Science.gov

Sample records for china energy environment

  1. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  2. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  3. Thermal environment analysis and energy conservation research of rural residence in cold regions of China based on BIM platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Xin, L. S.; Tan, Y. T.

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the issue of rural residential energy consumption in cold regions of China, modeled an architecture prototype based on BIM platform according to the affecting factors of rural residential thermal environment, and imported the virtual model which contains building information into energy analysis tools and chose the appropriate building orientation. By analyzing the energy consumption of the residential buildings with different enclosure structure forms, we designed the optimal energy-saving residence form. There is a certain application value of this method for researching the energy consumption and energy-saving design for the rural residence in cold regions of China.

  4. China's English Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students and teachers often say that the major challenge they face in acquiring English is that "China does not have a good English language environment" ("zhong guo de ying yu huan jing bu tai hao") by which they mean there are insufficient opportunities to use English in real life situations and a lack of exposure to…

  5. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  6. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  7. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  8. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  9. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  10. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  11. Energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Fay; Dan S. Golomb

    2002-02-15

    Chapter headings are: Energy and the environment; Global energy use and supply including a section on coal reserves; Thermodynamic principles of energy conversion; Electrical energy generation, transmissions and storage; Fossil-fueled power plants; Nuclear-fueled power plants; Renewable energy; Transportation; Environmental effects of fossil fuel use; Global warning, which includes sections on greenhouse gas emissions and controlling CO{sub 2} emissions; and Concluding remarks. 1 app.

  12. Sustainable energy system establishment in China

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Zhu

    1997-12-31

    The current structure of Chinas energy is an unsustainable system mainly dependent on coal consumption. In 1994, China coal consumed 920.55 Mtce, 75% of the total energy consumption. At present, China is the biggest coal consumption country with its CO{sub 2} emission in the first place of the world. New national system of sustainable energy designed for China is based on the following premises: (1) To provide sufficient energy to the economy growth of China; (2) To provide adequate energy supply to improvement of the residents` livelihood; (3) To get rid of the negative effect on the eco-environment produced by the new system; (4) To keep a developmental pace compatible with that of the global mainstream of the sustainable development in the world.

  13. Extreme Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Cai, Lixue

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  14. Renewable energy development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  15. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  17. Solar energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Butti, K.

    1982-01-01

    There are more passive solar-heated homes in Northern China than in any other place in the world, since from ancient times Chinese homes have been built and oriented to take advantage of the winter sun. Current solar energy research in China is described including the activities of the Beijing Solar Energy Research Institute and the Gansu Natural Energy Research Institute.

  18. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  19. Energy, environment, and information management

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Chang, Shen-Lin ); Lee, Ho-Ching )

    1992-01-01

    This volume is a collection of technical papers submitted for presentation at the International Symposium on Energy, Environment, and Information Management, jointly sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and the National Science Council of the Republic of China (ROC), and held at Argonne National Laboratory Chicago, Illinois on September 15--18, 1992. It consists of over 70 technical papers representing about 150 authors from ROC, United States, and Canada. This volume is divided into nine sections: Overviews of Science and Technology Development; Energy Technologies and Systems; Energy Strategies and Policy Analyses; Global Warming and Air Quality Management; Pollution Prevention and Waste Management; Pollution Control Technologies and Assessments; Nuclear Technologies and Radwaste Management; Software Engineering and Database Management; and Applications in Information Management. Individual reports are processed separately on the databases.

  20. Energy, environment, and information management

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Chang, Shen-Lin; Lee, Ho-Ching

    1992-10-01

    This volume is a collection of technical papers submitted for presentation at the International Symposium on Energy, Environment, and Information Management, jointly sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and the National Science Council of the Republic of China (ROC), and held at Argonne National Laboratory Chicago, Illinois on September 15--18, 1992. It consists of over 70 technical papers representing about 150 authors from ROC, United States, and Canada. This volume is divided into nine sections: Overviews of Science and Technology Development; Energy Technologies and Systems; Energy Strategies and Policy Analyses; Global Warming and Air Quality Management; Pollution Prevention and Waste Management; Pollution Control Technologies and Assessments; Nuclear Technologies and Radwaste Management; Software Engineering and Database Management; and Applications in Information Management. Individual reports are processed separately on the databases.

