in all of these seven cases the abnormal pigmentation followed Blaschko lines. The literature contains at least 36 similar examples of an association between pigmentary anomalies and chromosomal mosaicism, as well as five examples of an association with chimerism. The pigmentary anomalies are pleomorphic, and the chromosomal anomalies involve autosomes and sex chromosomes. The pigmentation patterns are reminiscent of the archetypal paradigm seen in allophenic mice and demonstrate the clonal origin of melanoblasts from neural crest precursors. Patients with anomalous skin pigmentation, particularly when it follows a pattern of Blaschko lines, should be appropriately evaluated for a possible association with chromosomal or genetic mosaicism or chimerism. Images Figure 1 PMID:2667350

  16. Engineering of chimeric class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    PubMed

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C; Kim, Young-Rok; Batt, Carl A

    2004-11-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB(-)4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic

  17. Structure-Function Analysis of Peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette Transporters Using Chimeric Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

  18. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes.

  19. The site of allergen expression in hematopoietic cells determines the degree and quality of tolerance induced through molecular chimerism.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Gattringer, Martina; Farkas, Andreas M; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The transplantation of allergens (e.g. Phl p 5 or Bet v 1) expressed on BM cells as membrane-anchored full-length proteins leads to permanent tolerance at the T-cell, B-cell, and effector-cell levels. Since the exposure of complete allergens bears the risk of inducing anaphylaxis, we investigated here whether expression of Phl p 5 in the cytoplasm (rather than on the cell surface) is sufficient for tolerance induction. Transplantation of BALB/c BM retrovirally transduced to express Phl p 5 in the cytoplasm led to stable and durable molecular chimerism in syngeneic recipients (∼20% chimerism at 6 months). Chimeras showed allergen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Further, Phl p 5-specific TH 1-dependent humoral responses were tolerized in several chimeras. Surprisingly, Phl p 5-specific IgE and IgG1 levels were significantly reduced but still detectable in sera of chimeric mice, indicating incomplete B-cell tolerance. No Phl p 5-specific sIgM developed in cytoplasmic chimeras, which is in marked contrast to mice transplanted with BM expressing membrane-anchored Phl p 5. Thus, the expression site of the allergen substantially influences the degree and quality of tolerance achieved with molecular chimerism in IgE-mediated allergy.

  20. The site of allergen expression in hematopoietic cells determines the degree and quality of tolerance induced through molecular chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Gattringer, Martina; Farkas, Andreas M; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of allergens (e.g. Phl p 5 or Bet v 1) expressed on BM cells as membrane-anchored full-length proteins leads to permanent tolerance at the T-cell, B-cell, and effector-cell levels. Since the exposure of complete allergens bears the risk of inducing anaphylaxis, we investigated here whether expression of Phl p 5 in the cytoplasm (rather than on the cell surface) is sufficient for tolerance induction. Transplantation of BALB/c BM retrovirally transduced to express Phl p 5 in the cytoplasm led to stable and durable molecular chimerism in syngeneic recipients (∼20% chimerism at 6 months). Chimeras showed allergen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Further, Phl p 5-specific TH1-dependent humoral responses were tolerized in several chimeras. Surprisingly, Phl p 5-specific IgE and IgG1 levels were significantly reduced but still detectable in sera of chimeric mice, indicating incomplete B-cell tolerance. No Phl p 5-specific sIgM developed in cytoplasmic chimeras, which is in marked contrast to mice transplanted with BM expressing membrane-anchored Phl p 5. Thus, the expression site of the allergen substantially influences the degree and quality of tolerance achieved with molecular chimerism in IgE-mediated allergy. PMID:23765421

  1. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  2. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  3. Metabolic studies of prostanozol with the uPA-SCID chimeric mouse model and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Lore; Lootens, Leen; Decroix, Lieselot; Botrè, Francesco; Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their adverse health and performance enhancing effects. Effective control of their misuse by detection in urine requires knowledge about their metabolism. In case of designer steroids, ethical objections limit the use of human volunteers to perform excretion studies. Therefore the suitability of alternative models needs to be investigated. In this study pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) and an uPA(+/+)-SCID chimeric mouse model were used to examine the metabolism of the designer steroid prostanozol as a reference standard. Metabolites were detected by GC-MS (full scan) and LC-MS/MS (precursor ion scan). In total twenty-four prostanozol metabolites were detected with the in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies, which could be grouped into two broad classes, those with a 17-hydroxy- and those with a 17-keto-substituent. Major first phase metabolic sites were tentatively identified as C-3'; C-4 and C-16. Moreover, 3'- and 16β-hydroxy-17-ketoprostanozol could be unequivocally identified, since authentic reference material was available, in both models. Comparison with published data from humans showed a good correlation, except for phase II metabolism. As metabolites were in contrast to the human studies predominantly present in the free fraction. Two types of metabolites ((di)hydroxylated prostanozol metabolites) that have not been described before could be confirmed in a real positive doping control sample. Hence, the results provide further evidence for the applicability of chimeric mice and HLM to perform metabolism studies of designer steroids. PMID:26774429

  4. Liposome-entrapped T-cell peptide provides help for a co-entrapped B-cell peptide to overcome genetic restriction in mice and induce immunological memory.

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriadis, G; Wang, Z; Barenholz, Y; Francis, M J

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of a T-cell epitope peptide providing help for a B-cell epitope peptide when both peptides are co-entrapped in the same liposomes. Epitope models used were a 28 amino acid peptide from the S region of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (subtype adw) containing an H-2s Th-cell epitope, and a 33 amino acid peptide from the pre-S1 region of the HBsAg (subtype adw) designed to exclude an adjacent H-2s T-cell epitope, the latter (pre-S1) peptide being recognized by SJL (H-2s) mice as a B-cell epitope. SJL(H-2s) mice were immunized twice intramuscularly with S or pre-S1 peptide alone, co-entrapped in the same liposomes or entrapped in separate liposomes which were mixed before injection. Analysis of sera for anti-peptide IgG1 antibodies revealed that the Th-cell peptide provided help for the pre-S1 peptide only when the two peptides were co-entrapped in the same vesicles. This helper effect was found to correlate with the ability of S peptide (co-entrapped with the pre-S1) to stimulate T-cell proliferation in vitro. There was no IgG1 response against pre-S1 peptide in mice immunized with a mixture of the free peptides or a mixture of separately entrapped peptides. A helper effect, albeit much weaker, was also observed in mice immunized with the two peptides emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Antisera from mice immunized with both peptides co-entrapped in liposomes were found to bind to full length (pre-S1 containing) recombinant HBsAg. Moreover, binding values were much higher than those seen with antisera from animals immunized with the liposomal S peptide above, presumably because of full access of anti-pre-S1 antibodies to the pre-S1 region of the rHBsAg. It is concluded that liposomes could serve not only as an immunological adjuvant for peptides but also as a carrier for Th- and B-cell epitopes thus eliminating the need for covalent linkage to a carrier protein. PMID:7508417

  5. Detection and quantification of chimerism by droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    George, David; Czech, Juliann; John, Bobby; Yu, Min; Jennings, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of chimerism and microchimerism is proving to be increasingly valuable for hematopoietic cell transplantation as well as non-transplant conditions. However, methods that are available to quantify low-level chimerism lack accuracy. Therefore, we developed and validated a method for quantifying chimerism based on digital PCR technology. We demonstrate accurate quantification that far exceeds what is possible with analog qPCR down to 0.01% with the potential to go even lower. Also, this method is inherently more informative than qPCR. We expect the advantages of digital PCR will make it the preferred method for chimerism analysis.

  6. Repeated Injections of IL-2 Break Renal Allograft Tolerance Induced via Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Nadazdin, O; Boskovic, S; Lee, S; Zorn, E; Smith, R N; Colvin, R B; Madsen, J C; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T; Benichou, G

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of allografts achieved in mice via stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism relies essentially on continuous elimination of developing alloreactive T cells in the thymus (central deletion). Conversely, while only transient mixed chimerism is observed in nonhuman primates and patients, it is sufficient to ensure tolerance of kidney allografts. In this setting, it is likely that tolerance depends on peripheral regulatory mechanisms rather than thymic deletion. This implies that, in primates, upsetting the balance between inflammatory and regulatory alloimmunity could abolish tolerance and trigger the rejection of previously accepted renal allografts. In this study, six monkeys that were treated with a mixed chimerism protocol and had accepted a kidney allograft for periods of 1-10 years after withdrawal of immunosuppression received subcutaneous injections of IL-2 cytokine (0.6-3 × 10(6) IU/m(2) ). This resulted in rapid rejection of previously tolerated renal transplants and was associated with an expansion and reactivation of alloreactive pro-inflammatory memory T cells in the host's lymphoid organs and in the graft. This phenomenon was prevented by anti-CD8 antibody treatment. Finally, this process was reversible in that cessation of IL-2 administration aborted the rejection process and restored normal kidney graft function.

  7. Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

    1987-12-01

    Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

  8. In silico and experimental characterization of chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase with the complete conserved pentapeptide of Candida rugosa lipase.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Shamsara, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Morshedi, Dena; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Esmat; Safari, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Lipases are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have broad applications in detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and dairy industries. To provide chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (BTL2), the completely conserved pentapeptide (¹¹²Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly¹¹⁶) was replaced with similar sequences (²⁰⁷Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly²¹¹) of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR) at the nucleophilic elbow region. For this purpose, three mutations including A112G, H113E, and Q115A were inserted in the conserved pentapeptide sequence of btl2 gene. Based on the crystal structures of 2W22, the best structure of opened form of the chimeric lipases were garnered using the MODELLER v9.10 software. The native and chimeric lipases were docked to a set of ligands, and a trial version of Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software was used to obtain the energy values. Docking results confirmed chimeric lipase to be better than the native lipase. Following the in silico study, cloning experiments were conducted and expression of native and chimeric btl2 gene in Pichia pastoris was performed. The native and chimeric lipases were purified, and the effect of these mutations on characteristics of chimeric lipase studied and then compared with those of native lipase. Chimeric lipase exhibited 1.6-fold higher activity than the native lipase at 55 °C. The highest percentage of both lipases activity was observed at 60 °C and pH of 8.0. The ion Ca²⁺ slightly inhibited the activity of both lipases, whereas the organic solvent enhanced the lipase stability of chimeric lipase as compared with the native lipase. According to the results, the presence of two glycine residues at the conserved pentapeptide region of this chimeric lipase (¹¹²Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly¹¹⁶) may increase the flexibility of the nucleophilic elbow region and affect the enzyme activity level. PMID:23274720

  9. Donor-specific tolerance induction in organ transplantation via mixed splenocytes chimerism.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, S; Kanamoto, A; Takayama, T

    2013-08-01

    We have shown previously that donor-derived splenocytes can replace recipients' bone marrow and induce donor-specific tolerance (DST). We have also shown the usefulness of the chimeric state for the induction of DST. Further analysis of mixed splenocytes chimera, especially the role of each T cells in mixed splenocytes chimera, is indispensable issue for its clinical use. A chimeric state has been shown to achieve long-term survival in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched grafts. The donor-derived splenocytes can replace recipients' bone marrow and induce DST. The long-term survival of allogeneic skin grafts was achieved without immunosuppressants. In this study we show the role of each T cell type in a splenocyte mixed chimera. This review provides a short summary of our original work, adding some supplemental interpretations. Mixed chimerism is thus considered an attractive approach for the induction of DST without the use of immunosuppressants. In this paper, we summarize some of the findings on mixed splenocyte chimeras and review mixed chimerism in recent organ transplantation.

  10. Regional atmospheric composition modeling with CHIMERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Beekmann, M.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Curci, G.; Foret, G.; Hodzic, A.; Mailler, S.; Meleux, F.; Monge, J.-L.; Pison, I.; Turquety, S.; Valari, M.; Vautard, R.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric trace gas and aerosol pollutants have adverse effects on health, environment and climate. In order to quantify and mitigate such effects, a wide range of processes leading to the formation and transport of pollutants must be considered, understood and represented in numerical models. Regional scale pollution episodes result from the combination of several factors: high emissions (from anthropogenic or natural sources), stagnant meteorological conditions, velocity and efficiency of the chemistry and the deposition. All these processes are highly variable in time and space, and their relative importance to the pollutants budgets can be quantified within a chemistry-transport models (CTM). The offline CTM CHIMERE model uses meteorological model fields and emissions fluxes and calculates deterministically their behavior in the troposphere. The calculated three-dimensional fields of chemical concentrations can be compared to measurements to analyze past periods or used to make air quality forecasts and CHIMERE has enabled a fine understanding of pollutants transport during numerous measurements campaigns. It is a part of the PREVAIR french national forecast platform, delivering pollutant concentrations up to three days in advance. The model also allows scenario studies and long term simulations for pollution trends. The modelling of photochemical air pollution has reached a good level of maturity, and the latest projects involving CHIMERE now aim at increasing our understanding of pollution impact on health at the urban scale or at the other end of the spectrum for long term air quality and climate change interlinkage studies, quantifying the emissions and transport of pollen, but also, at a larger scale, analyzing the transport of pollutants plumes emitted by volcanic eruptions and forest fires.

  11. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bounds, Callie E.; Kwilas, Steven A.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Brannan, Jennifer M.; Bakken, Russell R.; Dye, John M.; Hooper, Jay W.; Dupuy, Lesley C.; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co) glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP) a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000) were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP) antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000) were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA). Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG) purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP) into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma) EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR -/-) mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  12. Evaluation of genetic melanoma vaccines in cdk4-mutant mice provides evidence for immunological tolerance against authochthonous melanomas in the skin.

    PubMed

    Steitz, Julia; Büchs, Stefanie; Tormo, Damia; Ferrer, Aleix; Wenzel, Jörg; Huber, Christoph; Wölfel, Thomas; Barbacid, Mariano; Malumbres, Marcos; Tüting, Thomas

    2006-01-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of a candidate melanoma vaccine approach in mice genetically prone to develop melanoma due to the introduction of an oncogenic mutation (R24C) in the germline sequence of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), a protein critically involved in cell cycle regulation. Melanomas were induced in cdk4-mutant mice by chemical carcinogenesis and UVB irradiation. A genetic prime-boost strategy targeting the clinically relevant differentiation antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) was performed which was able to stimulate a melanocyte-specific cellular immune response associated with localized autoimmune vitiligo-like depigmentation. However, significant destruction of carcinogen-induced autochthonous melanocytic neoplasms in the skin was not observed following immunization. We provide evidence that autochthonous melanomas expressed TRP2 but not the MHC molecule H2-Kb and are immunologically tolerated in the skin. Our results highlight the importance of assessing melanoma vaccines in genetic mouse models that more adequately represent the expected clinical situation in order to identify strategies, which eventually may be of benefit for melanoma patients.

  13. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  14. The Pathogenesis of Saffold Virus in AG129 Mice and the Effects of Its Truncated L Protein in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shawn Zheng Kai; Chua, Kaw Bing; Xu, Yishi; Prabakaran, Mookkan

    2016-01-01

    Saffold Virus (SAFV) is a human cardiovirus that has been suggested to cause severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Compared to a similar virus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), SAFV has a truncated Leader (L) protein, a protein essential in the establishment of persistent CNS infections. In this study, we generated a chimeric SAFV by replacing the L protein of SAFV with that of TMEV. We then compared the replication in cell cultures and pathogenesis in a mouse model. We showed that both SAFV and chimeric SAFV are able to infect Vero and Neuro2a cells well, but only chimeric SAFV was able to infect RAW264.7. We then showed that mice lacking IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptors provide a good animal model for SAFV infection, and further identified the locality of the infection to the ventral horn of the spine and several locations in the brain. Lastly, we showed that neither SAFV nor chimeric SAFV causes persistence in this model. Overall, our results provide a strong basis on which the mechanisms underlying Saffold virus induced neuropathogenesis can be further studied and, hence, facilitating new information about its pathogenesis. PMID:26901216

  15. Chimeric virus-like particles for the delivery of an inserted conserved influenza A-specific CTL epitope.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Wan-Shoo; Reiseger, Jessica; Turner, Stephen John; Boyd, Richard; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    The small hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg-S) have the ability to self-assemble with host-derived lipids into empty non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs). HBsAg-S VLPs are the sole component of the licensed hepatitis B vaccine, and they are a useful delivery platform for foreign epitopes. To develop VLPs capable of transporting foreign cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, HBsAg-S specific CTL epitopes at various sites were substituted with a conserved CTL epitope derived from the influenza matrix protein. Depending on the insertion site, the introduction of the MHC class I A2.1-restricted influenza epitope was compatible with the secretion competence of HBsAg-S indicating that chimeric VLPs were assembled. Immunizations of transgenic HHDII mice with chimeric VLPs induced anti-influenza CTL responses proving that the inserted foreign epitope can be correctly processed and cross-presented. Chimeric VLPs in the absence of adjuvant were able to induce memory T cell responses, which could be recalled by influenza virus infections in the mouse model system. The ability of chimeric HBsAg-S VLPs to induce anti-foreign CTL responses and also with the proven ability to induce humoral immune responses constitute a highly versatile platform for the delivery of selected multiple epitopes to target disease associated infectious agents.

  16. Role of regulatory T cells in transferable immunological tolerance to bone marrow donor in murine mixed chimerism model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Il-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, You-sun; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2013-12-01

    Constructing a bone marrow chimera prior to graft transplantation can induce donor-specific immune tolerance. Mixed chimerism containing hematopoietic cells of both recipient- and donor-origin has advantages attributed from low dose of total body irradiation. In this study, we explored the mechanism of mixed chimerism supplemented with depletion of Natural Killer cells. Mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 bone marrow cells was induced in recipient BALB/c mice which were given 450 cGy of γ-ray irradiation (n = 16). As revealed by reduced proliferation and cytokine production in mixed leukocyte reaction and ELISpot assay (24.6 vs 265.5), the allo-immune response to bone marrow donor was reduced. Furthermore, the induction of transferable immunological tolerance was confirmed by adoptive transfer and subsequent acceptance of C57BL/6 skin graft (n = 4). CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells were increased in the recipient compartment of the mixed chimera (19.2% → 33.8%). This suggests that regulatory T cells may be therapeutically used for the induction of graft-specific tolerance by mixed chimerism.

  17. Use of CTLA4Ig for induction of mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Ochiai, T; Boskovic, S; Nadazdin, O; Oura, T; Schoenfeld, D; Cappetta, K; Smith, R-N; Colvin, R B; Madsen, J C; Sachs, D H; Benichou, G; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T

    2014-12-01

    We have previously reported successful induction of renal allograft tolerance via a mixed chimerism approach in nonhuman primates. In those studies, we found that costimulatory blockade with anti-CD154 mAb was an effective adjunctive therapy for induction of renal allograft tolerance. However, since anti-CD154 mAb is not clinically available, we have evaluated CTLA4Ig as an alternative agent for effecting costimulation blockade in this treatment protocol. Two CTLA4Igs, abatacept and belatacept, were substituted for anti-CD154 mAb in the conditioning regimen (low dose total body irradiation, thymic irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin and a 1-month posttransplant course of cyclosporine [CyA]). Three recipients treated with the abatacept regimen failed to develop comparable lymphoid chimerism to that achieved with anti-CD154 mAb treatment and these recipients rejected their kidney allografts early. With the belatacept regimen, four of five recipients developed chimerism and three of these achieved long-term renal allograft survival (>861, >796 and >378 days) without maintenance immunosuppression. Neither chimerism nor long-term allograft survival were achieved in two recipients treated with the belatacept regimen but with a lower, subtherapeutic dose of CyA. This study indicates that CD28/B7 blockade with belatacept can provide a clinically applicable alternative to anti-CD154 mAb for promoting chimerism and renal allograft tolerance.

  18. Intra-serotype SAT2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against FMDV challenge.

    PubMed

    Maree, Francois F; Nsamba, Peninah; Mutowembwa, Paidamwoyo; Rotherham, Lia S; Esterhuysen, Jan; Scott, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    The genetic diversity of the three Southern African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each SAT-specific topotype may be needed. This has serious implications for control of FMD using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. Here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vSAT2(ZIM14)-SAT2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed capsid-coding region (1B-1D/2A) of a SAT2 genome-length clone, pSAT2, with that of the field isolate, SAT2/ZIM/14/90. The chimeric FMDV produced by this technique was viable, grew to high titres and stably maintained the 1B-1D/2A sequence upon passage. Chemically inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccines of both the chimeric and parental immunogens were used to vaccinate cattle. The serological response to vaccination showed the production of strong neutralizing antibody titres that correlated with protection against homologous FMDV challenge. We also predicted a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with an intra-serotype chimeric vaccine would be protected against challenge with viruses that caused recent outbreaks in southern Africa. These results provide support that chimeric vaccines containing the external capsid of field isolates induce protective immune responses in FMD host species similar to the parental vaccine.

  19. A chimeric platelet-targeted urokinase prodrug selectively blocks new thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Rudy E; Zaitsev, Sergei; Ahn, Hyun Sook; Hayes, Vincent; Kowalska, M Anna; Lambert, Michele P; Wang, Yuhuan; Siegel, Donald L; Bougie, Daniel W; Aster, Richard H; Myers, Daniel D; Stepanova, Victoria; Cines, Douglas B; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Poncz, Mortimer

    2016-02-01

    The use of fibrinolytic agents to prevent new thrombus formation is limited by an increased risk of bleeding due to lysis of hemostatic clots that prevent hemorrhage in damaged blood vessels. We sought to develop an agent that provides thromboprophylaxis without carrying a significant risk of causing systemic fibrinolysis or disrupting hemostatic clots. We previously showed that platelet (PLT) α granule-delivered urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is highly effective in preventing thrombosis, while being associated with little systemic fibrinolysis or bleeding. Here, we generated a chimeric prodrug composed of a single-chain version of the variable region of an anti-αIIbβ3 mAb fused to a thrombin-activatable, low-molecular-weight pro-uPA (PLT/uPA-T). PLT/uPA-T recognizes human αIIbβ3 on both quiescent and activated platelets and is enzymatically activated specifically by thrombin. We found that this prodrug binds tightly to human platelets even after gel filtration, has a prolonged half-life in mice transgenic for human αIIb compared with that of uPA-T, and prevents clot formation in a microfluidic system. Importantly, in two murine injury models, PLT/uPA-T did not lyse preexisting clots, even when administration was delayed by as little as 10 minutes, while it concurrently prevented the development of nascent thrombi. Thus, PLT/uPA-T represents the prototype of a platelet-targeted thromboprophylactic agent that selectively targets nascent over preexisting thrombi. PMID:26690701

  20. A chimeric platelet-targeted urokinase prodrug selectively blocks new thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Rudy E.; Zaitsev, Sergei; Ahn, Hyun Sook; Hayes, Vincent; Kowalska, M. Anna; Lambert, Michele P.; Wang, Yuhuan; Siegel, Donald L.; Bougie, Daniel W.; Aster, Richard H.; Myers, Daniel D.; Stepanova, Victoria; Cines, Douglas B.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Poncz, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    The use of fibrinolytic agents to prevent new thrombus formation is limited by an increased risk of bleeding due to lysis of hemostatic clots that prevent hemorrhage in damaged blood vessels. We sought to develop an agent that provides thromboprophylaxis without carrying a significant risk of causing systemic fibrinolysis or disrupting hemostatic clots. We previously showed that platelet (PLT) α granule–delivered urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is highly effective in preventing thrombosis, while being associated with little systemic fibrinolysis or bleeding. Here, we generated a chimeric prodrug composed of a single-chain version of the variable region of an anti-αIIbβ3 mAb fused to a thrombin-activatable, low-molecular-weight pro-uPA (PLT/uPA-T). PLT/uPA-T recognizes human αIIbβ3 on both quiescent and activated platelets and is enzymatically activated specifically by thrombin. We found that this prodrug binds tightly to human platelets even after gel filtration, has a prolonged half-life in mice transgenic for human αIIb compared with that of uPA-T, and prevents clot formation in a microfluidic system. Importantly, in two murine injury models, PLT/uPA-T did not lyse preexisting clots, even when administration was delayed by as little as 10 minutes, while it concurrently prevented the development of nascent thrombi. Thus, PLT/uPA-T represents the prototype of a platelet-targeted thromboprophylactic agent that selectively targets nascent over preexisting thrombi. PMID:26690701

  1. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth.

  2. A PLGA-encapsulated chimeric protein protects against adherence and toxicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Shahram; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Hasannia, Sadegh; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common cause of diarrhea among children. Colonization factors and enterotoxins are the major ETEC candidate vaccines. Since protection against ETEC mostly occurs by induction of IgA antibodies, much effort is focused on the development of oral vaccines. In this study oral immunogenicity of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulated chimeric protein containing CfaB, CstH, CotA and LTB (Heat-labile B subunit) was investigated. The protein was encapsulated in PLGA by double emulsion method and nanoparticles were characterized physicochemically. Immunogenicity was assessed by evaluating IgG1, IgG2 and IgA titers after BALB/c mice vaccination. Non aggregated nanoparticles had a spherical shape with an average particle size of 252.7±23 nm and 91.96±4.4% of encapsulation efficiency. Western blotting showed maintenance of the molecular weight and antigenicity of the released protein. Oral immunization of mice induced serum IgG and fecal IgA antibody responses. Immunization induced protection against ETEC binding to Caco-2 cells. The effect of LT toxin on fluid accumulation in ileal loops was neutralized by inhibition of enterotoxin binding to GM1-ganglosides. Delivery of the chimeric protein in PLGA elicited both systemic and mucosal immune responses. The findings could be exploited to development of oral multi-component ETEC prophylactic measures. PMID:23906742

  3. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  4. Generation of Gene Knockout Mice by ES Cell Microinjection

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Glenn; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2009-01-01

    This unit lists and describes protocols used in the production of chimeric mice leading to the generation of gene knockout mice. These protocols include the collection of blastocyst embryos, ES cell injection, and uterine transfer of injected blastocysts. Support protocols in the superovulation of blastocyst donor mice, generation of pseudopregnant recipients, fabrication of glass pipettes, and generation of germline mice are also included. Practical tips and solutions are mentioned to help troubleshoot problems that may occur. PMID:19731226

  5. Complex chimerism: pregnancy after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kimberly K; Petroff, Margaret G; Coscia, Lisa A; Armenti, Vincent T; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant.

  6. Tissue distribution and radiation dosimetry of astatine-211-labeled chimeric 81C6, an alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Stabin, M G; Larsen, R H; Bigner, D D

    1997-04-01

    A paired-label study was performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts to compare the localization of human/mouse anti-tenascin chimeric antibody 81C6 labeled by reaction with N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astatobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 3-[131I]iodobenzoate. Over the 48-h observation period, the distribution of 211At- and 131I-labeled antibody were quite similar in tumor and normal tissues except stomach. These data were used to calculate human radiation doses for both intravenously and intrathecal administered 211At-labeled chimeric 81C6 using a quality factor of 5 for alpha-emissions.

  7. Does inversion abolish the left chimeric face processing advantage?

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen H; Harvey, Monika

    2005-12-19

    Experiments using chimeric stimuli have shown that the right hemisphere is more influential in processing facial information. Here, again, we found clear evidence that study participants used the information from the left side of the face to inform their gender decisions when chimeric male/female, female/male stimuli were presented. Most interestingly though, this effect was not only present for upright faces but also for inverted (flipped) faces (although the effect was significantly reduced). We propose that the chimeric bias effects found here argue against the idea that inversion destroys the right hemisphere superiority for faces. If this was indeed the case, flipping the chimeric faces should have resulted in a loss of the left face bias. This was not the case. PMID:16317340

  8. Chimerism and donor-specific nonreactivity 27 to 29 years after kidney allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Starzl, T E; Demetris, A J; Trucco, M; Zeevi, A; Ramos, H; Terasaki, P; Rudert, W A; Kocova, M; Ricordi, C; Ildstad, S

    1993-06-01

    Chimerism was demonstrated with immunocytochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction techniques in kidney allografts and in the native skin, lymph nodes, or blood of 5 of 5 patients who received continuously functioning renal transplants from 1 or 2 haplotype HLA mismatched consanguineous donors (4 parents, 1 aunt) 27-29 years ago. In the 4 cases where the kidney donor still was alive to provide stimulator lymphocytes for testing, these provoked no (n = 2) or modest (n = 2) MLR in contrast to vigorous MLR to third party lymphocytes. In all 4 cases, the donor cells failed to generate in vitro cytotoxic effector cells (cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity). These findings are in accord with the hypothesis that cell migration, repopulation, and chimerism are seminal events that define graft acceptance and ultimately can lead to acquired donor-specific nonresponsiveness (tolerance).

  9. A Photinus pyralis and Luciola italica chimeric firefly luciferase produces enhanced bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Southworth, Tara L; Fontaine, Danielle M; Davis, Audrey L; Behney, Curran E; Murtiashaw, Martha H

    2014-10-14

    We report the enhanced bioluminescence properties of a chimeric enzyme (PpyLit) that contains the N-domain of recombinant Photinus pyralis luciferase joined to the C-domain of recombinant Luciola italica luciferase. Compared to the P. pyralis enzyme, the novel PpyLit chimera exhibited 1.8-fold enhanced flash-height specific activity, 2.0-fold enhanced integration-based specific activity, 2.9-fold enhanced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km), and a 1.4-fold greater bioluminescence quantum yield. The results of this study provide an underlying basis of this unusual example of a chimeric enzyme with enhanced catalytic properties that are not simply the sum of the contributions of the two luciferases.

