Science.gov

Sample records for china egypt ecuador

  1. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  2. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  3. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  4. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and the Socialist... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  5. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  6. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  7. Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Background notes and statistics on Ecuador are provided in the document. 271,000 sq. km. of jungle are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 11 million growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. The work force total 3.4 million. Ecuador claims a population comprised of 4 ethnic groups, predominantly Roman Catholic, and speaking Spanish in addition to Indian languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 88% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 51/1,000, while life expectancy is 66 years. 1990 GDP was $10.9 billion, and was growing at the rate of 1.5%. Per capita income was $1,043, while 1990 figures reported 50% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 17% of GNP, industry for 16%; 1990 international trade surplus totalled $0.7 billion. Additional data are provided on Ecuador's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Structural reform brought economic improvement in 1989. Public sector spending was tightened, monetary growth slowed, and external accounts improved. While progress stalled in 1990, additional steps combined with higher oil prices were expected to reduce the deficit and moderate inflation. Further reductions in government control over the economy, movement toward free-market interest rates, privatization of selected companies, trade liberalization, labor law reform, and the promotion of domestic and foreign private investment are called for.

  8. Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    In 1986, Ecuador's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 76.3/1000; life expectancy was 62 years. Of the work force of 2.9 million, 34% were engaged in agriculture, 35% were in the service sector, 12% were employed in industry, 12% were in sales, and 7% were in other occupations. Ecuador's 16 legal political parties represent a variety of views, none of which predominates. The gross domestic product was US$12.1 billion in 1985, with a per capita income of $1299 and an inflation rate of 24%. The economy's impressive performance in 1984 and 1985 is largely attributable to the trade sector's surplus and improvements in the balance of payments. Rescheduling the external debt has been a government priority. An agreement has been signed with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to encourage new foreign investment and subsidies have been reduced and price control ceilings have been raised to reform the domestic economy. However, the economic outlook for 1986 remains uncertain because of sharply lower petroleum prices.

  9. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  10. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671d(b)) (the Act) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the...

  11. Perspectives on the institutional needs of joint implementation projects for China, Egypt, India, Mexico, and Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mabel, M.; Watt, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1995-10-01

    One avenue for reducing the net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) is the joint implementation (JI) of policies and projects to the Convention. Although debate on the practical aspects of JI projects is relatively young, it already includes issues concerning the ability of governments to accept JI projects as well as the project participants` capacity to monitor, evaluate, and verify the financial and GHG benefits. The focus of this paper is an in-depth, country-by-country analysis of current and conceivable institutions in potential host countries. To understand these concerns better, in August 1994 the authors asked colleagues in five developing countries to evaluate their countries` institutional capacity for JI projects. Their perspectives are presented here as individual country case studies. The five countries--Mexico, Egypt, Thailand, India, and China--were chosen because each has significant potential for JI projects.

  12. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  13. PROVING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: A PROGRESS REPORT ON U.S. EPA'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR, MEXICO AND CHINA (EPA/600/F-98/008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication describes the progress of USEPA's Drinking Water Treatment Demonstration projects currently underway in Ecuador, Mexico and China. Material includes descriptions of problems faced and approaches used to improve water quality.

  14. PROVING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: A PROGRESS REPORT ON U.S. EPA'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR, MEXICO AND CHINA (EPA/600/F-98/008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication describes the progress of USEPA's Drinking Water Treatment Demonstration projects currently underway in Ecuador, Mexico and China. Material includes descriptions of problems faced and approaches used to improve water quality.

  15. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    PubMed

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p < 0.00002) periodicity of approximately 500 years has been found. Data are taken from two different historians and results for low and middle chronology are being compared. FURTHER RESULTS: Lability of dynastic power in ancient Egypt as well as China between 3000 and 500 B. C. culminated each 500 years synchronously. No local events, confined to Egypt or China alone, can serve as an explanation. The rhythm of "dark ages" seems to continue beyond Egyptian and ancient Chinese history into the modern era and seems to be world-wide. It is a surprising fact, that this periodicity has been known already to the priests of Babylon, who ascribed this to the maleficient influence of god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not

  16. Spotlight: Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.

  17. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang

    2013-07-01

    Precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. The morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. DNA-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. In the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important Diptera. We analyzed 75 specimens belonging to 19 species of 3 families originating from China (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Aldrichina grahami; Lucilia bazini, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia porphyrina; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis, Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga albiceps, Sarcophaga dux, Helicophagella melanura) and Egypt (Calliphoridae: C. megacephala, C. albiceps, L. sericata; Muscidae: M. domestica, F. canicularis, S. calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga argyrostoma). This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter distance model and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree generated. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0-0.8 % and interspecific variation occurred between 1-19 %. Although all examined specimens were assigned to the correct species and formed distinct monophyletic clades, the data of the phylogenetic analysis were not completely in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. As both C. nigripes and A. grahami unexpectedly joined with Muscidae and Sarcophagidae groups respectively. Moreover, both Calliphorinae and Luciliinae clades failed to represent Calliphoridae as a separate group. Therefore, although molecular methods are beneficial

  18. Lagoons of the Nile delta, Egypt, heavy metal sink: With a special reference to the Yangtze estuary of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiawei; Salem, Alaa; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2013-01-01

    Lagoons of the Nile delta are a vital aquacultural base for millions of people in Egypt. Since the 1960s, when the Aswan High Dam was completed, the estuary has changed from high to low turbidity and this has dramatically altered the eco-hydrological environment. In this study we attempt to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) based on 6 short sediment cores recovered from Manzala, Burullus and Edku lagoons on the Nile delta. Radiometric dating indicates that the upper 10-15 cm of the core sediment is post-Aswan Dam. Manzala on the eastern delta coast is severely polluted by almost all metals analyzed in the present study, especially Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd, due to its connection to the city of Cairo, and the direct human input from neighboring megacities, where the petro-chemical industry is thought to be a major source. Although Burullus on the central delta coast has the lowest concentrations of Mn and Pb, there is an increasing trend, implying a linkage to local agricultural sources, and the recently expanding megacities in the central delta plain. Edku on western delta coast seems remote from any major pollution sources, but higher Mn, Pb, and Zn in the upper portion of the lake sediment suggest human influences from Alexandria to the west via the littoral current. The horse-saddle distribution pattern of polluted metals along the Nile coast, as evidenced by the Enrichment Factor (EF), is closely associated with the regulated runoff to the lower delta plain and coast, where extremely low precipitation occurs. This physical setting is certainly prone to concentrating anthropogenic heavy metals in the lagoons. The opposite example is the intensively-cultivated Yangtze estuary in China, where monsoonal precipitation flushes out a huge amount of metals as manifested by the lower EF than that of the Nile.

  19. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  20. Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-20

    ISS01-E-5025 (November 2000) --- This nadir view of Alexandria, Egypt, was provided by a digital still camera image down linked from the International Space Station to flight controllers in Houston. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. According to NASA scientists studying the Expedition One photo collection, the town was originally built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos to the mainland. Since then, the scientists say, sedimentary deposits have added considerably to the width of the mole. Since 1905, when the city’s 370 thousand inhabitants lived in an area of about four square kilometers between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 square kilometers. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon.

  1. Ecuador Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, the oil sector accounts for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues. Resource nationalism and debates about the economic, strategic, and environmental implications of oil sector development are prominent issues in the politics of Ecuador and the policies of its government. Ecuador is the smallest producer in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and it produced 556,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) of petroleum and other liquids in 2014, of which crude oil production was 555,000 bbl/d. A lack of sufficient domestic refining capacity to meet local demand has forced Ecuador to import refined products, limiting net oil revenue.

  2. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  3. Medical education in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  4. Predictors of pharmacological treatment outcomes with atomoxetine or methylphenidate in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from China, Egypt, Lebanon, Russian Federation, Taiwan, and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Treuer, T; Feng, Q; Desaiah, D; Altin, M; Wu, S; El-Shafei, A; Serebryakova, E; Gado, M; Faries, D

    2014-09-01

    The reduced availability of data from non-Western countries limits our ability to understand attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment outcomes, specifically, adherence and persistence of ADHD in children and adolescents. This analysis assessed predictors of treatment outcomes in a non-Western cohort of patients with ADHD treated with atomoxetine or methylphenidate. Data from a 12-month, prospective, observational study in outpatients aged 6-17 years treated with atomoxetine (N = 234) or methylphenidate (N = 221) were analysed post hoc to determine potential predictors of treatment outcomes. Participating countries included the Russian Federation, China, Taiwan, Egypt, United Arab Emirates and Lebanon. Factors associated with remission were analysed with stepwise multiple logistic regression and classification and regression trees (CART). Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment assessed differences in atomoxetine persistence among initial-dose cohorts. In patients treated with atomoxetine who had available dosing information (N = 134), Cox proportional hazards revealed lower (< 0.5 mg/kg) initial dose was significantly associated with shorter medication persistence (p < 0.01). multiple logistic regression analysis revealed greater rates of remission for atomoxetine-treated patients were associated with age (older), country (United Arab Emirates) and gender (female) (all p < 0.05). CART analysis confirmed older age and lack of specific phobias were associated with greater remission rates. For methylphenidate, greater baseline weight (highly correlated with the age factor found for atomoxetine) and prior atomoxetine use were associated with greater remission rates. These findings may help clinicians assess factors upon initiation of ADHD treatment to improve course prediction, proper dosing and treatment adherence and persistence. Observational study, therefore no registration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-15

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  6. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    The Day Part of the Interne died: Egypt Goes Dark ,” The New Zealand Herald, 28 January 2011, sec. Technology. Egypt’s primary Internet providers...cookies, cakes, and chocolates ; his initials “CC” are baked into pastries and molded into jewelry, children and sandwiches have been named after him...NewsContent/1/64/10293/Egypt/Politics-/Bosses,- enforcers-and-thugs-in-Egypts-Battle-of-th.aspx. “The Day Part of the Interne died: Egypt Goes Dark .” The

  7. Pyomyositis in Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Fleming, Lila C; Ribeiro, Priscila S

    2010-06-01

    Pyomyositis occurs when intramuscular abscesses appear in one or more body sites. Analysis of data from 165 patients with tropical pyomyositis diagnosed at a hospital in rural Amazonian Ecuador from 1980 to 1989 and 1995 to 2005 found that pyomyositis is more likely to affect males than females and more likely to affect children than adults. Abscesses were most commonly located on a lower extremity. Significant changes in patients' profiles between 1980 and 1989 and 1995 and 2005 were not found.

  8. Ecuador project closes shop.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has discontinued its contraceptive social marketing project in Ecuador after 2 1/2 years without a sale. USAID had awarded a 3-year US$1.2 million grant to the program's contractor, the John Snow Public Health Group Inc. The project was run by Ecuador's national family planning association. This is only the 3rd time USAID has terminated a social marketing program since entering this field in 1973. Impediments to the program's operation included product price hikes and supply shortages as a result of teh inflation and currency devaluation in Ecuador in recent years. Government opposition to the sales of donated contraceptive supplies further set back the program. The name chosen for the condom distributed by the program, Liber, had to be changed since a company importing sanitary napkins was using the name Liberty and objected. The program's peculiar organizational structur is also considered to have played a role in the program's failure. Rather than having a single authority responsible for the program, a 2-headed organizational design was used. Program funds were controlled by the contractor, but the family planning organization managed day to day operations. Unified management has enabled programs in other countries to survive problems such as inflation, brand registration, and product and price approvals.

  9. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  10. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  11. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  12. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  13. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  14. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  15. Education in Egypt, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1979, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  16. Ecuador. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Designed for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Ecuador's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include the history of Ecuador's flag and coat of arms, geographic regions, food, Quito (the capital), recent wildlife…

  17. Ecuador. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Designed for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Ecuador's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include the history of Ecuador's flag and coat of arms, geographic regions, food, Quito (the capital), recent wildlife…

  18. First MAGDAS Equipment in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, E.; Maeda, G.; Vicente, K.; Yumoto, K.; Vasquez, N.; Matsushita, H.; Shishime, A.; Vasconez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) was installed in the protected Jerusalem Park in Malchingui- Ecuador in October of 2012, under the joint collabo ration between Kyushu University of Japan and the Quito Astronomical Observatory of the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. In this paper, we describe the installation process and present the preliminary data obtained with the MAGDAS equip ment. The behavior of the four components, D, H, Z and F allow us to see the importance of having the Ecuador station where the magnetic field has not been systematically measured before, in valuable contribution to study the equatorial electrodynamics.

  19. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  20. Schools' Television in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezard, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Chronicles the short (1970-77) and troubled history of instructional television in Egypt. Among the problems which led to the discontinuation of television programing for schools were production delays, inadequate repair service, and lack of training. (LLS)

  1. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  2. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  3. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  4. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  6. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  7. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  8. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  9. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  10. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  11. ECUADOR: counting down the barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-09

    Within the world oil market, OPEC faces a reduced role as supplier and production/price dilemmas. One of its members, Ecuador, faces rapid drawdown of its reserves and ultimate loss of membership in the cartel. But Ecuador is tackling the problem by a variety of means and is still defending OPEC prices, as its OPEC Governor tells Energy Detente. The complete interview with Cesar Guerra Navarrete, the OPEC Governor is presented. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of February 1983 are included for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  12. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  13. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-06

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt. On the left is an optical image from NASA Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR.

  14. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  15. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  16. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  17. Snake bite envenomation in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Fabricio; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of snake bite in Ecuador and to identify the difficulties of snake bite management in Ecuadorian health facilities. A survey based on national health statistics was carried out in Ecuador to estimate the overall incidence and mortality due to snake bites. During the period 1998-2007, the average annual incidence and mortality was respectively 11 and 0.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The at-risk population was represented mainly by males aged 10-54 years. Snake bite incidence increased during the rainy season and El Niño. According to one data source, the majority of snake bites occurred in the coastal region (56%) compared with the Amazonian rainforest (11%) and the highlands (33%). This geographical variation in snake bite incidence may reflect the distribution of venomous snakes and human population densities and activities. This preliminary national survey on the incidence of the envenomings due to snake bite in Ecuador showed a stable incidence over the time period studied but was heterogeneous in the three geographical regions of Ecuador. The incidence and mortality were higher in the lowland humid regions where Bothrops species are abundant.

  18. Egypt-United States Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-10

    Issues Economic Reforms Previous Issues EgyptAir Flight 990 Militant Islamic Movement in Egypt Shaikh Umar Abd al-Rahman U.S. Foreign Assistance to...Israeli war following Egyptian charges that the United States had provided direct assistance to Israel. Anwar al- Sadat became President of Egypt upon the...1975 after an 8-year hiatus. The United States endorsed Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat’s dramatic and courageous trip to Jerusalem in November 1977

  19. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-02-04

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  20. Egypt-United States Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-07

    Reforms Economic Issues Economic Reforms Previous Issues EgyptAir Flight 990 Militant Islamic Movement in Egypt Shaikh Umar Abd al-Rahman U.S. Foreign...to Israel. Anwar al- Sadat became President of Egypt upon the death of al-Nasir in September 1970, and it was al-Sadat who expelled Soviet advisors...disengagements in 1975. The United States resumed economic aid to Egypt in 1975 after an eight-year hiatus. The United States endorsed Egyptian President Anwar

  1. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  2. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  3. Myxomycetes from upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Ahmed M

    2002-01-01

    The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided.

  4. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  5. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques

  6. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  7. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  8. Secondary recovery development in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Arteaga, L.; Endara, J.; Alduja, F.

    1981-03-01

    The oil activity in Ecuador goes back to 1920 when the oil-bearing structures were discovered in the Peninsula of Santa Elena in the Ecuatorian coast. Since that time 2,700 oil wells have been drilled; at the present time, only 650 wells are still producing. Oil production has been decreasing in spite of artificial producing systems (sucker rod pumping, and gas lift). During the period of 1966 to 1969 a total of 8 pilot projects was performed to evaluate the possibility of using secondary recovery methods (waterflooding) in 3 different oil-bearing formations from 5 areas, and utilizing different injection patterns. The results from numerical simulation and pilot projects showed the convenience and easibility of the implmentation of secondary recovery systems (waterflooding) in the Shushufindi-Aguarico field. A detailed description is presented of the development of the secondary recovery methods in Ecuador - antecedents, pilot projects, results, etc.