  1. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. Managing the environment in China

    SciTech Connect

    Geping, Q.; Lee, W.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Since the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment great strides have been taken in China to ensure the best use of environmental resources culminating in their law of Environmental Protection in 1979 and the setting-up of a Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection in 1982. Presented here are eleven papers on the Chinese response to a variety of environmental issues which emphasize the country's planned approach to the use of natural resources. Also included is the text of the environmental protection legislation.

  3. China's Technology Policies Related to Sustainable Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunliang, Fan

    2009-07-01

    Environment development is a big challenge for China. This paper discusses the content and role of technology policies related to sustainable environment and makes some suggestions for their future development.

  4. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  5. Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.

    1972-01-01

    Problems concerning energy shortage are presented along with possible solutions. Three important areas of concern are (1) energy-origin and uses, (2) environmental effects of energy use, and (3) resources and new sources. (DF)

  6. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  7. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  8. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  9. An Energy-Environment Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, David L.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes a study of the effects of experience with an energy-environment simulator on the attitudes of its users. The study concludes that tools like the energy simulator appear to provide an important way to help educators take a leadership role in solving energy problems. (RE)

  10. An Energy-Environment Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, David L.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes a study of the effects of experience with an energy-environment simulator on the attitudes of its users. The study concludes that tools like the energy simulator appear to provide an important way to help educators take a leadership role in solving energy problems. (RE)

  11. Energy-Environment Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervine, Kathryn E.; Cawley, Rebecca E.

    This publication, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is a sampling of current energy literature. The references are divided into four separate categories, each directed for a specific audience: readings for teachers, readings for students (grades 8-10); Readings for students (grades 5-9); and readings for students (grades…

  12. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and

  13. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  14. Energy education and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.M.

    1981-05-01

    Energy education is now a part of the curriculum mix without ever being defined as we struggle to put a transition period into historical perspective. Five near-term and three long-term (beyond 1990) energy problems are identified in terms of their direct and indirect, but interconnected, implications for the environment, society, and the economy. Schools are responding to the sense of urgency with national, state, and local educational programs and with a stong grassroots movement to incorporate these concepts at all grade levels. The case still needs to be made for environmental education to receive the same intensity of treatment as energy education. 10 references. (DCK)

  15. Energy's thirst for water in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Beiming; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing

    2014-10-21

    Water scarcity and uneven water distribution pose significant challenges to sustainable development and energy production in China. Based on the International Energy Agency (IEA)'s energy strategy scenarios for China, we evaluated the water withdrawal for energy production from 2011 to 2030. The results show that the amount of water withdrawal will be increased by 77% in 2030, which will aggravate China's water scarcity risk under current energy strategy. We also observed that 67% of the energy production in China occurs in areas that are facing water scarcity. Moreover, China's 12th Five-Year Plan of Energy Development does not change the existing energy strategies, and the planned total energy production is much higher than the IEA's projection, which will result in an increased demand for water resources. However, if China were to apply broad policies to reduce CO2 emissions, the amount of water withdrawal would also decline compared with current energy strategy. Thus, reforming China's energy structure and reducing energy usage are not only urgent because of climate challenges and air pollution but also essential to reducing the pressure of water scarcity.

  16. China rationalizes its renewable energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

    2010-04-15

    China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

  17. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9-14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  18. Energy and the Environment. Citizens' Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge, TN.

    This publication was produced for the Citizens' Workshop Program on Energy and the Environment. Included in this monograph are sections on: (1) energy and the environment; (2) the energy problem (amount remaining, how it is used); (3) Environmental problems of energy use; an energy-environmental quiz; (4) energy for the future (types, sources,…

  19. Development and utilization of new and renewable energy with Stirling engine system for electricity in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, W.; Abenavoli, R.I.; Carlini, M.

    1996-12-31

    China is the largest developing country in the world. Self-supporting and self-sustaining energy supply is the only solution for development. Recently, fast economic development exposed gradually increasing pressure of energy demand and environment concern. In order to increase the production of electricity of China, the Stirling engine system should be developed. This paper provides an investigation of energy production and consumption in China. The main features of the energy consumption and the development objectives of China`s electric power industry are also described. The necessity and possibility of development of Stirling engine system is discussed.

  20. A review of China`s energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Duan, N.; Zhijie, H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  1. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  2. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  3. Food, energy, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term.