  10. Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Bhoj, Vijay G; Nace, Arben; Choi, Eun Jung; Mao, Xuming; Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Seykora, John T; Cotsarelis, George; Milone, Michael C; Payne, Aimee S

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, therapy for autoimmune diseases should eliminate pathogenic autoimmune cells while sparing protective immunity, but feasible strategies for such an approach have been elusive. Here, we show that in the antibody-mediated autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantigen-based chimeric immunoreceptors can direct T cells to kill autoreactive B lymphocytes through the specificity of the B cell receptor (BCR). We engineered human T cells to express a chimeric autoantibody receptor (CAAR), consisting of the PV autoantigen, desmoglein (Dsg) 3, fused to CD137-CD3ζ signaling domains. Dsg3 CAAR-T cells exhibit specific cytotoxicity against cells expressing anti-Dsg3 BCRs in vitro and expand, persist, and specifically eliminate Dsg3-specific B cells in vivo. CAAR-T cells may provide an effective and universal strategy for specific targeting of autoreactive B cells in antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. PMID:27365313

  11. Vaginal transmission of chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Brosio, P; Lafaile, M; Li, J; Collman, R G; Sodroski, J; Miller, C J

    1996-01-01

    Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that express the env genes derived from distinct HIV type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for the ability to infect rhesus macaques following intravaginal inoculation. SHIVs containing either the HIV-1 HXBc2 or the HIV-1 89.6 envelope glycoproteins were capable of replicating in intravenously inoculated rhesus macaques. However, intravaginal inoculation of animals with these two SHIVs resulted in infection only with the SHIV containing the HIV-1 89.6 glycoprotein. Thus, properties conferred by the envelope glycoproteins in the chimeric virus affect the ability of particular SHIVs to initiate a systemic infection following vaginal inoculation. These results provide indirect support for the hypothesis that the selection of specific viral variants occurs in the genital tracts of individuals exposed to HIV by sexual contact. PMID:8627782

  12. Neonatal transplantation tolerance is associated with a systemic reduction in memory cells, altered chimeric cell phenotype, and modified eicosanoid and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Nassiri, M; Gregorian, S; Viciana, A L; Streilein, J W

    1996-04-27

    Certain B10 background mice are resistant to tolerance induction following a neonatal inoculation of semiallogeneic class I/II MHC-disparate cells despite early thymic clonal deletion of alloreactive cells. The emergence of memory T cells and persistence of particular chimeric cells in the thymus has an association with this resistance. In these studies, we utilized a hemisplenectomy technique to examine systemic cell populations of adult Bl0.S (H2s, H2E-) mice that received (Bl0.S x B10.A)F1 cells at birth and before and following application (and rejection or acceptance) of Bl0.A (H2k/d, H2E+) skin grafts. Prior to skin graft challenge, tolerant mice had reduced splenic levels of memory (CD45hi, PgP-1hi, Mel-14neg) T cells as compared with the rejecting recipients and following B10.A graft challenge, the nontolerant mice showed a further increase in these cells. Elevated pretransplant levels of donor H2Kk+ cells coexpressing B220, CD11b, or CD3 were seen in the tolerant mice. Following skin grafting, splenic chimerism was reduced with differing chimeric cell phenotypes between the tolerant and nontolerant mice. In vitro production of PGE2 in a MLC was delayed in the tolerant mice with minimal production of IL-2 and IL-4. Nontolerant mice made high levels of TxB2 and heightened, early production of IL-2 and IL-4 during the MLC. Thus, tolerance induction is associated with increased numbers of particular chimeric cells, fewer peripheral lymphoid immunocompetant memory T cells, impaired eicosanoid secretion, and reduced alloreactivity and alloantigen-driven IL-2/IL-4 production. It appears that alloreactive cells necessary to break tolerance are generated when fewer class II+ (e.g., B220+, CD11b+) chimeric cells are present and that there is a coexistence of effector and regulatory T cell subpopulations in the nontolerant mice. By comparison, tolerance acquisition does not appear associated with the presence or generation of a predominant subtype of T cell but

  13. Neonatal transplantation tolerance is associated with a systemic reduction in memory cells, altered chimeric cell phenotype, and modified eicosanoid and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Nassiri, M; Gregorian, S; Viciana, A L; Streilein, J W

    1996-04-27

    Certain B10 background mice are resistant to tolerance induction following a neonatal inoculation of semiallogeneic class I/II MHC-disparate cells despite early thymic clonal deletion of alloreactive cells. The emergence of memory T cells and persistence of particular chimeric cells in the thymus has an association with this resistance. In these studies, we utilized a hemisplenectomy technique to examine systemic cell populations of adult Bl0.S (H2s, H2E-) mice that received (Bl0.S x B10.A)F1 cells at birth and before and following application (and rejection or acceptance) of Bl0.A (H2k/d, H2E+) skin grafts. Prior to skin graft challenge, tolerant mice had reduced splenic levels of memory (CD45hi, PgP-1hi, Mel-14neg) T cells as compared with the rejecting recipients and following B10.A graft challenge, the nontolerant mice showed a further increase in these cells. Elevated pretransplant levels of donor H2Kk+ cells coexpressing B220, CD11b, or CD3 were seen in the tolerant mice. Following skin grafting, splenic chimerism was reduced with differing chimeric cell phenotypes between the tolerant and nontolerant mice. In vitro production of PGE2 in a MLC was delayed in the tolerant mice with minimal production of IL-2 and IL-4. Nontolerant mice made high levels of TxB2 and heightened, early production of IL-2 and IL-4 during the MLC. Thus, tolerance induction is associated with increased numbers of particular chimeric cells, fewer peripheral lymphoid immunocompetant memory T cells, impaired eicosanoid secretion, and reduced alloreactivity and alloantigen-driven IL-2/IL-4 production. It appears that alloreactive cells necessary to break tolerance are generated when fewer class II+ (e.g., B220+, CD11b+) chimeric cells are present and that there is a coexistence of effector and regulatory T cell subpopulations in the nontolerant mice. By comparison, tolerance acquisition does not appear associated with the presence or generation of a predominant subtype of T cell but

  14. Chimerism testing by quantitative PCR using Indel markers.

    PubMed

    Gendzekhadze, Ketevan; Gaidulis, Laima; Senitzer, David

    2013-01-01

    Engraftment monitoring is critical for patients after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Complete donor chimerism is the goal; therefore, early detection of rejection and relapse is crucial for guiding the patient post HSCT treatment. Quantitative PCR for chimerism testing has been reported to be highly sensitive. In this chapter we discuss the quantitative PCR (qPCR) method using 34 Indel (Insertion and Deletion) genetic markers spread over 20 different chromosomes.

  15. Development of a recombinant, chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Jorge E; Partidos, Charalambos D; Wallace, Derek; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2015-12-10

    Dengue is a significant threat to public health worldwide. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines available for dengue. Takeda Vaccines Inc. is developing a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV) that consists of an attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the prM and E protein genes of DENV-1, -3 and -4 expressed in the context of the attenuated TDV-2 genome backbone (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4, respectively). TDV has been shown to be immunogenic and efficacious in nonclinical animal models. In interferon-receptor deficient mice, the vaccine induces humoral neutralizing antibody responses and cellular immune responses that are sufficient to protect from lethal challenge with DENV-1, DENV-2 or DENV-4. In non-human primates, administration of TDV induces innate immune responses as well as long lasting antibody and cellular immunity. In Phase 1 clinical trials, the safety and immunogenicity of two different formulations were assessed after intradermal or subcutaneous administration to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. TDV administration was generally well-tolerated independent of dose and route. The vaccine induced neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes: after a single administration of the higher formulation, 24-67%% of the subjects seroconverted to all four DENV and >80% seroconverted to three or more viruses. In addition, TDV induced CD8(+) T cell responses to the non-structural NS1, NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV. TDV has been also shown to be generally well tolerated and immunogenic in a Phase 2 clinical trial in dengue endemic countries in adults and children as young as 18 months. Additional clinical studies are ongoing in preparation for a Phase 3 safety and efficacy study.

  16. Quantification of mixed chimerism allows early therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Merzoni, Jóice; Ewald, Gisele Menezes; Paz, Alessandra Aparecida; Daudt, Liane Esteves; Jobim, Luiz Fernando Job

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the curative option for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome; however, it requires a long post-transplantation follow-up. A 53-year-old woman with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome underwent related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in July 2006. Three months after transplantation, a comparative short tandem repeat analysis between donor and recipient revealed full chimerism, indicating complete, healthy bone marrow reconstitution. Three years and ten months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient developed leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Another short tandem repeat analysis was carried out which showed mixed chimerism (52.62%), indicating relapsed disease. A donor lymphocyte infusion was administered. The purpose of donor lymphocyte infusion is to induce a graft-versus-leukemia effect; in fact, this donor's lymphocyte infusion induced full chimerism. Successive short tandem repeat analyses were performed as part of post-transplantation follow-up, and in July 2010, one such analysis again showed mixed chimerism (64.25%). Based on this finding, a second donor lymphocyte infusion was administered, but failed to eradicate the disease. In September 2011, the patient presented with relapsed disease, and a second related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed. Subsequent short tandem repeat analyses revealed full chimerism, indicating complete bone marrow reconstitution. We conclude that quantitative detection of mixed chimerism is an important diagnostic tool that can guide early therapeutic intervention. PMID:25305171

  17. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. I. Evidence for a donor cell population which increases allogeneic chimerism but which lacks the potential to produce GVHD

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of alloengraftment present major obstacles to the application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across complete MHC barriers. The addition of syngeneic T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) to untreated fully allogeneic marrow inocula in lethally irradiated mice has been previously shown to provide protection from GVHD. We have used this model to study the effects of allogeneic T cells on levels of chimerism in recipients of mixed marrow inocula. The results indicate that T cells in allogeneic BM inocula eliminate both coadministered recipient-strain and radioresistant host hematopoietic elements to produce complete allogeneic chimerism without clinical GVHD. To determine the role of GVH reactivity in this phenomenon, we performed similar studies in an F1 into parent combination, in which the genetic potential for GVHD is lacking. The presence of T cells in F1 marrow inocula led to predominant repopulation with F1 lymphocytes in such chimeras, even when coadministered with TCD-recipient-strain BM. These results imply that the ability of allogeneic BM cells removed by T cell depletion to increase levels of allochimerism may be mediated by a population which is distinct from that which produces GVHD. These results may have implications for clinical BM transplantation.

  18. Lineage-specific chimerism analysis in nucleated cells, T cells and natural killer cells after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Ri-Young; Kim, Sung-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Chimerism analysis is an important tool for assessing the origin of hematopoietic cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and can be used to detect impending graft rejection and the recurrence of underlying malignant or nonmalignant diseases. Methods This study included 24 patients who underwent myeloablative allo-SCT. DNA was extracted from nucleated cells (NCs), T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, and the chimerism status of these cell fractions was determined by STR-PCR performed using an automated fluorescent DNA analyzer. Results Twenty-three out of the 24 patients achieved engraftment. Mixed chimerism (MC) in NCs, but not in T cells and NK cells, was significantly correlated with disease relapse. MC in all cell fractions was correlated with mortality. Ten patients (41.6%) developed extensive chronic GVHD. Six patients had MC in T cells, and 3 of them had chronic GVHD. Four patients with MC and relapse received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and among them, 3 had secondary relapse. Further, the chimerism status differed among different cell lineages in 6 patients with myeloid malignancies. Conclusion The implications of MC in lymphocyte subsets are an important area for future research. Chimerism analysis in lineage-specific cells permits detection of relapse and facilitates the monitoring of therapeutic interventions. These results can provide the basic data for chimerism analysis after myeloablative SCT. PMID:21461299

  19. Proteome Analysis and Conditional Deletion of the EAAT2 Glutamate Transporter Provide Evidence against a Role of EAAT2 in Pancreatic Insulin Secretion in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Waanders, Leonie F.; Holmseth, Silvia; Guo, Caiying; Berger, Urs V.; Li, Yuchuan; Lehre, Anne-Catherine; Lehre, Knut P.; Danbolt, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Islet function is incompletely understood in part because key steps in glutamate handling remain undetermined. The glutamate (excitatory amino acid) transporter 2 (EAAT2; Slc1a2) has been hypothesized to (a) provide islet cells with glutamate, (b) protect islet cells against high extracellular glutamate concentrations, (c) mediate glutamate release, or (d) control the pH inside insulin secretory granules. Here we floxed the EAAT2 gene to produce the first conditional EAAT2 knock-out mice. Crossing with Nestin-cyclization recombinase (Cre) eliminated EAAT2 from the brain, resulting in epilepsy and premature death, confirming the importance of EAAT2 for brain function and validating the genetic construction. Crossing with insulin-Cre lines (RIP-Cre and IPF1-Cre) to obtain pancreas-selective deletion did not appear to affect survival, growth, glucose tolerance, or β-cell number. We found (using TaqMan RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and proteome analysis) that the EAAT2 levels were too low to support any of the four hypothesized functions. The proteome analysis detected more than 7,000 islet proteins of which more than 100 were transporters. Although mitochondrial glutamate transporters and transporters for neutral amino acids were present at high levels, all other transporters with known ability to transport glutamate were strikingly absent. Glutamate-metabolizing enzymes were abundant. The level of glutamine synthetase was 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of glutaminase. Taken together this suggests that the uptake of glutamate by islets from the extracellular fluid is insignificant and that glutamate is intracellularly produced. Glutamine synthetase may be more important for islets than assumed previously. PMID:24280215

  20. Parallel evolution of chimeric fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Corbin D; Begun, David J

    2005-08-01

    To understand how novel functions arise, we must identify common patterns and mechanisms shaping the evolution of new genes. Here, we take advantage of data from three Drosophila genes, jingwei, Adh-Finnegan, and Adh-Twain, to find evolutionary patterns and mechanisms governing the evolution of new genes. All three of these genes are independently derived from Adh, which enabled us to use the extensive literature on Adh in Drosophila to guide our analyses. We discovered a fundamental similarity in the temporal, spatial, and types of amino acid changes that occurred. All three genes underwent rapid adaptive amino acid evolution shortly after they were formed, followed by later quiescence and functional constraint. These genes also show striking parallels in which amino acids change in the Adh region. We showed that these early changes tend to occur at amino acid residues that seldom, if ever, evolve in Drosophila Adh. Changes at these slowly evolving sites are usually associated with loss of function or hypomorphic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate that shifting away from ancestral functions may be a critical step early in the evolution of chimeric fusion genes. We suggest that the patterns we observed are both general and predictive.

  1. High male chimerism in the female breast shows quantitative links with cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Denes, Viktoria; Lakk, Monika; Al-Bazzaz, Sana; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Pilichowska, Monika; Geck, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Clinical observations suggest that pregnancy provides protection against cancer. The mechanisms involved, however, remain unclear. Fetal cells are known to enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy and establish microchimerism. We investigated if pregnancy-related embryonic/fetal stem cell integration plays a role in breast cancer. A high-sensitivity Y-chromosome assay was developed to trace male allogeneic cells (from male fetus) in females. Fixed-embedded samples (n = 206) from both normal and breast cancer patients were screened for microchimerism. The results were combined with matching clinicopathological and histological parameters and processed statistically. The results show that in our samples (182 informative) more than half of healthy women (56%) carried male cells in their breast tissue for decades (n = 68), while only one out of five in the cancer sample pool (21%) (n = 114) (odds ratio = 4.75, CI at 95% 2.34-9.69; p = 0.0001). The data support the notion that a biological link may exist between chimerism and tissue-integrity. The correlation, however, is non-linear, since male microchimerism in excess ("hyperchimerism") is also involved in cancer. The data suggest a link between hyperchimerism and HER2-type cancers, while decreased chimerism ("hypochimerism") associates with ER/PR-positive (luminal-type) breast cancers. Chimerism levels that correlate with protection appear to be non-random and share densities with the mammary progenitor components of the stem cell lineage in the breast. The results suggest that protection may involve stem/progenitor level interactions and implicate novel quantitative mechanisms in chimerism biology.

  2. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-11-01

    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering. Hyperactivated variants of the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases function without accessory factors, and thus can be re-targeted to sequences of interest by replacing native DNA-binding domains (DBDs) with engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). However, imperfect modularity with particular domains, lack of high-affinity binding to all DNA triplets, and difficulty in construction has hindered the widespread adoption of ZFPs in unspecialized laboratories. The discovery of a novel type of DBD in transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas provides an alternative to ZFPs. Here we describe chimeric TALE recombinases (TALERs): engineered fusions between a hyperactivated catalytic domain from the DNA invertase Gin and an optimized TALE architecture. We use a library of incrementally truncated TALE variants to identify TALER fusions that modify DNA with efficiency and specificity comparable to zinc-finger recombinases in bacterial cells. We also show that TALERs recombine DNA in mammalian cells. The TALER architecture described herein provides a platform for insertion of customized TALE domains, thus significantly expanding the targeting capacity of engineered recombinases and their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  3. Induced regulatory T cells in allograft tolerance via transient mixed chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Kiyohiko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Oura, Tetsu; Yamada, Yohei; Tonsho, Makoto; Huh, Kyu Ha; Kawai, Kento; Schoenfeld, David; Allan, James S.; Madsen, Joren C.; Benichou, Gilles; Smith, Rex-Neal; Colvin, Robert B.; Sachs, David H.; Cosimi, A. Benedict

    2016-01-01

    Successful induction of allograft tolerance has been achieved in nonhuman primates (NHPs) and humans via induction of transient hematopoietic chimerism. Since allograft tolerance was achieved in these recipients without durable chimerism, peripheral mechanisms are postulated to play a major role. Here, we report our studies of T cell immunity in NHP recipients that achieved long-term tolerance versus those that rejected the allograft (AR). All kidney, heart, and lung transplant recipients underwent simultaneous or delayed donor bone marrow transplantation (DBMT) following conditioning with a nonmyeloablative regimen. After DBMT, mixed lymphocyte culture with CFSE consistently revealed donor-specific loss of CD8+ T cell responses in tolerant (TOL) recipients, while marked CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to donor antigens was found to persist. Interestingly, a significant proportion of the proliferated CD4+ cells were FOXP3+ in TOL recipients, but not in AR or naive NHPs. In TOL recipients, CD4+FOXP3+ cell proliferation against donor antigens was greater than that observed against third-party antigens. Finally, the expanded Tregs appeared to be induced Tregs (iTregs) that were converted from non-Tregs. These data provide support for the hypothesis that specific induction of iTregs by donor antigens is key to long-term allograft tolerance induced by transient mixed chimerism. PMID:27446989

  4. Chimeric Aptamer-Gelatin Hydrogels as an Extracellular Matrix Mimic for Loading Cells and Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Battig, Mark R.; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R.; Duncan, Katelyn L.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    It is important to synthesize materials to recapitulate critical functions of biological systems for a variety of applications such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to synthesize a chimeric hydrogel as a promising extracellular matrix (ECM) mimic using gelatin, a nucleic acid aptamer and polyethylene glycol (PEG). This hydrogel had a macroporous structure that was highly permeable for fast molecular transport. Despite its high permeability, it could strongly sequester and sustainably release growth factors with high bioactivity. Notably, growth factors retained in the hydrogel could maintain ~50% bioactivity during a 14-day release test. It also provided cells with effective binding sites, which led to high efficiency of cell loading into the macroporous hydrogel matrix. When cells and growth factors were co-loaded into the chimeric hydrogel, living cells could still be observed by day 14 in a static serum-reduced culture condition. Thus, this chimeric aptamer-gelatin hydrogel constitutes a promising biomolecular ECM mimic for loading cells and growth factors. PMID:26791559

  5. Generation of Potent T-cell Immunotherapy for Cancer Using DAP12-Based, Multichain, Chimeric Immunoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enxiu; Wang, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Bhoj, Vijay; Gershenson, Zack; Moon, Edmund; Newick, Kheng; Sun, Jing; Lo, Albert; Baradet, Timothy; Feldman, Michael D; Barrett, David; Puré, Ellen; Albelda, Steven; Milone, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) bearing an antigen-binding domain linked in cis to the cytoplasmic domains of CD3ζ and costimulatory receptors have provided a potent method for engineering T-cell cytotoxicity toward B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, resistance to immunotherapy due to loss of T-cell effector function remains a significant barrier, especially in solid malignancies. We describe an alternative chimeric immunoreceptor design in which we have fused a single-chain variable fragment for antigen recognition to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of KIR2DS2, a stimulatory killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR). We show that this simple, KIR-based CAR (KIR-CAR) triggers robust antigen-specific proliferation and effector function in vitro when introduced into human T cells with DAP12, an immunotyrosine-based activation motifs-containing adaptor. T cells modified to express a KIR-CAR and DAP12 exhibit superior antitumor activity compared with standard first- and second-generation CD3ζ-based CARs in a xenograft model of mesothelioma highly resistant to immunotherapy. The enhanced antitumor activity is associated with improved retention of chimeric immunoreceptor expression and improved effector function of isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These results support the exploration of KIR-CARs for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, particularly in immunotherapy-resistant solid tumors.

  6. Assembling Single-Cell Genomes and Mini-Metagenomes From Chimeric MDA Products

    PubMed Central

    Nurk, Sergey; Bankevich, Anton; Antipov, Dmitry; Gurevich, Alexey A.; Korobeynikov, Anton; Lapidus, Alla; Prjibelski, Andrey D.; Pyshkin, Alexey; Sirotkin, Alexander; Sirotkin, Yakov; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Clingenpeel, Scott R.; Woyke, Tanja; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Lasken, Roger; Alekseyev, Max A.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in single-cell genomics provide an alternative to largely gene-centric metagenomics studies, enabling whole-genome sequencing of uncultivated bacteria. However, single-cell assembly projects are challenging due to (i) the highly nonuniform read coverage and (ii) a greatly elevated number of chimeric reads and read pairs. While recently developed single-cell assemblers have addressed the former challenge, methods for assembling highly chimeric reads remain poorly explored. We present algorithms for identifying chimeric edges and resolving complex bulges in de Bruijn graphs, which significantly improve single-cell assemblies. We further describe applications of the single-cell assembler SPAdes to a new approach for capturing and sequencing “microbial dark matter” that forms small pools of randomly selected single cells (called a mini-metagenome) and further sequences all genomes from the mini-metagenome at once. On single-cell bacterial datasets, SPAdes improves on the recently developed E+V-SC and IDBA-UD assemblers specifically designed for single-cell sequencing. For standard (cultivated monostrain) datasets, SPAdes also improves on A5, ABySS, CLC, EULER-SR, Ray, SOAPdenovo, and Velvet. Thus, recently developed single-cell assemblers not only enable single-cell sequencing, but also improve on conventional assemblers on their own turf. SPAdes is available for free online download under a GPLv2 license. PMID:24093227

  7. A live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A H7N3 virus vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 viruses in mice and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Tomy; McAuliffe, Josephine; Lu, Bin; Vogel, Leatrice; Swayne, David; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2008-08-15

    The appearance of human infections caused by avian influenza A H7 subtype viruses underscores their pandemic potential and the need to develop vaccines to protect humans from viruses of this subtype. A live attenuated H7N3 virus vaccine was generated by reverse genetics using the HA and NA genes of a low pathogenicity A/chicken/BC/CN-6/04 (H7N3) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2) virus. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and showed attenuation in mice and ferrets. Intranasal immunization with one dose of the vaccine protected mice and ferrets when challenged with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus showed comparable levels of attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy in mice and ferret models. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this vaccine in mice and ferrets support the evaluation of this vaccine in clinical trials.

  8. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  9. The promise and potential pitfalls of chimeric antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    Sadelain, Michel; Brentjens, Renier; Rivière, Isabelle

    2009-04-01

    One important purpose of T cell engineering is to generate tumor-targeted T cells through the genetic transfer of antigen-specific receptors, which consist of either physiological, MHC-restricted T cell receptors (TCRs) or non MHC-restricted chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CARs combine antigen-specificity and T cell activating properties in a single fusion molecule. First generation CARs, which included as their signaling domain the cytoplasmic region of the CD3zeta or Fc receptor gamma chain, effectively redirected T cell cytotoxicity but failed to enable T cell proliferation and survival upon repeated antigen exposure. Receptors encompassing both CD28 and CD3zeta are the prototypes for second generation CARs, which are now rapidly expanding to a diverse array of receptors with different functional properties. First generation CARs have been tested in phase I clinical studies in patients with ovarian cancer, renal cancer, lymphoma, and neuroblastoma, where they have induced modest responses. Second generation CARs, which are just now entering the clinical arena in the B cell malignancies and other cancers, will provide a more significant test for this approach. If the immunogenicity of CARs can be averted, the versatility of their design and HLA-independent antigen recognition will make CARs tools of choice for T cell engineering for the development of targeted cancer immunotherapies.

  10. Utilizing Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Direct Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, David L.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent an attractive lymphocyte population for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to lyse tumor targets without prior sensitization and without need for human leukocyte antigens-matching. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are able to enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies. CARs consist of an external recognition domain (typically a small chain variable fragment) directed at a specific tumor antigen that is linked with one or more intracellular signaling domains that mediate lymphocyte activation. Most CAR studies have focused on their expression in T cells. However, use of CARs in NK cells is starting to gain traction because they provide a method to redirect these cells more specifically to target refractory cancers. CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated using NK cell lines, as well as NK cells isolated from peripheral blood, and NK cells produced from human pluripotent stem cells. This review will outline the CAR constructs that have been reported in NK cells with a focus on comparing the use of different signaling domains in combination with other co-activating domains. PMID:25972867

  11. Designing chimeric antigen receptors to effectively and safely target tumors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael C; Riddell, Stanley R

    2015-04-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express artificial chimeric antigen receptors CARs) that target a tumor cell surface molecule has emerged as an exciting new approach for cancer immunotherapy. Clinical trials in patients with advanced B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR-modified T cells (CAR-T) have shown impressive antitumor efficacy, leading to optimism that this approach will be useful for treating common solid tumors. Because CAR-T cells recognize tumor cells independent of their expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, tumors that escape conventional T cells by downregulating HLA and/or mutating components of the antigen processing machinery can be eliminated. The ability to introduce or delete additional genes in T cells has the potential to provide therapeutic cell products with novel attributes that overcome impediments to immune mediated tumor elimination in immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. This review will discuss recent concepts in the development of effective and safe synthetic CARs for adoptive T cell therapy (ACT).

  12. Phenotypic Characterization of a Novel Virulence-Factor Deletion Strain of Burkholderia mallei That Provides Partial Protection against Inhalational Glanders in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bozue, Joel A; Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Amemiya, Kei; Chua, Jennifer; Cote, Christopher K; Toothman, Ronald G; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Klimko, Christopher P; Wilhelmsen, Catherine L; Raymond, Jolynn W; Zavaljevski, Nela; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei (Bm) is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN), and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively) and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders.

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of a Novel Virulence-Factor Deletion Strain of Burkholderia mallei That Provides Partial Protection against Inhalational Glanders in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bozue, Joel A.; Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Amemiya, Kei; Chua, Jennifer; Cote, Christopher K.; Toothman, Ronald G.; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L.; Klimko, Christopher P.; Wilhelmsen, Catherine L.; Raymond, Jolynn W.; Zavaljevski, Nela; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei (Bm) is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN), and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively) and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders. PMID:26955620

  14. Effect of reverse chimerism on rejection in clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bolado, Pedro; Landin, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Chimerism may enable allografts to survive when immunosuppressive therapy is administered at low levels or is even absent. Reverse chimerism (RC) is focused on intragraft chimerism that repopulates the allograft with cells of recipient origin. We aimed to identify and analyze current clinical evidence on RC and the presence of endothelial RC and tissue-specific RC. A total of 33 clinical reports on cardiac, kidney, liver, and lung transplants published between 1972 and 2012 that focused on RC were included in a systematic review. Liver allografts presented with the highest percentage of endothelial RC and lung allografts by far the lowest. Tissue-specific RC was present in most of the recipients, but at very low levels. There were also cardiac and kidney allografts with chimerism, but the functionality of the cells of recipient origin was questionable. We were unable to determine whether RC was a trigger for or a result of acute rejection. Further clinical research should focus on outcomes to evaluate the clinical relevance of this form of chimerism in transplantation.

  15. Mixed chimerism and split tolerance: mechanisms and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Al-Adra, David P; Anderson, Colin C

    2011-01-01

    Establishing hematopoietic mixed chimerism can lead to donor-specific tolerance to transplanted organs and may eliminate the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while also preventing chronic rejection. In this review, we discuss central and peripheral mechanisms of chimerism induced tolerance. However, even in the long-lasting presence of a donor organ or donor hematopoietic cells, some allogeneic tissues from the same donor can be rejected; a phenomenon known as split tolerance. With the current goal of creating mixed chimeras using clinically feasible amounts of donor bone marrow and with minimal conditioning, split tolerance may become more prevalent and its mechanisms need to be explored. Some predisposing factors that may increase the likelihood of split tolerance are immunogenicity of the graft, certain donor-recipient combinations, prior sensitization, location and type of graft and minimal conditioning chimerism induction protocols. Additionally, split tolerance may occur due to a differential susceptibility of various types of tissues to rejection. The mechanisms involved in a tissue's differential susceptibility to rejection include the presence of polymorphic tissue-specific antigens and variable sensitivity to indirect pathway effector mechanisms. Finally, we review the clinical attempts at allograft tolerance through the induction of chimerism; studies that are revealing the complex relationship between chimerism and tolerance. This relationship often displays split tolerance, and further research into its mechanisms is warranted.