  9. A brief, standardized tool for measuring HIV-related stigma among health facility staff: results of field testing in China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis.

    PubMed

    Nyblade, Laura; Jain, Aparna; Benkirane, Manal; Li, Li; Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; McLean, Roger; Turan, Janet M; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Guan, Jihui; Kwena, Zachary; Thomas, Wendell

    2013-11-13

    Within healthcare settings, HIV-related stigma is a recognized barrier to access of HIV prevention and treatment services and yet, few efforts have been made to scale-up stigma reduction programs in service delivery. This is in part due to the lack of a brief, simple, standardized tool for measuring stigma among all levels of health facility staff that works across diverse HIV prevalence, language and healthcare settings. In response, an international consortium led by the Health Policy Project, has developed and field tested a stigma measurement tool for use with health facility staff. Experts participated in a content-development workshop to review an item pool of existing measures, identify gaps and prioritize questions. The resulting questionnaire was field tested in six diverse sites (China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis). Respondents included clinical and non-clinical staff. Questionnaires were self- or interviewer-administered. Analysis of item performance across sites examined both psychometric properties and contextual issues. The key outcome of the process was a substantially reduced questionnaire. Eighteen core questions measure three programmatically actionable drivers of stigma within health facilities (worry about HIV transmission, attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV), and health facility environment, including policies), and enacted stigma. The questionnaire also includes one short scale for attitudes towards PLHIV (5-item scale, α=0.78). Stigma-reduction programmes in healthcare facilities are urgently needed to improve the quality of care provided, uphold the human right to healthcare, increase access to health services, and maximize investments in HIV prevention and treatment. This brief, standardized tool will facilitate inclusion of stigma measurement in research studies and in routine facility data collection, allowing for the monitoring of stigma within healthcare facilities and evaluation of

  10. Language Planning and Policy in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.; Haboud, Marleen

    2002-01-01

    This monograph presents up-to-date information concerning language planning and policy in Ecuador, highlighting the country's cultural and linguistic diversity, historical context, current sociolinguistic situation and possible directions for the future. Taking into account Ecuador's particular sociopolitical conditions, it aims to provide a…

  11. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  12. Language Planning and Policy in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.; Haboud, Marleen

    2002-01-01

    This monograph presents up-to-date information concerning language planning and policy in Ecuador, highlighting the country's cultural and linguistic diversity, historical context, current sociolinguistic situation and possible directions for the future. Taking into account Ecuador's particular sociopolitical conditions, it aims to provide a…

  13. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  14. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  15. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  16. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  17. The Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer was acquired on June 3, 2002. The fertile land along the Nile River supports lush green vegetation, amid the desert landscape. At its delta at the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile broadens into a large fan-shaped delta. All of Egypt's large cities fall along the Nile, which sustains life in a region of scant rainfall. At the point where the river widens into the delta, a grayish cluster of pixels marks the location of Cairo. To the east is the Sinai Peninsula, whose impermanent water courses create silvery streaks on the pale brown, arid landscape. At lower right is the Red Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  19. [The health system of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  20. An Energy Overview of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Ecuador. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  1. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16.

  2. Epidemiology of acromegaly in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Bonaparte's expedition in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Richet, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Bonaparte's expedition in Egypt was not only a military operation. It was also a tentative colonial move which was used as a model for over a century as well as a cultural and scientific adventure, quite unique for its time. The evacuation of the Oriental Army stands as a milestone in the history of civilisations because the protocols which marked its achievement - to which Desgenettes and Larrey contributed-displayed outstanding humanitarian and medical dimensions. The humanitarian dimension is highlighted by the remarkable contribution of the British Authorities in taking care of the wounded, sick and disabled as well as in ensuring that the French troops safely got home or dealing with the various civilian people not following the army back to France. These agreements between belligerents clearly anticipated what became, 63 years later, the cornerstone of the Red Cross. The medical dimension is illustrated with all the sanitary measures which were taken in order to keep away from any risk of plague epidemics which were rightly feared at the time. Scurvy was also an issue. Although Lind had stated its "deficiency" characteristic 50 years earlier scurvy was still considered as an infectious and contagious disease. Not surprisingly the remarkable 3000 case study made by Larrey, which undoubtedly led up to the conclusion that the disease stemmed exclusively from nutritional deficiencies, had been almost neglected.

  4. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  5. Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A269 664 i l•l lI ,iI I i h4Ji PUBLICATION REPORT 1753 SEP TE5195, 31/93EYP CRYPTOGENIC TUBERCULOSIS - 1990 CAIRO - EGYPT BY Z. Farid, M.E...FUNDING NUMBERS Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt PE- 61102A WU- 3M161102BS13.AK.311 6. AUTHORjS) Farid, Z., Kilpatrick, M.E. and Kamal...is unlimited. 13- A8B TRACT %’ 4 , n ;.’ Please see attached. DTIC 7T-3 t A 2-d~~t (r’ oa Dist__ _._ .S pecial. Cryptogenic tuberculosis ; Prolonged

  6. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  7. Quality of life in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), assessed using the IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) measure after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide: results of an international prospective observational cohort study in Poland, Egypt, Mexico and China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaohua; Chen, Shengliang; Zhang, Yali; Sha, Weihong; Yu, Xiaofeng; Elsawah, Hesham; Afifi, Afifi Fahmy; El-Khayat, Hisham Raafat; Nouh, Alaa; Hassan, Mohamed Fathalla; Fatah, Ayman Abdel; Rucker Joerg, Isabel; Sánchez Núñez, Juan Manuel; Osthoff Rueda, Rodolfo; Jurkowska, Grazyna; Walczak, Michal; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Linke, Krzysztof; Hartleb, Marek; Janssen-van Solingen, Gwendolyn

    2014-11-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) has a substantial impact on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) but high-quality data pre- and post-treatment using the IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) measure are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes from baseline of the IBS-QOL scores, symptom scores and health economic data in IBS patients, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide. This was a prospective observational cohort study in patients with IBS, diagnosed using the Rome III criteria in four countries (Poland, Egypt, Mexico and China). A total of 607 patients were enrolled. At baseline, the IBS-QOL total scores were 52.0 in Poland, 48.9 in Egypt, 51.9 in Mexico, 76.4 in China and 56.4 overall. Increases in IBS-QOL total score were statistically significant at Weeks 4 and 8 overall and in each country (overall: 11.8 at Week 4, 24.3 at Week 8; p < 0.001). Improvements were shown in all IBS-QOL subscales and scores. Symptoms and health economic outcomes were improved. Furthermore, the favourable safety profile of these treatments was confirmed in this study. This study demonstrated that IBS patients have a substantially reduced HR-QoL and that treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverium bromide improved HR-QoL.

  8. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  9. Team Egypt! Integrating the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Amanda Welsh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on Egypt used in an interdisciplinary curriculum that involves activities in social studies, art, science, language (Latin), and computers. Explains that each discipline is assessed separately in order to reward students' strengths. Highlights the benefits of interdisciplinary curricula. (CMK)

  10. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  11. Ecuador holds National Immunization Day.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    Ecuador conducted its National Immunization Day on August 2-13, 1999, against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases, and distributed vitamin A supplementation to children between the ages of 6 to 36 months. The goals of the campaign were: 1) indiscriminate vaccination with oral polio vaccine of all children under 5 years old; 2) nationwide introduction of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines to all children aged 12-23 months; 3) hepatitis B vaccine introduction to all children below 1 year in the eastern part of the country, vaccination with dT of 60% of all women of childbearing age in 71 areas identified at risk for neonatal tetanus, and nationwide vaccination with dT of all pregnant women; and 4) yellow fever immunization of all children aged 1-14 years in the eastern provinces located in the Amazon Basin and of all adults aged 15-49 years in the provinces of Sucumbios, Napo, Orellana, and the area of Mumullacta in Pastanza.

  12. Unintended pregnancy and low birthweight in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, E; Tsui, A O; Kotelchuck, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the relationship between unintended pregnancy and infant birthweight in Ecuador, differentiating between unwanted and mistimed pregnancies. METHODS: Analyses focused on a subsample of women (n = 2490) interviewed in the 1994 Ecuador Demographic and Maternal-Child Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention status and low birthweight after control for other factors. RESULTS: Infants from unwanted pregnancies were more likely than infants from planned pregnancies to have low birthweight (odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.20). Mistimed pregnancy was not associated with low birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Unwanted pregnancy, but not mistimed pregnancy, is associated with low birthweight in Ecuador. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism through which pregnancy intention status affects birthweight. PMID:11344894

  13. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  14. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  15. Is there oil after OPEC : Ecuador's Pasaje

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    Since 1973 when Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, crude oil production increased by nearly half and domestic petroleum consumption has more than tripled. Oil's percent of Gross Domestic Product was just 3% in 1972, peaked at 17.3% in 1974, and has since declined to 11.71% in 1991. In 1992 the national perspective changed and found that OPEC membership was working against, not in favor of, economic growth. This issue addresses Ecuador's status change and its plans for its petroleum and economic future.

  16. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    visited Egypt, promising to “help Egypt deal with its economic challenges, including meeting immediate financial concerns, providing debt relief...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ...negotiating with Egypt the terms for obligating funds that have already been appropriated by Congress, such as up to $1 billion in bilateral debt

  17. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  18. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  19. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  20. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  1. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    history , then discussion on traditional soft and hard power, then introduce the concept of smart power. Next, this essay will provide a description...Finally, this essay will summarize the recommendations in one holistic strategy. Brief Sinai History It is important to understand, at least at...the cursory level, the modern struggle for control of the Sinai. In recent modern history the area was torn by war between Egypt and Israel

  2. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  3. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  4. Plesiomonas shigelloides infection, Ecuador, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan C; Bhavnani, Darlene; Trueba, Gabriel; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Eisenberg, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Diarrheal risk associated with Plesiomonas shigelloides infection was assessed in rural communities in northwestern Ecuador during 2004-2008. We found little evidence that single infection with P. shigelloides is associated with diarrhea but stronger evidence that co-infection with rotavirus causes diarrhea.

  5. Ecuador: Accessing oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.

    1996-12-31

    Developments in the oil and natural gas production industries in Ecuador and on the goal of attracting private investment into the formerly state-dominated industries are discussed. The need to improve the efficiency of oil and gas extraction in order to remain competitive is described.

  6. Space Radar Image of North Ecuador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this radar image of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the image.

  7. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  8. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  9. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  10. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  11. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  12. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  13. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  14. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  15. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  16. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  17. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  18. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

  19. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  20. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation.

  1. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  2. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. Conclusions: This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the

  3. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to

  4. New Aradidae from Ecuador (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Aradidae)

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As an addition to the presently poorly known aradid fauna of Ecuador, 3 new genera and 4 new species are described: Osellaptera setifera gen. n., sp. n.; Kormilevia ecuadoriana sp. n. both belonging to Mezirinae; and Carventinae Cotopaxicoris cruciatus gen. n., sp. n. and Onorecoris piceus gen. n., sp. n. An updated key is provided for all species of the Neotropical genus Kormilevia Usinger & Matsuda, 1959. PMID:24039516

  5. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  6. Rapid changes in rotaviral genotypes in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hasing, Maria Eloisa; Trueba, Gabriel; Baquero, Maria Ines; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Solberg, Owen D; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the emerging G9P[8] genotype was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype in Ecuador during 2005. This present study provides a temporal analysis of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in two locations within Ecuador by adding additional years (2006 - early 2008) to the originally reported 2005 data. Data were collected in a rural (northern coastal Ecuador) and urban (Quito) area. In the rural area, a community sample of cases (those presenting diarrhea) and controls (those not presenting diarrhea) were collected between August 2003 and March 2008 resulting in a total of 3,300 stool samples (876 cases and 2,424 controls). Of these samples, 260 were positive for rotavirus by an immunochromatographic test (196 cases and 64 controls). In Quito, 59 fecal samples were collected from children presenting diarrhea and diagnosed with rotavirus. An RT-PCR analysis of samples collected between 2005 and 2007 suggested that G9 was replaced by G1 and G2 in the rural and urban settings. During this period G9 decreased from 79% to 9% while G2 increased from 0% to 43% in the rural communities, and G9 decreased from 79% to 37% while G2 increased from 3% to 57% in the urban area of Quito. This rapid replacement of G9 by G1 and G2 reinforces the necessity of surveillance to inform vaccination programs.

  7. Exploration and development at crossroads in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Ecuador's oil and gas sector has reached a pivotal point in its history. After several years of fairly brisk activity, foreign operators recently began scaling back exploration in Ecuador. They cited results that haven't met expectations and persistent delays in obtaining approval by state owned Petroecuador for development of reserves that have been discovered. Foreign oil companies had anticipated the pace of development would accelerate in Ecuador in early 1992, but major projects generally remained in limbo for most of this year. At presstime, however, there were signs of an encouraging follow-through in promised reforms in the permitting process. Petroecuador in April-May approved two of those projects and a third in June. Of the 13 oil companies or groups that had signed exploration contracts with the state oil company since 1985, several companies have terminated their operations in the country, and only one company, Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, is producing a small volume of oil. Two other companies have been negotiating exploration rights for about 2 years, with contracts yet to be signed.

  8. Rapid Changes in Rotaviral Genotypes in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Hasing, Maria Eloisa; Trueba, Gabriel; Baquero, Maria Ines; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Solberg, Owen D.; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the emerging G9P[8] genotype was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype in Ecuador during 2005. This present study provides a temporal analysis of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in two locations within Ecuador by adding additional years (2006 – early 2008) to the originally reported 2005 data. Data were collected in a rural (northern coastal Ecuador) and urban (Quito) area. In the rural area, a community sample of cases (those presenting diarrhea) and controls (those not presenting diarrhea) were collected between August 2003 and March 2008 resulting in a total of 3,300 stool samples (876 cases and 2,424 controls). Of these samples, 260 were positive for rotavirus by an immunochromatographic test (196 cases and 64 controls). In Quito, 59 fecal samples were collected from children presenting diarrhea and diagnosed with rotavirus. An RT-PCR analysis of samples collected between 2005 and 2007 suggested that G9 was replaced by G1 and G2 in the rural and urban settings. During this period G9 decreased from 79% to 9% while G2 increased from 0% to 43% in the rural communities, and G9 decreased from 79% to 37% while G2 increased from 3% to 57% in the urban area of Quito. This rapid replacement of G9 by G1 and G2 reinforces the necessity of surveillance to inform vaccination programs. PMID:19856474

  9. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  10. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  11. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  12. Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-Elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, François; Domenech, Joseph

    2009-12-09

    Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very limited. Despite the continuous vaccination of poultry against HPAI, poultry outbreaks and human cases are reported regularly. A recent assessment study highlighted substantial weaknesses in the current immunisation programme and its lack of positive impact on the spread of infection or the maintenance of public health safety. The shortcomings of the vaccination strategy may be attributed in part to a lack of sufficient support in terms of funding and communication, the absence of an efficient monitoring system, and inadequate training of field technicians. The difficulties of blanket vaccinations in semi-commercial farms and household poultry sectors are well known, however, improvements in the industrial sector should be possible though better government controls and greater collaboration with the private sector. AI vaccination should be regarded as just one control tool within a broader disease control program integrating surveillance, outbreak investigation, disease management systems, and the rigorous implementation of bio-security measures. If incorrectly implemented, AI vaccination has a limited impact as a disease control measure. Moreover, without strict bio-security precautions undertaken during its application, farm visits to vaccinate poultry could facilitate the spread of the virus and therefore become a risk factor with important implications on the maintenance of the virus and potential risk for human exposure.

  13. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador.

  14. Ecuador: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-21

    plastics are the leading U.S. exports to Ecuador, while oil, bananas , and shrimp account for the bulk of U.S. imports from Ecuador. Since joining the World...Ecuador’s export market, other goods, such as seafood and cut flowers , have benefitted from the program. The ATPA was reauthorized and expanded by the

  15. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador. PMID:26491385

  16. Schooling, Blackness and National Identity in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    In Esmeraldas, Ecuador, students of African descent make sense of racial identity and discrimination in multiple and contradictory ways as they negotiate the dominant discourse of national identity. In Ecuador two simultaneous processes shape the dominant discourse of national identity: racial mixture and the movement towards Whiteness. This study…

  17. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  18. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  19. Schooling, Blackness and National Identity in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    In Esmeraldas, Ecuador, students of African descent make sense of racial identity and discrimination in multiple and contradictory ways as they negotiate the dominant discourse of national identity. In Ecuador two simultaneous processes shape the dominant discourse of national identity: racial mixture and the movement towards Whiteness. This study…

  20. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  1. A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador (Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....