  4. Energy and the environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    Work on the `Energy and the Environment` project has been focused on completion of two interrelated efforts: (1) development, production, and installation of energy related exhibits in the Ecology and Environment gallery, and (2) creation and implementation of the `Energy Backpack` program. The Energy exhibits have been available to over 1.5 million visitors since the opening of the new St. Louis Science Center. The `Energy Backpack` program will be implemented with students, teachers, and family groups this fall.

  5. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  6. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  7. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  8. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Salman; Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K.

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  9. China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Lewis, Joanna I.; Zhu, Yuezhong

    2004-03-10

    China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible

  10. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  11. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing.

  12. Technology, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Glenn Terry

    This dissertation consists of three distinct papers concerned with technology, energy and the environment. The first paper is an empirical analysis of production under uncertainty, using agricultural production data from the central United States. Unlike previous work, this analysis identifies the effect of actual realizations of weather as well as farmers' expectations about weather. The results indicate that both of these are significant factors explaining short run profits in agriculture. Expectations about weather, called climate, affect production choices, and actual weather affects realized output. These results provide better understanding of the effect of climate change in agriculture. The second paper examines how emissions taxes induce innovation that reduces pollution. A polluting firm chooses technical improvement to minimize cost over an infinite horizon, given an emission tax set by a planner. This leads to a solution path for technical change. Changes in the tax rate affect the path for innovation. Setting the tax at equal to the marginal damage (which is optimal in a static setting with no technical change) is not optimal in the presence of technical change. When abatement is also available as an alternative to technical change, changes in the tax can have mixed effects, due to substitution effects. The third paper extends the theoretical framework for exploring the diffusion of new technologies. Information about new technologies spreads through the economy by means of a network. The pattern of diffusion will depend on the structure of this network. Observed networks are the result of an evolutionary process. This paper identifies how these evolutionary outcomes compare with optimal solutions. The conditions guaranteeing convergence to an optimal outcome are quite stringent. It is useful to determine the set of initial population states that do converge to an optimal outcome. The distribution of costs and benefits among the agents within an

  13. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution

  14. Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

  15. Research of Energy Substitution Strategy of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; kai, Chen

    For a long time, China's energy endowment structure determines the production structure and consumption structure of energy are coal-based.This situation is difficult to change for quite a long time. With the rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, the demand for energy, especially for oil, natural gas will continue to increase. But the oil and gas supply can not meet the needs of rapid growth. The most direct way is to import, and imports will be charged by the international energy situation, and will affect energy and economic security. In view of our country abundant coal resources, we can consider to use coal substituting oil and natural gas to reduce dependence on foreign energy, to strengthen energy and economic security. Therefore, using translog production function, the text forecasts substitution elasticity and the marginal substitution rate between the capital, coal, oil and natural gas, and puts forward substitution program.

  16. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  17. [Agricultural environment quality of China and its improving countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xibai; Yang, Zhengli

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the present status of China agricultural water and soil environment. It was indicated that the agricultural water environment in this country was more serious, with the affected area being approximately 20% of the total farmland, and 5% of it being severely affected. More attention should be paid to the pollution of agricultural chemicals in soil environment. The impacts of industrial wastes, urban sewage and garbage, agricultural chemicals, and soil erosion on agro-environment were discussed, with the impact degree of these factors analyzed. The major problems in China agricultural environment melioration were presented, related researches and major countermeasures in this country and developed countries were reviewed, and relevant measures and suggestions on improving the agricultural environment quality of China were put forward.

  18. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  19. An outline of study on China's population / environment issues.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; Li, J