  16. Development of polyclonal antibodies for detection of aflatoxigenic molds involving culture filtrate and chimeric proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shapira, R; Paster, N; Menasherov, M; Eyal, O; Mett, A; Meiron, T; Kuttin, E; Salomon, R

    1997-03-01

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were raised against an aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus parasiticus by using two different sources for antibody elicitation: (i) filtrate of a culture on which the fungus had been grown (ii) and two chimeric proteins, expressed in Escherichia coli as separate products, of the genes ver-1 and apa-2, which are involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. The gene products were amplified by PCR, and each was cloned into the E. coli expression vector pGEX2T. Upon induction, the bacteria overexpressed 38- and 33-kDa chimeric proteins corresponding to the N-terminal domains of the genes ver-1 and apa-2, respectively. The chimeric proteins were isolated and affinity purified for use as antigens. The specificity of the raised antibodies was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The PAbs raised against the culture filtrate reacted with all the species of Aspergillus and Penicillium tested but not with Fusarium species or corn gain. However, the PAbs elicited against the chimeric proteins were highly specific, showing significantly higher ELISA absorbance values (A405) against A. parasiticus and A. flavus than against the other fungi tested and the corn grain. The approach of utilizing gene products associated with aflatoxin biosynthesis for antibody production therefore appears to be feasible. Such a multiantibody system combined with the PCR technique, could provide a useful tool for the rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection of aflatoxin producers present in grains and foods. PMID:9055416

  17. Immunization with Human Papillomavirus 16 L1+E2 Chimeric Capsomers Elicits Cellular Immune Response and Antitumor Activity in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    López-Toledo, Gabriela; Schädlich, Lysann; Alonso-Castro, Ángel Josabad; Monroy-García, Alberto; García-Rocha, Rosario; Guido, Miriam C; Gissmann, Lutz; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Development of cervical cancer is associated with persistent infections by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Although current HPV L1-based prophylactic vaccines prevent infection, they do not help to eliminate prevalent infections or lesions. Our aims were (i) to generate a vaccine combining prophylactic and therapeutic properties by producing chimeric capsomers after fusion of the L1 protein to different fragments of E2 from HPV 16, and (ii) to evaluate their capacity to generate an antitumoral cellular response, while conserving L1 neutralizing epitopes. Chimeric proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-affinity chromatography. Their structure was characterized using size exclusion chromatography, sucrose gradient centrifugation, electron microscopy, and anti-L1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All chimeric proteins form capsomers and heterogeneous aggregates. One, containing part of the carboxy-terminal domain of E2 and its hinge region (L1Δ+E2H/NC, aa 206-307), conserved the neutralizing epitope H16.V5. We then evaluated the capacity of this chimeric protein to induce a cytotoxic T-cell response against HPV 16 E2. In (51)Cr release cytotoxicity assays, splenocytes from C57BL/6 immunized mice recognized and lysed TC-1/E2 cells, which express and present endogenously processed E2 peptides. Moreover, this E2-specific cytotoxic response inhibited the growth of tumors of TC-1/E2 cells in mice. Finally, we identified an epitope (aa 292-301) of E2 involved in this cytotoxic response. We conclude that the L1Δ+E2H/NC chimeric protein produced in bacteria can be an effective and economically interesting candidate for a combined prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine that could help eliminating HPV16-positive low-grade cervical lesions and persistent viral infections, thus preventing the development of lesions and, at the same time, the establishment of new infections. PMID:27058179

  18. Generation of a novel chimeric PALFn antigen of Bacillus anthracis and its immunological characterization in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Saxena, Nandita; Mankere, Bharti; Tuteja, Urmil; Hmuaka, Vanlal

    2016-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis chimeric molecule PALFn, comprising the immunodominant domains of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), has been developed in the past and has been shown to confer enhanced protection against anthrax in mouse model when challenged with anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx). However, the immunological correlates for this chimeric antigen, both in terms of humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, have not been described in detail. To address this gap, we have determined the immunological responses both at humoral as well as cellular levels for the protection conferred by the novel chimeric antigen PALFn constructed in our laboratory in comparison to PA antigen. The biological functionality of the chimeric antigen was ascertained by the trypsin digestion assay. The trypsin cleavage activated the functionality of PALFn and rendered it to interact and bind with the LF molecule. Similarly, the LFn component in the chimera could independently interact and bind to the trypsin-activated wild-type PA. Further, it was observed that the PALFn-immunized mice sera could readily react to both PA and LF antigens while PA-immunized mice sera showed reaction to PA and PALFn alone and not to the individual LF antigen. The in vitro toxin neutralizing ability of PALFn antisera on macrophage cell line J774.1 was robust but with 1.3-fold lesser titer than PA-immunized antisera. PALFn-immunized mouse splenocytes showed a significant lymphocyte proliferation when stimulated with PALFn. There was a remarkable increase in the level of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (IFN- γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) from PALFn- and PA-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, there was a significant increase in antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts from both PALFn- and PA-immunized mouse splenocytes. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of chimeric molecule PALFn in eliciting robust humoral and cell

  19. Stem cell potency and the ability to contribute to chimeric organisms

    PubMed Central

    Polejaeva, Irina; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-01-01

    Mouse embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for studying cell lineage commitment and pluripotency. Experimental chimeras were successfully produced by combining of two or more preimplantation embryos or, by introduction into a host embryo cultured pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Chimera production using genetically modified ESCs became the method of choice for generation of knockout or knockin mice. Although the derivation of ESCs or ESC-like cells has been reported for other species, only mouse and rat pluripotent stem cells have been shown to contribute to germline competent chimeras, which is the defining feature of ESCs. Herein we describe different approaches employed for the generation of embryonic chimeras, define chimera competent cell types and describe cases of spontaneous chimerism in humans. We also review the current state of derivation of pluripotent stem cells in several species and discuss outcomes of various chimera studies when such cells are used. PMID:23221011

  20. HIV-specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Kamata, Masakazu; Rezek, Valerie; Rick, Jonathan; Levin, Bernard; Kasparian, Saro; Chen, Irvin Sy; Yang, Otto O; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2015-08-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication. These results strongly suggest that stem cell-based gene therapy with a CAR may be feasible and effective in treating chronic HIV infection and other morbidities. PMID:26050990

  1. Chimeric analysis of Notch2 function: a role for Notch2 in the development of the roof plate of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kadokawa, Yuzo; Marunouchi, Tohru

    2002-10-01

    Notch proteins are transmembrane receptors involved in cell-fate determination throughout development. Targeted disruption of either the Notch1 or Notch2 gene in mice results in embryonic lethality around embryonic day (E) 10.5 with widespread cell death. Although Notch1-deficient mice show disorganized somitogenesis, Notch2 mutants did not show definitive abnormalities in any tissue expressing high levels of the Notch2 gene, including the central nervous system. To study Notch2 function in development beyond the embryonic lethal stage, we performed chimeric analysis between Notch2 mutant and wild-type mouse embryos. Chimeric embryos developed normally and homozygous Notch2 mutant-specific cell death was not observed. Although chimeric embryos showed normal mosaicism until E9.5 in all tissues studied to date, Notch2 homozygous mutant cells failed to contribute to formation of the roof plate of the diencephalon and mesencephalon at later developmental stages, when Notch2 is normally expressed at high levels at there. Furthermore, Notch2 heterozygous mutant cells were also excluded from the roof plate of the chimera, however, Notch2 heterozygous mutant mice developed normally. We also showed that Wnt-1 and Mash1 expression patterns at the roof plate were disorganized in Notch2 homozygous mutant embryos. These results indicate that Notch2 plays an important role in development of the roof plate of the diencephalon and mesencephalon, and suggest that cellular rearrangement is involved in this process.

  2. Symptotic detection of chimerism: Y does it matter?

    PubMed

    Geck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Microchimerism (MC), transplacental acquisition of allogeneic cells from the mother (maternofetal MC) or from the fetus (fetomaternal MC) has been in the focus of research recently. Amplicons using Y-chromosome specific SRY and DYS14 sequences have been used as markers to trace cells from a male fetus in the mother. The sensitivity of these markers in formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded samples, however, is less than optimal. To study chimerism in breast cancer we took advantage of the evolutionary history of the Y chromosome and designed amplicons on gene repeats to generate additive PCR signals. The increased sensitivity detected high incidence of male chimerism in normal breast tissues. We also showed correlation with protection from cancer with unique quantitative biology. Accumulating data from biology and medicine indicate that natural chimerism is astonishingly frequent and may affect human conditions. We hypothesize that it has significant evolutionary ramifications as well.

  3. Chimerism in the immunohematology laboratory in the molecular biology era.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Martin H; Reid, Marion E; Manny, Noga

    2007-04-01

    Dual or multiple cell populations, induced by chimeras, have been the subject of many studies. This long-standing fascination with chimeras has revealed a good deal of knowledge about human inheritance. Although historically most chimeras were caused by natural events, certain current medical intervention therapies are increasing the number of situations that can lead to a mixed cell population, that is, the chimeric condition, in humans. Medical therapies such as transfusion, stem cell transplantation, kidney transplantation, and artificial insemination induce temporary and sometimes permanent chimeras. Such natural or therapeutically induced presentations of chimerism can present challenging issues to the clinical immunohematology laboratory with regard to interpretation of results and subsequent patient management. The purpose of this review was to highlight some of these chimeric states and hypothesize how testing DNA from various tissues can cause apparent discrepancies between phenotype and genotype results.

  4. Chimeric antigen receptors: driving immunology towards synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-08-01

    The advent of second generation chimeric antigen receptors and the CD19 paradigm have ushered a new therapeutic modality in oncology. In contrast to earlier forms of adoptive cell therapy, which were based on the isolation and expansion of naturally occurring T cells, CAR therapy is based on the design and manufacture of engineered T cells with optimized properties. A new armamentarium, comprising not only CARs but also chimeric costimulatory receptors, chimeric cytokine receptors, inhibitory receptors and synthetic Notch receptors, expressed in naïve, central memory or stem cell-like memory T cells, is being developed for clinical use in a wide range of cancers. Immunological principles are thus finding a new purpose thanks to advances in genetic engineering, synthetic biology and cell manufacturing sciences. PMID:27372731

  5. Chimeric antigen receptors: driving immunology towards synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-08-01

    The advent of second generation chimeric antigen receptors and the CD19 paradigm have ushered a new therapeutic modality in oncology. In contrast to earlier forms of adoptive cell therapy, which were based on the isolation and expansion of naturally occurring T cells, CAR therapy is based on the design and manufacture of engineered T cells with optimized properties. A new armamentarium, comprising not only CARs but also chimeric costimulatory receptors, chimeric cytokine receptors, inhibitory receptors and synthetic Notch receptors, expressed in naïve, central memory or stem cell-like memory T cells, is being developed for clinical use in a wide range of cancers. Immunological principles are thus finding a new purpose thanks to advances in genetic engineering, synthetic biology and cell manufacturing sciences.

  6. Human hepatocytes support the hypertrophic but not the hyperplastic response to the murine nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen sodium phenobarbital in an in vivo study using a chimeric mouse with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Okuda, Yu; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Takeuchi, Hayato; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Fukuda, Takako; Lake, Brian G; Cohen, Samuel M; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    High doses of sodium phenobarbital (NaPB), a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator, have been shown to produce hepatocellular tumors in rodents by a mitogenic mode of action (MOA) involving CAR activation. The effect of 1-week dietary treatment with NaPB on liver weight and histopathology, hepatic CYP2B enzyme activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA expression, replicative DNA synthesis and selected genes related to cell proliferation, and functional transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses was studied in male CD-1 mice, Wistar Hannover (WH) rats, and chimeric mice with human hepatocytes. The treatment of chimeric mice with 1000-1500-ppm NaPB resulted in plasma levels around 3-5-fold higher than those observed in human subjects given therapeutic doses of NaPB. NaPB produced dose-dependent increases in hepatic CYP2B activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA levels in all animal models. Integrated functional metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that the responses to NaPB in the human liver were clearly different from those in rodents. Although NaPB produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice and WH rats, no increase in replicative DNA synthesis was observed in human hepatocyte-originated areas of chimeric mice. In addition, treatment with NaPB had no effect on Ki-67, PCNA, GADD45β, and MDM2 mRNA expression in chimeric mice, whereas significant increases were observed in CD-1 mice and/or WH rats. However, increases in hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis were observed in chimeric mice both in vivo and in vitro after treatment epidermal growth factor. Thus, although NaPB could activate CAR in both rodent and human hepatocytes, NaPB did not increase replicative DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes of chimeric mice, whereas it was mitogenic to rat and mouse hepatocytes. As human hepatocytes are refractory to the mitogenic effects of NaPB, the MOA for NaPB-induced rodent liver tumor formation is thus not relevant for humans.

  7. Combination of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in different scan modes with human and chimeric mouse urine for the study of steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Lootens, Leen; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen; Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Parr, Maria K; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-11-01

    Anabolic steroids are among the most frequently detected compounds in doping analysis. They are extensively metabolized and therefore an in-depth knowledge about steroid metabolism is needed. In this study, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS) method based on a precursor ion scan with a uPA-SCID mouse with humanized liver (a chimeric mouse) was explored for the detection of steroid metabolism. Methandienone was used as a model compound. The application of the precursor ion scan method in positive human samples and chimeric mice samples after methandienone administration allowed the detection of most steroid metabolites without any structural restriction. Three hitherto unreported metabolites were found using this approach. These metabolites were characterized using LC-MS/MS and feasible structures were proposed. The structure of one of them, 6-ene-epimethandienone, was confirmed by the synthesis of the reference compound. A selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method for the specific detection of all these metabolites has been developed. The application of this method to several human and chimeric mouse samples confirmed that more than 80% of the steroid metabolites were found in both samples. Only metabolites that are poorly detectable by LC-MS/MS were not detected in some urine samples. The metabolic nature of the unreported metabolites was also confirmed. A global strategy for the detection of steroid metabolites combining both human and chimeric mouse urine is proposed. PMID:20355172

  8. Novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype O VP1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Li, Zhiyong; Xie, Yinli; Qin, Xiaodong; Qi, Xingcai; Sun, Peng; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. Among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype O VLPs in the low pH insect hemolymph. Therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine for serotype O FMDV was developed and characterized in the present study. The chimeric VLPs were composed of antigenic VP1 from serotype O and segments of viral capsid proteins from serotype Asia1. These VLPs elicited significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody levels in immunized mice than did the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs protected guinea pigs from FMDV challenge with an efficacy similar to that of the inactivated vaccine. These results suggest that chimeric VLPs have the potential for use in vaccines against serotype O FMDV infection. PMID:26790940

  9. Transgenically mediated shRNAs targeting conserved regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus provide heritable resistance in porcine cell lines and suckling mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for substantial economic losses in livestock breeding each year, and the development of new strategies is needed to overcome the limitations of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of transgenic porcine cells and suckling mice that simultaneously expressed two short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the conserved regions of the viral polymerase protein 3D and the non-structural protein 2B. First, two recombinant shRNA-expressing plasmids, PB-EN3D2B and PB-N3D2B, were constructed and the efficiency of the constructs for suppressing an artificial target was demonstrated in BHK-21 cells. We then integrated PB-EN3D2B into the genome of the porcine cell line IBRS-2 using the piggyBac transposon system, and stable monoclonal transgenic cell lines (MTCL) were selected. Of the 6 MTCL that were used in the antiviral assay, 3 exhibited significant resistance with suppressing ratios of more than 94% at 48 hours post-challenge (hpc) to both serotype O and serotype Asia 1 FMDV. MTCL IB-3D2B-6 displayed the strongest antiviral activity, which resulted in 100% inhibition of FMDV replication until 72 hpc. Moreover, the shRNA-expressing fragment of PB-N3D2B was integrated into the mouse genome by DNA microinjection to produce transgenic mice. When challenged with serotype O FMDV, the offspring of the transgenic mouse lines N3D2B-18 and N3D2B-81 exhibited higher survival rates of 19% to 27% relative to their non-transgenic littermates. The results suggest that these heritable shRNAs were able to suppress FMDV replication in the transgenic cell lines and suckling mice. PMID:23822604

  10. Congenic mice provide in vivo evidence for a genetic locus that modulates intrinsic transforming growth factor β1-mediated signaling and bone acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Aditi; Larson, Emily A; Carlos, Amy S; Belknap, John K; Rotwein, Peter; Klein, Robert F

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common skeletal disorder, is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fractures. BMD is the best clinical predictor of future osteoporotic fracture risk, but is a complex trait controlled by multiple environmental and genetic determinants with individually modest effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a powerful method for identifying chromosomal regions encompassing genes involved in shaping complex phenotypes, such as BMD. Here we have applied QTL analysis to male and female genetically-heterogeneous F(2) mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains, and have identified 11 loci contributing to femoral BMD. Further analysis of a QTL on mouse chromosome 7 following the generation of reciprocal congenic strains has allowed us to determine that the high BMD trait, which tracks with the DBA/2 chromosome and exerts equivalent effects on male and female mice, is manifested by enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and by increased growth of metatarsal bones in short-term primary culture. An insertion/deletion DNA polymorphism in Ltbp4 exon 12 that causes the in-frame removal of 12 codons in the DBA/2-derived gene maps within 0.6 Mb of the marker most tightly linked to the QTL. LTBP4, one of four paralogous mouse proteins that modify the bioavailability of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of growth factors, is expressed in differentiating MSC-derived osteoblasts and in long bones, and reduced responsiveness to TGF-β1 is observed in MSCs of mice homozygous for the DBA/2 chromosome 7. Taken together, our results identify a potential genetic and biochemical relationship between decreased TGF-β1-mediated signaling and enhanced femoral BMD that may be regulated by a variant LTBP4 molecule.

  11. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Dimethylglycine Sodium Salt and Its Role in Providing Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingfei; Kou, Tao; Niu, Yu; Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the free radical scavenging activities (against 1,1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazy (DPPH), 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonate) (ABTS+), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) of dimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na) were measured and compared with those of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), a commonly used antioxidant. The radical scavenging activities of DMG-Na were found to be the highest at 40 mg/ml. In Experiment 2, gastric intubation in mice with 12 mg DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight (BW) (28 d), organ proportion (liver and spleen), and antioxidant capacity in serum and the liver (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Hydrogen peroxidase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)), and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of serum Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and Glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and Methane Dicarboxylic Aldehyde (MDA) contents in the serum and liver. Specifically, the effect of 12 mg DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution, which showed the highest antioxidant capacity, was further studied using a mice model. In Experiment 3, the mice CL (CON+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum ALT and AST content; hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity (Manganese Superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Glutathione reductase (GR), GPx, Glutathione (GSH)); MDA and Protein carbonyl (PC) content; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level, and expression of liver antioxidant genes (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)) relative to the mice CS (CON+ sterile saline) group. The DL (DMG+LPS) group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum ALT and AST content, ROS level, and expression of liver

  12. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Dimethylglycine Sodium Salt and Its Role in Providing Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Kaiwen; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Jingfei; Kou, Tao; Niu, Yu; Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the free radical scavenging activities (against 1,1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazy (DPPH), 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonate) (ABTS+), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) of dimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na) were measured and compared with those of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), a commonly used antioxidant. The radical scavenging activities of DMG-Na were found to be the highest at 40 mg/ml. In Experiment 2, gastric intubation in mice with 12 mg DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight (BW) (28 d), organ proportion (liver and spleen), and antioxidant capacity in serum and the liver (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Hydrogen peroxidase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)), and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of serum Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and Glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and Methane Dicarboxylic Aldehyde (MDA) contents in the serum and liver. Specifically, the effect of 12 mg DMG-Na/0.3 ml sterile saline solution, which showed the highest antioxidant capacity, was further studied using a mice model. In Experiment 3, the mice CL (CON+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum ALT and AST content; hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity (Manganese Superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Glutathione reductase (GR), GPx, Glutathione (GSH)); MDA and Protein carbonyl (PC) content; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level, and expression of liver antioxidant genes (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)) relative to the mice CS (CON+ sterile saline) group. The DL (DMG+LPS) group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum ALT and AST content, ROS level, and expression of liver

  13. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  14. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ho, Maria K; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Friedman, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise.

  15. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Maria K.; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise. PMID:24707282

  16. Vaccination of mice with a soluble protein fraction of Mycobacterium leprae provides consistent and long-term protection against M. leprae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, R H; Murray, L; Siu, P; Tsang, M

    1992-01-01

    Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated intradermally with either Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) alone, 10(7) heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae organisms in FIA, or a number of fractions of M. leprae containing soluble and/or cell wall components. At 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later, vaccinated mice were challenged in the right hind footpad with 5,000 live M. leprae organisms, and vaccine protection was assessed 6 to 8 months later, at the peak of M. leprae multiplication in the negative control (FIA alone), by the two-sample rank-sum test. In these studies, a cell wall fraction rich in peptidoglycan was consistently ineffective. Both heat-killed M. leprae and a fraction containing cell wall and fixed proteins generally protected when the interval between vaccination and challenge was 1 or 3 months but not subsequently. On the other hand, soluble proteins of M. leprae alone or in combination (with cell wall fractions) consistently (14 of 14 instances) afforded highly significant protection (P less than or equal to 0.01) at all challenge intervals up to 1 year after vaccination. These results suggest that the soluble protein fraction of M. leprae offers promise for a vaccine against leprosy. PMID:1563772

  17. Sex-discordant monochorionic twins with blood and tissue chimerism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Buritica, David; Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Mikhail, Fady M; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2015-04-01

    We report on a pair of normally conceived monochorionic/dizygotic (MC/DZ) sex discordant twins. The comparison of blood and skin genotypes revealed that the chimerism was also present in the skin. We conjecture about the developmental origins of this case.

  18. Therapeutic use of chimeric bacteriophage (phage) lysins in staphylococcal endophthalmitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Phage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases that are produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle to digest the host bacterial cell wall, facilitating the release of mature phage progeny. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chimeric phage lysins against cli...

  19. Comparison of chimerism and minimal residual disease monitoring for relapse prediction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Terwey, Theis Helge; Hemmati, Philipp Georg; Nagy, Marion; Pfeifer, Heike; Gökbuget, Nicola; Brüggemann, Monika; Le Duc, Tanja Melinh; le Coutre, Philipp; Dörken, Bernd; Arnold, Renate

    2014-10-01

    Little data are available on the relative merits of chimerism and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring for relapse prediction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We performed a retrospective analysis of serial chimerism assessments in 101 adult HCT recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and of serial MRD assessments in a subgroup of 22 patients. All patients had received myeloablative conditioning. The cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly higher in the patients with increasing mixed chimerism (in-MC) compared with those with complete chimerism, low-level MC, and decreasing MC, but the sensitivity of in-MC detection with regard to relapse prediction was only modest. In contrast, MRD assessment was highly sensitive and specific. Patients with MRD positivity after HCT had the highest incidence of relapse among all prognostic groups analyzed. The median time from MRD positivity to relapse was longer than the median time from detection of in-MC, but in some cases in-MC preceded MRD positivity. We conclude that MRD assessment is a powerful prognostic tool that should be included in the routine post-transplantation monitoring of patients with ALL, but chimerism analysis may provide additional information in some cases. Integration of these tools and clinical judgment should allow optimal decision making with regard to post-transplantation therapeutic interventions.

  20. Advances in chimeric antigen receptor immunotherapy for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Heczey, Andras; Louis, Chrystal U

    2013-12-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor and has heterogeneous biology and behavior. Patients with high-risk disease have poor prognosis despite complex multimodal therapy; therefore, novel curative approaches are needed. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach that harnesses the inherent activity of the immune system to control and eliminate malignant cells. One form of immunotherapy uses chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) to target tumor-associated antigens. CARs are derived from the antigen-binding domain of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) coupled with the intracellular signaling portion of the T cell receptor. CARs can combine the specificity and effectiveness of MAbs with the active bio-distribution, direct cytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of T cells. NBL provides an attractive target for CAR immunotherapy as many of its tumor-associated antigens are not expressed at significant levels on normal tissues, thus decreasing potential treatment related toxicity. Two previous clinical trials utilizing L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and disialoganglioside (GD2) specific CARs (GD2-CAR) have demonstrated safety and anti-tumor efficacy in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma patients. Based on these promising results and on improved techniques that can further potentiate CAR therapies, two clinical trials are currently investigating the use of GD2-CARs in children with NBL. Several approaches may further enhance anti-tumor activity and persistence of CAR modified cells, and if these can be safely translated into the clinic, CAR-based immunotherapy could become a viable adjunct or potential alternative to conventional treatment options for patients with NBL.

  1. Advances in Chimeric Antigen Receptor Immunotherapy for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Heczey, Andras; Louis, Chrystal U.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor and has heterogeneous biology and behavior. Patients with high-risk disease have poor prognosis despite complex multimodal therapy; therefore, novel curative approaches are needed. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach that harnesses the inherent activity of the immune system to control and eliminate malignant cells. One form of immunotherapy uses chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) to target tumor-associated antigens. CARs are derived from the antigen-binding domain of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) coupled with the intracellular signaling portion of the T cell receptor. CARs can combine the specificity and effectiveness of MAbs with the active bio-distribution, direct cytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of T cells. NBL provides an attractive target for CAR immunotherapy as many of its tumor-associated antigens are not expressed at significant levels on normal tissues, thus decreasing potential treatment related toxicity. Two previous clinical trials utilizing L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and disialoganglioside (GD2) specific CARs (GD2-CAR) have demonstrated safety and anti-tumor efficacy in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma patients. Based on these promising results and on improved techniques that can further potentiate CAR therapies, two clinical trials are currently investigating the use of GD2-CARs in children with NBL. Several approaches may further enhance anti-tumor activity and persistence of CAR modified cells, and if these can be safely translated into the clinic, CAR-based immunotherapy could become a viable adjunct or potential alternative to conventional treatment options for patients with NBL. PMID:24333408

  2. Chimeric aptamers in cancer cell-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a wide range of targets ("apatopes") with high affinity and specificity. These nucleic acid ligands, generated from pools of random-sequence by an in vitro selection process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), have now been identified as excellent tools for chemical biology, therapeutic delivery, diagnosis, research, and monitoring therapy in real-time imaging. Today, aptamers represent an interesting class of modern Pharmaceuticals which with their low immunogenic potential mimic extend many of the properties of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostics, research, and therapeutics. More recently, chimeric aptamer approach employing many different possible types of chimerization strategies has generated more stable and efficient chimeric aptamers with aptamer-aptamer, aptamer-nonaptamer biomacromolecules (siRNAs, proteins) and aptamer-nanoparticle chimeras. These chimeric aptamers when conjugated with various biomacromolecules like locked nucleic acid (LNA) to potentiate their stability, biodistribution, and targeting efficiency, have facilitated the accurate targeting in preclinical trials. We developed LNA-aptamer (anti-nucleolin and EpCAM) complexes which were loaded in iron-saturated bovine lactofeerin (Fe-blf)-coated dopamine modified surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs). This complex was used to deliver the specific aptamers in tumor cells in a co-culture model of normal and cancer cells. This review focuses on the chimeric aptamers, currently in development that are likely to find future practical applications in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities. PMID:21955150

  3. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed.

  4. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed. PMID:22868913

  5. Possible Role of Minor H Antigens in the Persistence of Donor Chimerism after Stem Cell Transplantation; Relevance for Sustained Leukemia Remission

    PubMed Central

    van der Torren, Cornelis R.; van Hensbergen, Yvette; Luther, Susanne; Aghai, Zohara; Rychnavská, Zuzana Stachová; Slot, Manon; Scherjon, Sicco; Kröger, Nicolaus; Ganser, Arnold; Weissinger, Eva M.; Goulmy, Els; Hambach, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Persistent complete donor chimerism is an important clinical indicator for remissions of hematological malignancies after HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, the mechanisms mediating the persistence of complete donor chimerism are poorly understood. The frequent coincidence of complete donor chimerism with graft-versus-leukemia effects and graft-versus-host disease suggests that immune responses against minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) are playing an important role in suppressing the host hematopoiesis after allogeneic SCT. Here, we investigated a possible relationship between donor immune responses against the hematopoiesis-restricted mHag HA-1 and the long-term kinetics of host hematopoietic chimerism in a cohort of 10 patients after allogeneic HLA-matched, HA-1 mismatched SCT. Functional HA-1 specific CTLs (HA-1 CTLs) were detectable in 6/10 patients lysing host-type hematopoietic cells in vitro. Presence of HA-1 CTLs in the peripheral blood coincided with low host hematopoiesis levels quantified by highly sensitive mHag specific PCR. Additionally, co-incubation of host type CD34+ cells with HA-1 CTLs isolated after allogeneic SCT prevented progenitor and cobblestone area forming cell growth in vitro and human hematopoietic engraftment in immunodeficient mice. Conversely, absence or loss of HA-1 CTLs mostly coincided with high host hematopoiesis levels and/or relapse. In summary, in this first study, presence of HA-1 CTLs paralleled low host hematopoiesis levels. This coincidence might be supported by the capacity of HA-1 CTLs isolated after allogeneic SCT to specifically eliminate host type hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Additional studies involving multiple mismatched mHags in more patients are required to confirm this novel characteristic of mHag CTLs as factor for the persistence of complete donor chimerism and leukemia remission after allogeneic SCT. PMID:25774796

  6. A tale of two sequences: microRNA-target chimeric reads.

    PubMed

    Broughton, James P; Pasquinelli, Amy E

    2016-04-04

    In animals, a functional interaction between a microRNA (miRNA) and its target RNA requires only partial base pairing. The limited number of base pair interactions required for miRNA targeting provides miRNAs with broad regulatory potential and also makes target prediction challenging. Computational approaches to target prediction have focused on identifying miRNA target sites based on known sequence features that are important for canonical targeting and may miss non-canonical targets. Current state-of-the-art experimental approaches, such as CLIP-seq (cross-linking immunoprecipitation with sequencing), PAR-CLIP (photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced CLIP), and iCLIP (individual-nucleotide resolution CLIP), require inference of which miRNA is bound at each site. Recently, the development of methods to ligate miRNAs to their target RNAs during the preparation of sequencing libraries has provided a new tool for the identification of miRNA target sites. The chimeric, or hybrid, miRNA-target reads that are produced by these methods unambiguously identify the miRNA bound at a specific target site. The information provided by these chimeric reads has revealed extensive non-canonical interactions between miRNAs and their target mRNAs, and identified many novel interactions between miRNAs and noncoding RNAs.