  2. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    a total of 1,200 tanks. Under the terms of the program, a percentage of the tank’s components are manufactured in Egypt at a facility on the...co-production program. The parts are shipped to a production facility near Cairo, Egypt, where the tanks are manufactured for the Egyptian Land...the end of 1976, one of every three loaves of bread consumed by urban Egyptians was a product of wheat purchased under the PL-480 program. See

  3. Complete genome sequence of a variant of maize-associated totivirus from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Quinto, Robert A; Espinoza-Lozano, Rodrigo F; Mora-Pinargote, Carlos A; Quito-Avila, Diego F

    2017-04-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a variant of the recently reported maize-associated totivirus (MATV) from China was obtained from commercial maize in Ecuador. The genome of MATV-Ec (Ecuador) (4,998 bp) is considerably longer than that of MATV-Ch (China) (3,956 bp), the main difference due to a ≈ 1-kb-long capsid-protein-encoding fragment that is completely absent from the Chinese genome. Sequence alignments between MATV-Ec and MATV-Ch showed an overall identity of 82% at the nucleotide level, whereas at the amino acid level, the viruses exhibited 95% and 94% identity for the putative capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral RdRp domain indicated that MATV-Ec and MATV-Ch share a common ancestor with other plant-associated totiviruses, with Panax notoginseng virus A as the closest relative. MATV-Ec was detected in 46% (n = 80) of maize plants tested in this study, but not in endophytic fungi isolated from plants positive for the virus.

  4. 1990s bright for post-OPEC Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Ecuador, in its first full year outside the fold of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, stands poised for a significant expansion of production in the 1990s. While preparing for Ecuador's eventual withdrawal from OPEC last fall, the government since early summer 1992 has moved quickly to approve a number of key development projects. It was, perhaps, no coincidence that the most important conference on Ecuadorian petroleum prospects in recent years was timed to coincide with the government's public confirmation of the pullout. All foreign companies operating in Ecuador attended, with details disclosed of projects planned or under way. This article summarizes these projects and other key issues raised at the conference.

  5. Snakebites in the rainforests of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Praba-Egge, Anita D; Cone, Stephen W; Araim, Omar; Freire, Isabel; Paida, Galo; Escalante, Johnny; Carrera, Favio; Chavez, Mirian; Merrell, Ronald C

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologic information about snakebites in Ecuador is scarce. Snakebites are more common in the lowlands east of the Andes, in the Amazon basin. In the present study, a retrospective review of all ( n = 142) snakebite admissions to Hospital Pio XII, a regional health center/hospital in the canton of Sucúa, Morona Santiago, Ecuador was carried out between the years of 1996 and 2000. Bites occurred more frequently during the months of March to May. The largest group of patients were in the 15- to 49-year-old range (52.5%), and agricultural workers were the most affected of all patients by occupation (> 40%). In most cases of snakebite, patients could not identify the type of snake that had bitten them. A small number of patients ( n = 60, 42.3%) received some type of treatment prior to arrival at the hospital. Bites occurred most frequently on the left lower extremity (31.7%). Typical symptoms included pain and local edema at the snakebite site; generalized symptoms such as fever, nausea, and vomiting were less frequent. Most patients (almost 90%) received antivenin during hospitalization in addition to supportive care. The mean hospital stay was 4.3 days. More than 90% of all 142 patients recovered, about 8% with local abscesses. Mortality was 2.9% and occurred as a result of complications, including renal failure, respiratory failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  6. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    SciTech Connect

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. )

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  7. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level < 0.01 IU/ml), 43% had basic protection (0.01-0.09 IU/ml), and 33.1% were fully protected (0.1 IU/ml). The results revealed that serum levels of antitoxin antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  8. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Magdalena M.; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador. PMID:27904814

  9. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  10. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Adam L; Wilson, Magdalena M; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto; Grau, Lauretta E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  11. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  12. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  13. Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L; Domeisen, H; Narvaez, M; Tixi, R; Vivar, N

    2000-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT) are uncommon. Age-standardized incidence rates are 0.5 and 0.3 per 100,000 in Quito, Ecuador; and 1.0 and 0.7 per 100,000 in the USA (SEER Program), for males and females, respectively. The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions. From 1982 to 1998, 308 salivary gland tumors were surgically treated at the Hospital 'Carlos Andrade Marin' of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security in Quito, Ecuador, an Andean city of approximately 2 million inhabitants. Malignant lesions were found in 58 cases (19%): 37 out of 194 parotid gland tumors (19%), 7 out of 86 submandibular tumors (8%) and 14 out of 28 minor salivary gland tumors (50%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types. Twenty-two cases were classified as stage I, 13 as stage II, 1 as stage III and 20 as stage IV (UICC TNM staging classification). Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%). Local (LR) and/or regional recurrences were detected in 13 patients (22%). Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura. Thirty-five patients are alive, 33 disease free. Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 75 and 68%, respectively. There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003). The surgical or multimodality

  14. Ecuador still grappling over privatization as oil flow rises

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-08

    Ecuador continues to grapple with efforts to privatize its petroleum sector a year after disclosing its plans to withdraw from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. One of OPEC's smallest members, Ecuador last year said it would leave the group in March 1993, citing high membership costs and minimal benefits. Industry observers also noted at the time Ecuador's plans to sharply boost production this century might run afoul of its OPEC quota. Political controversy is stalling efforts to implement a new reform oriented hydrocarbon law in Ecuador that would open the country's petroleum sector to greater participation by foreign companies and privatize state petroleum companies, including Petroleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador). That comes even as foreign contractors' participation in Ecuador's upstream sector are making a significant contribution to boosting the country's oil production, which had remained flat for a number of years. The paper discusses the status of the new law, the controversy surrounding reforms, the master plan, environmental concerns, reserves and production, Petroecuador activity, planned pipeline work, service contracts, start-up of Oxy, details of Oxy development, and Elf's start-up.

  15. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-25

    ability to import food and fuel. 3 Tourism receipts, a major source of foreign exchange, 4 declined by 15% in 2015, as concern over terrorism...Egypt earned $7.2 billion in tourism revenues. In 2010, it had earned $12.5 billion. See, “Egypt sees Tourist Returns down 10 pct after Plane Crash...retaliation for Russia’s military deployment to Syria. The Metrojet bombing may both harm Egypt’s tourism sector and undermine government claims of success

  16. Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.

    2014-02-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).

  17. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.

  18. Multicenter study of brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-12-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

  19. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  20. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  1. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  2. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  3. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  4. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  5. English Teaching Profile: Arab Republic of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Egypt examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. The status of English as the main foreign language and as the medium of instruction in a small number of influential schools is discussed as well as the extent and content of the university English course. Also…

  6. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  7. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  8. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  9. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  10. Reading Habits of Adults in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.

    Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…

  11. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  12. Earth's motions in pharaonic Egypt: Religious interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambon, Emmanuel

    This paper will deal with the representations of the earth's movements in pharaonic Egypt. At first, testimonies of an ancient literary pattern, the "sky and earth" figure, will be observed, and then, the pictures where earth is represented "alone". We will explore the different ways the Egyptians depicted and interpreted this phenomena through various texts.

  13. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  14. Special Education in Egypt: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghobrial, Talaat Mansour; Vance, H. Robert

    During the past three decades, there has been a growing concern for handicapped children and youth in Egypt. Current legislation recognizes the rights of the handicapped, and the Egyptian government supports the care, education, rehabilitation, and personal/social adjustment of handicapped citizens. The responsibility for the disabled is divided…

  15. Directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bashary, Ahmed, Comp.

    The directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt is a listing of six different types of organizations: national bodies and central agencies; teachers' training institutes and research institutions; adult education institutions (governmental); adult education institutions (non-governmental); central libraries and documentation centers; and…

  16. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  17. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  18. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  19. China.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China.

  20. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    PubMed

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  1. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered. PMID:28097062

  2. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  3. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Holzenthal, Ralph W; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity "hotspots." We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.

  4. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Chris Soriano; John A. Stanturf

    2009-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing wastewater reuse strategies to meet...

  5. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Treesearch

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  6. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  7. [Cancer of the larynx in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L; de la Torre, M; Guerrón, M; Letort, M

    1997-04-01

    A retrospective review was made of 75 cases of laryngeal cancer evaluated and treated at the Social Security Hospital of Quito (Ecuador). No exclusively supraglottic lesions were found; 67% of cases, were glottic or glottic-supraglottic. Thirty-two per cent of cases were T1 and T2 and 23% had palpable lymph nodes in neck. Most T1 and T2 tumors were treated with radiotherapy (RT) and most T3 and T4 tumors with a combination of surgery and RT. The 5 and 10-year overall survival rates were 55% and 47%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were: 81% for T1 and T2 tumors and 36% for T3 and T4 tumors (p = 0.0008), 76% for N- and 42% for N+, 53% for well-differentiated and 58% for moderately or poorly differentiated tumors, 85% for T1 and T2 lesions treated with RT and 67% for T1 and T2 lesions treated with partial surgery, and 14% for T3 and T4 lesions treated with RT and 49% for T3 and T4 lesions treated surgically (non-significant differences).

  8. Country experience in organizing for quality: Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Marquez, L; Madubuike, C

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of Ecuador's efforts to maintain quality assurance (QA) in the care and delivery of health services. The Ministry of Health (MOH) established the National QA Program (QAP) in March 1996. Most of the efforts have been directed toward 7 of the 21 provinces. QAP's permanent resident advisor has coached teams in implementing QA microprojects. QAP has worked with district level officials in development of action plans and to define basic quality standards. MOH is moving to incorporate QA within a larger health sector reform process. New draft policies include ways to improve quality of care. A coordinator provides supervision and support to pilot projects and will strengthen the integration of QA within health sector reforms. QA pilot projects in Azuay and Bolivar have led to formation of QA teams at provincial, hospital, and health district levels. The first year of GAP was spent developing capacity by training QA facilitators at the national level. Azuay and Bolivar provinces have held provincial level training in problem solving, process improvement, strategic planning for quality, and standards development. Technical assistance was provided by JHPIEGO to revise national norms and clinical standards for reproductive health (RH). The MOH is piloting a training program in the new RH standards in Cotopaxi province. QAP conducted QA design efforts and development of local quality indicators under a new World Bank funded project. A newsletter was started in 1997 to disseminate QA information and progress reports. QA has been institutionalized within MOH.

  9. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  10. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members.

  11. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  12. A Primary Care System to Improve Health Care Efficiency: Lessons from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Aldulaimi, Sommer; Mora, Francisco E

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with few resources to spend on health care. Historically, Ecuador has struggled to find a model for health care that is efficient, effective, and available to all people in the country, even those in underserved and rural communities. In 2000, the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health implemented a new system of health care that used primary care as its platform. Since then, Ecuador has been able to increase its health care efficiency, increasing its ranking from 111 of 211 countries worldwide in 2000, to 20 of 211 countries in 2014. This article briefly reviews the new components of the system implemented in Ecuador and examines the tools used to accomplish this. The discussion also compares and contrasts the Ecuador and US systems, and identifies concepts and policies from Ecuador that could improve the US system. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries.

  14. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  15. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dee, Michael W; Rowland, Joanne M; Higham, Thomas F G; Harris, Stephen A; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M; Marcus, Ezra S; Shortland, Andrew J

    2010-06-18

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radiocarbon years older) in radiocarbon levels in the Nile Valley is probably a growing-season effect. Our radiocarbon data indicate that the New Kingdom started between 1570 and 1544 B.C.E., and the reign of Djoser in the Old Kingdom started between 2691 and 2625 B.C.E.; both cases are earlier than some previous historical estimates.

  16. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  17. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  18. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2010-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).

  19. Ecuador rural electrification. Project impact evaluation report 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.L.; Ballantyne, J.; Maushammer, R.; Simancas, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    The direct and indirect benefits of rural electrification in Ecuador warrant A.I.D.'s continued sponsorship of such programs. This assessment of A.I.D.'s 1964-75 sponsorship of four electrification projects in Ecuador concludes that, although implemented along with other development projects such as road construction, the program was a key factor in upgrading the towns of Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Daule, and Ambato into regional market and service centers. The main benefits of this program, which was not originally designed to benefit the poor, were job creation, access to agricultural product processing facilities, and increased opportunities for small commercial enterprises.

  20. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    Saudi Arabia as countries that “have a great distance still to travel” in making democratic reforms. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit...Egypt’s Inshas reactor and providing them to agents of Israel’s Mossad intelligence service in return for $17,000. Earlier in the year, Egypt asked the...genocide,” and has denounced the U.S. imposition of sanctions on the Sudanese government. According to Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit, “Sanctions

  1. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  2. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  3. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-08

    December 6, 2005, U.S. State Department Deputy Spokesman Adam Ereli remarked that “We’ve also seen a number of developments over the past couple weeks...when Egypt hosted the signing of an Israeli-Palestinian agreement for implementing past commitments and meetings between then Secretary of State...Mubarak. Over the past several years, Mubarak’s forty-one year old son, Gamal, increasingly has become involved at the highest levels of the NDP, though

  5. Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

    2006-08-01

    Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900-1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

  6. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  7. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  8. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sebaity, Dalia M; Soliman, Wael; Soliman, Asmaa MA; Fathalla, Ahmed M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt). Methods All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded. Results One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%). There were 106 (70.7%) boys and 44 (29.3%) girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7%) followed by the home (32.7%). Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL) in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL) in 3.3%. Conclusions Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity. PMID:22034563

  9. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  10. Egypt’s Air War in Yemen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    financial and military aid to the Imam‟s tribal forces that essentially served as its proxy in a war with Egypt. 11 Saudi Arabia did send jets and...longer the war dragged on with little to no discernable progress, the more frustrated the Egyptians became and the more they bombed. Airplanes began...1968. Terrill, W. Andrew. “The Chemical Warfare Legacy of the Yemen War ,” Comparative Strategy (Vol 10, Issue 2 , Apr 1991): 109-119. Witty, David

  11. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  12. Pregnancy during breastfeeding in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Glasier, Anna F

    2008-05-01

    Breastfeeding does not reliably protect against pregnancy except during the first 6 months postpartum and only then if accompanied by amenorrhea. Reluctance to use other methods of contraception during lactation may result in unplanned pregnancy. The aims of this study were to describe, among women in rural Egypt attending for antenatal care the prevalence of pregnancy during breastfeeding, contraceptive practice and unintended pregnancy. Finally, the study assessed women's impressions of the effect of conception during breastfeeding on breast milk and on the health of the breastfed infant. A descriptive study using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire for 2617 parous women attending a hospital in Egypt for antenatal care. More than 95% of women breastfed the child before their current pregnancy; 25.3% conceived while breastfeeding. Conception occurred during the first 6 months postpartum in 4.4%, before resumption of menstruation in 15.1% and while exclusively or almost exclusively breastfeeding in 28.1%. Only 10 pregnancies (1.5%) occurred when all the prerequisites of the lactational amenorrhea method of contraception (LAM) were present. Twenty-nine percent of pregnancies conceived during breastfeeding were unintended, 10% of women had considered terminating their pregnancy while 4.4% of them reported trying to do so. Pregnancy during breastfeeding is common in Egypt and is often unintended. There is great potential for using LAM, but it must be properly taught, and women should be encouraged to start using effective contraception as soon as any of the prerequisites of LAM expires.