    1990-10-01

    Attention is given to population and growth and the impact on the environment and resources in China. Policies for managing the environment and instituting population education are also addressed. The first position paper of the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPAC) on June 2, 1990 is summarized. The population of China was 1.11 billion in 1989. The rate of growth in 1988 was 14.2/1000 in 1988. 91% live in the southeast on 43% of the land. Land area is 9.6 million square miles. 65% can be made arable, and 14% is cultivated. China has 7% of the world's arable land and 20% of the world's population. Population growth has reduced arable land/captia. The impact on forests has been deforestation. 13% of land is currently forested, and timber reserves encompass 9.14 billion cubic meters, or 9 cubic meters/person. The demand for firewood and timber will increase. The impact on grasslands has been overgrazing and desertification at a current rate of 1560 square kilometer/year. The impact on energy resources is a greater demand for coal which will increase and thus increase pollution of the environment. The impact on water resources is greater demand and increased pollution. Water resources are 2700 cubic meters/person or less than the world average. 26.8 billion tons of waste water were industrially discharged out of 36.8 billion tons. 436 of the 532 rivers are polluted. The impact on the environment is a decreased standard of living. NEPAC reported that air pollution was slightly reduced in 4% of the cities in 1988, increased in 4%, and stable in the remaining cities. Water quality improved through the lowering of industrial waste water discharges, but 72% of river segments are still above the standards. Each major river system is discussed. Noise increased, and industrial solid wastes increased. Forest reserve is 9.141 billion cubic meters; the man-made forest has increased. The loss of grasslands is .13 million hectares/year. Cultivated land is 95.72 million

  20. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Evaluation on Thermal Environment and Energy Consumption of a Demonstration Building in Ningqiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Ma, Jinghui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the thermal performance and environment of a demonstration building in Ningqiang, China, utilizing building indoor temperature and energy consumption simulation program EnergyPlus. Compared with the existing building model, the energy saving rate of the demonstration building model is 42.42%, 6.92% higher than that of benchmark model, based on simulation analyses.

  2. Nitrogen footprint in China: food, energy, and nonfood goods.

    PubMed

    Gu, Baojing; Leach, Allison M; Ma, Lin; Galloway, James N; Chang, Scott X; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-08-20

    The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr included in calculating the N footprint are often incomplete. In this study, we comprehensively quantified the N footprint in China with an N mass balance approach. Results show that the per capita N footprint in China increased 68% between 1980 and 2008, from 19 to 32 kg N yr(-1). The Nr loss from the production and consumption of food was the largest component of the N footprint (70%) while energy and nonfood products made up the remainder in approximately equal portion in 2008. In contrast, in 1980, the food-related N footprint accounted for 86% of the overall N footprint, followed by nonfood products (8%) and energy (6%). The findings and methods of this study are generally comparable to that of the consumer-based analysis of the N-Calculator. This work provides policy makers quantitative information about the sources of China's N footprint and demonstrates the significant challenges in reducing Nr loss to the environment.

  3. College Environment, Student Involvement, and Intellectual Development: Evidence in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Xianglan; Liu, Jinlan; Bai, Yin

    2017-01-01

    China's higher education system has been marked by dramatic growth since 1999. In response to calls for quality assurance, substantial efforts have been made to improve collegiate environments and enhance student learning. However, only limited empirical research has been conducted to investigate the effects of the college environment on student…

  4. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  5. China's battle to save the environment.

    PubMed

    Nash, N

    1989-01-01

    By the year 2000 a Great Green Wall of forests may be crossing the country from northwest to northeast, a total of 53 million hectares of green protection from encroaching deserts and erosion, stretching through 12 provinces to increase the nation's forest cover, which now stands at a mere 12.7% of China's territory. Soils have been degraded to a critical level only within the past 150 years. At present, about one-sixth of the total land is affected by erosion. In 1988 more than 11 million hectares of farmland, one-tenth of the total sown acreage, suffered from severe drought. Another 7.5 million hectares of crops were flooded, and grain output has been dropping steadily. China is now importing more than 1 billion tons of food staples to feed its population. In all big cities including the capital Beijing, sulphur dioxide and dust levels in the atmosphere surpass the norm set by the State. The most seriously polluted city in China is Benxi, situated in Liaoning Province, which contains some 420 factories. Shanghai has become a preview of what is in store for many Chinese cities unless urgent anti-pollution measures are designed and implemented. Much of the city's municipal and industrial wastes are simply flushed untreated into rivers and shallow coastal waters. Some 34 billion tons of municipal and industrial wastes are flushed into China's rivers and streams every year. A highly lauded forest farm in Sichuan Province credits afforestation with increased precipitation in the dry season, reduced soil erosion, and a halt to the flooding of some 10 rivers in the region. Many of China's 32,000 species of higher plants are endangered; and similarly, many of the nation's 2200 species of birds and animals, like the giant panda, are threatened with extinction. The country's gigantic population remains the key problem as well as the key to its solution.

  6. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has...