  7. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells secreting anti-PD-L1 antibodies more effectively regress renal cell carcinoma in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Chang, De-Kuan; Sun, Jiusong; Sui, Jianhua; Freeman, Gordon J.; Signoretti, Sabina; Zhu, Quan; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have led to improved progression-free survival of many patients; however the therapies are toxic, rarely achieve durable long-term complete responses and are not curative. Herein we used a single bicistronic lentiviral vector to develop a new combination immunotherapy that consists of human anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX)-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells engineered to secrete human anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies at the tumor site. The local antibody delivery led to marked immune checkpoint blockade. Tumor growth diminished 5 times and tumor weight reduced 50–80% when compared with the anti-CAIX CAR T cells alone in a humanized mice model of ccRCC. The expression of PD-L1 and Ki67 in the tumors decreased and an increase in granzyme B levels was found in CAR T cells. The anti-PD-L1 IgG1 isotype, which is capable of mediating ADCC, was also able to recruit human NK cells to the tumor site in vivo. These armed second-generation CAR T cells empowered to secrete human anti-PD-L1 antibodies in the ccRCC milieu to combat T cell exhaustion is an innovation in this field that should provide renewed potential for CAR T cell immunotherapy of solid tumors where limited efficacy is currently seen. PMID:27145284

  8. Lentiviral Gag Assembly Analyzed through the Functional Characterization of Chimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Expressing Different Domains of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, María J.; Affranchino, José L.; González, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA) domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively), we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD) of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses. PMID:25462889

  9. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice after total lymphoid irradiation: influence of breeding conditions and strain of recipient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-02-01

    Different groups of C57BL/ka or BALB/c mice received a dose of 34 Gy or 42 Gy of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) before bone marrow transplantation with 30 x 10/sup 6/ BALB/c or C57BL nucleated bone marrow cells, respectively. BALB/c mice that were not bred in specific pathogen-free conditions before TLI showed a high morbidity and mortality rate after 34 Gy of TLI and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as compared with BALB/c or C57BL that were bred in pathogen-free conditions before irradiation. Many of the conventionally bred BALB/c mice had clinical and histologic signs of graft-vs-host disease after TLI and allogeneic bone marrow infusion. Although leucocytosis and lymphocytosis and the immunologic competence as measured with in vitro tests were equally depressed after 34 Gy TLI in BALB/c and C57BL mice, chimerism was nevertheless significantly easier to obtain in BALB/c mice. The incidence of chimerism after TLI could be enhanced in C57BL mice by increasing the total radiation dose from 34 to 42 Gy. This augmentation of chimerism was paralleled by the induction of more suppressor cells after 42 Gy of TLI in C57BL mice.

  10. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of soluble ST2 provides a protective effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H; Li, X Y; Yuan, B H; Zhang, B B; Hu, S L; Gu, H B; Jin, X B; Zhu, J Y

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury is characterized by a diffuse inflammatory parenchymal process, implicated in the context of significant morbidity and mortality. Previously, we have reported that soluble ST2 (sST2), a member of the Toll-interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, represses proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophage exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we examined the possibility of modulating LPS-induced murine inflammatory pulmonary damage by recombinant adenovirus-mediated sST2-Fc (Ad-sST2-Fc) gene transfer. Single intranasal administration of Ad-sST2-Fc led to a profound decrease in LPS-induced bronchoalveolar lavage leucocyte exudation and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity (reflecting phagocyte infiltration). Histological examination revealed alveolitis with inflammatory cell infiltration and alveolar haemorrhage in the alveolar airspace was less severe in Ad-sST2-Fc-treated mice when compared with control groups. In addition, high levels of sST2-Fc in vivo reduced the transcription of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6 and Toll-like receptor-4 gene remarkably, and suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB in lung tissues in response to LPS challenge. Taken together, these results suggested that administration of Ad-sST2-Fc gene transfer may have therapeutic potential for the immunomodulatory treatment of LPS-mediated inflammatory lung injury. PMID:21352201

  11. Enhancement by dimethyl myleran of donor type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Reisner, Y. )

    1989-05-15

    A major problem in using murine models for studies of bone marrow allograft rejection in leukemia patients is the narrow margin in which graft rejection can be analyzed. In mice irradiated with greater than 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) rejection is minimal, whereas after administration of 8 Gy TBI, which spares a significant number of clonable T cells, a substantial frequency of host stem cells can also be detected. In current murine models, unlike in humans, bone marrow allograft rejection is generally associated with full autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the myeloablative drug dimethyl myleran (DMM) on chimerism status following transplantation of T cell-depleted allogenic bone marrow (using C57BL/6 donors and C3H/HeJ recipients, conditioned with 8 Gy TBI). Donor type chimerism 1 to 2 months post-transplant of 1 to 3 x 10(6) bone marrow cells was markedly enhanced by using DMM one day after TBI and prior to transplantation. Conditioning with cyclophosphamide instead of DMM, in combination with 8 Gy TBI, did not enhance engraftment of donor type cells. Artificial reconstitution of T cells, after conditioning with TBI plus DMM, by adding mature thymocytes, or presensitization with irradiated donor type spleen cells 1 week before TBI and DMM, led to strong graft rejection and consequently to severe anemia. The anti-donor responses in these models were proportional to the number of added T cells and to the number of cells used for presensitization, and they could be neutralized by increasing the bone marrow inoculum.

  12. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy reveals that a chimeric flavivirus is released as individual particles in secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Sellin, Caroline; Georgeault, Sonia; Uzbekov, Rustem; Lebos, Claude; Guillaume, Jean-Marc; Roingeard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular morphogenesis of flaviviruses has been well described, but flavivirus release from the host cell remains poorly documented. We took advantage of the optimized production of an attenuated chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus for vaccine purposes to study this phenomenon by microscopic approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the release of numerous viral particles at the cell surface through a short-lived process. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the intracellular ultrastructure of the small number of cells releasing viral particles at a given time, we developed a new correlative microscopy method: CSEMTEM (for correlative scanning electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy). CSEMTEM analysis suggested that chimeric flavivirus particles were released as individual particles, in small exocytosis vesicles, via a regulated secretory pathway. Our morphological findings provide new insight into interactions between flaviviruses and cells and demonstrate that CSEMTEM is a useful new method, complementary to SEM observations of biological events by intracellular TEM investigations.

  13. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

  14. Hepatic immunophenotyping for streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Eun, Hyuk Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Min; Seo, Wonhyo; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Won-Il; Yi, Hyon-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence revealed that diabetes induces abnormal immune responses that result in serious complications in organs. However, the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic immunity remains obscure. We evaluated the population and function of hepatic immune cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice. CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-knockout mice and mice with a depletion of regulatory T cells (DEREG) were used to investigate the migration and role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in hyperglycemic mice. The inflammatory cytokines and hepatic transaminase levels were significantly increased in the hyperglycemic mice. The population and number of infiltrating monocytes, granulocytes, and Tregs were enhanced in the livers of the hyperglycemic mice. Hepatic monocytes other than macrophages showed the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the hyperglycemic mice. The CCR2 knockout and DEREG chimeric mice exhibited increased populations of activated T cells and neutrophils compared to the WT chimeric mice, which promoted hepatic inflammation in the hyperglycemic mice. The migration of CCR2 knockout Tregs into the liver was significantly reduced compared to the WT Tregs. We demonstrated that hyperglycemia contributes to increase in infiltrating monocytes and Tregs, which are associated with hepatic immune dysfunction in mice. CCR2-mediated migration of Tregs regulates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation. PMID:27464894

  15. Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Kara; Jiang, Zhiyong; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R.; Langenhorst, Robert; Ransburgh, Russell; Brunick, Colin; Tracy, Miranda C.; Hurtig, Heather R.; Mabee, Leah M.; Mingo, Mark; Li, Yanhua; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8LAIV-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8LAIV-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines. PMID:26061265

  16. Combined Diazepam and MK-801 Therapy Provides Synergistic Protection from Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Ali, Mahil S.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Heck, Diane E.; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl− channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 hour lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  17. Targeting of G(D2)-positive tumor cells by human T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric T-cell receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Rossig, C; Bollard, C M; Nuchtern, J G; Merchant, D A; Brenner, M K

    2001-10-15

    Genetic engineering of human T lymphocytes to express tumor antigen-specific chimeric immune receptors is an attractive means for providing large numbers of effector cells for adoptive immunotherapy while bypassing major mechanisms of tumor escape from immune recognition. We have applied this strategy to the targeting of a G(D2)-positive tumor, neuroblastoma, which is the commonest extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Chimeric immune receptors were generated by joining an extracellular antigen-binding domain derived from either of the 2 ganglioside G(D2)-specific antibodies sc7A4 and sc14.G2a to a cytoplasmic signaling domain. The variable domains of hybridoma antibody 14.G2a were cloned and selected using a phage display approach. Upon coincubation with G(D2)-expressing tumor cell targets, human T lymphocytes transduced with recombinant retroviruses encoding chimeric receptors based on sc14.G2a, but not sc7A4, secreted significant levels of cytokines in a pattern comparable to the cytokine response obtained by engagement of the CD3 receptor. T cells transduced with the sc14.G2a-based chimeric T-cell receptors also displayed specific lysis of G(D2)-positive neuroblastoma cells, which was blocked in the presence of monoclonal antibody 14.G2a. In the absence of nonspecific stimulation of transduced cells, their functionality declined over time and antigenic stimulation of the chimeric receptor alone did not induce commitment to proliferation. These results support the feasibility of redirecting human T lymphocytes to a tumor-associated ganglioside epitope but emphasize that successful chimeric receptor-mediated adoptive immunotherapy will require additional strategies that overcome functional inactivation of gene-modified primary T lymphocytes.

  18. The Snodgrass and Vanderwart set revisited: norms for object manipulability and for pictorial ambiguity of objects, chimeric objects, and nonobjects.

    PubMed

    Magnié, M N; Besson, M; Poncet, M; Dolisi, C

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a standardized set of 480 black-and-white line drawings, half meaningful and half meaningless. Meaningful pictures represent a common object, and were selected from the Snodgrass and Vanderwart set (1980). Meaningless pictures include 120 chimeric objects (made up of two halves of real objects) and 120 nonobjects, that were constructed from the meaningful pictures while controlling for visual complexity. We report the results of two experiments designed to standardize the revisited Snodgrass and Vanderwart set along two important dimensions for picture processing: object manipulability (Experiment 1) and pictorial ambiguity (Experiment 2). The relevance of these dimensions is discussed. Experiment 1 permit us to sort objects into four manipulability categories (i.e., the ease and distinctiveness with which use of the object can be mimed) and to propose a manipulability index. This experiment provides additional evidence for a partial overlap in the dichotomy between man-made objects and living things, on the one hand, and manipulable and unmanipulable objects, on the other hand. In Experiment 2, a pictorial ambiguity index was computed for meaningful and meaningless pictures. The results of this experiment point the distinction between chimeric objects and nonobjects showing that chimeric objects are more complex to process than nonobjects and objects. This standardized set of pictures provides a database and an hopefully useful tool for research in cognitive neuroscience.

  19. Construction of bioactive chimeric MHC class I tetramer by expression and purification of human-murine chimeric MHC heavy chain and beta(2)m as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ding; Wang, Fang; He, Xiaowen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Dean; Ying, He; Sun, Shuhan

    2006-12-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) class I tetramers are used in the quantitative analysis of epitope peptide-specific CD8+ T-cells. An MHC class I tetramer was composed of 4 MHC class I complexes and a fluorescently labeled streptavidin (SA) molecule. Each MHC class I complex consists of an MHC heavy chain, a beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) molecule and a synthetic epitope peptide. In most previous studies, an MHC class I complex was formed in the refolding buffer with an expressed MHC heavy chain molecule and beta(2)m, respectively. This procedure inevitably resulted in the disadvantages of forming unwanted multimers and self-refolding products, and the purification of each kind of monomer was time-consuming. In the present study, the genes of a human/murine chimeric MHC heavy chain (HLA-A2 alpha1, HLA-A2 alpha2 and MHC-H2D alpha3) and beta(2)m were tandem-cloned into plasmid pET17b and expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein was refolded with each of the three HLA-A2 restricted peptides (HBc18-27 FLPSDFFPSI, HBx52-60 HLSLRGLPV, and HBx92-100 VLHKRTLGL) and thus three chimeric MHC class I complexes were obtained. Biotinylation was performed, and its level of efficiency was observed via a band-shift assay in non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Such chimeric MHC class I tetramers showed a sensitive binding activity in monitoring HLA/A2 restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in immunized HLA/A*0201 transgenic mice. PMID:17046278

  20. Chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus as a candidate dengue vaccine: quantitation of the dengue virus-specific CD8 T-cell response.

    PubMed

    van Der Most, R G; Murali-Krishna, K; Ahmed, R; Strauss, J H

    2000-09-01

    We have constructed a chimeric yellow fever/dengue (YF/DEN) virus, which expresses the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DEN type 2 (DEN-2) virus in a YF virus (YFV-17D) genetic background. Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric virus induced a CD8 T-cell response specific for the DEN-2 virus prM and E proteins. This response protected YF/DEN virus-immunized mice against lethal dengue encephalitis. Control mice immunized with the parental YFV-17D were not protected against DEN-2 virus challenge, indicating that protection was mediated by the DEN-2 virus prM- and E-specific immune responses. YF/DEN vaccine-primed CD8 T cells expanded and were efficiently recruited into the central nervous systems of DEN-2 virus challenged mice. At 5 days after challenge, 3 to 4% of CD8 T cells in the spleen were specific for the prM and E proteins, and 34% of CD8 T cells in the central nervous system recognized these proteins. Depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells, or both, strongly reduced the protective efficacy of the YF/DEN virus, stressing the key role of the antiviral T-cell response.

  1. Immunogenicity of candidate chimeric DNA vaccine against tuberculosis and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ayan; Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2009-08-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania donovani are important intracellular pathogens, especially in Indian context. In India and other South East Asian countries, both these infections are highly endemic and in about 20% cases co-infection of these pathogens is reported. For both these pathogens cell mediated immunity plays most important role. The available treatment of these infections is either prolonged or cumbersome or it is ineffective in controlling the outbreaks and spread. Therefore, potentiation of a common host defense mechanism can be used to prevent both the infections simultaneously. In this study we have developed a novel chimeric DNA vaccine candidate comprising the esat-6 gene of M. tuberculosis and kinesin motor domain gene of L. donovani. After developing this novel chimera, its immunogenicity was studied in mouse model. The immune response was compared with individual constructs of esat-6 and kinesin motor domain. The results showed that immunization with chimeric DNA vaccine construct resulted in stronger IFN-gamma and IL-2 response against kinesin (3012+/-102 and 367.5+/-8.92pg/ml) and ESAT-6 (1334+/-46.5 and 245.1+/-7.72pg/ml) in comparison to the individual vaccine constructs. The reciprocal immune response (IFN-gamma and IL-2) against individual construct was lower (kinesin motor domain: 1788+/-36.48 and 341.8+/-9.801pg/ml and ESAT-6: 867.0+/-47.23 and 170.8+/-4.578pg/ml, respectively). The results also suggest that using the chimeric construct both proteins yielded a reciprocal adjuvant affect over each other as the IFN-gamma production against chimera vaccination is statistically significant (p<0.0001) than individual construct vaccination. From this pilot study we could envisage that the chimeric DNA vaccine construct may offer an attractive strategy in controlling co-infection of leishmaniasis and tuberculosis and have important implication in future vaccine design. PMID:19559111

  2. Immunogenicity of candidate chimeric DNA vaccine against tuberculosis and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ayan; Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2009-08-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania donovani are important intracellular pathogens, especially in Indian context. In India and other South East Asian countries, both these infections are highly endemic and in about 20% cases co-infection of these pathogens is reported. For both these pathogens cell mediated immunity plays most important role. The available treatment of these infections is either prolonged or cumbersome or it is ineffective in controlling the outbreaks and spread. Therefore, potentiation of a common host defense mechanism can be used to prevent both the infections simultaneously. In this study we have developed a novel chimeric DNA vaccine candidate comprising the esat-6 gene of M. tuberculosis and kinesin motor domain gene of L. donovani. After developing this novel chimera, its immunogenicity was studied in mouse model. The immune response was compared with individual constructs of esat-6 and kinesin motor domain. The results showed that immunization with chimeric DNA vaccine construct resulted in stronger IFN-gamma and IL-2 response against kinesin (3012+/-102 and 367.5+/-8.92pg/ml) and ESAT-6 (1334+/-46.5 and 245.1+/-7.72pg/ml) in comparison to the individual vaccine constructs. The reciprocal immune response (IFN-gamma and IL-2) against individual construct was lower (kinesin motor domain: 1788+/-36.48 and 341.8+/-9.801pg/ml and ESAT-6: 867.0+/-47.23 and 170.8+/-4.578pg/ml, respectively). The results also suggest that using the chimeric construct both proteins yielded a reciprocal adjuvant affect over each other as the IFN-gamma production against chimera vaccination is statistically significant (p<0.0001) than individual construct vaccination. From this pilot study we could envisage that the chimeric DNA vaccine construct may offer an attractive strategy in controlling co-infection of leishmaniasis and tuberculosis and have important implication in future vaccine design.

  3. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    PubMed

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development.

  4. Systemic chimerism in human female recipients of male livers.

    PubMed

    Starzl, T E; Demetris, A J; Trucco, M; Ramos, H; Zeevi, A; Rudert, W A; Kocova, M; Ricordi, C; Ildstad, S; Murase, N

    1992-10-10

    We have previously reported data from clinical and laboratory animal observations which suggest that organ tolerance after transplantation depends on a state of balanced lymphodendritic cell chimerism between the host and donor graft. We have sought further evidence to support this hypothesis by investigating HLA-mismatched liver allograft recipients. 9 of 9 female recipients of livers from male donors had chimerism in their allografts and extrahepatic tissues, according to in-situ hybridisation and molecular techniques 10 to 19 years posttransplantation. In 8 women with good graft function, evidence of the Y chromosome was found in the blood (6/8), skin (8/8), and lymph nodes (7/8). A ninth patient whose transplant failed after 12 years from recurrent chronic viral hepatitis had chimerism in her lymph nodes, skin, jejunum, and aorta at the time of retransplantation. Although cell migration is thought to take place after all types of transplantation, the large population of migratory cells in, and the extent of their seeding from, hepatic grafts may explain the privileged tolerogenicity of the liver compared with other organs.

  5. Recipient leukocyte infusion enhances the local and systemic graft-versus-neuroblastoma effect of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Willems, Leen; Fevery, Sabien; Sprangers, Ben; Rutgeerts, Omer; Lenaerts, Caroline; Ibrahimi, Abdelilah; Gijsbers, Rik; Van Gool, Stefaan; Waer, Mark; Billiau, An D

    2013-11-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) may hold potential as a novel form of immunotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma. DLI, however, carries the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI) induces graft-versus-leukemia responses without GvHD in mice and is currently being explored clinically. Here, we demonstrate that both DLI and RLI, when given to mixed C57BL/6→A/J radiation chimeras carrying subcutaneous Neuro2A neuroblastoma implants, can slow the local growth of such tumors. DLI provoked full donor chimerism and GvHD; RLI produced graft rejection but left mice healthy. Flow cytometric studies showed that the chimerism of intratumoral leukocytes paralleled the systemic chimerism. This was associated with increased CD8/CD4 ratios, CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ expression and NK-cell Granzyme B expression within the tumor, following both DLI and RLI. The clinically safe anti-tumor effect of RLI was further enhanced by adoptively transferred naïve recipient-type NK cells. In models of intravenous Neuro2A tumor challenge, allogeneic chimeras showed superior overall survival over syngeneic chimeras. Bioluminescence imaging in allogeneic chimeras challenged with luciferase-transduced Neuro2A cells showed both DLI and RLI to prolong metastasis-free survival. This is the first experimental evidence that RLI can safely produce a local and systemic anti-tumor effect against a solid tumor. Our data indicate that RLI may provide combined T-cell and NK-cell reactivity effectively targeting Neuro2A neuroblastoma.

  6. High level expression of surface glycoprotein of rabies virus in tobacco leaves and its immunoprotective activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Shadma; Singh, P K; Yadav, Dinesh K; Shahnawaz, Md; Mishra, Satish; Sawant, Samir V; Tuli, Rakesh

    2005-09-22

    A synthetic gene coding for the surface glycoprotein (G protein) of rabies virus was strategically designed to achieve high-level expression in transgenic plants. The native signal peptide was replaced by that of the pathogenesis related protein, PR-S of Nicotiana tabacum. An endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was included at C-terminus of the G protein. Tobacco plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation. Selected transgenic lines expressed the chimeric G protein at 0.38% of the total soluble leaf protein. Mice immunized intraperitoneally with the G protein purified from tobacco leaf microsomal fraction elicited high level of immune response as compared to the inactivated commercial viral vaccine. The plant-derived G protein induced complete protective immunity in mice against intracerebral lethal challenge with live rabies virus. The results establish that plants can provide a safe and effective production system for the expression of immunoprotective rabies virus surface protein. PMID:16038998

  7. Protective efficacy of the chimeric Staphylococcus aureus vaccine candidate IC in sepsis and pneumonia models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liuyang; Cai, Changzhi; Feng, Qiang; Shi, Yun; Zuo, Qianfei; Yang, Huijie; Jing, Haiming; Wei, Chao; Zhuang, Yuan; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes serious sepsis and necrotic pneumonia worldwide. Due to the spread of multidrug-resistant strains, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating S. aureus infection. In this study, based on the immune-dominant areas of the iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and clumping factor A (ClfA), we designed the novel chimeric vaccine IsdB151-277ClfA33-213 (IC). IC formulated with the AlPO4 adjuvant induced higher protection in an S. aureus sepsis model compared with the single components alone and showed broad immune protection against several clinical S. aureus isolates. Immunisation with IC induced strong antibody responses. The protective effect of antibodies was demonstrated through the opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) and passive immunisation experiment. Moreover, this new chimeric vaccine induced Th1/Th17-skewed cellular immune responses based on cytokine profiles and CD4+ T cell stimulation tests. Neutralisation of IL-17A alone (but not IFN-γ) resulted in a significant decrease in vaccine immune protection. Finally, we found that IC showed protective efficacy in a pneumonia model. Taken together, these data provide evidence that IC is a potentially promising vaccine candidate for combating S. aureus sepsis and pneumonia. PMID:26865417

  8. Design and screening of a chimeric survivin-specific nanobody and its anticancer activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Wenyun; Wang, Tianwen; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Survivin is a strong inhibitor of apoptosis protein and a promising target for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we report the design and preparation of novel chimeric nanobodies (Nbs) that could specifically bind to survivin. We screened the peptides from phage-displayed libraries (7-mer, 12-mer) for nonconserved sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) in the scaffold of the Nb. By a combination of the nonconserved sequences for CDRs, the corresponding chimeric Nbs (10 Nbs) were prepared with genetic operations. The antisurvivin Nb TAT-Nb4A (a fusion with cellular transduction peptide TAT) was found to be the most efficient antibody on the basis of the results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, MTT, and flow cytometry when these nanobodies were tested with hepatoma carcinoma cell HepG2. TAT-Nb4A could inhibit the growth of HepG2 and promote cancer cell apoptosis significantly in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner: the apoptosis rate reached 52.5% when the concentration of TAT-Nb4A was 120 μg/ml. Western blotting with cells expressing survivin showed that the prepared nanobody could efficiently bind to expressed survivin and blocked the signaling pathway in which survivin played a role. This study provided a convenient and feasible method of obtaining a novel specific Nb with the case of survivin as a good example. PMID:27362789

  9. Targeting eradication of chronic myeloid leukemia using chimeric oncolytic adenovirus to drive IL-24 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xubin; liu, Li; Wang, Gang; Li, Wei; Xu, Ke; Hu, Xupang; Qian, Cheng; Shao, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder in which cells of the myeloid lineage undergo massive clonal expansion as well as resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Gene therapy hold a great promise for treatment of malignancies based on the transfer of genetic material to the tissues. In this study, we explore whether chimeric oncolytic adenovirus-mediated transfer of human interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene induce the enhanced antitumor potency. Our results showed that chimeric oncolytic adenovirus carrying hIL-24 (AdCN205-11-IL-24) could produce high levels of hIL-24 in CML cancer cells, as compared with constructed double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing hIL-24 (AdCN205-IL-24). AdCN205-11-IL-24 could specifically induce cytotoxocity to CML cancer cells, but little or no effect on normal cell lines. AdCN205-11-IL-24 exhibited remarkable anti-tumor activities and induce higher antitumor activity to CML cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vitro. Our study may provides a potent and safe tool for CML gene therapy. PMID:26097559

  10. Chimeric piggyBac transposases for genomic targeting in human cells.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jesse B; Urschitz, Johann; Stoytchev, Ilko; Dang, Nong C; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Belcaid, Mahdi; Maragathavally, Kommineni J; Coates, Craig J; Segal, David J; Moisyadi, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Integrating vectors such as viruses and transposons insert transgenes semi-randomly and can potentially disrupt or deregulate genes. For these techniques to be of therapeutic value, a method for controlling the precise location of insertion is required. The piggyBac (PB) transposase is an efficient gene transfer vector active in a variety of cell types and proven to be amenable to modification. Here we present the design and validation of chimeric PB proteins fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain with the ability to target transgenes to pre-determined sites. Upstream activating sequence (UAS) Gal4 recognition sites harbored on recipient plasmids were preferentially targeted by the chimeric Gal4-PB transposase in human cells. To analyze the ability of these PB fusion proteins to target chromosomal locations, UAS sites were randomly integrated throughout the genome using the Sleeping Beauty transposon. Both N- and C-terminal Gal4-PB fusion proteins but not native PB were capable of targeting transposition nearby these introduced sites. A genome-wide integration analysis revealed the ability of our fusion constructs to bias 24% of integrations near endogenous Gal4 recognition sequences. This work provides a powerful approach to enhance the properties of the PB system for applications such as genetic engineering and gene therapy. PMID:22492708

  11. Chimeric phage-bacterial enzymes: a clue to the modular evolution of genes.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, E; López, R; García, J L

    1990-01-01

    Pneumococcal peptidoglycan amidase (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, EC 3.5.1.28) and phage CPL1 lysozyme degrade a common substrate (choline-containing pneumococcal cell walls); the former hydrolyzes the bond between muramic acid and alanine, whereas the latter breaks down the linkage between muramic acid and glucosamine. The amino acid sequences of their C-terminal domains are homologous. Chimeric genes were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis: a unique SnaBI restriction site in the cpl1 gene, coding for the phage lysozyme, was introduced at a location equivalent to the SnaBI site present in the lytA gene, which codes for the pneumococcal amidase. The resulting genes expressed lytic activities at levels similar to those of the parental genes. The gene products, which have been purified to electrophoretical homogeneity, exhibited unusual combined biochemical properties--e.g., by exchange of protein domains, we have switched the regulatory properties of these enzymes without altering their catalytic activities. Chimeric gene construction in Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages is an excellent model to study the modular organization of genes and proteins and to help to establish evolutionary relationships between phage and bacteria. These constructions provide an experimental approach to the molecular processes involved in cassette recruitment during evolution and contribute support to the concept of bacteria as adaptable chimeras. Images PMID:1978320

  12. Chimeric piggyBac transposases for genomic targeting in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Jesse B.; Urschitz, Johann; Stoytchev, Ilko; Dang, Nong C.; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Belcaid, Mahdi; Maragathavally, Kommineni J.; Coates, Craig J.; Segal, David J.; Moisyadi, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Integrating vectors such as viruses and transposons insert transgenes semi-randomly and can potentially disrupt or deregulate genes. For these techniques to be of therapeutic value, a method for controlling the precise location of insertion is required. The piggyBac (PB) transposase is an efficient gene transfer vector active in a variety of cell types and proven to be amenable to modification. Here we present the design and validation of chimeric PB proteins fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain with the ability to target transgenes to pre-determined sites. Upstream activating sequence (UAS) Gal4 recognition sites harbored on recipient plasmids were preferentially targeted by the chimeric Gal4–PB transposase in human cells. To analyze the ability of these PB fusion proteins to target chromosomal locations, UAS sites were randomly integrated throughout the genome using the Sleeping Beauty transposon. Both N- and C-terminal Gal4-PB fusion proteins but not native PB were capable of targeting transposition nearby these introduced sites. A genome-wide integration analysis revealed the ability of our fusion constructs to bias 24% of integrations near endogenous Gal4 recognition sequences. This work provides a powerful approach to enhance the properties of the PB system for applications such as genetic engineering and gene therapy. PMID:22492708

  13. Engineering D-helix of antithrombin in alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor confers antiinflammatory properties on the chimeric serpin.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Dinarvand, P; Qureshi, S H; Rezaie, A R

    2014-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a heparin-binding serpin in plasma which regulates the proteolytic activity of procoagulant proteases of the clotting cascade. In addition to being an anticoagulant, AT also exhibits antiinflammatory activities when it binds to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the endothelium via its basic residues of D-helix to elicit intracellular signalling responses. By contrast to AT, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) is a non-heparin-binding serpin that exhibits very slow reactivity with coagulation proteases and possesses no HSPG-dependent antiinflammatory properties. To determine whether the antiinflammatory signaling specificity of AT can be transferred to α1-PI, we replaced the D-helix of human α1-PI with the corresponding sequence of human AT and expressed the chimeric serpin α1-PI/D-helix) in a bacterial expression system. High molecular weight heparin bound to α1-PI/D-helix and accelerated the inhibition of thrombin by the serpin mutant by a template mechanism reminiscent of the cofactor effect of heparin on inhibition of thrombin by AT. Like AT, α1-PI/D-helix exhibited antiinflammatory properties in both cellular and animal models. Thus, α1-PI/D-helix inhibited the barrier-disruptive effect of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB transcription factor in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells by a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the chimeric serpin reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated lethality, elicited a vascular protective effect and inhibited infiltration of activated leukocytes to the peritoneal cavity of mice in an HMGB1-mediated inflammatory model. These results suggest that grafting the D-helix of AT to α1-PI confers antiinflammatory properties on the serpin and that the chimeric serpin may have therapeutic utility for treating inflammatory disorders. PMID:24522239

  14. Rotavirus VP7 epitope chimeric proteins elicit cross-immunoreactivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingxin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Teng, Yumei; Xia, Wenyue; Wang, Jing; Wen, Yuling; Chen, Yuanding

    2015-10-01

    VP7 of group A rotavirus (RVA) contains major neutralizing epitopes. Using the antigenic protein VP6 as the vector, chimeric proteins carrying foreign epitopes have been shown to possess good immunoreactivity and immunogenicity. In the present study, using modified VP6 as the vector, three chimeric proteins carrying epitopes derived from VP7 of RVA were constructed. The results showed that the chimeric proteins reacted with anti-VP6 and with SA11 and Wa virus strains. Antibodies from guinea pigs inoculated with the chimeric proteins recognized VP6 and VP7 of RVA and protected mammalian cells from SA11 and Wa infection in vitro. The neutralizing activities of the antibodies against the chimeric proteins were significantly higher than those against the vector protein VP6F. Thus, development of chimeric vaccines carrying VP7 epitopes using VP6 as a vector could be a promising alternative to enhance immunization against RVAs.