  13. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Space Radar Image of North Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this radar image of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the image. These volcanoes are, clockwise from upper left, Mojanda, Imabura and Cusin. A lake partially fills the summit crater of Mojanda and a group of lava domes can be seen on the north flank. Geologists believe the most recent eruption of Mojanda was about 3,400 years ago. Much more recent activity has occurred at Cayambe, the large volcano at the bottom of the image. Massive mudflow deposits can be seen filling the valleys on the east (right) side of Cayambe. Cayambe last erupted about 600 years ago. Geologists are using radar to study volcanoes in the Andes to determine the history of eruptions and to identify potential threats the volcanoes pose to local communities. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The image is centered at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 78.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 50 km (31 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. 2016 Ecuador earthquake and rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Yoshimoto, M.; Acero, W.; Gabriela, P.; Vasconez, F.; Arrais, S.; Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Chamorro, O.; Maeda, Y.; Nakano, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred on 16 April 2016 within the source region of the 1906 earthquake, which has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942 (Mw 7.8), 1958 (Mw 7.7), and 1979 (Mw 8.1). We analyzed the mainshock and aftershocks of the 2016 earthquake using regional broadband seismic data in Ecuador and Colombia. We performed teleseismic slip inversion of the mainshock of the 2016 earthquake using waveform data from the global broadband seismic networks. Our CMT inversion of the 2016 earthquake indicated an Mw 7.7 event with a dip-slip mechanism at a depth of 25 km. Our slip inversion indicated that the rupture propagated from north to south with the maximum slip of 2.2 m. CMT solutions of the aftershocks were characterized dominantly by dip-slip mechanisms, and large aftershocks occurred north and south of the mainshock slip region at shallow depths. The spatial distribution of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks correlated with patches of high interplate coupling strength and was similar to the distribution of the 1942 earthquake and aftershocks, suggesting that the 2016 earthquake ruptured the same asperity as the 1942 earthquake for a recurrence interval of 74 years. If this asperity was ruptured by the 1906 earthquake, the 1942 earthquake occurred only 36 years after the 1906 earthquake. Yoshimoto and Kumagai [2016 AGU Meeting] performed tsunami waveform inversion of the 1906 earthquake, which indicated Mw around 8.4 and showed that the main slip occurred near the trench off the source regions of the three historical and 2016 earthquakes. The tsunami inversion results indicate that the 1906 earthquake did not rupture the source region of the 1942 earthquake, which explains the discrepancy in the recurrence interval. These results suggest that the existence of a depth-dependent complex rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone.

  16. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  17. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  18. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  19. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  20. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  1. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  2. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  3. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  4. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  5. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  6. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  7. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  8. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  9. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  10. Transmission of Norovirus Within Households in Quininde, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico, Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper, Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-09-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  11. Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  12. Hantavirus nephropathy as a pseudo-import pathology from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Demeester, R; Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M; Pourkarim, M R; Maes, P; Clement, J

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hantavirus infection (nephropathia epidemica) diagnosed in a Belgian backpacker returning from a trekking expedition in Ecuador, after likely heavy exposure to rodents. Because of epidemiological inconsistency, molecular investigation was performed and revealed a Puumala infection acquired during very limited exposure in Belgium upon return.

  13. Ecuador--Land of Contrasts. Kindergarten-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsen, Mary Lou

    This primary social studies unit, designed to teach an awareness of the Americas, is appropriate for teaching kindergarten through third grade students about Ecuador. The activities could easily be adapted to fit Mexico and many other countries in Central and South America. Eleven basic concepts are developed in this unit. The concepts are: (1)…

  14. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  15. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  16. Impact of two policy interventions on dietary diversity in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.

  17. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  18. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  19. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... experience, along with our PRAs, our RMD, and our knowledge of the conditions in Colombia and Ecuador... must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or fewer Medflies per trap per week... papayas from that production area must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or...

  20. Ecuador--Land of Contrasts. Kindergarten-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsen, Mary Lou

    This primary social studies unit, designed to teach an awareness of the Americas, is appropriate for teaching kindergarten through third grade students about Ecuador. The activities could easily be adapted to fit Mexico and many other countries in Central and South America. Eleven basic concepts are developed in this unit. The concepts are: (1)…

  1. Leptobasis linda sp. nov. from Ecuador (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jim T

    2016-09-28

    Leptobasis linda is described from the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador. The coloration of mature individuals is superficially similar to the widespread L. vacillans, but structural and color characteristics differentiate L. linda from all congeneric species. The male caudal appendages and the female posterior margin of the prothorax are unique among Leptobasis.

  2. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  3. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  4. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  5. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  6. Citizenship Education in Ecuador: Perceptions of Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Andres Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review literature about citizenship education in order to develop a framework for transformative citizenship education and compare that framework to the intended and implemented citizenship education curriculum in Ecuador. This study presents qualitative research carried out in eight schools in four provinces of…

  7. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  9. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-20

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000. This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02667

  11. Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    STS031-79-015 (24-29 April 1990) --- The 330-plus nautical mile orbital altitude of the Space Shuttle Discovery allowed for this unique high oblique 70mm Hasselblad frame. Egypt is in the foreground, with the Nile River and Lake Nasser readily identifiable. Cairo and Alexandria are visible. The Mediterranean Sea is on the horizon in upper left. The Red Sea is in the center. Other areas seen include Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel; the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez.

  12. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari.

  13. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  14. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  15. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  16. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-12-02

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  17. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

  18. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

  19. Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.

    2003-04-01

    lahar-hazard-zones using a digital elevation model (DEM), was used to construct a hazard map for the volcano. The 10 meter resolution DEM was constructed for Tungurahua Volcano using scanned topographic lines obtained from the GIS Department at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. The steep topographic gradients and rapid downcutting of most rivers draining the edifice prevents the deposition of lahars on the lower flanks of Tungurahua. Modeling confirms the high degree of flow channelization in the deep Tungurahua canyons. Inundation zones observed and shown by LAHARZ at Baños yield identification of safe zones within the city which would provide safety from even the largest magnitude lahar expected.

  20. Risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ashraf; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Khairy, Ahmed; Omar, Heba

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disorder worldwide and ranks 2nd and 6th most common cancer among men and women in Egypt. HCC has a rising incidence in Egypt mostly due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and its complications. Proper management requires the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate plan. The different modalities of treatment include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of HCC in Egypt including well-established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin, as well as possible risk factors.

  1. Cohort Profile: The Ecuador Life (ECUAVIDA) study in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Philip J; Chico, Martha E; Platts-Mills, Thomas Ae; Rodrigues, Laura C; Strachan, David P; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-10-01

    The ECUAVIDA birth cohort is studying the impact of exposures to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) parasites and early-life microbial exposures on the development of atopy, allergic diseases and immune responses in childhood. A total of 2404 newborns were recruited between 2006 and 2009 in a public hospital serving the rural district of Quininde, Esmeraldas Province, in a tropical region of coastal Ecuador. Detailed measurements were done around the time of the birth, at 7 and 13 months and at 2 and 3 years, and data collection is ongoing at 5 and 8 years. Data being collected include questionnaires for: sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial (at 4-6 years only) and dietary (at 6-7 years only) factors; childhood morbidity and clinical outcomes; stool samples for parasites; blood samples for DNA, measurements of vaccine responses and other measures of immune function/inflammation; and anthropometrics. Allergen skin prick test reactivity is done from 2 years and measures of airway function and inflammation at 8 years.

  2. Characteristics of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J; Reyes, Germán; Mulder, Janet; aan de Stegge, Birgit M; Peters, José T A M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Tanca, J; Peña, Amado S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2003-01-01

    In Ecuador, Helicobacter pylori infections are highly prevalent. A total of 42 H. pylori clinical isolates from 86 patients attending the outpatient clinic of the gastroenterology department of the university hospital of Guayaquil in Ecuador were characterized. Their susceptibility, and cagA and vacA status were determined. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 80.9% and 9.5% of strains, respectively. Neither amoxicillin- nor tetracycline-resistant strains were found. The most prevalent genotype was the cagA(+), vacA s1b,m1 type. This genotype was associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA showed no genetic relationship among the strains.

  3. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  4. Regional differences in living arrangements among the elderly in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    De Vos, S

    1998-01-01

    On the national level in Ecuador in 1982 roughly 61 percent of elderly people 60 years and over lived in complex family households, but this was 70 percent in the Coastal region (Costa) compared with only 54 percent in the Mountain region (Sierra), these two regions comprising over 95 percent of Ecuador's 1982 population. The regional difference could not be explained by standard demographic or socioeconomic characteristics available in the 1982 Census, either among all elderly people or unmarried women elderly. Rather, the regional difference may reflect underlying value and attitude differences not measured in the Census. As the marital structure of the adult population in the two areas has been quite different, consensual union being much more common in the Costa than the Sierra, we are left to wonder if there might be two different family systems at play. Such speculation will need to be addressed by future research.

  5. The current status of female physicists in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Ayala, Paola

    2015-12-01

    Although the number of female physicists in Ecuador is still relatively low, many of them have already obtained a postgraduate degree abroad. The return of these women to the country has begun to have a positive effect on the discipline as whole. In particular, the fields of particle physics, biophysics, and condensed matter have experienced significant development in the last few years. The policies for networking and collaboration among local and international universities have changed radically in Ecuador, a country with limited resources. This paper provides the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics with an overview of the work of Ecuadorian female physicists and the changes in laws that aid the development of science in general.

  6. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Schoolchildren in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.

  7. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  8. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Hussam; Arredondo, Juan C; Valencia, Jorge H; Arbeláez, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Altamirano-Benavides, Marco

    2014-04-04

    We describe a new species of Philodryas from the highlands of southern Ecuador. The new species is distinguished from all known species of Philodryas by a unique combination of coloration, scalation, and hemipenial characters. The new species resembles Philodryas simonsii in color pattern. However, they differ notoriously by their hemipenial morphology. The three other trans-Andean members of the genus (Philodryas simonsii, Philodryas chamissonis, and Philodryas tachymenoides), along with the new species, compose a probably monophyletic group that may be characterized by the presence of ungrooved postdiastemal teeth in the maxilla. Unlike most species of the genus Philodryas, the new species shows a restricted distribution, being apparently endemic to a small region of high-altitude (3150-4450m) grasslands in the southern Andes of Ecuador.

  9. Report on Follow-Up Visit to Ecuador, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-21

    nutrtion , Ecuador 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF... food composition tables for Central and Latin American countries. Miss Pazmino is scheduled to attend the INCAP School of Dietetics within the near...so that the exact intake of the nutrients involved.can be estimated, Questions regarding the Food Composition Tables of INNE from Dr. W. T. WuLeung

  10. Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja), Ecuador: A Strategic Black Spot?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    percent of Ecuadorian territory. The San Miguel River is located approximately just 30 kilometers from Lago Agrio where it serves as a tributary to the...Putumayo River and where both rivers serve as a natural boundary for most of the geo-political line that divides Ecuador from Colombia. Lago Agrio’s...jungle terrain that comprises the Amazon River Basin presents tough challenges for cross mobility movement and the FARC and drug traffickers use the

  11. Systemic canine histoplasmosis: A case report from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Yépez, Julio R; Ortega-Paredes, David A; Barba, Pedro M; Mafla-Endara, Paola M; Zurita, Jeannete

    2015-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a zoonotic systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a case of a female canine, 4 years old, presenting multifocal lymphadenitis and skin and gingival lesions, in Ecuador. Based on cytological, histopathological, histochemical analyses, fungal culture and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the fungus, the diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. capsulatum as the agent of infection. The treatment plan included ketoconazole with a satisfactory outcome.

  12. The PC/Ecuador biogas program: considerations for future development

    SciTech Connect

    Warpeha, P.R.

    1980-06-28

    Biogas, the production of methane fuel and fertilizer through the process of controlled anaerobic decomposition, has been one of the most controversial of the new renewable energy technologies. The integrated approach to fuel and fertilizer production, conservation and sanitation on a decentralized community level potentially holds great promise as a truly appropriate technology for rural development. The report presents the research, development, and demonstration of biogas technology conducted by the Peace Corps in Ecuador for the past six years.

  13. Systemic canine histoplasmosis: A case report from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yépez, Julio R.; Ortega-Paredes, David A.; Barba, Pedro M.; Mafla-Endara, Paola M.; Zurita, Jeannete.

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a zoonotic systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a case of a female canine, 4 years old, presenting multifocal lymphadenitis and skin and gingival lesions, in Ecuador. Based on cytological, histopathological, histochemical analyses, fungal culture and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the fungus, the diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. capsulatum as the agent of infection. The treatment plan included ketoconazole with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26199868

  14. Report on Follow-up Visit to Ecuador, Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-21

    Servicio Cooperativo Interamericano de Salud Pdblica Mr, Milton Lobell, Director of the Servicio Cooperativo Interamericano de Agricultura Mr. David Luscombe, Chief of the Misicn Andina0 ...were familiar with the survey and were present in Ecuador in 1959 include Mr. Harold Conger, Director, Health Servicio , USOM; Mr. Milton Lobeli Director...Agriculture Servicio ; Mr. John Hummel, Head of USOM; Mrs. Leslie Smith, Home Econonrist, USOM; Dr. John J. Kevany, WHO Consultant to INNE;

  15. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  16. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  17. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Aguilar, E.; Martínez, R.; Martín-Hernández, N.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; El Kenawy, A.; Tomás-Burguera, M.; Moran-Tejeda, E.; López-Moreno, J. I.; Revuelto, J.; Beguería, S.; Nieto, J. J.; Drumond, A.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965-2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador.

  18. Macroeconomic aspects of a petroleum boom: Ecuador, 1972-1980

    SciTech Connect

    de la Torre, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes Ecuador's macroeconomic experience during the period of petroleum bonanza (1972-1980). The first chapter describes salient adjustments to a booming-sector phenomenon in the context of a formal, two-sector model of a small open economy, adapted to the stylized facts of the Ecuadorean case. The remainder of the dissertation is a historical case study that reviews actual macroeconomic developments and policies in Ecuador. The review of Ecuador's experience is organized as follows. Chapter 2 analyzes the adjustments in income, absorption, and the current account to the oil boom. Chapter 3 examines the monetary implications of the sudden influx of foreign exchange and the nature of the policy responses to it. Chapter 4 turns to the fiscal and credit areas, focusing on how the boom gave rise to, on the one hand, a significant increase in the State's allocative and developmental roles and, on the other, a relaxation of domestic resource-mobilization efforts. Chapter 5 emphasizes the distinction between exposed (or traded) and sheltered (or nontraded) sectors in order to clarify the nature of the linkages between the oil boom, the real exchange-rate appreciation, and the observed pattern of change in sectoral output and employment during the 1970s.

  19. [Scientific output in the health sciences in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sisa, Iván; Espinel, Mauricio; Fornasini, Marco; Mantilla, Gonzalo

    2011-10-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics and trends of health sciences-related studies published in Ecuador from 1999-2009. Its objective is to contribute to the design and implementation of a research and development policy whose work is centered on the country's health priorities. Bibliometric indicators of production applied to publications in health sciences in Ecuador were used for the analysis. The publications were from the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. It was found that 625 articles were published from 1999-2009, primarily in the clinical-surgical areas (60%), followed by epidemiology (17.4%), basic sciences (14.1%), and health systems (8.5%). Only 4.3% and 7.2% of the production in this period was related to the primary causes of morbidity and mortality, respectively. It was found that private institutions generated more health research than public institutions, and hospitals (public, private, and mixed) produced a higher percentage than universities. The analysis showed that there was limited scientific production in health sciences in Ecuador during the study period, with a slight increase in the last two years that may be due in part to greater investment in research and development by the National Secretariat of Science and Technology (SENACYT). Investment increased from 0.20% to 0.44% of gross domestic product between 2006 and 2009.

  20. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  1. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  2. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  3. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini

    2010-01-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  4. Oxy`s strategy on environment, community issues key to success of project in Ecuador`s rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1997-04-21

    Occidental Exploration and Production Co. has implemented a comprehensive strategy of strict environmental protection measures and aggressive community relations initiatives in its oil operations in the rain forests of eastern Ecuador. While such measures may not be unique by themselves, Oxy`s efforts to incorporate these measures as a cornerstone of its exploration and development campaign--at the earliest possible stage--can serve as something of a paradigm for oil and gas industry operations in the rain forest. The upshot is that Oxy has a world-class (at least from an environmental standpoint) oil drilling-production operation at the heart of a world-class biological reserve in a pristine rain forest. Even against a backdrop of politically charged concern over industry work in the Amazon region, the project is an unqualified success to Oxy, the government of Ecuador, and most importantly, the native inhabitants there. The paper describes the environmental management plan.

  5. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  6. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  7. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  8. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective.