  7. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  8. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech

  9. China Debates the Future Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    the China Institute of International Studies (CIIS). :~ Chen Zhongjing, Guoji .Thanlue ~,enti (problems of international strategy)(Beijing: Shishi...chubanshe, 1988), 310-311. Chen , born in 1915, is one of the most distinguished Chinese strategic experts. Chert has been President of the Institute of...738-64. According to an inter¢iew in Beijing with Wang Jisi in June 1995, the first article on Western theory, was by Chen Lemin entitled "Western

  10. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  12. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  13. Physics Literacy, Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2003-01-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how…

  14. Energy-Environment Mini-Unit Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen M., Ed.; And Others

    This unit is one part of a three-part National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) series on energy-environment. The goal of this NSTA project is to create a collection of mini-units that provide materials for science and social studies teachers in grades K-12. These materials are intended to make teaching more interdisciplinary and to stimulate…

  15. Physics Literacy, Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2003-01-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how…

  16. China: A sleeping giant awakens to environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Shaoxiang

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the approach the Chinese government is taking to environmental issues. Included are the following topics: pollution abatement; improved rural environment by curbing the production and use of highly toxic pesticides; limiting erosion; natural reserves. Problems awaiting solutions are also discussed: air pollution (particularly coal combustion); water pollution; solid-waste pollution; rural pollution; soil erosion; desertification; soil salinization; deforestation; grassland deterioration; natural disasters.

  17. Brightness Rural Electrification Program: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Fact sheet describes China's New Brightness Rural Electrification Program to provide electricity for 23 million people in remote areas of China using renewable energy such as wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). Targets, results, and progress are described. Regions targeted are Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Gansu.

  18. Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

  19. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1999-07-01

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA.

  20. Energy Efficiency in China: Glorious History, Uncertain Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-09-01

    China's rapid economic growth of 10% per year has been accompanied by an annual energy growth rate of greater than 10% from 2001-2005. This in turn has led to the construction of 1 to 2 GWe of electrical generating capacity per week over the period, with the vast majority of the power plants using coal. Because of the energy growth, China has equaled the carbon consumption rate of United States at 6 billion tonnes/year in 2006, far sooner than was expected. This paper discusses the periods of energy growth and efficiency policy in China. This includes "Soviet Style" Energy Policy (1949-1980); Deng's Initial Reforms (1981-1992); Transition Period (1993 to 2001); Energy Crisis in China: 2001 to 2006, a repeat of much earlier "inglorious history; and the present efforts to return to an earlier period (Deng's Initial Reforms) in which energy growth may be more sustainable. Recommendations are given for policies to promote energy efficiency.

  1. Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to provide more electricity by 2030?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan

    Following the rapid growth of China's economy, energy consumption, especially electricity consumption of China, has made a huge increase in the past 30 years. Since China has been using coal as the major energy source to produce electricity during these years, environmental problems have become more and more serious. The research question for this paper is: "Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to produce more electricity in 2030?" Hydro power, nuclear power, natural gas, wind power and solar power are considered as the possible and most popular alternative energies for the current situation of China. To answer the research question above, there are two things to know: How much is the total electricity consumption in China by 2030? And how much electricity can the alternative energies provide in China by 2030? For a more reliable forecast, an econometric model using the Ordinary Least Squares Method is established on this paper to predict the total electricity consumption by 2030. The predicted electricity coming from alternative energy sources by 2030 in China can be calculated from the existing literature. The research results of this paper are analyzed under a reference scenario and a max tech scenario. In the reference scenario, the combination of the alternative energies can provide 47.71% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. In the max tech scenario, it provides 57.96% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. These results are important not only because they indicate the government's long term goal is reachable, but also implies that the natural environment of China could have an inspiring future.

  2. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26489689

  3. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-22

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

  4. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F.