  15. Built-in adjuvanticity of genetically and protein-engineered chimeric molecules for targeting of influenza A peptide epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kerekov, Nikola S; Ivanova, Iva I; Mihaylova, Nikolina M; Nikolova, Maria; Prechl, Jozsef; Tchorbanov, Andrey I

    2014-10-01

    Highly purified, subunit, or synthetic viral antigens are known to be weakly immunogenic and potentate only the antibody, rather than cell-mediated immune responses. An alternative approach for inducing protective immunity with small viral peptides would be the direct targeting of viral epitopes to the immunocompetent cells by DNA vaccines encoding antibody fragments specific to activating cell surface co-receptor molecules. Here, we are exploring as a new genetic vaccine, a DNA chimeric molecule encoding a T and B cell epitope-containing influenza A virus hemagglutinin peptide joined to sequences encoding a single-chain variable fragment antibody fragment specific for the costimulatory B cell complement receptors 1 and 2. This recombinant DNA molecule was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector and used as a naked DNA vaccine in WT and CR1/2 KO mice. The intramuscular administration of the DNA construct resulted in the in vivo expression of an immunogenic chimeric protein, which cross-links cell surface receptors on influenza-specific B cells. The DNA vaccination was followed by prime-boosting with the protein-engineered replica of the DNA construct, thus delivering an activation intracellular signal. Immunization with an expression vector containing the described construct and boosting with the protein chimera induced a strong anti-influenza cytotoxic response, modulation of cytokine profile, and a weak antibody response in Balb/c mice. The same immunization scheme did not result in generation of influenza-specific response in mice lacking the target receptor, underlining the molecular adjuvant effect of receptor targeting.

  16. Chimeric Filoviruses for Identification and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ilinykh, Philipp A.; Shen, Xiaoli; Flyak, Andrew I.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent experiments suggest that some glycoprotein (GP)-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can protect experimental animals against the filovirus Ebola virus (EBOV). There is a need for isolation of MAbs capable of neutralizing multiple filoviruses. Antibody neutralization assays for filoviruses frequently use surrogate systems such as the rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSV), lentiviruses or gammaretroviruses with their envelope proteins replaced with EBOV GP or pseudotyped with EBOV GP. It is optimal for both screening and in-depth characterization of newly identified neutralizing MAbs to generate recombinant filoviruses that express a reporter fluorescent protein in order to more easily monitor and quantify the infection. Our study showed that unlike neutralization-sensitive chimeric VSV, authentic filoviruses are highly resistant to neutralization by MAbs. We used reverse genetics techniques to replace EBOV GP with its counterpart from the heterologous filoviruses Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus, and even Marburg virus and Lloviu virus, which belong to the heterologous genera in the filovirus family. This work resulted in generation of multiple chimeric filoviruses, demonstrating the ability of filoviruses to tolerate swapping of the envelope protein. The sensitivity of chimeric filoviruses to neutralizing MAbs was similar to that of authentic biologically derived filoviruses with the same GP. Moreover, disabling the expression of the secreted GP (sGP) resulted in an increased susceptibility of an engineered virus to the BDBV52 MAb isolated from a BDBV survivor, suggesting a role for sGP in evasion of antibody neutralization in the context of a human filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE The study demonstrated that chimeric rhabdoviruses in which G protein is replaced with filovirus GP, widely used as surrogate targets for characterization of filovirus neutralizing antibodies, do not accurately predict the ability of antibodies to

  17. Chimeric β-Lactamases: Global Conservation of Parental Function and Fast Time-Scale Dynamics with Increased Slow Motions

    PubMed Central

    Clouthier, Christopher M.; Morin, Sébastien; Gobeil, Sophie M. C.; Doucet, Nicolas; Blanchet, Jonathan; Nguyen, Elisabeth; Gagné, Stéphane M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme engineering has been facilitated by recombination of close homologues, followed by functional screening. In one such effort, chimeras of two class-A β-lactamases – TEM-1 and PSE-4 – were created according to structure-guided protein recombination and selected for their capacity to promote bacterial proliferation in the presence of ampicillin (Voigt et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002 9:553). To provide a more detailed assessment of the effects of protein recombination on the structure and function of the resulting chimeric enzymes, we characterized a series of functional TEM-1/PSE-4 chimeras possessing between 17 and 92 substitutions relative to TEM-1 β-lactamase. Circular dichroism and thermal scanning fluorimetry revealed that the chimeras were generally well folded. Despite harbouring important sequence variation relative to either of the two ‘parental’ β-lactamases, the chimeric β-lactamases displayed substrate recognition spectra and reactivity similar to their most closely-related parent. To gain further insight into the changes induced by chimerization, the chimera with 17 substitutions was investigated by NMR spin relaxation. While high order was conserved on the ps-ns timescale, a hallmark of class A β-lactamases, evidence of additional slow motions on the µs-ms timescale was extracted from model-free calculations. This is consistent with the greater number of resonances that could not be assigned in this chimera relative to the parental β-lactamases, and is consistent with this well-folded and functional chimeric β-lactamase displaying increased slow time-scale motions. PMID:23284969

  18. Patterns of hematopoietic chimerism following bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia from volunteer unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Molloy, K; Goulden, N; Lawler, M; Cornish, J; Oakhill, A; Pamphilon, D; Potter, M; Steward, C; Langlands, K; Humphries, P; McCann, S R

    1996-04-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism was analyzed in serial bone marrow samples taken from 28 children following T-cell depleted unrelated donor bone marrow transplants (UD BMT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Chimeric status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of simple tandem repeat (STR) sequences (maximal sensitivity, 0.1%). At least two serial samples were examined in 23 patients. Of these, two had evidence of complete donor engraftment at all times and eight showed stable low level mixed chimerism (MC) (<1% recipient hematopoiesis). All 10 of these patients remain in remission with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. By contrast, 13 patients demonstrated a progressive return of recipient hematopoiesis. Five of these relapsed (4 to 9 months post BMT), one died of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and seven remain in remission with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Five children were excluded from serial analysis as two serial samples were not collected before either relapse (3) or graft rejection (2). We conclude that as with sibling transplants, ex vivo T depleted UD BMT in children with ALL is associated with a high incidence of MC. Stable donor engraftment and low level MC always correlated with continued remission. However, detection of a progressive return of recipient cells did not universally correlate with relapse, but highlighted those patients at greatest risk. Serial chimerism analysis by PCR of STRs provides a rapid and simple screening technique for the detection of relapse and the identification of patients with progressive MC who might benefit from detailed molecular analysis for minimal residual disease following matched volunteer UD BMT for childhood ALL.

  19. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D

    2014-01-01

    A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer's left ("left hemiface"). However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages vs. default scanning biases in a unique way-by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  20. Immigration control in the vertebrate body with special reference to chimerism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anthony J S

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of chimerism is reviewed against an understanding of adaptive immunity in vertebrates. It is shown that chimerism can be regarded as a ubiquitous condition and this suggests that monophylesis has played little part in evolution. It is suggested that the adaptive immune response has a special role in facilitating the development of chimerism and that the consensus view of adaptive immunity as a rejection mechanism should be revised.

  1. Expression and purification of toxic anti-breast cancer p28-NRC chimeric protein

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chimeric proteins consisting of a targeting moiety and a cytotoxic moiety are now under intense research focus for targeted therapy of cancer. Here, we report cloning, expression, and purification of such a targeted chimeric protein made up of p28 peptide as both targeting and anticancer moiety fused to NRC peptide as a cytotoxic moiety. However, since the antimicrobial activity of the NRC peptide would intervene expression of the chimeric protein in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the effects of two fusion tags, that is, thioredoxin (Trx) and 6x-His tags, and various expression conditions, on the expression of p28-NRC chimeric protein. Materials and Methods: In order to express the chimeric protein with only 6x-His tag, pET28 expression plasmid was used. Cloning in pET32 expression plasmid was performed to add both Trx and 6x-His tags to the chimeric protein. Expression of the chimeric protein with both plasmids was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis following optimization of expression conditions and host strains. Results: Expression of the chimeric protein in pET28a was performed. However, expression yield of the chimeric protein was low. Optimization of culture conditions and host strains led to reasonable expression yield of the toxic chimeric protein in pET32a vector. In cases of both plasmids, approximately 10 kDa deviation of the apparent molecular weight from the theoretical one was seen in SDS-PAGE of purified chimeric proteins. Conclusions: The study leads to proper expression and purification yield of p28-NRC chimeric protein with Trx tag following optimizing culture conditions and host strains. PMID:27169101

  2. Chimeric Proteins to Detect DNA Damage and Mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S; Malfatti, M; Robbins, K M

    2002-01-14

    The goal of this project was to develop chimeric proteins composed of a DNA mismatch or damage binding protein and a nuclease, as well as methods to detect DNA mismatches and damage. We accomplished this through protein engineering based on using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to create chimeras with novel functions for damage and mismatch detection. This project addressed fundamental questions relating to disease susceptibility and radiation-induced damage in cells. It also supported and enhanced LLNL's competency in the emerging field of proteomics. In nature, DNA is constantly being subjected to damaging agents such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various environmental and dietary carcinogens. If DNA damage is not repaired however, mutations in DNA result that can eventually manifest in cancer and other diseases. In addition to damage-induced DNA mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are variations in the genetic sequence between individuals, may predispose some to disease. As a result of the Human Genome Project, the integrity of a person's DNA can now be monitored. Therefore, methods to detect DNA damage, mutations, and SNPs are useful not only in basic research but also in the health and biotechnology industries. Current methods of detection often use radioactive labeling and rely on expensive instrumentation that is not readily available in many research settings. Our methods to detect DNA damage and mismatches employ simple gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry, thereby alleviating the need for radioactive labeling and expensive equipment. In FY2001, we explored SNP detection by developing methods based on the ability of the chimeric proteins to detect mismatches. Using multiplex assays with flow cytometry and fluorescent beads to which the DNA substrates where attached, we showed that several of the chimeras possess greater affinity for damaged and mismatched DNA than for native DNA. This affinity was demonstrated in

  3. Characterization of a chimeric enzyme comprising feruloyl esterase and family 42 carbohydrate-binding module.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuya; Mochizuki, Keiji; Kisara, Hiroe; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Fushinobu, Shinya; Murayama, Tetsuya; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2010-03-01

    We engineered a chimeric enzyme (AwFaeA-CBM42) comprising of type-A feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus awamori (AwFaeA) and family 42 carbohydrate-binding module (AkCBM42) from glycoside hydrolase family 54 alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase of Aspergillus kawachii. The chimeric enzyme was successfully produced in Pichia pastoris and accumulated in the culture broth. The purified chimeric enzyme had an apparent relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 53,000. The chimeric enzyme binds to arabinoxylan; this indicates that the AkCBM42 in AwFaeA-CBM42 binds to arabinofuranose side chain moiety of arabinoxylan. The thermostability of the chimeric enzyme was greater than that of AwFaeA. No significant difference of the specific activity toward methyl ferulate was observed between the AwFaeA and chimeric enzyme, but the release of ferulic acid from insoluble arabinoxylan by the chimeric enzyme was approximately 4-fold higher than that achieved by AwFaeA alone. In addition, the chimeric enzyme and xylanase acted synergistically for the degradation of arabinoxylan. In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the components of the AwFaeA-CBM42 chimeric enzyme act synergistically to bring about the degradation of complex substrates and that the family 42 carbohydrate-binding module has potential for application in the degradation of polysaccharides.

  4. Aberrant chimeric RNA GOLM1-MAK10 encoding a secreted fusion protein as a molecular signature for human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Lin, Wan; Kannan, Kalpana; Luo, Liming; Li, Jing; Chao, Pei-Wen; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yu-Ping; Gu, Jiang; Yen, Laising

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that chimeric RNAs may exert a novel layer of cellular complexity that contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression, and could be utilized as molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To date yet no fusion chimeric RNAs have been identified in esophageal cancer, the 6th most frequent cause of cancer death in the world. While analyzing the expression of 32 recurrent cancer chimeric RNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) from patients and cancer cell lines, we identified GOLM1-MAK10, as a highly cancer-enriched chimeric RNA in ESCC. In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of the chimera is largely restricted to cancer cells in patient tumors, and nearly undetectable in non-neoplastic esophageal tissue from normal subjects. The aberrant chimera closely correlated with histologic differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chimera GOLM1-MAK10 encodes a secreted fusion protein. Mechanistic studies reveal that GOLM1-MAK10 is likely derived from transcription read-through/splicing rather than being generated from a fusion gene. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism involved in ESCC and provide a novel potential target for future therapies. The secreted fusion protein translated from GOLM1-MAK10 could also serve as a unique protein signature detectable by standard non-invasive assays. These observations are critical as there is no clinically useful molecular signature available for detecting this deadly disease or monitoring the treatment response. PMID:24243830

  5. The MICE luminosity monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P.

    2013-02-01

    The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of simulation codes.

  6. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  7. N-terminal Proteomics and Ribosome Profiling Provide a Comprehensive View of the Alternative Translation Initiation Landscape in Mice and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Gawron, Daria; Van Criekinge, Wim; Menschaert, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator methionine decoded near-cognate start codons besides the existence of N-terminal extended protein variants at the level of the proteome. Various newly identified aTIS were confirmed by mutagenesis, and meta-analyses demonstrated that aTIS reside in strong Kozak-like motifs and are conserved among eukaryotes, hinting to a possible biological impact. Finally, TargetP analysis predicted that the usage of aTIS often results in altered subcellular localization patterns, providing a mechanism for functional diversification. PMID:24623590

  8. Reflections on the unique tolerogenicity of bone marrow, the enigma of chimerism and clinical tolerance.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance, chimerism has always been associated with tolerance. There is, however, a frequent dichotomy between chimerism and tolerance. Many experimental strategies that produce chimerism do not induce tolerance. In addition, some types of chimerism frequently occur after solid organ transplantation, but rarely result in tolerance. In experimental models of transient lymphocyte depletion with antilymphocyte serum, bone marrow cells exhibit a unique ability to induce allograft tolerance that is superior to that of other lymphoid cells. This tolerance can be augmented with standard immunosuppressive agents used in clinical transplantation. There are currently four ongoing clinical trials of tolerance induction to renal allografts that employ various protocols of non-myeloablative conditioning and donor bone marrow infusion. All four trials have been remarkably successful in achieving short- and moderate-term duration tolerance with minimal morbidity and complications. Persistent tolerance (total drug withdrawal) has been achieved in recipients with durable substantial chimerism. Durable tolerance has also been achieved in recipients who have lost chimerism before or after drug withdrawal has been initiated, as well as in recipients in whom only transient (less than three weeks) or no chimerism at all has been achieved. Although chimeric recipients have rejected grafts during drug withdrawal, durable chimerism is thus far the most positive biomarker for likely successful tolerance induction. At present, there is no proof that chimerism causes tolerance per se; the data are also consistent with another etiological mechanism that causes tolerance and thereby permits chimerism to persist. The current experimental protocols for tolerance induction are safe. More transplant programs should consider doing clinical tolerance research.

  9. Chimeras taking shape: Potential functions of proteins encoded by chimeric RNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Lacroix, Vincent; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Levin, Yishai; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Prilusky, Jaime; del Pozo, Angela; Tress, Michael; Johnson, Rory; Guigo, Roderic; Valencia, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs comprise exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins that alter cellular phenotypes. To date, numerous putative chimeric transcripts have been identified among the ESTs isolated from several organisms and using high throughput RNA sequencing. The few corresponding protein products that have been characterized mostly result from chromosomal translocations and are associated with cancer. Here, we systematically establish that some of the putative chimeric transcripts are genuinely expressed in human cells. Using high throughput RNA sequencing, mass spectrometry experimental data, and functional annotation, we studied 7424 putative human chimeric RNAs. We confirmed the expression of 175 chimeric RNAs in 16 human tissues, with an abundance varying from 0.06 to 17 RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads). We show that these chimeric RNAs are significantly more tissue-specific than non-chimeric transcripts. Moreover, we present evidence that chimeras tend to incorporate highly expressed genes. Despite the low expression level of most chimeric RNAs, we show that 12 novel chimeras are translated into proteins detectable in multiple shotgun mass spectrometry experiments. Furthermore, we confirm the expression of three novel chimeric proteins using targeted mass spectrometry. Finally, based on our functional annotation of exon organization and preserved domains, we discuss the potential features of chimeric proteins with illustrative examples and suggest that chimeras significantly exploit signal peptides and transmembrane domains, which can alter the cellular localization of cognate proteins. Taken together, these findings establish that some chimeric RNAs are translated into potentially functional proteins in humans. PMID:22588898

  10. Myeloid and lymphoid chimerism after T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation: evaluation of conditioning regimens using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify human minisatellite regions of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, S; Barnett, L; Bourhis, J H; Black, P; Heller, G; O'Reilly, R J

    1992-12-15

    Determining both myeloid and lymphoid chimerism after T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be helpful in the understanding of the biology of engraftment and could provide a rational method of assessing the ability of different conditioning regimens to promote engraftment. We prospectively investigated the role of different pretransplant conditioning regimens in 29 leukemic patients post-BMT by assessing myeloid and T-cell chimerism using a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Minisatellites are hypervariable regions of DNA consisting of tandem repeats of a core nucleotide sequence, and allelic polymorphism results from differences in the number of the repeats. We used this variation to distinguish between donor and recipient cells post-BMT. Seventeen patients (9 sibling and 8 unrelated donors) received conditioning with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI), thiotepa, and cyclophosphamide (Cy). Of the other 12 patients (all sibling donors), 11 received TBI plus Cy plus another agent: VP16, carboplatinum, or AZQ. One patient received TBI plus thiotepa plus VP16. All but one of the patients studied received marrow from HLA-identical donors. PCR analysis confirmed donor lymphoid engraftment within 8 days of transplant in six of six patients studied. All granulocyte DNA was of donor origin within the first 4 weeks of transplant, regardless of the conditioning regimen. The day +28 T cells were exclusively of donor origin in 14 of 17 patients who received TBI plus thiotepa plus Cy, but were mixed chimeric in 10 of 12 patients who received other conditioning regimens (P < .001). Early graft rejection was seen in one unrelated transplant recipient conditioned with TBI plus thiotepa plus Cy. Late graft failure was observed in 3 of 12 patients with mixed T-cell chimerism and in none of 16 patients with full donor chimerism at day +28. However, 5 of 16 patients who had complete T-cell chimerism at day +28 developed

  11. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    PubMed

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development. PMID:11337752

  12. A PCR amplification strategy for unrestricted generation of chimeric genes.

    PubMed

    Vos, Michel J; Kampinga, Harm H

    2008-09-15

    For analyzing protein function, protein dynamics, or protein-protein interactions, the use of chimeric proteins has become an indispensable tool. The generation of DNA constructs coding for such fused proteins can, however, be a tedious process. Currently used strategies often make use of available endonuclease sites, leading to limitations in the choice of the site of fusion between two genes and problems in maintaining protein secondary structure. We have developed a cloning strategy to get around these disadvantages that is based on a single round of PCR amplification followed by antibiotic-resistant gene complementation. PMID:18555003

  13. Clinical strategy for induction of transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism.

    PubMed

    Cosimi, A Benedict; Sachs, David H; Sykes, Megan; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Following the demonstration that transplant tolerance could be induced in non-human primate recipients treated with non-myeloablative conditioning that resulted in only transient chimerism, we began in 1998 to evaluate this approach first in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), secondary to multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 10 patients with ESRD and MM have been treated with this initial protocol. Only 2 recipients developed evidence of reversible renal allograft rejection after stopping immunosuppression. Long-term (up to 14 years) operational renal allograft tolerance has been observed in all 10 patients, even in those with transient hematopoietic chimerism. Control of the MM has been less complete, as recurrent disease developed in five of these patients, three of whom expired. Nevertheless, in view of the essentially 100% 3-5 year mortality typically expected with alternative treatments for this challenging population, it has been suggested that combined kidney and donor bone marrow transplantation (CKBMT) following non-myeloablative conditioning should become the standard therapy for patients with ESRD secondary to MM (27). These encouraging results, as well as the acceptable morbidity observed in cancer patients receiving non-myeloablative human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched bone marrow transplantation in our center, led us to next evaluate CKBMT in 10 patients of HLA-mismatched transplants. All 10 subjects developed transient chimerism and in seven of these, immunosuppression was successfully discontinued. Four subjects continue to be immunosuppression free for periods of 4.5-11 years, while in three, reinstitution of immunosuppression was advised or accomplished after 5-8 years due to recurrence of original disease or chronic antibody mediated rejection. Donor-specific antibodies were frequently detectable in the earlier recipients. In contrast, no donor-specific antibodies were detected after immunosuppression was discontinued in the last

  14. A PCR amplification strategy for unrestricted generation of chimeric genes.

    PubMed

    Vos, Michel J; Kampinga, Harm H

    2008-09-15

    For analyzing protein function, protein dynamics, or protein-protein interactions, the use of chimeric proteins has become an indispensable tool. The generation of DNA constructs coding for such fused proteins can, however, be a tedious process. Currently used strategies often make use of available endonuclease sites, leading to limitations in the choice of the site of fusion between two genes and problems in maintaining protein secondary structure. We have developed a cloning strategy to get around these disadvantages that is based on a single round of PCR amplification followed by antibiotic-resistant gene complementation.

  15. Chimerism in cattle through microsurgical aggregation of morulae.

    PubMed

    Brem, G; Tenhumberg, H; Kräußlich, H

    1984-11-01

    A cattle chimera was produced by combining four halves of two parent embryos of different breeds (Brown-Swiss x Braunvieh plus Holstein-Friesian x Holstein-Friesian) in one zona pellucida. Parent embryos in the 32-cell morula stage were recovered non-surgically, were bisected, and the combined four halves were transferred non-surgically to recipient heifers. Chimerism of coat colour was used as evidence. Combining of only two half embryos from different parents resulted in five pregnancies carried to term but none of the calves born was a chimera.

  16. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Newick, Kheng; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are engineered constructs composed of synthetic receptors that direct T cells to surface antigens for subsequent elimination. Many CAR constructs are also manufactured with elements that augment T-cell persistence and activity. To date, CAR T cells have demonstrated tremendous success in eradicating hematological malignancies (e.g., CD19 CARs in leukemias). This success is not yet extrapolated to solid tumors, and the reasons for this are being actively investigated. Here in this mini-review, we discuss some of the key hurdles encountered by CAR T cells in the solid tumor microenvironment. PMID:27162934

  17. The use of chimeric virus-like particles harbouring a segment of hantavirus Gc glycoprotein to generate a broadly-reactive hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-02-07

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  18. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89) or site #4 (aa 280–289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  19. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Deficiency Amplifies Acute Lung Injury in Bleomycin-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Burkhart, Kristin; Chen, Peter; Frevert, Charles W.; Randolph-Habecker, Julie; Hackman, Robert C.; Soloway, Paul D.; Madtes, David K.

    2005-01-01

    Bleomycin-induced lung injury triggers a profound and durable increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression, suggesting a potential role for this antiproteinase in the regulation of lung inflammation and fibrosis. TIMP-1 protein induction is spatially restricted to areas of lung injury as determined by immunohistochemistry. Using TIMP-1 null mutation mice, we demonstrate that TIMP-1 deficiency amplifies acute lung injury as determined by exaggerated pulmonary neutrophilia, hemorrhage, and vascular permeability compared with wild-type littermates after bleomycin exposure. The augmented pulmonary neutrophilia observed in TIMP-1–deficient animals was not found in similarly treated TIMP-2–deficient mice. Using TIMP-1 bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice, we observed that the TIMP-1–deficient phenotype was abolished in wild-type recipients of TIMP-1–deficient BM but not in TIMP-1–deficient recipients of wild-type BM. Acute lung injury in TIMP-1–deficient mice was accompanied by exaggerated gelatinase-B activity in the alveolar compartment. TIMP-1 deficiency did not alter neutrophil chemotactic factor accumulation in the injured lung nor neutrophil migration in response to chemotactic stimuli in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, TIMP-1 deficiency did not modify collagen accumulation after bleomycin injury. Our results provide direct evidence that TIMP-1 contributes significantly to the regulation of acute lung injury, functioning to limit inflammation and lung permeability. PMID:15947421

  20. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation: relevance of persistent mixed-unit chimerism.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hasan; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2015-04-01

    Double umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) was developed as a strategy to circumvent the cell dose limitation of single UCBT with a concomitant potential benefit of lowering the rate of leukemia relapse. Sustained hematopoiesis after double UCBT usually is derived from a single donor unit, as only a few patients have been reported to display stable mixed-unit chimerism for varying periods of time. Explanations for the 1 unit dominance, predictors for identifying unit superiority, and persistence of long-term mixed-unit chimerism remain elusive. Review of published literature revealed only 11 of 280 patients (4%) with mixed-unit chimerism for at least 1 year after transplantation, with 3 patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Mixed-unit chimerism was more likely if both units were closely HLA matched to each other. Outcome data for patients with stable mixed-unit chimerism, for the most part, were scarcely reported. Analysis of the small sample size revealed a potential advantage of stable mixed-unit chimerism on enhancing the graft-versus-leukemia effect; however, definitive conclusions cannot be made on the effect of mixed-unit chimerism on the rates of graft-versus-host disease. Therefore, gathering outcome data prospectively in larger clinical series will help answer the question of whether stable mixed-unit chimerism is either beneficial and, therefore, should be strived for, detrimental and, thus, needs to be eliminated, or if it is of no clinical consequence.

  1. Controlling Endogenous Retroviruses and Their Chimeric Transcripts During Natural Reprogramming in the Oocyte.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Khim; Knowles, Barbara B

    2015-07-15

    Complete genomic reprogramming happens twice during the life of a genome, once during the formation of gametes in their parents and once after their union at fertilization. For that matter complete genomic reprogramming happens twice in the same parental cell, the oocyte, when it is forming and after it matures and receives the paternal gamete. Control of these processes in this unique single cell is epigenetic, and our understanding of it is based on information gleaned from imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and activation and silencing of endogenous retroviruses (ERV). Activation of ERVs is attributed to demethylation of chromatin and DNA, whereas silencing requires methylation, attributed to the nuage proteins, which engage the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway and other posttranscriptional mechanisms. This reprogramming process has evolved throughout speciation because in mammals, but not fish, flies and worms, nuage-component muations affect male and female gametogenesis differentially. Transcription of ERVs is derepressed in both sexes in nuage-mutant mice, but whereas males are sterile, females are fertile. Using a proteomic approach we now report molecular interactions between nuage proteins and components of the oocyte cytoplasmic lattice and speculate how this interaction could preserve ERV/host chimeric gene products affecting female fertility. PMID:26116732

  2. Interleukin 18 secretion and its effect in improving Chimeric Antigen Receptors efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kun

    Clinical trials have shown that chimeric antigen receptor T cells modified to target cancer cells expressing a surface antigen found on immature B-cells. The purpose of this experiment is to take a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and analyze its effect in improving the efficiency of the T cells. IL-18 has been previously shown to recruit T cells to the tumor site and improve their secretion of cytotoxic cytokines. A human model of the proposed armored T cell has been created and has shown success in combating cancer cells in vitro. The next step is to design and produce a murine model to test in vivo in immunocompetent mice. This research project aimed to create two models: one utilizing 2A peptides and another utilizing IRES elements as a multicistronic vector. Both models would require the insertion of the desired genes into SFG backbones. IRES, a DNA element which acts as a binding site for the transcriptional machinery to recognize which part of the DNA to transcribe, commonly found in bicistronic vectors, is large with 500-600 base pairs, and has a lower transgene expression rate. P2A is smaller, only consisting of about 20 amino acids, and typically has a higher transgene expression rate, which may or may not result in higher effectiveness of the model. I would like to thank Dr. Renier Brentjens for being a mentor who cared about giving his interns as much educational value as possible.