  9. Stratification and mobility in contemporary Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Saad Z; Nagi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The objectives in this statement are to characterize and explain the patterns of change in stratification and mobility in Egypt, over the last half century, by placing them within conceptual, explanatory, and historical contexts. First, literature relevant to the primary concepts of "class" and "status", is reviewed. Second, four institutions whose influence is fundamental in shaping these patterns are identified to form an explanatory context: family, polity, economy, and education. And third, an historical account is presented to demonstrate the interplay of these institutions and their consequences for stratification and mobility. For this, four periods are identified that are marked by change in the dominance of institutions and their corresponding influence on stratification and mobility. In addition to data available in relevant literature, this analysis utilizes primary data generated through a national probability household survey.

  10. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-09

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate.

  11. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Márquez, S; Carrera, J; Pullan, S T; Lewandowski, K; Paz, V; Loman, N; Quick, J; Bonsall, D; Powell, R; Thézé, J; Pybus, O G; Klenerman, P; Eisenberg, J; Coloma, J; Carroll, M W; Trueba, G; Logue, C H

    2017-02-23

    Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador.

  12. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, S.; Carrera, J.; Pullan, S. T.; Lewandowski, K.; Paz, V.; Loman, N.; Quick, J.; Bonsall, D.; Powell, R.; Thézé, J.; Pybus, O. G.; Klenerman, P.; Eisenberg, J.; Coloma, J.; Carroll, M. W.; Trueba, G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador. PMID:28232448

  13. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  14. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador.

  15. Workshops in the Forest: A Model International Environmental Exchange Program in Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jean G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an environmental education workshop in which scientists, environmental educators, and elementary and secondary school teachers from the United States and Ecuador participate in workshops to raise the awareness of rural communities in Ecuador about conservation and environmental issues. Differences between U.S. and Ecuadorian schools are…

  16. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  17. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  18. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  19. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  20. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  1. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  2. The determinants of labor migration in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J

    1969-08-01

    The factors which affect individual decisions with regard to geographic movement in Egypt are examined and the magnitude in which each factor exerts its influence on aggregate geographic labor supply adjustments is estimated. The spatial unit used in the study is the administrative region, of which there are 25. No effort is made to esimate the impact which migration has had on the origin or destination region. The migrant will presumably choose that destination which, given his information, the migrant thinks will be best. The model which is employed attempts to explain gross interregional migration without the explicit introduction of an individual decision function. Rather, migration is related to certain aggregate proxy variables. Among the independent variables employed in the analysis are (origin and destination) income, education, urbanization, and population. The other explanatory variable used is the distance between region i and region j. The migration measure employed refers to cumulative male migration which occurred prior to 1960; the independent variables are defined for a given point in time (1960). The independent variables explain a reasonably large percentage of the variance in migration between regions in Egypt. All variables were significant at the 5% level or better. The findings indicate that distance acts as an important impediment to migration. Migration is away from low wage and toward high wage regions, which may have contributed to a narrowing of regional wage differentials. Migrants are attracted to regions which have large populations and to regions which have a large percentage of urban to total population. A tendency exists for migrants to come from regions with large populations. There is also some tendency for migrants to come from regions which have a relatively large urban population. Migrants do not appear to come from regions with high educational levels.

  3. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  4. Abortion, an increasing public health concern in Ecuador, a 10-year population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Simbaña, Katherine; Gómez, Lenin; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Scott, Lisa; Cevallos-Sierra, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the epidemiology of abortion in Ecuador from 2004 to 2014 and compare the prevalence between the public and the private health care systems. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of the overall mortality and morbidity rate due to abortion in Ecuador, based on public health records and other government databases. Results From 2004 to 2014, a total of 431,614 spontaneous abortions, miscarriage and other types of abortions were registered in Ecuador. The average annual rate of abortion was 115 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate was found to be 43 per 100,000 live births. Conclusions Abortion is a significant and wide-ranging problem in Ecuador. The study supports the perception that in spite of legal restrictions to abortion in Ecuador, women are still terminating pregnancies when they feel they need to do so. The public health system reported >84% of the national overall prevalence. PMID:28761387

  5. U.S.-Egypt Security Cooperation after Egypt’s January 2011 Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    East: Ten Years After Camp David (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1988), 137. 5Ibid., 144. 6David Wood, “At Risk In Egypt’s Turmoil: U.S...Military Access to the Middle East,” Politics Daily, (2001), http://www.politicsdaily.com/2011/02/05/at- risk -in-egypts-turmoil-u-s-military -access-to... industrial and economic role in the domestic economy. Under Mubarak, the military became a dominant economic force, which manages industries ranging

  6. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  7. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. I. Afforestation strategies

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo...

  8. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of…

  9. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  10. Hemagglutinin serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Arturo; Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Blackall, Patrick J; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2011-03-01

    Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza, an acute respiratory disease of chickens. In this study, a total of 28 isolates of A. paragallinarum from Ecuador were serotyped by the hemagglutinin scheme which recognizes nine serovars. Out of 28 isolates, 17 isolates belonged to serovar A-3, and five isolates to each serovars B-1 and C-1, whereas one isolate was non-typeable. This is the first report of A. paragallinarum serovar A-3 outside Brazil and serovar C-1 outside Japan.

  11. Agrarian change and labour migration in the Sierra of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Peek, P

    1980-01-01

    "Among the effects produced in the Sierra of Ecuador by the programme of land reforms launched in 1964 was a reduction in the incomes from small-scale farming. At the same time, the growth of productive employment in urban areas was insufficient to provide round-the-year work to the fast growing army of jobseekers. Analysis of the agrarian structure and migration patterns before and after 1964 suggests that it was primarily this combination of circumstances that produced a pronounced shift towards short-term rather than permanent migration, thereby providing industry and services with the labour they needed while avoiding the disadvantages of severe urban overpopulation."

  12. Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Stothert, Karen E

    2003-02-14

    Cucurbita (squash and gourd) phytoliths recovered from two early Holocene archaeological sites in southwestern Ecuador and directly dated to 10,130 to 9320 carbon-14 years before the present (about 12,000 to 10,000 calendar years ago) are identified as derived from domesticated plants because they are considerably larger than those from modern wild taxa. The beginnings of plant husbandry appear to have been preceded by the exploitation of a wild species of Cucurbita during the terminal Pleistocene. These data provide evidence for an independent emergence of plant food production in lowland South America that was contemporaneous with or slightly before that in highland Mesoamerica.

  13. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  14. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  15. Recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domroes, Manfred; El-Tantawi, Attia

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect and to estimate trends of temperature change in Egypt, trend analyses applying the least-squares method and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends were carried out at six stations for the period 1941-2000 (60 years), and at nine stations for the period 1971-2000 (30 years).According to the trend computations for the period 1941-2000, variable temperature trends over time and space have been observed. Decreasing trends of the mean annual temperature were observed in northern Egypt and (weakly) increasing trends in southern Egypt. Seasonally, positive trends prevailed in summer compared with negative trends in winter. For the recent period, 1971-2000, positive trends were computed for the mean annual and mean minimum temperatures at all stations except Port Said in northern Egypt, where the annual trend was weakly negative. The mean maximum temperature trends were, however, negative at most stations. Seasonally, a definite trend of warming occurred in summer, in contrast to the observations of a global temperature increase in winter.A principal component analysis was applied to compute the all-Egypt temperature trends. For the observation period, 1941-2000, decreasing trends were shown for annual, maximum, winter and autumn temperatures and increasing trends for minimum, winter and spring temperatures. For the recent period, 1971-2000, all trends were positive except maximum temperature.

  16. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  17. Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Susanti, I; Gadalla, S; Saleh, S; Feldblum, P J; Potts, M

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-three percent of deaths to women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Bali, Indonesia and Menoufia, Egypt were due to maternal causes. Among the younger women, the percentage was even higher. In both areas complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death (the first cause in Bali, the second in Menoufia). In both sites, postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death. Relative to the United States, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births was 20 times higher in Menoufia and 78 times higher in Bali. Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more than 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs. Other possible intervention strategies include antenatal outreach programs, training of traditional birth attendants, and better hospital management of obstetric emergencies.

  18. Familial aggregation of colorectal cancer in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A S; Bondy, M L; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Khaled, H; Hablas, A; Ismail, S; Adly, M; Mahgoub, K G; McPherson, R S; Beasley, R P

    1998-09-11

    We have investigated the familial aggregation of colorectal cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Egypt because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Egyptian children and young adults and the prevalence of consanguinity there. In a pilot study, we conducted detailed interviews with 111 Egyptian colorectal cancer patients and 111 healthy Egyptian controls about their family histories of colorectal cancer, and other cancers, consanguinity, age at diagnosis, symptoms and recurrence. Eight patients (7.2%) had one or more first- or second-degree relatives under age 40 with colorectal cancer, suggestive of HNPCC by the Amsterdam criteria. One of these families had a typical history of HNPCC, with 4 relatives having colorectal cancer in 3 generations; 3 of these relatives were younger than age 45 at colon cancer diagnosis, and other relatives had extracolonic tumors. Another 14 patients (12.6%) had a first- or second-degree relative with a family history of other neoplasms such as endometrial, urinary and hepatobiliary cancers that could also be related to HNPCC. Four patients with early-onset colon cancer and a family history of other HNPCC-related cancers reported that their parents were first-degree cousins.

  19. Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, Henry

    1958-01-01

    The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt. After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project—an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation—he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels. He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

  20. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  1. Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xu; Bailey, Kevin; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Young, Linda

    2002-05-01

    We have improved our atom-counting system with the goal of realizing ^81Kr-dating of ancient groundwater and polar ice. We use Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) to count individual ^85Kr (t_1/2 = 10.8 yr) and ^81Kr (t_1/2 = 2 times 10^5 yr) atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10-11 and 10-13, respectively. The counting efficiency demonstrated with our first-generation machine was 2× 10-7. By implementing a RF-driven discharge source of metastable krypton atoms and by adding a gas recirculation system, we can increase the counting efficiency by at least three orders of magnitude. These improvements will allow us to perform Kr81-dating of ancient groundwater samples, which requires a counting efficiency of 10-4. The calibration of the system is in progress. Collaborating with an international team of geologists, we plan to extract water samples in Nubian Aquifer of Egypt and determine the age of groundwater in that area with our ATTA system. Details of the latest results will be discussed at this poster. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  2. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  3. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  4. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  5. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  6. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family. PMID:25685003

  7. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  8. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  9. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  10. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  11. Food insecurity and household food supplies in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Michelle; Zubieta, Ana Claudia; Hernandez, Kattya; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the validity of a modified US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) through its correlation with food supply and demographic factors, and its fitness using Rasch model analysis in rural Ecuador. This study examines the relationship between household food insecurity and household food supplies in 52 Ecuadorian households. The sample was drawn from four rural communities participating in the project PLAN in Cantón Quijos. Questionnaires included a modified HFSSM, a household food shelf-inventory and demographic characteristics. Multiple ANOVA analysis resulted in statistically significant inverse relationships between household food insecurity and total food supply, as well as the supply of meat, vegetables, legumes, oils, and other food products (p=0.05). Rasch model measure values on the HFSSM illustrated food insecurity at different levels of severity. The majority of the items (>75%) presented adequate infit values. This study affirms that the proposed modified HFSSM may be useful to measure food insecurity and thus be used as a tool to monitor and evaluate programs aimed at improving quantity and variety of food items in rural Ecuador.

  12. Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Carlos; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Economic inequality has been hypothesized to be a determinant of population health, independent of poverty and household income. We examined the association between economic inequality and child malnutrition in Ecuador. Economic inequality was measured by the Gini coefficient of household per capita consumption, estimated from the 1990 Census. Childhood stunting, assessed from height-for-age z scores, was obtained from the 1998 Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS). We controlled for a range of individual and household covariates, including per capita food consumption, education, housing, ethnicity, fertility, access to health services, diarrhea morbidity, child care, mother's age and diet composition. Stunting still affects 26% of children under five in Ecuador, with higher prevalence in the rural Highlands and among indigenous peoples. Maternal education, basic housing conditions, access to health services, ethnicity, fertility, maternal age and diet composition were independently associated with stunting. However, after controlling for relevant covariates, economic inequality at the provincial scale had a statistically significant deleterious effect on stunting. At municipal or local levels, inequality was not associated with stunting.

  13. Hydrological and glaciological balances on Antizana Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, V.; Cadier, E.; Coudrain, A.; Francou, B.; Maisincho, L.; Praderio, E.; Villacis, M.; Wagnon, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water supply for Quito, the capital of Ecuador, is partly fed by the water collected at the piedmont of Antizana ice covered stratovolcano. In order to assess the contribution of glaciers to the local water resources, a comparison of hydrological and glaciological datasets collected over the 1995-2005 period on Antizana Glacier 15 watershed was realized. Over the study period, Antizana glacier 15 retreated quickly, inducing an important water contribution to lower altitude discharges. However, comparison of hydrological and glaciological balances allowed observation of important missing runoffs due to underground circulations. Subsuperficial circulations were initially questioned due to the total disappearance of surface streams at the level of the frontal moraine, a surface stream being observed again downstream the moraine. Brine injections were performed upstream the moraine and in a small lake located on the moraine and restitution rates of salt were computed. Tracer experiments demonstrated a complete restitution of discharges implying that missing runoff were not involved in subsuperficial circulations but in deeper ones that may have flown through the fractured rock environment of the stratovlocano. Experiments also demonstrated that infiltrations occurred directly at the bedrock of the glaciers. Then, taking into account the weak discharges observed at the glacier front would induce computation of a strongly underestimated value of the actual water contribution from glaciers to lower altitude discharges. Finally, assessing water contribution from glaciers of Ecuador requires a comparison of glaciological and hydrological data.

  14. [Food labeling in Ecuador: implementation, results, and pending actions].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Veliz, Paula Mariana; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Mafla, Carina Vance; Altamirano, Luz María Martínez; Jones, Cecilia Vaca

    2017-06-08

    Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines. One of these is implementation of a traffic-light nutritional labeling system for processed foods, in late 2014, aimed at guaranteeing people's right to timely, clear, accurate, and non-deceptive information on the content and characteristics of these foods. This article analyzes implementation of processed food labeling and results to date, and proposes complementary measures needed to reach the goal in the National Plan for Good Living, in light of new scientific evidence and different agreements and regulatory frameworks in our Region. Methods included a literature and documentary review, key informant interviews, and analysis and processing of secondary sources.

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates for two cities in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauval, C.; Yepes, H.; Monelli, D.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.

    2013-05-01

    The whole territory of Ecuador is exposed to seismic hazard. Great earthquakes can occur in the subduction zone (e.g. Esmeraldas, 1906, Mw 8.8), whereas lower magnitude but shallower and potentially more destructive earthquakes can occur in the highlands. This study focuses on the estimation of probabilistic seismic hazard for two cities: the capital Quito (˜2.5 millions inhabitants) in the Interandean Valley, and the city of Esmeraldas on the coast close to the subduction trench (location of the oil refineries and export facilities which are key for Ecuador economy). The analysis relies on a seismotectonic model developed for the Ecuadorian territory and borders (Alvarado, 2012; Yepes et al. in prep). Seismic parameters are determined using a recently published unified earthquake catalog extending over five centuries in the Cordillera region, and over 110 years in the subduction zone (Beauval, Yepes, et al. 2010, 2013). Uncertainties are explored through a simple logic tree. All uncertainties identified in the process are taken into account: source zone limits, recurrence time of large earthquakes, equivalent moment magnitude of historical events, maximum magnitudes, declustering algorithm, decisions for homogenizing magnitudes, seismic parameters, ground-motion prediction equations. The aim is to quantify the resulting uncertainty on the hazard curves and to identify the controlling parameters. Mean hazard estimates for the PGA at 475 years reach around 0.4-0.45g in Quito and 0.9-1.0g in Esmeraldas.

  16. Mass wasting triggered by the 5 March 1987 Ecuador earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, R.L.; Nieto, A.S.; O'Rourke, T. D.; Crespo, E.; Plaza-Nieto, G.