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  5. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, Ed., David; Aden, Ed., Nathaniel; Lu, Ed., Hongyou; Zheng, Ed., Nina

    2008-10-01

    Since 2001, China's energy consumption has grown more quickly than expected by Chinese or international observers. This edition of the China Energy Databook traces the growth of the energy system through 2006. As with version six, the Databook covers a wide range of energy-related information, including resources and reserves, production, consumption, investment, equipment, prices, trade, environment, economy, and demographic data. These data provide an extensive quantitative foundation for understanding China's growing energy system. In addition to providing updated data through 2006, version seven includes revised energy and GDP data back to the 1990s. In the 2005 China Energy Statistical Yearbook, China's National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) published revised energy production, consumption, and usage data covering the years 1998 to 2003. Most of these revisions related to coal production and consumption, though natural gas data were also adjusted. In order to accommodate underestimated service sector growth, the NBS also released revised GDP data in 2005. Beyond the inclusion of historical revisions in the seventh edition, no attempt has been made to rectify known or suspected issues in the official data. The purpose of this volume is to provide a common basis for understanding China's energy system. In order to broaden understanding of China's energy system, the Databook includes information from industry yearbooks, periodicals, and government websites in addition to data published by NBS. Rather than discarding discontinued data series, information that is no longer possible to update has been placed in C section tables and figures in each chapter. As with previous versions, the data are presented in digital database and tabular formats. The compilation of updated data is the result of tireless work by Lu Hongyou and Nina Zheng.

  6. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world`s largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China`s energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China`s energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  7. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-02-15

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and

  8. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  9. Impact of the China Healthy Cities Initiative on Urban Environment.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dahai; Ruan, Shiman; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-04-01

    The China Healthy Cities initiative, a nationwide public health campaign, has been implemented for 25 years. As "Healthy China 2030" becomes the key national strategy for improving population health, this initiative is an important component. However, the effects of the initiative have not been well studied. This paper aims to explore its impact on urban environment using a multiple time series design. We adopted a stratified and systematic sampling method to choose 15 China healthy cities across the country. For the selected healthy cities, 1:1 matched non-healthy cities were selected as the comparison group. We collected longitudinal data from 5 years before cities achieved the healthy city title up to 2012. We used hierarchical models to calculate difference-in-differences estimates for examining the impact of the initiative. We found that the China Healthy Cities initiative was associated with increases in the proportion of urban domestic sewage treated (32 percentage points), the proportion of urban domestic garbage treated (30 percentage points), and the proportion of qualified farmers' markets (40 percentage points), all of which are statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant change was found for increases in green coverage of urban built-up area (5 percentage points), green space per capita (2 square meter), and days with Air Quality Index/Air Pollution Index ≤ 100 (25 days). In conclusion, the China Healthy Cities initiative was associated with significant improved urban environment in terms of infrastructure construction, yet had little impact on green space and air quality.

  10. Compact harsh environment energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shehab

    The quest for energy is leading the industry into drilling deeper wells. Typically, a temperature gradient of 1°C/150 ft can be expected, with bottom hole temperatures reaching beyond 200°C in many areas of the world. Moreover, the increased recovery benefits and cost reductions possible with the use of horizontal and multilateral wells has triggered a need for higher power energy conversion systems in bottom hole assemblies, such as rotary steerable tools and downhole tractors. The concepts developed throughout this work address some of these new needs. This research investigated improvements, novel solutions and considerations that will lead to significant advantages in terms of reliability, extended temperature operation, increased power capability and reduced size and cost of compact harsh environment energy conversion systems. Improvements to both the electromechanical subsystem and the power electronic subsystem are introduced. Air gap viscous losses were shown to a have a significant effect on the optimal design of submersible PM (permanent magnet) machines, and a design procedure to account for this loss component in the design was developed. The application of a dual winding exterior rotor PM machine in a downhole environment enabled a significant increase in the application's torque capability, provided protection against generator winding over voltage, and reduced parts count. Comprehensive switching device qualification, testing, and simulation lead to a simple failure mitigation technique for the operation of the most suitable devices at elevated temperature. A flying capacitor multilevel inverter was then successfully constructed and temperature tested. A novel motor drive concept suited for elevated temperature oil filled environment applications concluded the research.

  11. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  12. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  13. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  14. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  15. Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhiwei Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-29

    used to run large- scale strip mines. In June 1985, China’s Pingshuo No 1 Coal Company, Ltd., signed a contract with the United States Occidental ...through Friday in 8 volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Africa (Sub- Sahara ), Latin America, and West

  17. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  18. 75 FR 6180 - Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; May 16-21, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... in greenhouse gas emissions. Other pressing issues include China's limited energy resources and need... reduce greenhouse gas emissions and will help China achieve its ambitious energy efficiency goals. China... International Trade Administration Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development...