  3. Cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a new chimeric thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López, M; Mende, K; Steinmetzer, T; Nowak, G

    2003-03-25

    The development of thrombin inhibitors could provide invaluable progress for antithrombotic therapy. In this paper, we report the cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a chimeric thrombin inhibitor composed of the N-terminal head structure of dipetalogastin II, the strongest inhibitor from the assassin bug Dipetalogaster maximus, and the exosite 1 blocking segment of hirudin, connected through a five glycine linker. The cloning of dipetarudin was performed by a simple method which had not been used previously to clone chimeras. Biochemical characterization of dipetarudin revealed that it is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor with a molecular mass (M(r)=7560) and a thrombin inhibitory activity (K(i)=446 fM) comparable to r-hirudin. PMID:12651003

  4. IL-12 secreting tumor-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells eradicate ovarian tumors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Mythili; Purdon, Terence J.; Spriggs, David; Koneru, Susmith; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer includes immunotherapy with genetically engineered T cells targeted to ovarian cancer cell antigens. Using retroviral transduction, T cells can be created that express an artificial T cell receptor (TCR) termed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We have generated a CAR, 4H11-28z, specific to MUC-16ecto antigen, which is the over-expressed on a majority of ovarian tumor cells and is the retained portion of MUC-16 after cleavage of CA-125. We previously demonstrated that T cells modified to express the 4H11-28z CAR eradicate orthotopic human ovarian cancer xenografts in SCID-Beige mice. However, despite the ability of CAR T cells to localize to tumors, their activation in the clinical setting can be inhibited by the tumor microenvironment, as is commonly seen for endogenous antitumor immune response. To potentially overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a construct that co-expresses both MUC16ecto CAR and IL-12 (4H11-28z/IL-12). In vitro, 4H11-28z/IL-12 CAR T cells show enhanced proliferation and robust IFNγ secretion compared to 4H11-28z CAR T cells. In SCID-Beige mice with human ovarian cancer xenografts, IL-12 secreting CAR T cells exhibit enhanced antitumor efficacy as determined by increased survival, prolonged persistence of T cells, and higher systemic IFNγ. Furthermore, in anticipation of translating these results into a phase I clinical trial which will be the first to study IL-12 secreting CAR T cells in ovarian cancer, an elimination gene has been included to allow for deletion of CAR T cells in the context of unforeseen or off-tumor on-target toxicity. PMID:25949921

  5. Donor Chimerism Early after Reduced-intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Predicts Relapse and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Milford, Edgar L.; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill-defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T-cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM). 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid; 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18-74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched) and median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6-120.7) were evaluated. In multivariable analysis total donor cell and T-cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.83-3.51, p<0.0001), impaired PFS (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.65, p<0.0001) and worse OS (1.50, 95% CI 1.11-2.04, p=0.009), but not NRM (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.44-2.27, p=0.33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30-D100 total donor cell chimerism, or T-cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts that may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions. PMID:24907627

  6. Infectivity of a recombinant murine norovirus (RecMNV) in Balb/cByJ mice.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F de; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Damien; Massart, François; Saegerman, Claude; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-08-30

    The infectivity of a recombinant murine norovirus (RecMNV) strain, previously isolated following in vitro coinfections, was evaluated in vivo in comparison with its parental strains (MNV-1-CW1 and WU20) in Balb/cByJ mice via measurement of weight loss and estimation of viral loads in faeces, tissues and organs 48 and 72h post-infection. The presence of infectious virus in all analysed tissues and organs suggests that, similarly to its parental viruses, RecMNV can disseminate beyond organs associated with the digestive tract. Our results also suggest that recombination occurring in vitro between two homologous murine norovirus strains can give rise to a chimeric strain which, despite slight differences, shows similar biological properties to its parental strains. This study provides the first report on in vivo replication of a recombinant norovirus strain isolated following in vitro coinfection. These results have great significance for norovirus genetic evolution and future vaccine development. PMID:27527773

  7. Comparing regional modeling (CHIMERE) and satellite observations of aerosols (PARASOL): Methodology and case study over Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromatas, Stavros

    2010-05-01

    S. Stromatas (1), S. Turquety (1), H. Chepfer (1), L. Menut (1), B. Bessagnet (2), JC Pere (2), D. Tanré (3) . (1) Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS/IPSL, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, (2) INERIS, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, FRANCE, (3) Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique/CNRS Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille, 59650 - Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Atmospheric suspended particles (aerosols) have significant radiative and environmental impacts, affecting human health, visibility and climate. Therefore, they are regulated by air quality standards worldwide, and monitored by regional observation networks. Satellite observations vastly improve the horizontal and temporal coverage, providing daily distributions. Aerosols are currently estimated using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, a quantitative measure of the extinction of solar radiation by aerosol scattering and absorption between the point of observation and the top of the atmosphere. Even though remarkable progresses in aerosol modeling by chemistry-transport models (CTM) and measurement experiments have been made in recent years, there is still a significant divergence between the modeled and observed results. However, AOD retrievals from satellites remains a highly challenging task mostly because it depends on a variety of different parameters such as cloud contamination, surface reflectance contributions and a priori assumptions on aerosol types, each one of them incorporating its own difficulties. Therefore, comparisons between CTM and observations are often difficult to interpret. In this presentation, we will discuss comparisons between regional modeling (CHIMERE CTM) over Mexico and satellite observations obtained by the POLDER instrument embarked on PARASOL micro-satellite. After a comparison of the model AOD with the retrieved L2 AOD, we will present an alternative

  8. Evaluation of a Novel Chimeric B Cell Epitope-Based Vaccine against Mastitis Induced by Either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyang; Hu, Changmin; Gong, Rui; Chen, Yingyu; Ren, Ningning; Xiao, Ganwen; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Qin; Guo, Aizhen; Chen, Huanchun

    2011-01-01

    To construct a universal vaccine against mastitis induced by either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the B cell epitopes of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) from S. agalactiae and clumping factor A (ClfA) from S. aureus were analyzed and predicted. sip-clfA, a novel chimeric B cell epitope-based gene, was obtained by overlap PCR, and then the recombinant Sip-ClfA (rSip-ClfA) was expressed and purified. rSip-ClfA and inactivated S. agalactiae and S. aureus were formulated into different vaccines with mineral oil as the adjuvant and evaluated in mouse models. The rSip-ClfA vaccination induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers higher than those seen in groups immunized with inactivated bacteria. Furthermore, the response to rSip-ClfA immunization was characterized as having a dominant IgG1 subtype, whereas both bacterial immunizations produced similar levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. The antiserum capacities for opsonizing adhesion and phagocytosis were significantly greater in the rSip-ClfA immunization group than in the killed-bacterium immunization groups (P < 0.05). The immunized lactating mice were challenged with either S. agalactiae or S. aureus via the intramammary route. At 24 h postinfection, the numbers of bacteria recovered from the mammary glands in the rSip-ClfA group were >5-fold lower than those in both inactivated-bacterium groups (P < 0.01). Histopathological examination of the mammary glands showed that rSip-ClfA immunization provided better protection of mammary gland tissue integrity against both S. agalactiae and S. aureus challenges. Thus, the recombinant protein rSip-ClfA would be a promising vaccine candidate against mastitis induced by either S. agalactiae or S. aureus. PMID:21508165

  9. Inhibition of mast cell degranulation by a chimeric toxin containing a novel phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Shenker, Bruce J.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Zekavat, Ali; Walker, Lisa; Besack, Dave; Ali, Hydar

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that many cell functions are controlled by the PI-3K signaling pathway and the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). This is particularly true for mast cells which play a key regulatory role in allergy and inflammation through activation via high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI ) leading to activation of signaling cascades and subsequent release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators. A pivotal component of this cascade is the activation of PI-3K and a rise in intracellular levels of PIP3. In this study, we developed a novel chimeric toxin that selectively binds to mast cells and which functions as a PIP3 phosphatase. Specifically, the chimeric toxin was composed of the FcεRI binding region of IgE and the active subunit of the cytolethal distending toxin, CdtB, which we have recently demonstrated to function as a PIP3 phosphatase. We demonstrate that the chimeric toxin retains PIP3 phosphatase activity and selectively binds to mast cells. Moreover, the toxin is capable of altering intracellular levels of PIP3, block antigen-induced Akt phosphorylation and degranulation. These studies provide further evidence for the pivotal role of PIP3 in regulating mast cell activation and for this signaling lipid serving as a novel target for therapeutic intervention of mast cell- mediated disease. Moreover, these studies provide evidence for the utilization of CdtB as a novel therapeutic agent for targeting the PI-3K signaling pathway. PMID:20863570

  10. A technical application of quantitative next generation sequencing for chimerism evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Aloisio, Michelangelo; Licastro, Danilo; Caenazzo, Luciana; Torboli, Valentina; D'eustacchio, Angela; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Athanasakis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    At present, the most common genetic diagnostic method for chimerism evaluation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is microsatellite analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The main objective was to establish, through repeated analysis over time, if a complete chimerism was present, or if the mixed chimerism was stable, increasing or decreasing over time. Considering the recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical diagnostics, a detailed study evaluating an NGS protocol was conducted, coupled with a custom bioinformatics pipeline, for chimerism quantification. Based on the technology of Ion AmpliSeq, a 44-amplicon custom chimerism panel was designed, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline dedicated to the genotyping and quantification of NGS data was coded. The custom chimerism panel allowed identification of an average of 16 informative recipient alleles. The limit of detection of the protocol was fixed at 1% due to the NGS background (<1%). The protocol followed the standard Ion AmpliSeq library preparation and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine guidelines. Overall, the present study added to the scientific literature, identifying novel technical details for a possible future application of NGS for chimerism quantification. PMID:27499173

  11. Increasing chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with longer survival time.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaowen; Alatrash, Gheath; Ning, Jing; Jakher, Haroon; Stafford, Patricia; Zope, Madhushree; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Jones, Roy B; Champlin, Richard E; Thall, Peter F; Andersson, Borje S

    2014-08-01

    Donor chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is commonly used to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Because chimerism is observed at 1 or more times after allo-SCT and not at baseline, if chimerism is in fact associated with OS or DFS, then the occurrence of either disease progression or death informatively censors (terminates) the observed chimerism process. This violates the assumptions underlying standard statistical regression methods for survival analysis, which may lead to biased conclusions. To assess the association between the longitudinal post-allo-SCT donor chimerism process and OS or DFS, we analyzed data from 195 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 157) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 38) who achieved complete remission after allo-SCT following a reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen of fludarabine/intravenous busulfan. Median follow-up was 31 months (range, 1.1 to 105 months). Fitted joint longitudinal-survival time models showed that a binary indicator of complete (100%) donor chimerism and increasing percent of donor T cells were significantly associated with longer OS, whereas decreasing percent of donor T cells was highly significantly associated with shorter OS. Our analyses illustrate the usefulness of modeling repeated post-allo-SCT chimerism measurements as individual longitudinal processes jointly with OS and DFS to estimate their relationships.

  12. A technical application of quantitative next generation sequencing for chimerism evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Michelangelo; Licastro, Danilo; Caenazzo, Luciana; Torboli, Valentina; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Athanasakis, Emmanouil

    2016-10-01

    At present, the most common genetic diagnostic method for chimerism evaluation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is microsatellite analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The main objective was to establish, through repeated analysis over time, if a complete chimerism was present, or if the mixed chimerism was stable, increasing or decreasing over time. Considering the recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical diagnostics, a detailed study evaluating an NGS protocol was conducted, coupled with a custom bioinformatics pipeline, for chimerism quantification. Based on the technology of Ion AmpliSeq, a 44‑amplicon custom chimerism panel was designed, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline dedicated to the genotyping and quantification of NGS data was coded. The custom chimerism panel allowed identification of an average of 16 informative recipient alleles. The limit of detection of the protocol was fixed at 1% due to the NGS background (<1%). The protocol followed the standard Ion AmpliSeq library preparation and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine guidelines. Overall, the present study added to the scientific literature, identifying novel technical details for a possible future application of NGS for chimerism quantification.

  13. A technical application of quantitative next generation sequencing for chimerism evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Michelangelo; Licastro, Danilo; Caenazzo, Luciana; Torboli, Valentina; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Athanasakis, Emmanouil

    2016-10-01

    At present, the most common genetic diagnostic method for chimerism evaluation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is microsatellite analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The main objective was to establish, through repeated analysis over time, if a complete chimerism was present, or if the mixed chimerism was stable, increasing or decreasing over time. Considering the recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical diagnostics, a detailed study evaluating an NGS protocol was conducted, coupled with a custom bioinformatics pipeline, for chimerism quantification. Based on the technology of Ion AmpliSeq, a 44‑amplicon custom chimerism panel was designed, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline dedicated to the genotyping and quantification of NGS data was coded. The custom chimerism panel allowed identification of an average of 16 informative recipient alleles. The limit of detection of the protocol was fixed at 1% due to the NGS background (<1%). The protocol followed the standard Ion AmpliSeq library preparation and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine guidelines. Overall, the present study added to the scientific literature, identifying novel technical details for a possible future application of NGS for chimerism quantification. PMID:27499173

  14. Feasibility study of preemptive withdrawal of immunosuppression based on chimerism testing in children undergoing myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Horn, B; Soni, S; Khan, S; Petrovic, A; Breslin, N; Cowan, M; Pelle-Day, G; Cooperstein, E; Baxter-Lowe, L-A

    2009-03-01

    An increasing percentage of autologous cells (increasing chimerism) in the whole blood (WB) chimerism test following allogeneic transplant is related to a very high risk of relapse. Preemptive immunotherapy may decrease the risk of relapse in some patients. Our prospective multi-institutional study evaluated the feasibility of longitudinal chimerism testing in a central laboratory, compared WB, CD3+ and leukemia-specific lineage chimerism in patients with a variety of hematologic malignancies, and evaluated the feasibility of fast withdrawal of immunosuppression based on WB chimerism results. Centralized chimerism testing was feasible and showed low interassay variability. Increasing mixed chimerism (MC) in WB was not useful as a predictor of relapse in our study. The presence of full donor chimerism in WB, CD3+ and leukemia-specific lineages on all measurements was related to a significantly lower risk of relapse than the presence of MC in either subset (11 vs 71%, respectively; P=0.03). Increasing host chimerism in leukemia-specific lineage heralds relapse, but it was not detected early enough to allow immunotherapy. Further studies correlating lineage-specific chimerism and minimal residual disease are required. The goal of preemptive immunotherapy should be to achieve full donor chimerism in WB in CD3+ and leukemia-specific lineages.

  15. Digital PCR to assess hematopoietic chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Tanja; Böhme, Manja U; Kröger, Nicolaus; Fehse, Boris

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of hematopoietic chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents a crucial method to evaluate donor-cell engraftment. Whereas sensitivity of classical approaches for chimerism monitoring is limited to ≥1%, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based techniques readily detect one patient cell in >1,000 donor cells, thus facilitating application of chimerism assessment as a surrogate for minimal residual disease. However, due to methodologic specificities, qPCR combines its high sensitivity with limited resolution power in the state of mixed chimerism (e.g., >10% patient cells). Our aim was to overcome this limitation by employing a further development of qPCR, namely digital PCR (dPCR), for chimerism analysis. For proof-of-principle, we established more than 10 dPCR assays detecting Indel polymorphisms or Y-chromosome sequences and tested them on artificial cell mixtures and patient samples. Employing artificial cell mixtures, we found that dPCR allows exact quantification of chimerism over several orders of magnitude. Digital PCR results proved to be highly reproducible (deviation <5%), particularly in the "difficult" range of mixed chimerism. Excellent performance of the new assays was confirmed by analysis of multiple retrospective blood samples from patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, in comparison with established qPCR (14 patients) and short-tandem repeat PCR (4 patients) techniques. Finally, dPCR is easy to perform, needs only small amounts of DNA for chimerism assessment (65 ng corresponds to a sensitivity of approximately 0.03%), and does not require the use of standard curves and replicate analysis. In conclusion, dPCR represents a very promising method for routine chimerism monitoring.

  16. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  17. Hypomelanosis of Ito: a manifestation of mosaicism or chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Donnai, D; Read, A P; McKeown, C; Andrews, T

    1988-01-01

    We describe three patients with the cutaneous manifestations of hypomelanosis of Ito. Two, with unusual abnormalities of their toes, had a mixture of diploid and triploid cells in cultured skin fibroblasts. The published clinical descriptions of hypomelanosis of Ito and diploid-triploid mosaicism are reviewed. Chromosome heteromorphisms, HLA types, and DNA fingerprints were studied in an attempt to elucidate the origin of the disease in our patients. We conclude that hypomelanosis of Ito is a manifestation of a heterogeneous group of disorders, the common factor being the presence of two genetically different cell lines. It can result from chromosomal mosaicism or chimerism, from a postzygotic mutation, or from X inactivation. The risk of recurrence is negligible if the proband is a male; if the proband is female the risk is also low but an X linked mutation must be considered. Images PMID:3236362

  18. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  19. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder

    2015-12-01

    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy.

  20. The pharmacology of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    van der Stegen, Sjoukje J C; Hamieh, Mohamad; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) retarget and reprogramme T cells to augment their antitumour efficacy. The combined activating and co-stimulatory domains incorporated in these CARs critically determine the function, differentiation, metabolism and persistence of engineered T cells. CD19-targeted CARs that incorporate CD28 or 4-1BB signalling domains are the best known to date. Both have shown remarkable complete remission rates in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. Recent data indicate that CD28-based CARs direct a brisk proliferative response and boost effector functions, whereas 4-1BB-based CARs induce a more progressive T cell accumulation that may compensate for less immediate potency. These distinct kinetic features can be exploited to further develop CAR-based T cell therapies for a variety of cancers. A new field of immunopharmacology is emerging.

  1. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy.

  2. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology

    PubMed Central

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder

    2015-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy. PMID:26377367

  3. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods.

  4. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods. PMID:24372617

  5. Chimeric conundra: are nucleomorphs and chromists monophyletic or polyphyletic?

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, T; Allsopp, M T; Chao, E E

    1994-01-01

    All algae with chloroplasts located not freely in the cytosol, but inside two extra membranes, probably arose chimerically by the permanent fusion of two different eukaryote cells: a protozoan host and a eukaryotic algal symbiont. Two such groups, cryptomonads (phylum Cryptista) and Chlorarachniophyta, still retain a DNA-containing relic of the nucleus of the algal endosymbiont, known as the nucleomorph, as well as the host nucleus. These two phyla were traditionally assumed to have obtained their chloroplasts separately by two independent symbioses. We have sequenced the nuclear and the nucleomorph 18S rRNA genes of the nonphotosynthetic cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that cryptomonad and chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs may be related to each other and raises the possibility that both phyla may have diverged from a common ancestral chimeric cell that originated by a single endosymbiosis involving an algal endosymbiont related to the ancestor of red algae. But, because of the instability of the molecular trees when different taxa are added, there is insufficient evidence to overturn the traditional view that Chlorarachnion nucleomorphs evolved separately from a relative of green algae. The four phyla that contain chromophyte algae (those with chlorophyll c--i.e., Cryptista, Heterokonta, Haptophyta, Dinozoa) are distantly related to each other and to Chlorarachniophyta on our trees. However, all of the photosynthetic taxa within each of these four phyla radiate from each other very substantially after the radiation of the four phyla themselves. This favors the view that the common ancestor of these four phyla was not photosynthetic and that chloroplasts were implanted separately into each much more recently. This probable polyphyly of the chromophyte algae, if confirmed, would make it desirable to treat Cryptista, Heterokonta, and Haptophyta as separate kingdoms, rather than to group them together in the single kingdom

  6. Evaluation of a chimeric multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine against subgroup J avian leukosis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Cui, Ning; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-07-19

    The prokaryotic expressed recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) had been evaluated with good immunogenicity and protective efficacy against subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in our previous study. In the present research, we cloned the chimeric multi-epitope gene X into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to evaluate its potency as a DNA vaccine. The purified recombinant gp85 protein and rCMEPX were used as positive controls and a DNA prime-protein boost strategy was also studied. Six experimental groups of 7-day-old chickens (20 per group) were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2weeks interval with PBS, gp85, rCMEPX, pVAX1, pVAX-X and pVAX-X+rCMEPX respectively. The antibody titers and cellular immune responses were assayed after immunization. The efficacy of immunoprotection against the challenge of ALV-J NX0101 strain was also examined. The results showed that the DNA vaccine could elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses. Immune-challenge experiments showed good protection efficacy against ALV-J infection. Particularly, the regimen involving one priming pVAX-X and twice recombinant rCMEPX boosting, induced the highest antibody titers in all immunized groups. Our results suggest that the constructed chimeric multi-epitope DNA has potential for a candidate vaccine against ALV-J when used in proper prime-boost combinations. The data presented here may provide an alternative strategy for vaccine design in chicken ALV-J prevention.

  7. Construction, Safety, and Immunogenicity in Nonhuman Primates of a Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue Virus Tetravalent Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Guirakhoo, F.; Arroyo, J.; Pugachev, K. V.; Miller, C.; Zhang, Z.-X.; Weltzin, R.; Georgakopoulos, K.; Catalan, J.; Ocran, S.; Soike, K.; Ratterree, M.; Monath, T. P.

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF/DEN2) and determined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477–5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in 1980 in Thailand), DEN3 (strain PaH881/88, isolated in 1988 in Thailand), and DEN4 (strain 1228, isolated in 1978 in Indonesia). These chimeric viruses (YF/DEN1, YF/DEN3, and YF/DEN4) replicated to ∼7.5 log10 PFU/ml in Vero cells, were not neurovirulent in 3- to 4-week-old ICR mice inoculated by the intracerebral route, and were immunogenic in monkeys. All rhesus monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with one dose of these chimeric viruses (as monovalent or tetravalent formulation) developed viremia with magnitudes similar to that of the YF 17D vaccine strain (YF-VAX) but significantly lower than those of their parent WT viruses. Eight of nine monkeys inoculated with monovalent YF/DEN1 -3, or -4 vaccine and six of six monkeys inoculated with tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 vaccine seroconverted after a single dose. When monkeys were boosted with a tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 dose 6 months later, four of nine monkeys in the monovalent YF/DEN groups developed low levels of viremia, whereas no viremia was detected in any animals previously inoculated with either YF/DEN1-4 vaccine or WT DEN virus. An anamnestic response was observed in all monkeys after the second dose. No statistically significant difference in levels of neutralizing antibodies was observed between YF virus-immune and nonimmune monkeys which received the tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 vaccine or between tetravalent YF/DEN1-4-immune and nonimmune monkeys which received the YF-VAX. However, preimmune monkeys developed either no detectable viremia or a level of viremia lower than that in nonimmune controls. This is the first

  8. HDAC inhibitor reduces cytokine storm and facilitates induction of chimerism that reverses lupus in anti-CD3 conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Nainong; Zhao, Dongchang; Kirschbaum, Mark; Zhang, Chunyan; Lin, Chia-Lei; Todorov, Ivan; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen; Zeng, Defu

    2008-03-25

    In allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), donor T cell-mediated graft versus host leukemia (GVL) and graft versus autoimmune (GVA) activity play critical roles in treatment of hematological malignancies and refractory autoimmune diseases. However, graft versus host disease (GVHD), which sometimes can be fatal, remains a major obstacle in classical HCT, where recipients are conditioned with total body irradiation or high-dose chemotherapy. We previously reported that anti-CD3 conditioning allows donor CD8(+) T cells to facilitate engraftment and mediate GVL without causing GVHD. However, the clinical application of this radiation-free and GVHD preventative conditioning regimen is hindered by the cytokine storm syndrome triggered by anti-CD3 and the high-dose donor bone marrow (BM) cells required for induction of chimerism. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) are known to induce apoptosis of cancer cells and reduce production of proinflammatory cytokines by nonmalignant cells. Here, we report that SAHA inhibits the proliferative and cytotoxic activity of anti-CD3-activated T cells. Administration of low-dose SAHA reduces cytokine production and ameliorates the cytokine storm syndrome triggered by anti-CD3. Conditioning with anti-CD3 and SAHA allows induction of chimerism with lower doses of donor BM cells in old nonautoimmune and autoimmune lupus mice. In addition, conditioning with anti-CD3 and SAHA allows donor CD8(+) T cell-mediated GVA activity to reverse lupus glomerulonephritis without causing GVHD. These results indicate that conditioning with anti-CD3 and HDAC inhibitors represent a radiation-free and GVHD-preventative regimen with clinical application potential.

  9. Single-born marmosets without hemopoietic chimerism: naturally occurring and induced.

    PubMed

    Gengozian, N; Batson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Marmosets have a high frequency of fraternal twinning, and placental vascular anastomoses between the twin fetuses invariably lead to hemopoietic chimerism. The occasional finding of chimerism in single-born marmosets suggested that in a twin pregnancy one fetus had undergone resorption after contributing hemopoietic stem cells to its twin. In this study non-chimeric single-born marmosets were produced by fallopian tube ligation or surgical relocation of one ovary in breeding females. Further, in an examination of hemopoietic cells from over 50 single-born young from nonoperated females, chimerism occurred less frequently than what one would expect if resorption of a co-twin had occurred after a functional anastomosis had been established. PMID:808628

  10. Chimeric self-sufficient P450cam-RhFRed biocatalysts with broad substrate scope

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Aélig; Köhler, Valentin; Jones, Alison; Ali, Afruja; Kelly, Paul P; O'Reilly, Elaine; Turner, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Summary A high-throughput screening protocol for evaluating chimeric, self-sufficient P450 biocatalysts and their mutants against a panel of substrates was developed, leading to the identification of a number of novel biooxidation activities. PMID:22238522

  11. A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mourez, Thomas; Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Cayet, Nadege; Tangy, Frederic

    2011-10-25

    We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  12. Tolerance of Lung Allografts Achieved in Nonhuman Primates via Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism.

    PubMed

    Tonsho, M; Lee, S; Aoyama, A; Boskovic, S; Nadazdin, O; Capetta, K; Smith, R-N; Colvin, R B; Sachs, D H; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T; Madsen, J C; Benichou, G; Allan, J S

    2015-08-01

    While the induction of transient mixed chimerism has tolerized MHC-mismatched renal grafts in nonhuman primates and patients, this approach has not been successful for more immunogenic organs. Here, we describe a modified delayed-tolerance-induction protocol resulting in three out of four monkeys achieving long-term lung allograft survival without ongoing immunosuppression. Two of the tolerant monkeys displayed stable mixed lymphoid chimerism, and the other showed transient chimerism. Serial biopsies and post-mortem specimens from the tolerant monkeys revealed no signs of chronic rejection. The tolerant recipients also exhibited T cell unresponsiveness and a lack of alloantibody. This is the first report of durable mixed chimerism and successful tolerance induction of MHC-mismatched lungs in primates.

  13. Completely ES cell-derived mice produced by tetraploid complementation using inner cell mass (ICM) deficient blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Wen, Duancheng; Saiz, Nestor; Rosenwaks, Zev; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Rafii, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Tetraploid complementation is often used to produce mice from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by injection of diploid (2n) ESCs into tetraploid (4n) blastocysts (ESC-derived mice). This method has also been adapted to mouse cloning and the derivation of mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of the tetraploid complementation remains largely unclear. Whether this approach can give rise to completely ES cell-derived mice is an open question, and has not yet been unambiguously proven. Here, we show that mouse tetraploid blastocysts can be classified into two groups, according to the presence or absence of an inner cell mass (ICM). We designate these as type a (presence of ICM at blastocyst stage) or type b (absence of ICM). ESC lines were readily derived from type a blastocysts, suggesting that these embryos retain a pluripotent epiblast compartment; whereas the type b blastocysts possessed very low potential to give rise to ESC lines, suggesting that they had lost the pluripotent epiblast. When the type a blastocysts were used for tetraploid complementation, some of the resulting mice were found to be 2n/4n chimeric; whereas when type b blastocysts were used as hosts, the resulting mice are all completely ES cell-derived, with the newborn pups displaying a high frequency of abdominal hernias. Our results demonstrate that completely ES cell-derived mice can be produced using ICM-deficient 4n blastocysts, and provide evidence that the exclusion of tetraploid cells from the fetus in 2n/4n chimeras can largely be attributed to the formation of ICM-deficient blastocysts.