    1996-01-01

    On 5 March 1987, two earthquakes (Ms=6.1 and Ms=6.9) occurred about 25 km north of Reventador Volcano, along the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains in northeastern Ecuador. Although the shaking damaged structures in towns and villages near the epicentral area, the economic and social losses directly due to earthquake shaking were small compared to the effects of catastrophic earthquake-triggered mass wasting and flooding. About 600 mm of rain fell in the region in the month preceding the earthquakes; thus, the surficial soils had high moisture contents. Slope failures commonly started as thin slides, which rapidly turned into fluid debris avalanches and debris flows. The surficial soils and thick vegetation covering them flowed down the slopes into minor tributaries and then were carried into major rivers. Rock and earth slides, debris avalanches, debris and mud flows, and resulting floods destroyed about 40 km of the Trans-Ecuadorian oil pipeline and the only highway from Quito to Ecuador's northeastern rain forests and oil fields. Estimates of total volume of earthquake-induced mass wastage ranged from 75-110 million m3. Economic losses were about US$ 1 billion. Nearly all of the approximately 1000 deaths from the earthquakes were a consequence of mass wasting and/ or flooding.

  17. Meningeal Preservation in a Child Mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, and it evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some 3000 years, lasting until the end of the Christian era. In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt), 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6-8 old-year male child with a damaged skull that allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  19. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  20. Clinical Management of Gender in Egypt: Intersexuality and Transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Mazen, Inas A

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the literature on intersexuality (disorders of sex development [DSD]) and transsexuality in Egypt. Egypt's resources for the diagnosis and treatment of rare conditions, such as DSD and transsexualism, are quite limited. The birth of a child with a DSD is likely to be stressful, especially in regard to decisions on gender assignment, and genital abnormalities are associated with stigma and shame. Gender assignment may be biased toward the male gender, because female infertility precludes marriage and female gender adversely affects employment prospects and inheritance. Later gender change in either direction may also carry stigma. Gender reassignment surgery for transsexuals without somatic intersexuality was legalized in Egypt in 2005, but requires permission by a national Sex Identification and Determination Committee.

  1. Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F

    2013-01-01

    Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt.

  2. African refugees in Egypt: trauma, loss, and cultural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Henry, Hani M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their home countries, as well as their life experiences in Egypt. All participants kept continuing bonds with their native cultures, but these bonds manifested differently depending on their ability to assimilate pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses. Participants who successfully assimilated both pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses developed continuing bonds with their native cultures that helped them (a) integrate the Egyptian culture into their life experiences and (b) tolerate difficult political conditions in Egypt. Participants who could not assimilate their pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses also developed continuing bonds with their native culture, but these bonds only provided them with solace.

  3. Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

  4. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Elgharably, Ahmed; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Crossey, Mary ME; Norsworthy, Peter J; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s) led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. PMID:28053553

  5. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  6. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  7. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  8. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Siam, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:19778428

  10. The Essene's sister sect in Egypt: another medical site?

    PubMed

    Moss, G A

    2002-12-01

    The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their sister sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's sister sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.

  11. Groundwater sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; El Alfy, Z.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. Scallop-shaped escarpment edges and stubby-looking channels that cut into the plateau units are suggestive of slumping of limestones by ground-water sapping at the limestone-shale interfaces, removal of slump blocks by weathering and fluvial erosion, and consequent scarp retreat. Spring-derived tufa deposits found near the limestone escarpments provide additional evidence for possible ground-water sapping during previous wet periods. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. The {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years, as northeastern Africa became hyperarid. The model thus provides a promising predictive tool for studying long

  12. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  13. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  14. Panniculitis caused by Mycobacterium monacense mimicking erythema induratum: a case in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Herrera, P; Cartelle, M; Barba, P; Tello, S; Zurita, J

    2016-03-01

    We report the first case of recently characterized species M. monacense associated with chronic nodular vasculitis, infecting a young woman. This case represents the first isolation of M. monacense from Ecuador. The isolate was identified by conventional and molecular techniques.

  15. A new species of Molynocoelia Giglio-Tos (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....

  16. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. Aims In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Results Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Conclusion Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide. PMID:26394405

  18. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  19. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... for Africa and the Middle East. It is a prime location for the transit of goods, as well as a key... outside of Kuwait. Some are building ports and airports in Egypt and Africa, own facilities in Europe and..., reaching a total value of $15.8 billion. Such growth is expected to attract investments of around...

  20. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  1. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    SciTech Connect

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

  2. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  3. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  4. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  5. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  6. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  7. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  8. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  10. Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

    2014-12-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  12. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  13. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  14. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  15. A Mediterranean Rio Grande. Regional report 1: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This document concerns the impact of environmental problems on the economic life of people in Egypt and North Africa. With only a quarter of arable land, Egypt is incapable of feeding a population of 59 million people, and at the same time the economic condition has deteriorated. It has been estimated that Egypt needs to create about 450,000 jobs annually to keep up with additions to the labor force. Population growth, on the other hand, was projected to reach 81 million by 2010. In addition, Egypt is facing ever-growing water shortages with an estimate that within the next 20 years the demand for water will exceed the country's allotted share of Nile water by nearly 60%. Likewise, food shortages will likely be exacerbated by a continuous sea level rise through permanent flooding of agricultural lands. People in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco have migrated to Europe for several reasons: first, because of the steady population growth and unmet needs in family planning in these countries; second, because of the population pressures caused by the deterioration of the environment. Also, inadequate water supply has been affecting these countries. The prognosis for these countries must be cautious and conservative and their respective local governments must develop the programs that address these problems.

  16. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  17. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  18. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  19. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  20. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  1. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  2. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  3. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G; El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abd El-Rahman, Adel Omar; Soliman, Hatem M; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Statham, Robert J; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2007-10-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M.; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East. PMID:18258017

  6. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  7. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  8. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  9. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  10. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  11. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  12. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  13. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  14. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  15. Developing & Innovating Education in Egypt: Policy & Plans. Implementation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Educational Research, Cairo (Egypt).

    Policies, plans, and programs for development and innovation in Egyptian education are discussed. Chapter 1 focuses on the fundamentals of general education in Egypt, examining fundamental traits of Egyptian society, local and international variables, general trends of educational development and innovation, traits and goals of future education,…

  16. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  17. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Janzac, Bérenger; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Palloix, Alain; Moury, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing 2,951 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV). Phylogeny reconstruction showed that this isolate clustered with potato virus V (PVV), Peru tomato virus and wild potato mosaic virus into a monophyletic group, and was closest to PVV. The isolate was shown to be infectious in tobacco, tomato and, contrary to PVV, in pepper. The pvr2(1), pvr2(2), and Pvr4 genes present in many pepper cultivars conferred resistance toward this isolate and could help control ERV.

  18. Fungi associated with food and feed commodities from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pacin, A M; González, H H L; Etcheverry, M; Resnik, S L; Vivas, L; Espin, S

    2003-01-01

    Freshly harvested soybean, rice and corn from farms and corn-based pelleted feeds were collected from ranches from the coastal and mountain regions in Ecuador during 1998, and assessed for fungal contamination. The most prevalent fungi on pelleted feed were Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum. The prevalent fungi recovered from soybean were F. verticillioides, F. semitectum, Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus. In rice, F. oxysporum was the most prevalent toxigenic fungal species recorded, followed by F. verticillioides and A. flavus. In corn, F. verticillioides was the most prevalent fungus isolated in both the coastal and mountain regions, with high isolation frequencies of A. flavus and A. parasiticus at the coast. Based on the toxigenic species recovered, ochratoxin A may pose a contamination risk for soybean. A higher probability of aflatoxin contamination of corn was found in the coastal samples compared to those of the mountain region, while a risk of fumonisin contamination of corn exists in both regions.

  19. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670

  20. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Maynard, Ross J; Lynch, Ryan L; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yakusp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27-0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3-5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yakusp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities.

  1. Acoustic engineering at Universidad de las Americas, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Luis A.; Naranjo, Jaime O.; Tassara, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics, like science, an instrument to develop new technologies, comfortable atmospheres, and pleasant sounds, has not had a sufficient push in Ecuador. The shortage of professionals in the area, and the social ignorance of the advances and benefits of acoustics have been part of the problem. The University of the Americas has taken the initiative to develop an undergraduate program-only in the country-of sound and acoustics engineering, to contribute to the formation of professional futures that fortify the recent labor market in the areas of audio, professional, and acoustic engineering. This work presents/displays the results of the studies made for the creation of the race, the curricular mesh, and its projections.

  2. [Serratia marcescens outbreak in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Guayaquil, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Soria, Claudia; Nieto, Nelson; Villacís, José E; Lainez, Sara; Cartelle, Mónica

    2016-12-01

    We report a Serratia marcescens outbreak occurred in the NICU of a pediatric hospital in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Nine cases of infection were detected, from which septicemia was developed in 55.5%. The index case was a newborn derived from another institution with septic arthritis caused by the outbreak strain. The infection rate was 17.6% and mortality rate was 33.3%. All isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Clonality analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed the presence of two closely related clones confirming the horizontal spread. Measures were taken by the committee such as: strengthening the hand hygiene, patient hygiene and cohort studies of gastrointestinal colonization, which allowed the control of the outbreak.

  3. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis “Chiclero's Ulcer” in Subtropical Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136

  4. Radio and the commodification of natural medicine in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Miles, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper explores the discourse that is being created around medical commodities in one Ecuadorian city in an effort to understand how desire for new medical products is generated and sustained. Commercial natural medicine, which includes vitamins, herbal remedies and tonics is a relatively new addition to the medical marketplace in Ecuador, yet the popularity of these products seems to be growing rapidly. Much of the success of natural medicines is due to promotional campaigns, most notably radio programs, that emphasize and manipulate, important cultural themes about the body, identity, morality and social success. Although on the surface natural medicine seems to be creating a radically new discourse about the body and illness causation, that discourse ultimately serves only to reinforce the unequal social relations associated with capitalist marketplaces.

  5. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes.

  6. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  7. Field Geophysics Class at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Ecuador's erupting Volcán Tungurahua was the recent site of a 3-week graduate-level geophysical course on volcanoes, hosted by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IG-EPN) and the Department of Earth Science at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT). Sixteen students from 12 universities and four countries participated in the intensive course, which entailed broadband seismometer and infrasound sensor deployment followed by subsequent data processing, analysis, interpretation, and result synthesis. Hardware for the course was provided by the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) through the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) as well as the IG-EPN and NMT geophysics programs. Since the start of its most recent eruptive period (in 1999), Tungurahua has proved itself a reliable source of both seismicity and infrasound radiating from its typically open vent. As such, Tungurahua provides the ultimate outdoor teaching laboratory where students can deploy instruments for just a few days and then collect earthquake and explosion data. Tungurahua's activity in June 2009 did not disappoint class participants: Frequent earthquakes included long-period and volcano tectonic events, various types of tremor events, and explosion earthquakes manifested by booming “cannon-shot” blasts. Some of the explosion shock waves were recorded 10 kilometers from the vent with excess pressure amplitudes greater than 50 pascals in the infrasonic band. Had these intense sounds been audible, their sound pressure levels at 10 kilometers would have been in excess of about 130 decibels!

  8. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  9. Cost-effectiveness of inguinal hernia surgery in northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; Sanders, David L; Teresa Butrón-Vila, M; Kingsnorth, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness of tension-free inguinal hernia repair at a private 20-bed rural hospital in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, was calculated relative to no treatment. Lichtenstein repair using mosquito net or polypropylene commercial mesh was provided to patients with inguinal hernia by surgeons from Europe and North America. Prospective data were collected from provider, patient, and societal perspectives, with component costs collected on site and from local supply companies or published literature. Patient outcomes were forecasted using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Uncertainty in patient-level data was evaluated with Monte-Carlo simulation. Surgery was provided to 102 patients with inguinal hernias of various sizes. Local anesthesia was used for 80 % of operations during the first mission, and spinal anesthesia was used for 89 % in the second mission. Few complications were observed. An average 6.39 DALYs (3,0) were averted per patient (95 % confidence interval: 6.22-6.84). The average cost per patient was US$499.33 (95 % CI: US$490.19-$526.03) from a provider perspective, US$118.79 (95 % CI: US$110.28-$143.72) from a patient perspective, and US$615.46 (95 % CI: US$603.39-$650.40) from a societal perspective. Mean cost-effectiveness from a provider perspective was US$78.18/DALY averted (95 % CI: US$75.86-$85.78) according to DALYs (3,0) averted using the West Life Table level 26, well below the Ecuadorian per-capita Gross National Income (US$3,850). Results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Inguinal hernia repair was cost-effective in western Ecuador through international collaboration.

  10. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  11. Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

  12. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  13. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  14. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage…

  15. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  16. Africa and China Higher Education Cooperation: Establishing Knowledge Sharing Partnership between Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonondo, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge sharing should not be confused neither with data sharing nor with information sharing; the knowledge sharing includes data and information sharing, skills and expertise communication, ideas exchange. Since the fourth FOCAC held in Egypt in 2009, many policies have been added to reinforce Africa and China educational cooperation,…

  17. The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt, with two new species (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae: Apterogyninae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Soliman, Ahmed M; Al-Shahat, Ahmed M; Hossni, Mohammed T

    2015-09-16

    The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt is reviewed. Seven species were previously recorded from Egypt: M. magna (Invrea, 1965), M. mahunkai Argaman, 1994, M. morawitzi (Radoszkowski, 1888), M. nigriventris (Invrea, 1960), M. nitida (Bischoff, 1920), M. savignyi (Klug, 1829) and M. sinaica (Invrea, 1963). Macroocula brothersi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shab, Red Sea) and M. salehi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shaghab, Aswan) are described and illustrated. The subspecies M. nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) and M. nitida patrizii (Invrea, 1932) are raised to species level. An illustrated key and a faunistic list of Macroocula species are given.

  18. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahuı´n Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ≈10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (≈15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (≈9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc

  19. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  20. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  1. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  2. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM’s ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. Methods All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student’s T or chi-square, as appropriate. Results Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Conclusion Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in

  3. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM's ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student's T or chi-square, as appropriate. Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in the developing world and also provides a

  4. Modelling Ecuador's rainfall distribution according to geographical characteristics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, Vladimiro; Wyseure, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is known that rainfall is affected by terrain characteristics and some studies had focussed on its distribution over complex terrain. Ecuador's temporal and spatial rainfall distribution is affected by its location on the ITCZ, the marine currents in the Pacific, the Amazon rainforest, and the Andes mountain range. Although all these factors are important, we think that the latter one may hold a key for modelling spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall. The study considered 30 years of monthly data from 319 rainfall stations having at least 10 years of data available. The relatively low density of stations and their location in accessible sites near to main roads or rivers, leave large and important areas ungauged, making it not appropriate to rely on traditional interpolation techniques to estimate regional rainfall for water balance. The aim of this research was to come up with a useful model for seasonal rainfall distribution in Ecuador based on geographical characteristics to allow its spatial generalization. The target for modelling was the seasonal rainfall, characterized by nine percentiles for each one of the 12 months of the year that results in 108 response variables, later on reduced to four principal components comprising 94% of the total variability. Predictor variables for the model were: geographic coordinates, elevation, main wind effects from the Amazon and Coast, Valley and Hill indexes, and average and maximum elevation above the selected rainfall station to the east and to the west, for each one of 18 directions (50-135°, by 5°) adding up to 79 predictors. A multiple linear regression model by the Elastic-net algorithm with cross-validation was applied for each one of the PC as response to select the most important ones from the 79 predictor variables. The Elastic-net algorithm deals well with collinearity problems, while allowing variable selection in a blended approach between the Ridge and Lasso regression. The model fitting

  5. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in ecuador: analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L A; Martínez, A L; Alvarez, M

    2001-01-01

    The highest incidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has been reported in countries with endemic goiter, such as in Ecuador. In this country, ATC is the third most common histologic type of thyroid cancer, following papillary and follicular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation and the results of treatment of a large consecutive series of ATC patients treated at the oncological department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador. This is a retrospective study of 30 patients diagnosed with ATC at the Social Security Hospital, from 1982 to 1998. Symptomatic rapidly growing neck masses were generally present. All the patients had histological diagnosis of ATC. Two patients with pulmonary metastases and pleural effusion died before treatment could be instituted. Twenty-eight patients received at least one type of treatment: surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or chemotherapy (CT). The two most frequently employed therapeutic modalities were surgery followed by RT and/or CT in 14 patients and surgery alone in 9 patients. Surgery was performed in 23 patients but a complete resection was possible in only 14 patients. RT, postoperatively or alone, was given to 17 patients. Only 5 patients received doses ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 cGy and 4 patients more than 5,000 cGy. CT was administered to 17 patients. Doxorubicin alone was given to 10 patients and different combinations to the remaining patients. Local control was obtained in 8 of 14 complete resections. The prognostic value of the following parameters was studied by univariate analysis: duration of symptoms, size of the tumor, extent of glandular involvement, type of treatment, and surgical margins. A statistically longer survival was found in cases of differentiated carcinoma with areas of ATC or tumor limited to one lobe, those patients who received a complete treatment of chemotherapy, and those patients with tumors smaller than 10 cm and with duration of symptoms longer than 4