  19. EU-China Environment Research: Enhancing collaboration through SPRING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2013-04-01

    There are huge challenges in both known and potential environmental problems in China and EU. Local geographical and climate conditions vary significantly across the two regions. For example the distribution of water resources is spatially and temporally uneven and often leads to water shortages in some areas, and flooding in others. In addition there is a sharp drop in mineral, oil and gas resources, as well as an increase in the living standard, which is a challenge for sustainable development. China's economy is still growing fast, placing an increased burden on the environment. The EU's economy is more developed with a rich experience in dealing with environmental problems in a fast growing economy. Therefore, it is mutually beneficial for the two sides to collaborate in environmental research. The FP7 funded SPRING project is intended to facilitate better EU-China environmental research cooperation and to create a long-term environment vision with clearly identifiable pathways for the two partners to work together. The project team is composed of five EU partners and five Chinese partners with expertise in water, soil, air, climate change and biodiversity. The project runs from March 2010-Feburary 2013. SPRING has taken a multi-level approach to achieving this, developing foresight and road-mapping studies to manage long term aims and facilitate increased cooperation and exchange for researchers, policy and decision makers and funding bodies. The outcomes of the project include detailed technology survey, success scenario analysis and EU-Horizon research road map with a focus on the research needs between EU and China in the next twenty years.

  20. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  1. WB/GEF Renewable Energy Development Project: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Fact sheet describes China's Renewable Energy Development Project to supply electricity to rural households and institutions with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). World Bank and Global Environmental Facility fund the project.

  2. Biomass and biofuels in China: Toward bioenergy resource potentials and their impacts on the environment

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Zhangcai; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cai, Ximing; ...

    2017-08-31

    We present that bioenergy can be a promising solution to the energy, food and environment trilemma in China. Currently this coal-dependent nation is in urgent need of alternative fuels to secure its future energy and improve the environment. Biofuels derived from crop residues and bioenergy crops emerge as a great addition to renewable energy in China without compromising food production. This paper reviews bioenergy resources from existing conventional crop (e.g., corn, wheat and rice) residues and energy crops (e.g., Miscanthus) produced on marginal lands. The impacts of biofuel production on ecosystem services are also discussed in the context of biofuel'smore » life cycle. It is estimated that about 280 million metric tons (Mt) of crop residue-based biomass (or 65 Mt of ethanol) and over 150 Mt of energy crop-based ethanol can become available each year, which far exceeds current national fuel ethanol production (<2 Mt year-1) and the 2020 national target of 10 Mt year-1. Review on environmental impacts suggested that substituting fossil fuels with biofuels could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution (e.g., particulate matter). However, the impacts of biofuel production on biodiversity, water quantity and quality vary greatly among biomass types, land sources and management practices. Improved agricultural management and landscape planning can be beneficial to ecosystem services. Lastly, a national investigation is desirable in China to inventory technical and economic potential of biomass feedstocks and evaluate the impacts of biofuel production on ecosystem services and the environment.« less

  3. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  4. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world's largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China's energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China's energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  5. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  6. Marketing energy services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mykytyn, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    For nearly six decades electrical utilities have operated in a regulated environment established by the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This legislation granted generators exclusive franchise to market electrical power in a given geographical area in return for the company`s commitment to provide safe, reliable and fairly-priced electrical power to all customers within the region. For close to 40 years, this system of regulated monopoly functioned reasonably well to maintain a balance among the varied, and at times competing, interests in the industry. During the 1970s, however, the public argument in favor of competition within the electrical services industry gained momentum. Spiraling energy costs focused the consumer`s attention on the need for conservation and inspired a variety of technological developments as well as experiments in cogeneration. Today, the electrical utility industry is poised for great change. Soon, this industry will follow the natural gas, telecommunications, and transportation industries into the uncharted waters of deregulation. The most pressing consequence of moving from a regulated environment to one that is deregulated - in other words, a competitive environment - is the need to design and implement a completely new form of marketing program. The response among industry marketing managers ranges from confusion and concern to excitement and eager anticipation. Where you fall along this continuum depends on how well you understand competitive marketing practices and the degree to which your company`s management group is willing to initiate competitive strategies and tactics now in preparation for the coming competitive marketplace.