  14. A DNA Vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits High Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies in Multiple Animal Models and Provides Protective Immunity to Mice and Nonhuman Primates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Lesley C.; Richards, Michelle J.; Ellefsen, Barry; Chau, Lillian; Luxembourg, Alain; Hannaman, Drew; Livingston, Brian D.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine expressing codon-optimized envelope glycoprotein genes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) when delivered by intramuscular electroporation. Mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine developed robust VEEV-neutralizing antibody responses that were comparable to those observed after administration of the live-attenuated VEEV vaccine TC-83 and were completely protected from a lethal aerosol VEEV challenge. The DNA vaccine also elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits that persisted at high levels for at least 6 months and could be boosted by a single additional electroporation administration of the DNA performed approximately 6 months after the initial vaccinations. Cynomolgus macaques that received the vaccine by intramuscular electroporation developed substantial neutralizing antibody responses and after an aerosol challenge had no detectable serum viremia and had reduced febrile reactions, lymphopenia, and clinical signs of disease compared to those of negative-control macaques. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this DNA vaccine provides a potent means of protecting against VEEV infections and represents an attractive candidate for further development. PMID:21450977

  15. B7H6-specific chimeric antigen receptors lead to tumor elimination and host anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ru; Zhang, Tong; DeMars, Leslie R.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have demonstrated durable and potentially curative therapeutic efficacy against B cell leukemia in clinical trials. A CAR strategy can target any tumor surface antigens as long as an antigen-binding receptor can be generated. New CARs which target solid tumors and have the potential to target multiple tumor types are needed. In this study, B7H6, a ligand for the NK cell activating receptor NKp30, was targeted to create a CAR which targets multiple tumor types. B7H6 is expressed on various primary human tumors, including leukemia, lymphoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), but it is not constitutively expressed on normal tissues. B7H6-specific CAR T cells have robust cellular cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion when co-cultured with B7H6+ tumor cells, and they exhibit little self-reactivity to immature dendritic cells (iDCs) or pro-inflammatory monocytes. In vivo, B7H6-specific CAR T cells greatly enhanced the survival of RMA/B7H6 lymphoma bearing mice. The long-term survivor mice were protected against a B7H6-deficient tumor re-challenge. This CAR therapy also decreased tumor burden in a murine ovarian cancer model. In conclusion, B7H6-specific CARs have the potential to treat B7H6+ hematologic and solid tumors. PMID:25830550

  16. Postnatal donor lymphocytes enhance prenatally-created chimerism at the risk of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Chang; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Yu, Hsiu-Yueh; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Chang, Pei-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The major barrier to clinical application of in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is insufficient chimerism for phenotypic correction of target diseases or induction of graft tolerance. Postnatal donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) may enhance donor cell levels so as to further facilitate tolerance induction. We created murine mixed chimeras in utero. Chimeras with <10% donor cells were subjected to postnatal DLI to evaluate the effects of DLI on chimerism augmentation and skin tolerance induction. Within one day after DLI, recipients experienced a transient peaking of donor chimerism, which could be as high as 20~40%. However, the transient chimerism peaking didn't benefit donor skin survivals despite immediate skin placement after DLI. In case of fruitful DLI, chimerism augmentation was usually observed after a latent period of 2~4 weeks. Otherwise, chimerism would return to around pre-DLI levels by days 7~14. Peripheral chimerism of >3% could be consistently boosted up to >10%, whereas chimerism of <0.2% hardly showed any significant enhancement. As for chimerism levels of 0.2~3%, chimerism augmentation up to >10% succeeded in 3(15%) of 20 recipients. Notably, chimerism augmentation by postnatal DLI was often associated with unexpected death or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In conclusion, transient chimerism augmentation by DLI played no role in facilitating graft tolerance. Substantial augmentation by DLI demanded a threshold chimerism level and posed a serious risk of GVHD to the recipients. It raised the concern about using postnatal DLI to broaden therapeutic horizons of in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  17. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  18. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  19. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  20. Microarray hybridization for assessment of the genetic stability of chimeric West Nile/dengue 4 virus.

    PubMed

    Laassri, Majid; Bidzhieva, Bella; Speicher, James; Pletnev, Alexander G; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2011-05-01

    Genetic stability is an important characteristic of live viral vaccines because an accumulation of mutants can cause reversion to a virulent phenotype as well as a loss of immunogenic properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic stability of a live attenuated West Nile (WN) virus vaccine candidate that was generated by replacing the pre-membrane and envelope protein genes of dengue 4 virus with those from WN. Chimeric virus was serially propagated in Vero, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and HeLa cells and screened for point mutations using hybridization with microarrays of overlapping oligonucleotide probes covering the entire genome. The analysis revealed several spontaneous mutations that led to amino acid changes, most of which were located in the envelope (E) and non-structural NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins. Viruses passaged in Vero and SH-SY5Y cells shared two common mutations: G(2337) C (Met(457) Ile) in the E gene and A(6751) G (Lys(125) Arg) in the NS4A gene. Quantitative assessment of the contents of these mutants in viral stocks indicated that they accumulated independently with different kinetics during propagation in cell cultures. Mutant viruses grew better in Vero cells compared to the parental virus, suggesting that they have a higher fitness. When tested in newborn mice, the cell culture-passaged viruses did not exhibit increased neurovirulence. The approach described in this article could be useful for monitoring the molecular consistency and quality control of vaccine strains. PMID:21360544

  1. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  2. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L A; Sack, G

    1986-12-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue.

  3. Effects of chimerism in sheep-goat concepti that developed from blastomere-aggregation embryos.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, N A; Anderson, G B; Bondurant, R H; Currie, W B; Pashen, R L

    1993-04-01

    Chimeric sheep-goat pregnancies were established in 24 ewes and 29 does by transferring 251 embryos, prepared by the blastomere-aggregation technique, to 52 ewes and 61 does. Fifteen does experienced early pregnancy failure; however, term offspring were delivered by 24 ewes (17 lambs, 3 kids, 6 chimeras) and 14 does (6 lambs, 9 kids, 6 chimeras). (Fetal classifications were based on phenotype, red blood cell isozymes, and lymphocyte antigen expression). RIAs for ovine and caprine placental lactogen detected chimerism in the binucleate cell population of the trophoblast throughout the pregnancies of 2 ewes and 7 does; these pregnancies resulted in the birth of 12 healthy offspring. Histological examinations of intact placentomes from 2 of these recipients revealed a continuous cellular trophoblast apposed to a syncytium as in normal placentas. Chimerism was detected electrophoretically in the membranes of the placentas with binucleate cell chimerism and in 17/28 of the other placentas. Data collected on placental lactogen production, chimerism in the conceptus, and placental morphometry were examined with respect to the stages of the blastomeres aggregated to form the chimeric embryo and with respect to fetal status at delivery. For comparison, analogous data were collected on sheep-goat concepti that developed from embryos prepared by inner cell mass transplantation. PMID:8485255

  4. Does HLA-dependent chimerism underlie the pathogenesis of juvenile dermatomyositis?

    PubMed

    Reed, Ann M; McNallan, Kelly; Wettstein, Peter; Vehe, Richard; Ober, Carole

    2004-04-15

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that at times resembles chronic graft-vs-host disease. This led us to suggest that nonself cells may play a role in the disease process. In this study we examined the relationship between HLA genotype and the presence of maternally derived chimeric cells in JDM patients and healthy controls, and assessed immunologic activity in the chimeric cells. We identified chimeric cells more often in children with JDM (60 of 72) than in their unaffected siblings (11 of 48) or in healthy controls (5 of 29). The presence of chimerism in the JDM patients, their healthy siblings, and unaffected control children was associated with a HLA-DQA1*0501 allele in the mother (p = 0.011). Further, we show that maternally transferred chimeric T cells are responsive to the host's (JDM childs') lymphocytes (33.75 +/- 8.4 IFN-gamma-producing cells from JDM cells vs 5.0 +/- 1.25 from maternal cells), and that this is a memory response. These combined data indicate that chimeric cells play a direct role in the JDM disease process and that the mother's HLA genotype facilitates the transfer and/or persistence of maternal cells in the fetal circulation. PMID:15067086

  5. Minimal residual disease after allogeneic stem cell transplant: a comparison among multiparametric flow cytometry, Wilms tumor 1 expression and chimerism status (Complete chimerism versus Low Level Mixed Chimerism) in acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Carella, Angelo Michele; Minervini, Maria Marta; Savino, Lucia; Fontana, Andrea; Pellegrini, Fabio; Greco, Michele Mario; Merla, Emanuela; Quarta, Gianni; Loseto, Giacomo; Capalbo, Silvana; Palumbo, Gaetano; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Relapse represents the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). The detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC), chimerism, cytogenetics and molecular analysis may be critical to prevent relapse. Therefore, we assessed the overall agreement among chimerism (low level mixed chimerism [LL-MC] vs. complete chimerism [CC]), MFC and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) mRNA to detect MRD and investigated the impact of MRD obtained from the three methods on patient outcome. Sixty-seven fresh bone marrow (BM) samples from 24 patients (17 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], seven acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) in complete remission (CR) after allo-SCT were investigated at different time points. A moderate agreement was found among the three techniques investigated. A higher concordance between positive results from MFC (75.0% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.010) and WT1 (58.3% vs. 29.1%, p = 0.090) was detected among LL-MC rather than CC samples. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were found to be higher in MRD negative patients than in MRD positive patients analyzed with MFC and WT1. Our results discourage the use of low autologous signals as the only marker of MRD, and suggest the usefulness of MFC and WT1 real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in stratifying patients with respect to risk of relapse.

  6. Monitoring of chimerism following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): technical recommendations for the use of short tandem repeat (STR) based techniques, on behalf of the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping Chimerism Working Group.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jordan R; Scott, Stuart D; Jack, Andrea L; Lee, Helena; Mason, Joanne; Carter, Geoffrey I; Pearce, Laurence; Jackson, Tony; Clouston, Hazel; Sproul, Anne; Keen, Leigh; Molloy, Karen; Folarin, Najeem'deen; Whitby, Liam; Snowden, John A; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of short tandem repeats (STR) is the predominant method for post-transplant monitoring of donor engraftment. It can enable early detection of disease relapse, level of engraftment and provide useful information on the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/graft-versus-tumour (GVT) effect, facilitating therapeutic intervention. Harmonization and standardization of techniques and result interpretation is essential to reduce the impact of laboratory variability on both clinical management and the results of multi-centre clinical trials. However, the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS LI) has highlighted significant issues inherent in STR testing that impact upon inter- and intra- laboratory variation. We present here consensus best practice guidelines and recommendations for STR chimerism testing, data interpretation and reporting that have been drawn up and agreed by a consortium of 11 UK and Eire clinical laboratories. This document uses data obtained from the UK NEQAS LI Post-Stem Cell Transplant (SCT) Chimerism Monitoring Programme.

  7. Forced expression of chimeric human fibroblast tropomyosin mutants affects cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Human fibroblasts generate at least eight tropomyosin (TM) isoforms (hTM1, hTM2, hTM3, hTM4, hTM5, hTM5a, hTM5b, and hTMsm alpha) from four distinct genes, and we have previously demonstrated that bacterially produced chimera hTM5/3 exhibits an unusually high affinity for actin filaments and a loss of the salt dependence typical for TM-actin binding (Novy, R.E., J. R. Sellers, L.-F. Liu, and J.J.-C. Lin, 1993. Cell Motil. & Cytoskeleton. 26: 248-261). To examine the functional consequences of expressing this mutant TM isoform in vivo, we have transfected CHO cells with the full-length cDNA for hTM5/3 and compared them to cells transfected with hTM3 and hTM5. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that stably transfected CHO cells incorporate force- expressed hTM3 and hTM5 into stress fibers with no significant effect on general cell morphology, microfilament organization or cytokinesis. In stable lines expressing hTM5/3, however, cell division is slow and sometimes incomplete. The doubling time and the incidence of multinucleate cells in the stable hTM5/3 lines roughly parallel expression levels. A closely related chimeric isoform hTM5/2, which differs only in the internal, alternatively spliced exon also produces defects in cytokinesis, suggesting that normal TM function may involve coordination between the amino and carboxy terminal regions. This coordination may be prevented in the chimeric mutants. As bacterially produced hTM5/3 and hTM5/2 can displace hTM3 and hTM5 from actin filaments in vitro, it is likely that CHO-expressed hTM5/3 and hTM5/2 can displace endogenous TMs to act dominantly in vivo. These results support a role for nonmuscle TM isoforms in the fine tuning of microfilament organization during cytokinesis. Additionally, we find that overexpression of TM does not stabilize endogenous microfilaments, rather, the hTM-expressing cells are actually more sensitive to cytochalasin B. This suggests that regulation of microfilament integrity in vivo

  8. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-ichi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1+/− male mice. Healthy Prm1+/− offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1+/− mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles. PMID:27250771

  9. A chimeric Sindbis-based vaccine protects cynomolgus macaques against a lethal aerosol challenge of eastern equine encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chad J.; Adams, A. Paige; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Seymour, Robert L.; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Mega, William; Frolov, Ilya; Didier, Peter J.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in humans and equids, and is also a biological threat agent. Two chimeric vaccine candidates were constructed using a cDNA clone with a Sindbis virus (SINV) backbone and structural protein genes from either a North (SIN/NAEEEV) or South American (SIN/SAEEEV) strain of EEEV. The vaccine candidates were tested in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Cynomolgus macaques were either sham-vaccinated, or vaccinated with a single dose of either SIN/NAEEEV or SIN/SAEEEV. After vaccination, animals were challenged by aerosol with a virulent North American strain of EEEV (NA EEEV). The SIN/NAEEEV vaccine provided significant protection, and most vaccinated animals survived EEEV challenge (82%) with little evidence of disease, whereas most SIN/SAEEEV-vaccinated (83%) and control (100%) animals died. Protected animals exhibited minimal changes in temperature and cardiovascular rhythm, whereas unprotected animals showed profound hyperthermia and changes in heart rate post-exposure. Acute inflammation and neuronal necrosis were consistent with EEEV-induced encephalitis in unprotected animals, whereas no encephalitis-related histopathologic changes were observed in the SIN/NAEEEV-vaccinated animals. These results demonstrate that the chimeric SIN/NAEEEV vaccine candidate protects against an aerosol EEEV exposure. PMID:23333212

  10. Generation of a chimeric dust mite hypoallergen using DNA shuffling for application in allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Li, Chao-Pin; Jiang, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment that provides long lasting relief of allergy symptoms. Unfortunately, SIT-based traditional remedies carry the risk of producing local and/or systemic side effects. To improve the safety and efficacy of SIT, it has been proposed that SIT must utilize allergens that are hypoallergenic but hyperimmunogenic. Therefore, we used DNA shuffling to generate mutant genes encoding hypoallergens with potent immunogenicity and screened them for their capacity to modify the allergic response. We tentatively shuffled the major group 1 allergen genes from house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and discovered a novel chimeric gene, termed C 1. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the chimeric protein C 1 was purified. An animal model of asthma demonstrated that C 1 not only decreased the production of serum IgE and IgG1, and inhibited the production of IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). C 1 also boosted the levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ, which may demonstrate a rebalance of TH1 and TH2 allergic response. Additionally, flow cytometry showed that the immunogenicity of C 1 was higher than that of ProDer f 1, but was not significantly different from that of ProDer p 1. Our findings suggest that the C 1 is hypoallergenic and yet highly immunogenic, which makes it potentially safe and effective for use in SIT of allergic asthma. PMID:25120738

  11. Generation of a chimeric dust mite hypoallergen using DNA shuffling for application in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Li, Chao-Pin; Jiang, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment that provides long lasting relief of allergy symptoms. Unfortunately, SIT-based traditional remedies carry the risk of producing local and/or systemic side effects. To improve the safety and efficacy of SIT, it has been proposed that SIT must utilize allergens that are hypoallergenic but hyperimmunogenic. Therefore, we used DNA shuffling to generate mutant genes encoding hypoallergens with potent immunogenicity and screened them for their capacity to modify the allergic response. We tentatively shuffled the major group 1 allergen genes from house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and discovered a novel chimeric gene, termed C 1. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the chimeric protein C 1 was purified. An animal model of asthma demonstrated that C 1 not only decreased the production of serum IgE and IgG1, and inhibited the production of IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). C 1 also boosted the levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ, which may demonstrate a rebalance of TH1 and TH2 allergic response. Additionally, flow cytometry showed that the immunogenicity of C 1 was higher than that of ProDer f 1, but was not significantly different from that of ProDer p 1. Our findings suggest that the C 1 is hypoallergenic and yet highly immunogenic, which makes it potentially safe and effective for use in SIT of allergic asthma. PMID:25120738

  12. Flavivirus enzyme-substrate interactions studied with chimeric proteinases: identification of an intragenic locus important for substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Preugschat, F; Lenches, E M; Strauss, J H

    1991-09-01

    The proteins of flaviviruses are translated as a single long polyprotein which is co- and posttranslationally processed by both cellular and viral proteinases. We have studied the processing of flavivirus polyproteins in vitro by a viral proteinase located within protein NS3 that cleaves at least three sites within the nonstructural region of the polyprotein, acting primarily autocatalytically. Recombinant polyproteins in which part of the polyprotein is derived from yellow fever virus and part from dengue virus were used. We found that polyproteins containing the yellow fever virus cleavage sites were processed efficiently by the yellow fever virus enzyme, by the dengue virus enzyme, and by various chimeric enzymes. In contrast, dengue virus cleavage sites were cleaved inefficiently by the dengue virus enzyme and not at all by the yellow fever virus enzyme. Studies with chimeric proteinases and with site-directed mutants provided evidence for a direct interaction between the cleavage sites and the proposed substrate-binding pocket of the enzyme. We also found that the efficiency and order of processing could be altered by site-directed mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket.

  13. Generation and immunogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 chimeric virus-like particles displaying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 epitope B.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gaowei; Wang, Naidong; Yu, Wanting; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zou, Yawen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Aibing; Deng, Zhibang; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be used as transfer vehicles carrying foreign proteins or antigen epitopes to produce chimeric VLPs for bivalent or multivalent vaccines. Based on the crystal structure of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (Cap), in addition to alignment of the Cap sequences collected from various isolates of PCV2 and PCV1, we predicted that Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap should tolerate insertion of foreign epitopes, and furthermore that such an insertion could be presented on the surface of PCV2 VLPs. To validate this, the GP5 epitope B of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was inserted into Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap. The 3D structure of the recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) was simulated by homology modeling; it appeared that the GP5 epitope B was folded as a relatively independent unit, separated from the PCV2 Cap backbone. Furthermore, based on transmission electron microscopy, the purified PCV2 rCap self-assembled into chimeric VLPs which entered PK-15 cells. In addition, PCV2 chimeric VLPs induced strong humoral (neutralizing antibodies against PCV2 and PRRSV) and cellular immune responses in mice. We concluded that the identified insertion site in the PCV2 Cap had great potential to develop PCV2 VLPs-based bivalent or multivalent vaccines; furthermore, it would also facilitate development of a nano-device to present a functional peptide on the surface of the VLPs that could be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26930366

  14. A general approach to high-yield biosynthesis of chimeric RNAs bearing various types of functional small RNAs for broad applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiu-Xia; Wang, Wei-Peng; Zeng, Su; Urayama, Shiro; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    RNA research and therapy relies primarily on synthetic RNAs. We employed recombinant RNA technology toward large-scale production of pre-miRNA agents in bacteria, but found the majority of target RNAs were not or negligibly expressed. We thus developed a novel strategy to achieve consistent high-yield biosynthesis of chimeric RNAs carrying various small RNAs (e.g. miRNAs, siRNAs and RNA aptamers), which was based upon an optimal noncoding RNA scaffold (OnRS) derived from tRNA fusion pre-miR-34a (tRNA/mir-34a). Multi-milligrams of chimeric RNAs (e.g. OnRS/miR-124, OnRS/GFP-siRNA, OnRS/Neg (scrambled RNA) and OnRS/MGA (malachite green aptamer)) were readily obtained from 1 l bacterial culture. Deep sequencing analyses revealed that mature miR-124 and target GFP-siRNA were selectively released from chimeric RNAs in human cells. Consequently, OnRS/miR-124 was active in suppressing miR-124 target gene expression and controlling cellular processes, and OnRS/GFP-siRNA was effective in knocking down GFP mRNA levels and fluorescent intensity in ES-2/GFP cells and GFP-transgenic mice. Furthermore, the OnRS/MGA sensor offered a specific strong fluorescence upon binding MG, which was utilized as label-free substrate to accurately determine serum RNase activities in pancreatic cancer patients. These results demonstrate that OnRS-based bioengineering is a common, robust and versatile strategy to assemble various types of small RNAs for broad applications. PMID:25800741

  15. Antiserum from mice vaccinated with modified vaccinia Ankara virus expressing African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VP2 provides protection when it is administered 48h before, or 48h after challenge.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; de la Poza, Francisco; Gubbins, Simon; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement; Ortego, Javier; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies show that a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 (MVA-VP2) induced virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against challenge. Follow up experiments indicated that passive transfer of antiserum, from MVA-VP2 immune donors to recipient mice 1h before challenge, conferred complete clinical protection and significantly reduced viraemia. These studies have been extended to determine the protective effect of MVA-VP2 vaccine-induced antiserum, when administered 48h before, or 48h after challenge. In addition, passive transfer of splenocytes was undertaken to assess if they confer any degree of immunity to immunologically naïve recipient mice. Thus, antisera and splenocytes were collected from groups of mice that had been vaccinated with MVA-VP2, or wild type MVA (MVA-wt), for passive immunisation of recipient mice. The latter were subsequently challenged with AHSV-4 (together with appropriate vaccinated or unvaccinated control animals) and protection was assessed by comparing clinical signs, lethality and viraemia between treated and control groups. All antiserum recipients showed high protection against disease (100% survival rates even in mice that were immunised 48h after challenge) and statistically significant reduction or viraemia in comparison with the control groups. The mouse group receiving splenocytes from MVA-VP2 vaccinates, showed only a 40% survival rate, with a small reduction in viraemia, compared to those mice that had received splenocytes from MVA-wt vaccinates. These results confirm the primarily humoral nature of protective immunity conferred by MVA-VP2 vaccination and show the potential of administering MVA-VP2 specific antiserum as an emergency treatment for AHSV.

  16. Donor chimerism early after reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse and survival.

    PubMed

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T; Nikiforow, Sarah; Milford, Edgar L; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P

    2014-10-01

    The impact of early donor cell chimerism on outcomes of T cell-replete reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is ill defined. We evaluated day 30 (D30) and 100 (D100) total donor cell chimerism after RIC HSCT undertaken between 2002 and 2010 at our institution, excluding patients who died or relapsed before D30. When available, donor T cell chimerism was also assessed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We evaluated 688 patients with hematologic malignancies (48% myeloid and 52% lymphoid) and a median age of 57 years (range, 18 to 74) undergoing RIC HSCT with T cell-replete donor grafts (97% peripheral blood; 92% HLA-matched), with a median follow-up of 58.2 months (range, 12.6 to 120.7). In multivariable analysis, total donor cell and T cell chimerism at D30 and D100 each predicted RIC HSCT outcomes, with D100 total donor cell chimerism most predictive. D100 total donor cell chimerism <90% was associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83 to 3.51; P < .0001), impaired PFS (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.65; P < .0001), and worse OS (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.04, P = .009), but not with NRM (HR, .76; 95% CI, .44 to 2.27; P = .33). There was no additional utility of incorporating sustained D30 to D100 total donor cell chimerism or T cell chimerism. Low donor chimerism early after RIC HSCT is an independent risk factor for relapse and impaired survival. Donor chimerism assessment early after RIC HSCT can prognosticate for long-term outcomes and help identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions.

  17. Platelet chimerism by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilizing variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in allogeneic stem cell transplant in children: a new novel approach to full chimerism analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, P M; Olszewski, M; Huang, W; Silva, M; Kletzel, M

    2003-10-01

    Evaluation of chimerism following allogeneic transplantation has been performed traditionally focusing on two cellular compartments, namely lymphoid and myeloid. However, none has been described so far to evaluate platelet chimerism. In order to achieve full chimerism in all three cellular compartments, we prospectively obtained 138 samples of peripheral blood in 55 patients at different post transplant periods following allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Evaluation of chimerism was performed utilizing tests of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and sex determination by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tests for platelet chimerism using platelet-rich plasma were simultaneously analyzed with samples for T-cell lymphoid and myeloid compartments. Complete donor chimerism was noted in 49 of 55 patients (89%), while the remaining six have split chimerism ranging from 34 to 98%. There is significant difference (P=0.0004) between the percentages of donor DNA in all three cellular compartments comparing the means+/-s.e.m. (myeloid 95.60+/-0.9, T-cell lymphocytes 87.6+/-1.9, and the platelets 90.8+/-1.5); however, comparison between the medians is not statistically significant. This study represents an additional step towards achieving full chimerism and the observation may help reduce the number of unnecessary platelet transfusions once chimerism is noted in that cellular compartment.

  18. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  19. Chimerical pyrene-based [7]helicenes as twisted polycondensed aromatics.

    PubMed

    Buchta, Michal; Rybáček, Jiří; Jančařík, Andrej; Kudale, Amit A; Buděšínský, Miloš; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Vacek, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Císařová, Ivana; Bodwell, Graham J; Starý, Ivo; Stará, Irena G

    2015-06-01

    Chimerical pyrene-based dibenzo[7]helicene rac-1 and 2H-pyran[7]helicene (M,R,R)-(-)-2, in which two pyrene subunits are fused to the [7]helicene/[7]heterohelicene scaffold, were synthesised by means of Ni(0) - or Co(I) -mediated [2+2+2] cycloisomerisation of dipyrenyl-acetylene-derived triynes. Pyrene-based dibenzo[7]helicene 1 was obtained in enantioenriched form by enantioselective cycloisomerisation under Ni(0) /QUINAP catalysis (57 % ee) or in enantiopure form by racemate resolution by liquid chromatography on a chiral column. 1,3-Allylic-type strain-controlled diastereoselective cycloisomerisation was employed in the synthesis of enantiopure (M,R,R)-(-)-2. Physicochemical properties of 1 and 2 encompassing the helicity assignment, stability to racemisation, X-ray crystal structure, UV/Vis, experimental/calculated electronic circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra were studied. Accordingly, comparison of the X-ray crystal structure of (M,R,R)-(-)-2 with calculated structures (DFT: B3LYP/cc-pVDZ, B97D/cc-pVDZ) indicated that its helical backbone is slightly over-flattened owing to intramolecular dispersion forces between tert-butylated pyrene subunits. Both 1 and 2 are fluorescent (with quantum yields in dichloromethane of ΦF =0.10 and 0.17, respectively) and are suggested to form intramolecular excimer states upon excitation, which are remarkably stabilised and exhibit large Stokes shifts (296 and 203 nm, respectively).

  20. Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.

    2014-02-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.

  1. Construction of murine coronavirus mutants containing interspecies chimeric nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, D; Koetzner, C A; McMahon, T; Zhu, Y; Masters, P S

    1995-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination was used to construct mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) mutants containing chimeric nucleocapsid (N) protein genes in which segments of the bovine coronavirus N gene were substituted in place of their corresponding MHV sequences. This defined portions of the two N proteins that, despite evolutionary divergence, have remained functionally equivalent. These regions included most of the centrally located RNA-binding domain and two putative spacers that link the three domains of the N protein. By contrast, the amino terminus of N, the acidic carboxy-terminal domain, and a serine- and arginine-rich segment of the central domain could not be transferred from bovine coronavirus to MHV, presumably because these parts of the molecule participate in protein-protein interactions that are specific for each virus (or, possibly, each host). Our results demonstrate that targeted recombination can be used to make extensive substitutions in the coronavirus genome and can generate recombinants that could not otherwise be made between two viruses separated by a species barrier. The implications of these findings for N protein structure and function as well as for coronavirus RNA recombination are discussed. PMID:7636993

  2. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. PMID:26873054

  3. Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

    Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

  4. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed.