  6. Global Conservation Significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Margot S.; Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kreft, Holger; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; McCracken, Shawn F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; English, Peter H.; Swing, Kelly; Villa, Gorky; Di Fiore, Anthony; Voigt, Christian C.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves—called “ITT”—lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I–IV): Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha) and landscape (gamma) diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. Conclusions/Significance Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1) large size and wilderness character, 2) intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3) IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4) likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in Yasun

  7. Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems

  8. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra fallout is the most widespread hazard posed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland significantly exposed the vulnerability of aviation operations to volcanic ash. The presence of fine ash in the atmosphere forced authorities to close most of European airspace for almost a week. A worldwide study of airport operations disrupted by volcanic eruptions (Guffanti et al., Nat Hazards 51:287-302, 2009) showed significant past exposure to tephra fall of the old international airport (OUIO) in Quito, Ecuador. A new international airport, Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO), located 15 km due east to OUIO, started operations on February 20, 2013. Given its location close to the old airport, UIO is also at risk for tephra fallout in the future. We identified five volcanoes capable of producing tephra hazard at UIO. Three (Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, and Tungurahua) are currently active and have recently disrupted aviation operations in Ecuador. The other two (Cotopaxi and Pululagua) are not currently active, but any future eruption from these two volcanoes would probably be explosive, hence capable of producing tephra hazard to UIO. As eruption parameters and wind profiles cannot be forecast in advance, we used a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of tephra accumulation exceeding 1 mm and 1 cm (regarded as non-conservative and conservative bounds for airport disruption) following an explosive eruption from each volcano. Each eruptive parameter was randomly sampled within a predefined distribution, and wind profiles are randomly sampled within a 5-year dataset. The probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm and 1 cm at UIO is 14.3-19.9 and 2.5-5.8 %, respectively, for Cotopaxi; 17.5-19.9 and 7-7.7 %, respectively, for Guagua Pichincha; and 44.3-44.8 and 18.8-24.9 %, respectively, for Pululagua. According to our results, Reventador and Tungurahua are not likely to yield tephra

  9. Epidemiology of malaria in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    San Sebastián, M; Játiva, R; Goicolea, I

    2000-01-01

    Malaria is reemerging in most endemic countries of South America. In Ecuador, malaria is endemic on the Pacific coast, in the inter-Andean valleys, and in the Amazon River basin. In the Lower-Napo region of northeastern Ecuador, malaria was considered eliminated in the 1970s, but the disease has reemerged in recent years. Three organizations are involved in malaria-related work in the area, but they are not coordinating their efforts. This study was designed to describe the epidemiology of malaria incidence in the Lower-Napo region for the period of January 1992 through December 1995, and to determine the extent of seasonality in transmission in the area. To determine malaria incidence, data were collected for that 4-year period from the records of the three malaria-related organizations: the office of the National Center for Malaria Eradication (NCME) in the town of Coca, the district hospital in Nuevo Rocafuerte (DHNR), and an association of community health workers called Sandi Yura. Data on climatic conditions for the same period were collected from the Ecuadorian Air Force and civil aviation authorities. During the 1992-1995 period, NCME diagnosed a total of 773 malaria cases, DHNR diagnosed 485, and Sandi Yura clinically diagnosed 859. For the 4-year period, an annual parasite index of 40.4 was found with the DHNR data, 35.8 with the Sandi Yura data, and 6.2 with the NCME data. The predominant parasite in the area was Plasmodium vivax (92% of all the cases). Twenty-eight percent of the infected persons were under 10 years old. No discernible differences between the genders were found. There was also no seasonal variation among the cases. Further research is needed in order to confirm these findings and better understand malaria transmission in the region. The study highlights the need for a closer coordination among the area's malaria-control organizations so as to have an improved understanding of malaria epidemiology and to design and implement effective

  10. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    following 27]: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma , Cambodia, Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Haiti, India, Iran , Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, North Korea ... Iran , Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Burma , Malaysia, China and North Korea all maintain laws that assert some right of control over foreign military...see CRS Report R41259, North Korea : U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation, by Emma Chanlett-Avery and Ian E. Rinehart, and CRS

  11. Akhenaten and the strange physiques of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Irwin M; Redford, Donald B; Mackowiak, Philip A

    2009-04-21

    Akhenaten was one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, in part because of his strange appearance in images produced after he had declared Aten, the Sun-disc, his one-and-only god. Whether these were symbolic representations or realistic ones that indicate a deforming genetic disorder is the subject of continuing debate. The authors present evidence that the bizarre physical features portrayed in these images are not only realistic but were shared by many members of Egypt's 18th Dynasty. The features are best explained by either 2 different familial disorders-the aromatase excess syndrome and the sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome-or a variant of the Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by a novel mutation in one of the genes controlling the P450 enzymes, which regulate steroidogenesis and cranial bone formation.

  12. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  13. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  14. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Schetnan, R.; Hasan, A.; Mohamed, Y.T.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)

  15. Oldest epiphyseal osteochondroma in a subadult from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Catalán, Josep Maria; Prat, Carme; Torner, Ferran

    2017-08-01

    Benign bone tumours are pathologies frequently encountered in archaeological human remains, with the most common being osteoma and osteochondroma. We present the case of a juvenile individual recovered from the Necropolis of Sharuna, Middle Egypt and dated to the end of Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (circa 2150 BC), showing an osteochondroma arising from the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia which, in all likelihood, affected the patellar tendon in life. Osteochondromas are usually discovered during childhood and adolescence. These lesions are commonly located at the metaphysis and diaphysis of long bones and directed away from the joint, with the epiphysis being a rare location. To our knowledge, there have been no similar cases published to date from ancient times and we conclude that this is the oldest case of epiphyseal osteochondroma reported.

  16. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations.

  17. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  18. Middle miocene trachypatagus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea),from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. S. M.

    Two species of T rachypatagus, an echinoid restricted to the Mediterranean region: T. tuberculatus (Wright) and T. nehalae n. sp., are described from the Marmarica Limestone Formation (Langhian-Serravalhan) of Mediterranean Seacoast of Egypt. A third species of the same genus is considered to be new, but left in open nomenclature on account of the paucity of material. Stratigraphy of the studied sections, paleogeographic distribution and the habitat of the genus are discussed.

  19. Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  20. New Political Realities and the Gulf; Egypt, Syria and Jordan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    populations, increasing unemployment, and growing stresses on infrastructures . In all three states, there is increasing resentment of the Gulf states...as societal needs are met, and essential repairs to the shaky Egyptian infrastructure may be again postponed. The annual population growth rate in...Egypt is 2.6 percent-one child every 27 seconds. The current social infrastructure is unable to handle the increasing load of one million new Egyptians

  1. Prevalence of primary headache disorders in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Masoud, Mohamed; Shalaby, Nevin M; Shehata, Hatem S

    2015-01-01

    There is abundance of epidemiological studies of headache in developed and western countries; however, data in developing countries and in Egypt are still lacking. This study aims to detect the prevalence of primary headache disorders in both urban and rural sectors in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. A total of 2600 subjects were included using multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling, with respondent rate of 91.3 %. A pre-designed Arabic version, interviewer-administered, pilot tested structured questionnaire was developed according to The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version), and this questionnaire was validated and the strength of agreement in headache diagnosis was good. The 1-year headache prevalence was 51.4 %, which was more prevalent in urban dwellers. The most common primary headache type was episodic tension type headache (prevalence; 24.5 %), followed by episodic migraine (prevalence; 17.3 %), both types peaked in midlife. Headache disorders were more common in females with exception of cluster headache that showed the expected male dominance. The risk of chronic headache increased more than one fold and half when the participants were females, married, and in those with high education. More than 60 % of our participants did not seek medical advice for their headaches problem; this percentage was higher in rural areas. Primary headache disorders are common in Egypt; prevalence rate was comparable with western countries with exception of episodic tension headache. Still headache is under-estimated and under-recognized in Egypt and this problem should be targeted by health care providers.

  2. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  3. GT-12 - EARTH SKY - UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (EGYPT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-14

    S66-63533 (14 Nov. 1966) --- United Arab Republic (Egypt) area as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 39th revolution of Earth, looking southeast. Nile River is in center of picture. At bottom center is the Sinai Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula is at lower left. Large body of water is Red Sea. Gulf of Aqaba is on east side of Sinai Peninsula. Gulf of Suez separates Sinai from Egyptian mainland. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the African Horn & the Sudan for human consumption. The imported livestock and camels were usually not vaccinated against RVFV. But in rare occasions, the imported livestock were vaccinated but with unknown date of vaccination and the unvaccinated control contacts were unavailable for laboratory investigations. Also, large number of the imported livestock and camels are often escaped slaughtering for breeding which led to the spread of new strains of FMD and the introduction of RVFV from the enzootic African countries. This article provide general picture about the present situation of RVFV in Egypt to help in controlling this important disease. PMID:22152149

  5. Soil-parasites particularly Toxocara eggs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; Mohammed, Rabae M; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Azab, Manar S; El-Ghareeb, Aza S; Abdeltawab, Ahmed Hussien; Zalook, Tarek K H

    2009-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) remain a major threat to the human health throughout the world, mostly in developing nations. Soil is usually contaminated by different parasitic stages through promiscuous defecation of man particularly children. This is more liable to occur in fields, public gardens and sides of streets or canals. Also, feces of domestic and wild animals & birds play a role in soil contamination. This study was conducted at Mansoura city and Batra village & El-Minia city and Zohra village representing the urban and rural areas of Dakahlia Governorate, Lower Egypt and Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt respectively. The most common helminthic stage presents in the soil of the two Governorates was Toxocara eggs. No ova was detected in-door yards in the urban areas, but only in the sides of streets, crop fields and fruit gardens, around houses and canal banks of both Governorates, and the highest intensity was 13-19 eggs/10 gm soil at canal banks at Zohra village, El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt.

  6. Lower Eocene carbonate facies of Egypt: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The northern Arabo-Nubian craton witnessed a major Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine transgression that culminated in the deposition of widespread shelf-sea carbonates during Early Eocene (Ypresian) time. Outer shelf facies characterize exposures in central Egypt (Assiut, Luxor, Kharga), and are composed primarily of rhythmically interbedded chalk and micritic limestone with minor intercalated marine hardgrounds. To the south (Kurkur-Dungul), these fine-grained lithologies give way to inner shelf foraminiferal wackestones and grainstones, typical Tethyan Nummulitic facies. Missing in southern Egypt is the restricted dolomitic evaporitic facies predicted by the Irwin model and observed in the lower Eocene of the Sirte basin to the west and the Arabian Platform to the east. Comparing the areal distribution of these lower Eocene carbonates to coeval facies developed across the remained of northern Africa and Arabia reveals the presence of a broad marine embayment which extended through central and eastern Egypt into northern Sudan during Ypresian time. The widespread subsidence that resulted in the development of this features may have been an effect of regional crustal attenuation preceding the rifting of the Red Sea. Concomitant with this regional subsidence were localized uplift and extensional block faulting in the vicinity of the incipient Red Sea rift (the Safaga-Quseir coastal plain). Here, lower Eocene carbonate facies are indicative of shallow water platforms developed on horst blocks, and deeper water, turbidite-fed basins in intervening grabens.

  7. An Initial Investigation of Do Not Resuscitate Acceptance in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Fetouh S; Schaalan, Mona F; Kamal, Karim M; Miller, F DeWolfe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain objective data on the extent of knowledge and attitudes of the do not resuscitate (DNR) concept in an Egyptian urban setting. This survey was conducted in Cairo, Egypt, using a structured questionnaire including 23 questions. Questions and questionnaire were developed from literature on DNR in the region and from pilot testing. A total of 461 persons participated. In all, 48 participants (10.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-13.7) agreed on the concept of DNR, 226 (49%, 95% CI: 36.1-45.2) stated that it depends on the patient condition, and 187 (40.5%, 95% CI: 44.4-53.7) rejected DNR. Combining the first 2 categories, agree and depends on patient condition, over 60% of the respondents in effect supported DNR. Family members (35.6%, 95% CI: 31.4-40.3) and attending physicians (43.3%, 95% CI: 30.1-39.0) were selected over religious leaders (21%, 95% CI: 17.5-25.2) and representatives from state institutions (4.6%, 95% CI: 2.9-7.0) as to who should have authority for making a DNR decisions. These and additional results provide objective evidence that DNR will not be rejected outright in Egypt. More formal surveys are justified and will provide needed guidance for implementing DNR and related end-of-life medical care in Egypt. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Active Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus, Egypt, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed. PMID:24655395

  9. A background to the feminist movement in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, H

    1992-01-01

    The origins of the feminist movement in Egypt can be traced back to the social restructuring that occurred during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1805-48). At that time, a debate raged over whether female education was essential to national development. Reformers such as Kassim Amin argued in favor of education for all women and condemned polygamy, supporting their arguments with references to the Koran. Women from the upper classes used their wealth, over which Muslim law gives them full control, to found hospitals, schools, and training centers. By 1914, there were 14 magazines devoted to women's issues. Women participated in anticolonial movements and nationalist party activities while continuing to advocate improvements in women's status. In 1924, Egypt became the 1st Islamic country to deveil women without state intervention. The Egyptian Feminist Party was founded in 1923, and the Women's Political Party was established in 1942 to coordinate the fight for women's equality and the revision of family law. Women's full political rights gained recognition when Egypt won independence in 1956, and the 1st female Minister, Hekmat Abu-Zaid, was appointed in 1962. Ironically, the feminist movement stagnated in the 1st few decades after independence as women's organizations became coopted into the state. The movement has been revitalized, however, by Islamic attacks on women's rights.

  10. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  11. Distribution of the GNSS-LEO occultation events over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Ibrahim; Mousa, Ashraf El-Kutb; El-Fiky, Gamal

    2017-06-01

    The space-based GNSS RO technique is a promising tool for monitoring the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere (Mousa et al., 2006). The current paper presents the distribution of the occultation events over Egypt using the operating LEO satellites and GNSS by its two operating systems. By the present research, Egypt could raise NWP Models efficiency by improving meteorological data quality. Twenty operating LEO missions (e.g. Argentinean SAC-C, European MetOp-A, German TerraSAR-X, Indian OceanSat-2, etc.) sent by different countries all over the world were used to derive the occultation events position through Egypt borders by receiving signal from the American global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (GLONASS). Approximately 20,000 km Altitude satellites are transmitting enormous number of rays by the day to approximately 800 km satellites passing by the Earth atmosphere. Our mission is to derive all of these rays position (start and end) by calculating satellites position by the time, determine the rays in the occultation case and derive the atmosphere tangent point position for all occultating rays on the Earth surface (Occultation Events).

  12. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  13. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-06-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.

  14. Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin E; Dodell, Sylvie; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread assumptions about women's empowerment and agency in the Arab Middle East, psychometric research of these constructs is limited. Using national data from 6214 married women ages 16-49 who took part in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey, we applied factor analysis to explore and then to test the factor structure of women's agency. We then used multiple indicator multiple cause structural equations models to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by women's age at first marriage, a potential resource for women's agency. Our results confirm that women's agency in Egypt is multi-dimensional and comprised of their (1) influence in family decisions, including those reserved for men, (2) freedom of movement in public spaces, and (3) attitudes about gender, specifically violence against wives. These dimensions confirm those explored previously in selected rural areas of Egypt and South Asia. Yet, three items showed significant uniform DIF by women's categorical age at first marriage, with and without a control for women's age in years. Models adjusting for DIF and women's age in years showed that women's older age at first marriage was positively associated with the factor means for family decision-making and gender-violence attitudes, but not freedom of movement. Our findings reveal the value of our analytical strategy for research on the dimensions and determinants of women's agency. Our approach offers a promising model to discern "hierarchies of evidence" for social policies and programs to enhance women's empowerment.