  5. Rapid induction of single donor chimerism after double umbilical cord blood transplantation preceded by reduced intensity conditioning: results of the HOVON 106 phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Judith A.E.; Braakman, Eric; van der Holt, Bronno; Petersen, Eefke J.; Marijt, Erik W.A.; Huisman, Cynthia; Sintnicolaas, Kees; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Groenendijk-Sijnke, Marlies E.; Brand, Anneke; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Double umbilical cord blood transplantation is increasingly applied in the treatment of adult patients with high-risk hematological malignancies and has been associated with improved engraftment as compared to that provided by single unit cord blood transplantation. The mechanism of improved engraftment is, however, still incompletely understood as only one unit survives. In this multicenter phase II study we evaluated engraftment, early chimerism, recovery of different cell lineages and transplant outcome in 53 patients who underwent double cord blood transplantation preceded by a reduced intensity conditioning regimen. Primary graft failure occurred in one patient. Engraftment was observed in 92% of patients with a median time to neutrophil recovery of 36 days (range, 15–102). Ultimate single donor chimerism was established in 94% of patients. Unit predominance occurred by day 11 after transplantation and early CD4+ T-cell chimerism predicted for unit survival. Total nucleated cell viability was also associated with unit survival. With a median follow up of 35 months (range, 10–51), the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality rate at 2 years were 39% and 19%, respectively. Progressionfree survival and overall survival rates at 2 years were 42% (95% confidence interval, 28–56) and 57% (95% confidence interval, 43–70), respectively. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation preceded by a reduced intensity conditioning regimen using cyclophosphamide/fludarabine/4 Gy total body irradiation results in a high engraftment rate with low non-relapse mortality. Moreover, prediction of unit survival by early CD4+ lymphocyte chimerism might suggest a role for CD4+ lymphocyte mediated unit-versus-unit alloreactivity. www.trialregister.nl NTR1573. PMID:25107890

  6. Risk assessment of relapse by lineage-specific monitoring of chimerism in children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Preuner, Sandra; Peters, Christina; Pötschger, Ulrike; Daxberger, Helga; Fritsch, Gerhard; Geyeregger, Rene; Schrauder, André; von Stackelberg, Arend; Schrappe, Martin; Bader, Peter; Ebell, Wolfram; Eckert, Cornelia; Lang, Peter; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Schrum, Johanna; Kremens, Bernhard; Ehlert, Karoline; Albert, Michael H.; Meisel, Roland; Lawitschka, Anita; Mann, Georg; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Güngör, Tayfun; Holter, Wolfgang; Strahm, Brigitte; Gruhn, Bernd; Schulz, Ansgar; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Lion, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is required as rescue therapy in about 20% of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the relapse rates are considerable, and relapse confers a poor outcome. Early assessment of the risk of relapse is therefore of paramount importance for the development of appropriate measures. We used the EuroChimerism approach to investigate the potential impact of lineage-specific chimerism testing for relapse-risk analysis in 162 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a multicenter study based on standardized transplantation protocols. Within a median observation time of 4.5 years, relapses have occurred in 41/162 patients at a median of 0.6 years after transplantation (range, 0.13–5.7 years). Prospective screening at defined consecutive time points revealed that reappearance of recipient-derived cells within the CD34+ and CD8+ cell subsets display the most significant association with the occurrence of relapses with hazard ratios of 5.2 (P=0.003) and 2.8 (P=0.008), respectively. The appearance of recipient cells after a period of pure donor chimerism in the CD34+ and CD8+ leukocyte subsets revealed dynamics indicative of a significantly elevated risk of relapse or imminent disease recurrence. Assessment of chimerism within these lineages can therefore provide complementary information for further diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic purposes aiming at the prevention of overt relapse. This study was registered at clinical.trials.gov with the number NC01423747. PMID:26869631

  7. Assessment of fetal cell chimerism in transgenic pig lines generated by Sleeping beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2014-01-01

    Human cells migrate between mother and fetus during pregnancy and persist in the respective host for long-term after birth. Fetal microchimerism occurs also in twins sharing a common placenta or chorion. Whether microchimerism occurs in multiparous mammals such as the domestic pig, where fetuses have separate placentas and chorions, is not well understood. Here, we assessed cell chimerism in litters of wild-type sows inseminated with semen of transposon transgenic boars. Segregation of three independent monomeric transposons ensured an excess of transgenic over non-transgenic offspring in every litter. Transgenic siblings (n = 35) showed robust ubiquitous expression of the reporter transposon encoding a fluorescent protein, and provided an unique resource to assess a potential cell trafficking to non-transgenic littermates (n = 7) or mothers (n = 4). Sensitive flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR provided no evidence for microchimerism in porcine littermates, or piglets and their mothers in both blood and solid organs. These data indicate that the epitheliochorial structure of the porcine placenta effectively prevents cellular exchange during gestation. PMID:24811124

  8. Assessment of Fetal Cell Chimerism in Transgenic Pig Lines Generated by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cells migrate between mother and fetus during pregnancy and persist in the respective host for long-term after birth. Fetal microchimerism occurs also in twins sharing a common placenta or chorion. Whether microchimerism occurs in multiparous mammals such as the domestic pig, where fetuses have separate placentas and chorions, is not well understood. Here, we assessed cell chimerism in litters of wild-type sows inseminated with semen of transposon transgenic boars. Segregation of three independent monomeric transposons ensured an excess of transgenic over non-transgenic offspring in every litter. Transgenic siblings (n = 35) showed robust ubiquitous expression of the reporter transposon encoding a fluorescent protein, and provided an unique resource to assess a potential cell trafficking to non-transgenic littermates (n = 7) or mothers (n = 4). Sensitive flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR provided no evidence for microchimerism in porcine littermates, or piglets and their mothers in both blood and solid organs. These data indicate that the epitheliochorial structure of the porcine placenta effectively prevents cellular exchange during gestation. PMID:24811124

  9. Chimeric cellulase matrix for investigating intramolecular synergism between non-hydrolytic disruptive functions of carbohydrate-binding modules and catalytic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Rentao; Tao, Jin; Wang, Xiaonan; Zheng, Baisong; Feng, Yan

    2012-08-24

    The conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass is of considerable interest for the production of biofuels and materials. The bottleneck in the efficient conversion is the compactness and resistance of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which disrupt crystalline cellulose via non-hydrolytic mechanisms, are expected to overcome this bottleneck. However, the lack of convenient methods for quantitative analysis of the disruptive functions of CBMs have hindered systematic studies and molecular modifications. Here we established a practical and systematic platform for quantifying and comparing the non-hydrolytic disruptive activities of CBMs via the synergism of CBMs and a catalytic module within designed chimeric cellulase molecules. Bioinformatics and computational biology were also used to provide a deeper understanding. A convenient vector was constructed to serve as a cellulase matrix into which heterologous CBM sequences can be easily inserted. The resulting chimeric cellulases were suitable for studying disruptive functions, and their activities quantitatively reflected the disruptive functions of CBMs on crystalline cellulose. In addition, this cellulase matrix can be used to construct novel chimeric cellulases with high hydrolytic activities toward crystalline cellulose. PMID:22778256

  10. Chimerism testing and detection of minimal residual disease after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation using the bioView (Duet) combined morphological and cytogenetical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, A; Nagler, A; Kaplinsky, C; Reichart, M; Avigdor, A; Hardan, I; Yeshurun, M; Daniely, M; Zilberstein, Y; Amariglio, N; Brok-Simoni, F; Rechavi, G; Trakhtenbrot, L

    2002-08-01

    Recurrent disease remains a major obstacle to cure after allogeneic transplantation. Various methods have been developed to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after transplantation to identify patients at risk for relapse. Chimerism tests differentiate recipient and donor cells and are used to identify MRD when there are no other disease-specific markers. The detection of MRD does not always correlate with relapse risk. Chimerism testing may also identify normal hematopoietic cells or other cells not contributing to relapse. In this study we report our initial experience with a novel system that provides combined morphological and cytogenetical analysis on the same cells. This system allows rapid automatic scanning of a large number of cells, thus increasing the sensitivity of detection of small recipient population. The clinical significance of MRD detection is improved by identifying the morphology of recipient cells. Identification of recipient characteristics within blasts predicts overt relapse in leukemia patients and precedes it by a few weeks to months. Identification within mature hematopoietic cells may not be closely associated with relapse. The system also allows chimerism testing after sex-mismatched transplants, within cellular subsets, with no need for sorting of cells. The system merits further study in larger scale trials.

  11. Impact of hematopoietic chimerism at day +14 on engraftment after unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Moscardó, Federico; Sanz, Jaime; Senent, Leonor; Cantero, Susana; de la Rubia, Javier; Montesinos, Pau; Planelles, Dolores; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Cervera, Jose; Palau, Javier; Sanz, Miguel A.; Sanz, Guillermo F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cord blood transplant is a feasible treatment alternative for adult patients with hematologic malignancies lacking a suitable HLA-matched donor. However, the kinetics of myeloid recovery is slow, and primary graft failure cannot be detected easily early after transplantation. We investigated the impact of hematopoietic chimerism status from unselected marrow cells 14 days after transplantation on predicting engraftment after a cord blood transplant. Design and Methods Seventy-one adult patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing single-unit unrelated donor cord blood transplantation after a myeloablative conditioning regimen were included in the study. All patients received conditioning regimens based on busulfan, thiotepa and antithymocyte globulin. Chimerism status was assessed analyzing short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Results The cumulative incidence of myeloid engraftment at 1 month was significantly lower in patients with mixed chimerism than in those with complete donor chimerism (55% vs. 94%; p<0.0001). For patients achieving myeloid recovery, the median time of engraftment was 16 days when donor chimerism at day + 14 was higher than 90%, compared with 24 days when donor chimerism was below this level (p<0.001). A donor chimerism level of 65% was found to be the best cut-off point for predicting primary graft failure, with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 80%. The incidence of primary graft failure was 67% for patients with less than 65% donor chimerism at day +14 as compared to only 2% for those with more than 65% donor chimerism (p<0.001). Patients with mixed chimerism also had a lower cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment than those with complete chimerism (62% vs. 89%; p=0.01). Conclusions Donor-recipient chimerism status at day +14 predicts engraftment after a single-unit cord blood transplant in adults. PMID:19483157

  12. Evidence for Kidney Rejection after Combined Bone Marrow and Renal Transplantation Despite Ongoing Whole-blood Chimerism in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Swetha K; Page, Andrew; Farris, Alton B.; Singh, Karnail; Leopardi, Frank; Hamby, Kelly; Sen, Sharon; Polnett, Aneesah; Deane, Taylor; Song, Mingqing; Stempora, Linda; Strobert, Elizabeth; Kirk, Allan D.; Larsen, Christian P.; Kean, Leslie S.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is evidence linking hematopoietic chimerism-induction and solid organ transplant tolerance, the mechanistic requirements for chimerism-induced tolerance are not clearly elucidated. To address this, we used an MHC-defined primate model to determine the impact of impermanent, T cell-poor, mixed-chimerism on renal allograft survival. We compared two cohorts: one receiving a bone marrow + renal transplant (“BMT/renal”) and one receiving only a renal transplant. Both cohorts received maintenance immunosuppression with CD28/CD40-directed costimulation blockade and sirolimus. As previously demonstrated, this transplant strategy consistently induced compartmentalized donor chimerism, (significant whole-blood chimerism, lacking T cell chimerism). This chimerism was not sufficient to prolong renal allograft acceptance: the BMT/renal mean survival time (MST, 76 days) was not significantly different than the renal transplant alone MST (85 days, p= 0. 46), with histopathology documenting T-cell mediated rejection. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significant enrichment for CD28-/CD95+ CD4+ and CD8+ Tem cells in the rejected kidney, suggesting a link between CD28-negative Tem and costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. These results suggest that in some settings, transient T cell-poor chimerism is not sufficient to induce tolerance to a concurrently placed renal allograft and that the presence of this chimerism per se is not an independent biomarker to identify tolerance. PMID:22642491

  13. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

  14. [Development of multiplex short tandem repeat (STR)-PCR for chimerism analysis in patients with hematological malignancies and comparison of chimerism in different sample sources].

    PubMed

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takezawa, Yuka; Ito, Toshiro; Ishida, Fumihiro; Hidaka, Eiko; Kumagai, Toshiko; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis of short-tandem repeat (STR) markers (STR-PCR) has been used for chimerism testing to assess engraftment following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We investigated the informativity of 7 STR loci (FGA, D5S818, SE33, TH01, VWF, PentaE, and D18S51) in 82 pre-HSCT DNA samples from 41 donor/recipient pairs and developed 2 multiplex STR-PCRs using VWF, SE33, and D18S51, D5S818 and FGA, respectively. The multiplex STR-PCRs could distinguish the recipients and donors in 92.7% of the cases. Dilution experiments using mixed DNA showed that the sensitivity of the multiplex STR-PCRs for detecting the minor population was 1-5%. To compare chimerism in different samples such as peripheral blood, mononuclear cells (MNC), and CD3-positive cells (CD3+), we investigated the relationship between the chimerisms at approximately day 30 post-HSCT and the interval from the day of HSCT to achievement of complete chimerism (CC) in 70 patients undergoing HSCT. CC was found in all samples of 54 patients at day 30 post-HSCT, and these samples showed CC thereafter. Eleven patients with mixed chimerism (MC) in all samples or in MNC and CD3+ showed CC at day 60-270 post-HSCT or persistent MC. The remaining 5 patients with MC in only CD3+ showed CC at day 30-60 post-HSCT. Taken together, MNC which can be separated easily may be a useful source for detecting patients who require longer time to achieve CC and those with high risk of graft failure.

  15. Kidney Versus Islet Allograft Survival After Induction of Mixed Chimerism With Combined Donor Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oura, Tetsu; Ko, Dicken S C; Boskovic, Svjetlan; O'Neil, John J; Chipashvili, Vaja; Koulmanda, Maria; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Kawai, Kento; Nadazdin, Ognjenka; Smith, R Neal; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported successful induction of transient mixed chimerism and long-term acceptance of renal allografts in MHC mismatched nonhuman primates. In this study, we attempted to extend this tolerance induction approach to islet allografts. A total of eight recipients underwent MHC mismatched combined islet and bone marrow (BM) transplantation after induction of diabetes by streptozotocin. Three recipients were treated after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen that included low-dose total body and thymic irradiation, horse Atgam (ATG), six doses of anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb), and a 1-month course of cyclosporine (CyA) (Islet A). In Islet B, anti-CD8 mAb was administered in place of CyA. In Islet C, two recipients were treated with Islet B, but without ATG. The results were compared with previously reported results of eight cynomolgus monkeys that received combined kidney and BM transplantation (Kidney A) following the same conditioning regimen used in Islet A. The majority of kidney/BM recipients achieved long-term renal allograft survival after induction of transient chimerism. However, prolonged islet survival was not achieved in similarly conditioned islet/BM recipients (Islet A), despite induction of comparable levels of chimerism. In order to rule out islet allograft loss due to CyA toxicity, three recipients were treated with anti-CD8 mAb in place of CyA. Although these recipients developed significantly superior mixed chimerism and more prolonged islet allograft survival (61, 103, and 113 days), islet function was lost soon after the disappearance of chimerism. In Islet C recipients, neither prolonged chimerism nor islet survival was observed (30 and 40 days). Significant improvement of mixed chimerism induction and islet allograft survival were achieved with a CyA-free regimen that included anti-CD8 mAb. However, unlike the kidney allograft, islet allograft tolerance was not induced with transient chimerism. Induction of more

  16. Paucity of chimeric gene-transposable element transcripts in the Drosophila melanogaster genome

    PubMed Central

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Lenkov, Kapa; Petrov, Dmitri A; Bergman, Casey M

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication as a mechanism for the origin of genetic novelty. To understand the general role of TE domestication in eukaryotic genome evolution, it is important to assess the acquisition of functional TE sequences by host genomes in a variety of different species, and to understand in greater depth the population dynamics of these mutational events. Results Using an in silico screen for host genes that contain TE sequences, we identified a set of 63 mature "chimeric" transcripts supported by expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. We found a paucity of chimeric TEs relative to expectations derived from non-chimeric TEs, indicating that the majority (~80%) of TEs that generate chimeric transcripts are deleterious and are not observed in the genome sequence. Using a pooled-PCR strategy to assay the presence of gene-TE chimeras in wild strains, we found that over half of the observed chimeric TE insertions are restricted to the sequenced strain, and ~15% are found at high frequencies in North American D. melanogaster populations. Estimated population frequencies of chimeric TEs did not differ significantly from non-chimeric TEs, suggesting that the distribution of fitness effects for the observed subset of chimeric TEs is indistinguishable from the general set of TEs in the genome sequence. Conclusion In contrast to mammalian genomes, we found that fewer than 1% of Drosophila genes produce mRNAs that include bona fide TE sequences. This observation can be explained by the results of our population genomic analysis, which indicates that most potential chimeric TEs in D. melanogaster are deleterious but that a small proportion may contribute to the evolution of novel gene sequences such as nested or intercalated gene

  17. Chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells as oncolytic virus carriers

    PubMed Central

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Tantalo, Daniela GM; Afsahi, Arya; Hammill, Joanne A; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered T cells in adoptive transfer therapies has shown significant promise in treating hematological cancers. However, successes treating solid tumors are much less prevalent. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to induce specific lysis of tumor cells and indirectly impact tumor growth via vascular shutdown. These viruses bear natural abilities to associate with lymphocytes upon systemic administration, but therapeutic doses must be very high in order to evade antibodies and other components of the immune system. As T cells readily circulate through the body, using these cells to deliver OVs directly to tumors may provide an ideal combination. Our studies demonstrate that loading chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells with low doses of virus does not impact receptor expression or function in either murine or human T cells. Engineered T cells can deposit virus onto a variety of tumor targets, which can enhance the tumoricidal activity of the combination treatment. This concept appears to be broadly applicable, as we observed similar results using murine or human T cells, loaded with either RNA or DNA viruses. Overall, loading of engineered T cells with OVs represents a novel combination therapy that may increase the efficacy of both treatments. PMID:27119109

  18. An artificial chimeric derivative of Citrus viroid V involves the terminal left domain in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed Mehdi; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Gago, Selma; Duran-Vila, Núria

    2009-07-01

    The recently described Citrus viroid V (CVd-V) induces, in Etrog citron, mild stunting and very small necrotic lesions and cracks, sometimes filled with gum. As Etrog citron plants co-infected with Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) and CVd-V show synergistic interactions, these host-viroid combinations provide a convenient model to identify the pathogenicity determinant(s). The biological effects of replacing limited portions of the rod-like structure of CVd-V with the corresponding portions of CDVd are reported. Chimeric constructs were synthesized using a novel polymerase chain reaction-based approach, much more flexible than those based on restriction enzymes used in previous studies. Of the seven chimeras (Ch) tested, only one (Ch5) proved to be infectious. Plants infected with Ch5 showed no symptoms and, although this novel chimera was able to replicate to relatively high titres in singly infected plants, it was rapidly displaced by either CVd-V or CDVd in doubly infected plants. The results demonstrate that direct interaction(s) between structural elements in the viroid RNA (in this case, the terminal left domain) and as yet unidentified host factors play an important role in modulating viroid pathogenicity. This is the first pathogenic determinant mapped in species of the genus Apscaviroid.

  19. Reproductive mode and ovarian morphology regulation in chimeric planarians composed of asexual and sexual neoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2012-07-01

    Planarians are comprised of populations with different reproductive strategies: exclusively innately asexual (AS), exclusively innately sexual (InS), and seasonally switching. AS worms can be sexualized experimentally by feeding them with minced InS worms, and the resultant worms are characterized as acquired sexual (AqS). Differences between InS and AqS worms are expected to provide important clues to the poorly understood mechanism underlying the regulation of their reproductive mode. Morphological differences were found between InS and AqS worm ovaries, and we showed that the pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts) from InS worms, but not those of AqS worms, have the capacity to initiate the sexual state autonomously via neoblast fraction transplantation. To compare their reproductive mode and ovarian morphology regulation, InS donor neoblast fractions were transplanted into non-lethally X-ray-irradiated AS recipients. All transplants showed stable chimerism and reproduced sexually, suggesting that InS worm neoblasts can initiate sexual state autonomously, even when coexisting with AS worm neoblasts. The chimeras formed extraordinarily large and supernumerary ovaries equivalent to AqS worms, which were not seen in InS worms, suggesting that regulation of ovarian morphology in AS worm-derived cells in response to endogenous sexualizing stimulation distinctly differs from that of InS worms.

  20. The future is now: chimeric antigen receptors as new targeted therapies for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel W; Barrett, David M; Mackall, Crystal; Orentas, Rimas; Grupp, Stephan A

    2012-05-15

    Improved outcomes for children with cancer hinge on the development of new targeted therapies with acceptable short-term and long-term toxicity. Progress in basic, preclinical, and clinical arenas spanning cellular immunology, gene therapy, and cell-processing technologies have paved the way for clinical applications of chimeric antigen receptor-based therapies. This is a new form of targeted immunotherapy that merges the exquisite targeting specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the potent cytotoxicity, potential for expansion, and long-term persistence provided by cytotoxic T cells. Although this field is still in its infancy, clinical trials have already shown clinically significant antitumor activity in neuroblastoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and B-cell lymphoma, and trials targeting a variety of other adult and pediatric malignancies are under way. Ongoing work is focused on identifying optimal tumor targets and elucidating and manipulating both cell- and host-associated factors to support expansion and persistence of the genetically engineered cells in vivo. In pediatric oncology, CD19 and GD2 are compelling antigens that have already been identified for targeting pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and neuroblastoma, respectively, with this approach, but it is likely that other antigens expressed in a variety of childhood cancers will also soon be targeted using this therapy. The potential to target essentially any tumor-associated cell-surface antigen for which a monoclonal antibody can be made opens up an entirely new arena for targeted therapy of childhood cancer.

  1. Transcription Termination and Chimeric RNA Formation Controlled by Arabidopsis thaliana FPA

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Céline; Sherstnev, Alexander; Cole, Christian; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Simpson, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation influence the coding and regulatory potential of mRNAs and where transcription termination occurs. Although widespread, few regulators of this process are known. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein FPA is a rare example of a trans-acting regulator of poly(A) site choice. Analysing fpa mutants therefore provides an opportunity to reveal generic consequences of disrupting this process. We used direct RNA sequencing to quantify shifts in RNA 3′ formation in fpa mutants. Here we show that specific chimeric RNAs formed between the exons of otherwise separate genes are a striking consequence of loss of FPA function. We define intergenic read-through transcripts resulting from defective RNA 3′ end formation in fpa mutants and detail cryptic splicing and antisense transcription associated with these read-through RNAs. We identify alternative polyadenylation within introns that is sensitive to FPA and show FPA-dependent shifts in IBM1 poly(A) site selection that differ from those recently defined in mutants defective in intragenic heterochromatin and DNA methylation. Finally, we show that defective termination at specific loci in fpa mutants is shared with dicer-like 1 (dcl1) or dcl4 mutants, leading us to develop alternative explanations for some silencing roles of these proteins. We relate our findings to the impact that altered patterns of 3′ end formation can have on gene and genome organisation. PMID:24204292

  2. Chimeric Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Including External Oblique Fascia: A Refinement of Conventional Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Garrido, Manuel; Vega Garcia, Carmen; Pons Playa, Gemma; Masiá Ayala, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap is one of the most suitable flaps to cover distal extremity defects due to its lack of bulkiness and donor site concealment. However, it is less popular than other perforator flaps due to its anatomical variations, short pedicle length, and small caliber vessels. We describe a novel design for the SCIP flap, consisting of a chimeric flap with a piece of the external oblique muscle fascia. The purpose of this design is to cover and protect the vascular anastomosis in distal lower limb defects where recipient vessels are superficial and skin coverage is poor. In addition, lengthening the pedicle with this design makes the flap more versatile. The addition of a cuff of fascia in harvesting of the SCIP flap lengthens the pedicle, allowing easier insetting of the skin paddle and providing complete protection and coverage of the vessels. This procedure allows greater versatility in inset of the skin paddle and is particularly suitable in cases where recipient vessels are superficial or when skin coverage is poor. PMID:27482505

  3. The nonsignaling extracellular spacer domain of chimeric antigen receptors is decisive for in vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Hudecek, Michael; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Kosasih, Paula L; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Liu, Lingfeng; Rader, Christoph; Jensen, Michael C; Riddell, Stanley R

    2015-02-01

    The use of synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) to redirect T cells to recognize tumor provides a powerful new approach to cancer immunotherapy; however, the attributes of CARs that ensure optimal in vivo tumor recognition remain to be defined. Here, we analyze the influence of length and composition of IgG-derived extracellular spacer domains on the function of CARs. Our studies demonstrate that CD19-CARs with a long spacer from IgG4 hinge-CH2-CH3 are functional in vitro but lack antitumor activity in vivo due to interaction between the Fc domain within the spacer and the Fc receptor-bearing myeloid cells, leading to activation-induced T-cell death. We demonstrate that in vivo persistence and antitumor effects of CAR-T cells with a long spacer can be restored by modifying distinct regions in the CH2 domain that are essential for Fc receptor binding. Our studies demonstrate that modifications that abrogate binding to Fc receptors are crucial for CARs in which a long spacer is obligatory for tumor recognition as shown here for a ROR1-specific CAR. These results demonstrate that the length and composition of the extracellular spacer domain that lacks intrinsic signaling function can be decisive in the design of CARs for optimal in vivo activity.

  4. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners—the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)—and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic—and plant and algal—lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller’s ratchet—the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex—might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  5. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2015-08-18

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners--the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)--and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic--and plant and algal--lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller's ratchet--the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex--might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation.

  6. Simulations of Mineral Dust Content With CHIMERE-Dust Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmechtig, C.; Marticorena, B.; Menut, L.; Bergametti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations of the mineral dust cycle have been performed whith CHIMERE-Dust model over a domain that includes North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and the North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (10S-60N and 90W-90E) with a 1°x1° resolution using the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological fields for two years, 2000 and 2001. As a validation, we compare the simulated dust concentration fields with photometric data from the AERONET network. From the comparisons between the simulated and measured aerosol optical depth for several stations of the Mediterranean basin, the model appears to reproduce correctly the intensity and occurrences of the dust events. Over Western Africa, the results are not as satisfying since some of the most intense dust events observed on the continent and downwind are not captured by the model. In addition, the simulated events are generally underestimated compared to the measured ones. It appears that these differences in the model performances are connected to the origin of the dust plumes. For example, dust plumes coming from Libya are well simulated while dust plumes originating from the Bodélé depression not as frequent as intense as the observations suggest. Soil properties in these two regions are comparable and typical of very erodible surfaces. We thus focused on the comparison between the ECMWF 10m wind speed fields and 10m wind speed measured at the meteorological stations located in both areas. We noticed that over Libya, the measured and ECMWF 10m wind speed are in very good agreement, while the meteorological model does not reproduce the extrema of the measured wind speed in the Bodélé depression. We found that a crude empirical correction of the 10m wind field in the Bodélé Depression significantly improve the simulations in terms of occurrence and of intensity.

  7. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2015-08-18

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners--the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)--and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic--and plant and algal--lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller's ratchet--the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex--might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  8. Theoretical design of a new chimeric protein for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mahnam, Karim; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    p28 and NRC peptides are two anticancer peptides with various mechanisms have shown to be effective against breast cancer. Therefore, it seems that construction of a chimeric protein containing the two peptides might cause synergistic cytotoxic effects. However, since the two peptides bear opposite charges, production of a chimeric protein in which the two moieties do not intervene each other is difficult. In this study, our goal was to find a suitable peptide linker for the new chimeric protein in a manner that none of the peptides intervene the other's function. We selected some linkers with different characteristics and lengths and created a small library of the chimeric proteins harboring these linkers. Homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulation revealed that (PA)5P and (EAAAK)3 linkers can separate the p28 and NRC peptides effectively. Thus, the chimeric protein linked with (PA)5P or (EAAAK)3 linkers might show synergistic and stronger anticancer effects than the separate peptide moieties because they could exert their cytotoxic effects freely which is not influenced by the other part. PMID:27499788

  9. Chimeric spider silk proteins mediated by intein result in artificial hybrid silks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senzhu; Chen, Gefei; Liu, Xiangqin; Meng, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid silks hold a great potential as specific biomaterials due to its controlled mechanical properties. To produce fibers with tunable properties, here we firstly made chimeric proteins in vitro, called W2C4CT and W2C8CT, with ligation of MaSp repetitive modules (C) with AcSp modules (W) by intein trans splicing technology from smaller precursors without final yield reduction. Intein mediated chimeric proteins form fibers at a low concentration of 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mM K3 PO4 pH 7.5 just drawn by hand. Hybrid fibers show smoother surface, and also have stronger chemical resistance as compared with fibers from W2CT (W fibers) and mixture of W2CT/C8CT (MHF8 fibers). Fibers from chimeric protein W2C4CT (HFH4) have improved mechanical properties than W fibers; however, with more C modules W2C8CT fibers (HFH8) properties decreased, indicates the length proportion of various modules is very important and should be optimized for fibers with specific properties. Generally, hybrid silks generated via chimeric proteins, which can be simplified by intein trans splicing, has greater potential to produce fibers with tunable properties. Our research shows that intein mediated directional protein ligation is a novel way to make large chimeric spider silk proteins and hybrid silks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 385-392, 2016. PMID:26948769

  10. Theoretical design of a new chimeric protein for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mahnam, Karim; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    p28 and NRC peptides are two anticancer peptides with various mechanisms have shown to be effective against breast cancer. Therefore, it seems that construction of a chimeric protein containing the two peptides might cause synergistic cytotoxic effects. However, since the two peptides bear opposite charges, production of a chimeric protein in which the two moieties do not intervene each other is difficult. In this study, our goal was to find a suitable peptide linker for the new chimeric protein in a manner that none of the peptides intervene the other’s function. We selected some linkers with different characteristics and lengths and created a small library of the chimeric proteins harboring these linkers. Homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulation revealed that (PA)5P and (EAAAK)3 linkers can separate the p28 and NRC peptides effectively. Thus, the chimeric protein linked with (PA)5P or (EAAAK)3 linkers might show synergistic and stronger anticancer effects than the separate peptide moieties because they could exert their cytotoxic effects freely which is not influenced by the other part. PMID:27499788

  11. Early and repeated IgG1Fc-pCons chimera vaccinations (GX101) improve the outcome in SLE-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Francesca; Fenoglio, Daniela; Cutolo, Maurizio; Balbi, Giuseppe; Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Barone, Domenico; Indiveri, Francesco; Criscuolo, Domenico; Filaci, Gilberto

    2015-08-01

    A previous study showed that a tolerogenic gene vaccine based on a IgG1Fc-pCons chimera (here named GX101) protects NZB/NZW mice from SLE development. The present study was aimed at identifying the most effective schedule of immunization and the possible involvement of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg in the mechanism of action, in view of its eventual translation to the human studies. NZB/NZW mice were vaccinated with B lymphocytes made transgenic by spontaneous transgenesis with a gene coding for a chimeric IgG1Fc-pCons construct. Different schedules of vaccination were set in relation to the timing and number of administrations. Survival, proteinuria levels, and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg frequency were monitored during the full experiments. GX101-treated mice showed delayed disease onset and delayed mortality than controls. GX101 effects were implemented by early as well as repeated vaccine administrations. GX101 vaccination was associated with increased frequencies of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg with respect to controls. This study demonstrates that early and repeated immunizations with GX101 vaccine provide a better outcome than late or single vaccine administration regarding onset/development in SLE-prone mice, acting as a possible disease-modifying approach. Vaccine effects are likely related to CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion.

  12. Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} transgenic and MHC Class I knockout mice as a tool for HIV vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinliang; Srivastava, Tumul; Rawal, Ravindra; Manuel, Edwin; Isbell, Donna; Tsark, Walter; La Rosa, Corinna; Wang Zhongde; Li Zhongqi; Barry, Peter A.; Hagen, Katharine D.; Longmate, Jeffrey; Diamond, Don J.

    2009-04-25

    We have developed a murine model expressing the rhesus macaque (RM) Mamu-A*01 MHC allele to characterize immune responses and vaccines based on antigens of importance to human disease processes. Towards that goal, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeric RM (alpha1 and alpha2 Mamu-A*01 domains) and murine (alpha3, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic H-2K{sup b} domains) MHC Class I molecules were derived by transgenesis of the H-2K{sup b}D{sup b} double MHC Class I knockout strain. After immunization of Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} Tg mice with rVV-SIVGag-Pol, the mice generated CD8{sup +} T-cell IFN-gamma responses to several known Mamu-A*01 restricted epitopes from the SIV Gag and Pol antigen sequence. Fusion peptides of highly recognized CTL epitopes from SIV Pol and Gag and a strong T-help epitope were shown to be immunogenic and capable of limiting an rVV-SIVGag-Pol challenge. Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} Tg mice provide a model system to study the Mamu-A*01 restricted T-cell response for various infectious diseases which are applicable to a study in RM.

  13. Antiviral agent based on the non-structural protein targeting the maturation process of HIV-1: expression and susceptibility of chimeric Vpr as a substrate for cleavage by HIV-1 protease.

    PubM