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs.

  16. Aging, health, and identity in Ecuador's indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Middle-income countries like Ecuador are in the process of demographic and epidemiological transitions, and their populations are aging. The challenges associated with providing services to growing numbers of citizens who experience the inevitable deterioration associated with aging are mirrored by the manner in which aging is perceived in a culturally heterogeneous society. This paper presents the results of qualitative research conducted among older men and women in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian highlands in order to investigate the perceptions regarding the ability of family and community networks to provide adequate and appropriate support for older persons in the context of their perceptions of health, health care, and aging. The principal findings are that: (i) perceptions of aging are shaped by chronic illness, fatigue, deteriorating sensory capacities, and vulnerability to accidents; (ii) barriers to health care are exacerbated among aging members of indigenous communities, although in some cases they can be addressed through traditional alternatives; (iii) the sense of identity shifts as aging people are increasingly unable to work the land and participate in community activities; and (iv) family and community support networks for older adults are not as strong as is generally thought. These findings represent the context within which issues related aging in a culturally heterogeneous society can be best understood and addressed.

  17. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  18. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas.

  19. Preliminary observations on Mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Proaño-Perez, Freddy; Rigouts, Leen; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre; Ron, Jorge; Chavez, Maria-Augusta; Rodriguez, Richar; Fissette, Krista; Van Aerde, Anita; Portaels, Françoise; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated bovine tuberculosis in Mejia canton, a major dairy cattle production region in Ecuador. Randomly selected cattle (1,012 from 59 farms) classified according to herd size were tested by the single tuberculin test (STT). Sixty days later, positive reactors were tested again by the comparative tuberculin test (CTT). In addition, tissue samples from two STT-CTT-positive reactors detected on a farm were obtained in a local slaughterhouse and analyzed bacteriologically. A total of 4.24% of the cattle were positive in the STT and 3.85% were positive in the CTT, with the highest number (7.95%) in large herds versus 3.4% in medium herds and 0.3% in small herds. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs of one animal. A 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction confirmed culture results and differentiated mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis. This study confirms the zoonotic importance of tuberculosis in Ecuadorian dairy cattle with herd size likely to be a crucial parameter in the prevalence of the disease. The implementation of a national control program is necessary and should be based on the detection of positive cattle by STT in combination with CTT.

  20. The species of Hemiancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro

    2017-05-29

    At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.

  1. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Diego; Palacio, Ana; Nuñez, Jose; Briones, Wladimir; Beier, John C.; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the April 2016 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador on the incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) cases. Methods. We used the national public health surveillance system for reportable transmissible conditions and included suspected and laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases. We compared the number of cases before and after the earthquake in areas closer to and farther from the epicenter. Results. From January to July 2016, 2234 patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were reported in both affected and control areas. A total of 1110 patients had a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and 159 were positive for ZIKV. The cumulative incidence of ZIKV in the affected area was 11.1 per 100 000 after the earthquake. The odds ratio of having ZIKV infection in those living in the affected area was 8.0 (95% CI = 4.4, 14.6; P < .01) compared with the control area and adjusted for age, gender, province population, and number of government health care facilities. Conclusions. A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care. PMID:28520489

  2. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Diego; Palacio, Ana; Nuñez, Jose; Briones, Wladimir; Beier, John C; Pareja, Denisse C; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the April 2016 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador on the incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) cases. We used the national public health surveillance system for reportable transmissible conditions and included suspected and laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases. We compared the number of cases before and after the earthquake in areas closer to and farther from the epicenter. From January to July 2016, 2234 patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were reported in both affected and control areas. A total of 1110 patients had a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and 159 were positive for ZIKV. The cumulative incidence of ZIKV in the affected area was 11.1 per 100 000 after the earthquake. The odds ratio of having ZIKV infection in those living in the affected area was 8.0 (95% CI = 4.4, 14.6; P < .01) compared with the control area and adjusted for age, gender, province population, and number of government health care facilities. A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care.

  3. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: evolution of chorioretinopathy after amocarzine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, P J; Proaño, R; Beltran, C; Anselmi, M; Guderian, R H

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the macrofilaricidal drug, amocarzine, on the evolution of chorioretinopathy in onchocerciasis. METHODS: A prospective uncontrolled cohort study was performed using subjects infected with Onchocerca volvulus in a hyperendemic onchocerciasis focus in Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Study subjects were recruited into four cohorts in which ophthalmic and parasitological data were collected for 2, 3, 4, and 5 years respectively. RESULTS: Complete ophthalmic follow up was obtained for 294 individuals in the four cohorts. The incidence of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy tended to remain constant between cohorts while that of chorioretinal scarring with a greater observation period. The incidence rate of cases with new or extending chorioretinal lesions was greater with an increasing period of follow up. An association was seen between the cumulative microfilarial loads in the skin and the development of new chorioretinal lesions (p < 0.05). No relation was noted between cumulative microfilarial loads and the progression of existing disease. CONCLUSION: Amocarzine therapy did not prevent the natural evolution of chorioretinal disease. It was suggested that ocular microfilariae were necessary for the induction of chorioretinopathy in previously unaffected eyes and that extension of existing disease might also be related to the presence of ocular microfilariae or to other immunological mechanisms. PMID:8703886

  4. The implementation of language policy: The case of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossío, Consuelo Yánez

    1991-03-01

    Ecuador is implementing a programme of indigenous bilingual intercultural education. Work began systematically in 1978 through a research centre of the Catholic University, and throughout the 1980s the government has become increasingly committed to the principle of indigenous education. In 1980 agreement was reached on a common alphabet for all indigenous languages. In the same year the government accepted that vernacular languages might be used for education, and the "Macac" educational model was devised by the Catholic University's research centre. By 1984 there were 300 bilingual primary schools, but the government then suspended its experiment. This was restored four years later, with the addition of secondary education and teacher training colleges. What is stressed by NGOs active in promoting indigenous education is not only its use of vernacular languages, but the need for intercultural exchange, recognizing in a modified curriculum the cultural values of the indigenous population and their socioeconomic reality. This change has not been understood by all government agencies, although a new Directorate for Bilingual Intercultural Education was established in 1988 to provide education for people of all ages in indigenous communities. The traditional Spanish-language formal education system has exercised a restricting influence on innovation, and the response of the dominant Spanish-speaking majority has generally been indifference.

  5. Subducted Seamount Locks the Shallow Megathrust in Central Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J. M.; Collot, J. Y.; Lepetre, A.; Ribodetti, A.; Sanclemente, E.; Jarrin, P.; Chlieh, M.; Graindorge, D.; Charvis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Among the factors that have been proposed to control the stress accumulation at subduction zones, the role of subducted seamounts is still disputed. Mechanical models suggest that subducted seamounts locally increase the inter-seismic coupling (ISC) along the megathrust and act as seismic asperities. Conversely, seamount subduction has also been associated with weak inter-plate coupling, and highly fractured media, a situation that favors aseismic slip and relatively small earthquakes. However, correlating the location of a subducted seamount with a shallow locked zone has remained a challenge because, where shallow subducted seamounts (< 15 km depth) are imaged, ISC is usually poorly resolved due to the absence of near-trench geodetic data. Here, we use seismic imaging offshore Central Ecuador and detect a shallow, rugged, low-drag shape subducted seamount. Owing to an island and a coastline located respectively 35 km and 50-60 km from the trench, we demonstrate using GPS measurements that the subducted seamount spatially correlates to a local highly coupled asperity within an otherwise dominantly creeping subduction segment. We show that the highly jagged subducted seamount-topography, the absence of a seismically imaged subduction channel and a stiff erosive oceanic margin are the principal long-term characteristics associated with shallow locking of the megathrust. This model may have significant implications on tsunami hazard, and could be tested at worldwide subduction zones.

  6. Oil, power, and rural change in Ecuador: 1972-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Zevallos, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the role of the State in Ecuador's agriculture during the period of oil boom and military rule (1972-1979). It focuses on: (1) how the availability of oil revenues affected formation and implementation of agricultural policies; (2) the impact of oil-financed policies on agrarian structure, agricultural production, and rural inequality. Historical analysis is based on interviews with policy makers, newspaper chronology, and government documents. Policy impact assessment is based on macroeconomic evidence and microlevel studies. Although agrarian reform was central to the military's development plan, the 1973 Agrarian Reform Law imposed no farm size limits and postponed enforcement of efficiency requirements until 1976. Oil revenues eliminated some political and economic incentives for reform. State action shifted away from land redistribution towards colonization and promotion of agricultural production. The oil boom had an overall negative impact on rural income distribution. It removed incentives for reform. Increased state spending benefitted primarily medium and large landowners. Macroeconomic trends favored adoption of capital intensive methods in livestock and industrial crop production and decapitalization of food and export agriculture, harming wage-dependent laborers.

  7. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.

    2017-06-01

    Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  8. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  9. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia. PMID:28936066

  10. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-08-01

    The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32-27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1-63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5-53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2-49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.

  11. Environmental Influences on Human Migration in Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change. PMID:23319207

  12. Environmental influences on human migration in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change.

  13. Maternal Deaths Databases Analysis: Ecuador 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Pino, Antonio; Albán, María; Rivas, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Erika

    2016-08-19

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC). Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC's website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women's socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet.

  14. A Bayesian analysis of the 2016 Pedernales (Ecuador) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, Baptiste; Duputel, Zacharie; Jolivet, Romain; Rivera, Luis; Simons, Mark; Jiang, Junle; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Ecuador on April 16, 2016, causing significant damage and casualties. Long period W-phase and Global CMT solutions suggest that fault slip for this event agrees with the convergence obliquity of the Ecuadorian subduction. We present a new co-seismic kinematic slip model obtained from the joint inversion of multiple observations in an unregularized and fully Bayesian framework. We use a comprehensive static dataset composed of several SAR interferograms, GPS static offsets, and tsunami waveforms from two nearby DART stations. The kinematic component of the rupture process is constrained by an extensive set of high-rate GPS and seismic data. Our solution includes the ensemble of all plausible slip models that are consistent with our prior information and fit the available observations within data and prediction uncertainties. We analyze the source process in light of the historical seismicity, in particular the Mw 7.8 1942 earthquake for which the rupture extent overlaps with the 2016 event. In addition, we conduct a probabilistic comparison of co-seismic slip with a stochastic interseismic coupling model obtained from GPS data. This analysis gives new insights on the processes at play within the Ecuadorian subduction margin.

  15. China in Africa: America’s Soft Power Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Has Not Won Over Africans" Center for Strategic and’ International Studies. http://csis.org/blog/why-africom-has-not-won-over-africans. Michel, Serge ...exportation of indigenous persons to become slaves in foreign lands.) 6 Serge Michel and Michel Beuret, China Safari: On the Trail of Beijing’s...US AFRICOM Public Affairs, US Africa Command Home, http://www.africom.mil/getArticle.asp?art==2152& lang =O (Arab Republic of Egypt remains a part of

  16. Managing nontechnical risks associated with seismic operations in the tropical rain forests of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.; Smith, G.R.; Vacas, F.J.; Swingholm, E.K.; Yuill, R.M.; Aleman, M.A.

    1997-04-21

    Companies operating in sensitive areas are being challenged to address the environmental and social issues while preserving these areas for future generations. This increased international attention on environmental and sociocultural issues has led Amoco to focus efforts on developing new ideas and strategies to facilitate environmental and cultural management. In Ecuador, the major oil producing region is the Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, referred to locally as the Oriente. Amoco Ecuador BV recently completed a seismic acquisition program in the Oriente with minimum impact to the environment and the communities within the project area. The goal of this article is to describe Amoco`s experience in managing environmental, social, and public perception issues associated with seismic operations in the rain forests of Ecuador.

  17. Intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the eastern Amazonic region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Amunárriz, M

    1991-09-01

    A study was done to determine the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus mexicanus (P. peruvianus, P. ecuadoriensis) in the northeastern amazonic region of Ecuador. The first intermediate host belongs to the molluscan family Hydrobiidae, similar to the findings reported in other parts of Latin America. One of 2350 specimens of the hydrobiid snail Aroapyrgus colombiensis examined was found to be naturally infected with rediae containing microcercous cercariae of Paragonimus, this being the first naturally infected first intermediate host reported in Ecuador. The crustacean family, Trichodactylidae, was found as the second intermediate host of paragonimiasis, this being the first time reported in Ecuador. The freshwater crab Zilchiopsis ecuadoriensis was found to be heavily parasitized by Paragonimus metacercariae.

  18. Challenges for an Active Role of Women in Physics in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Paola; Guaño, Sonia; Apolo, Alberto Celi

    2009-04-01

    The social reality of Ecuador is not far from the experience of most countries of the Andean region in South America. Many factors contribute to a preference for short-learning-curve or business-oriented careers, and also make traditional and time-demanding careers less appealing. Physics is one of the least attractive professions in a country like Ecuador. However, in the last few years, the number of bachelor's-degree candidates in physics has increased significantly. This result, together with the new postgraduate courses offered inland, show promising changes for the future of this career. Developed countries face challenges that involve mainly gender issues in the scientific daily routine, whereas in Ecuador the challenge is still to attract students to this scientific path regardless of their gender.

  19. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY... associated with the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt... via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis...

  20. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27, 2013...

  1. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  2. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  3. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a... importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: December 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  4. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    PubMed Central

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women’s health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women’s health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  5. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services.

  6. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance with the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Giacomazzi, C G; Cespedes-Alvarado, C G; Losada-Cabruja, E A; McDermott, J L; Rojas-Andrade, C A; Varnier, O E

    2010-06-01

    A collaborative project was established between the Alli Causai Foundation in Ambato, Ecuador, and the University of Genoa, Italy, to introduce the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ecuador. A total of 507 samples were evaluated during a 10-month period, and DNA was extracted from each isolate and sent to Genoa for confirmatory molecular analysis. M. tuberculosis was identified in 45 samples by MODS, and drug resistance was observed in approximately 21% of the isolates, with four multidrug-resistant strains detected in two patients.

  7. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands.

    PubMed

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-22

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands.

  8. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  9. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands. PMID:19161618

  10. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  11. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-01-01

    Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocaniabravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniaerwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniatrifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocanialamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated.

  12. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  13. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Egypt many phytoparasitic nematodes constitute a major constraint to agricultural production, especially in sandy soil and reclaimed desert lands. Nematological surveys were conducted to determine the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes on associated host plants in Egypt. The results i...

  14. English Language Teaching in Egypt. At the Crossroads of Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monem, Doaa Abdul; El-Sokkary, Wael; Haddaway, Carol; Bickel, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English language teaching in Egypt, where students are required to study English beginning in the fourth grade. Describes the educational requirements of Egyptians pursuing careers as English teachers, inservice training opportunities, overseas training programs, and future directions of English teaching in Egypt.(Author/VWL)

  15. "Discourse on the Go": Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Nashar, Mohamed; Nayef, Heba

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel…

  16. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David

    This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…

  17. Arab Republic of Egypt: An Economic Analysis of Early Childhood Education/Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Wendy; Van Der Gaag, Jacques; Tanaka, Shinichiro

    Within Egypt's national framework for improving access to and quality of education, the government has announced the intention of enlarging compulsory basic education with 1 or 2 years of preschool. This report to the World Bank examines early childhood development (ECD) in Egypt from an economic and financial perspective. Following an executive…

  18. Saudi-Egyptian Relations: the Political and Military Dimensions of Saudi Financial Flows to Egypt,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    million 3 in 1978 were estimated to reach $1 billion bv 1980. The Suez- Mediter - ranean pipeline revenues and incremental productivitv increases have...for Egypt was meanwhile app roved. 2 There are several reasons why the Saudis have been intent on bolstering Egypt’s military capabilities in the

  19. Higher Education in Egypt. Policy Research Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Alan

    This analytical report on higher education in Egypt argues that Egypt's policy must take account of the realities of declining government budgets and employment and the need to rely increasingly on the private sector, which must become more competitive internationally. Previous policy, which expanded higher education rapidly (despite a…

  20. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)