  7. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  8. An Anatomy of China's Energy Insecurity and Its Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo

    2005-12-06

    China’s energy insecurity largely originates from its constrained availability, questionable reliability, and uncertain affordability of its oil supplies. The country’s fast industrialization and urbanization, together with demand for infrastructure and increasing popularity of automobiles, requires a lot of energy, but it consumes energy both intensively and inefficiently, threatening the environmental well-being of China and its neighbors. China’s risk aversion and poor energy policy making system further magnifies its perceptions of the low availability, reliability and affordability of oil imports, which further compounds its sense of energy insecurity. Distrustful of the market, and suspicious of other major energy players in the international market, the Chinese leadership relies on the state-centered approach, or economic nationalism, rather than a market approach to enhance its energy security. However, the country lacks not only an energy policy making system that can make and implement sound energy policies but also an energy market that relies on market prices to allocate energy resources efficiently. As a result of this domestic failure, China has pushed its national flagship companies to undertake a global scavenger hunt for energy while muddling along a messy road of energy reform at home. Setbacks in acquiring new sources of oil have validated the Chinese leadership’s belief that the international oil market is not free and China’s access to international oil is not guaranteed through the market. China’s problems in the international energy market are also perceived as evidence of attempts to prevent China from exerting international influence. China’s leadership is convinced that China should focus on areas where western capital is not heavily concentrated or where western influences are weak. With the recent revaluation of Chinese currency and growing economy, China has both the wherewithal and appetite to acquire more oil assets

  9. Temporal and spatial variations of energy consumption in rural China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. X.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhang, Y. Q.

    2009-11-01

    Presented in this paper is an overview of energy consumption in rural China in view of temporal and spatial variations. Characterized by steadily decreased proportion of biomass use and increased percentage of coal and electricity use, coal and biomass are still the major energy sources in rural areas, accounting for nearly 80% of the total rural energy consumption. Moreover, the energy consumption varies significantly across provinces both in total sum and by fuel types due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability. Three statistical groups are clustered associated with quantitative change and structural change, exhibiting evident transition from noncommercial energy pattern to commercial energy pattern. Much more work need to be done to cope with the forthcoming dramatic changes associated with booming rural economy and newly released policy from the points of both energy security and environmental pressure in China.

  10. Effects of China's Energy Policy on Future Air Quality in China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Li, C. T.; Zhang, D.; Luo, X.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the effects of recently announced energy policies in mainland China on air quality in both China and the U.S. in 2030. China is the largest contributor to global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, especially the precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Efforts to limit coal use in China under the country's National Air Pollution Action Plan will reduce these air pollutants. Control efforts are expected to not only decrease the concentration of ozone and PM2.5 locally in China, but also reduce the trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants to the U.S. We couple an energy-economic model with sub-national detail for China (the China Regional Energy Model, or C-REM) to a global atmospheric chemistry model (GEOS-Chem) to assess air pollution reductions under an energy policy scenario relative to a no policy baseline scenario. Future Chinese anthropogenic emissions are predicted by C-REM under a national energy policy scenario which achieves a 20% reduction in energy intensity from 2012 to 2017 by targeting fossil fuel use nationwide as specified in the National Air Pollution Action Plan and also meets the Plan's sub-national constraint that coal use must not increase above present levels in three largest urban regions (the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) through 2030. Using GEOS-Chem, we project changes in the surface concentration of ozone and PM2.5 over China and the U.S. in 2030. We find that air pollutants decrease substantially over both China and the U.S. under the national targets set by the Air Pollution Action Plan.

  11. Energy-Environment Source Book. Volume 1: Energy, Society, and the Environment. Volume 2: Energy, Its Extraction, Conversion and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John W.

    This source book, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is written for teachers who wish to incorporate material on the complex subject of energy into their teaching. This work is divided into two volumes, each with numerous tables and figures, along with appendices containing a glossary, mathematics primer, heat engine…

  12. Energy and Environment Guide to Action- Executive Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the Executive Summary for the Energy and Environment Guide to Action that provides information on State Policies and Best Practices for Advancing Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Combined Heat and Power.

  13. Energy and Environment Guide to Action- Executive Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the Executive Summary for the Energy and Environment Guide to Action that provides information on State Policies and Best Practices for Advancing Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Combined Heat and Power.

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-26

    basin of northwest China that has a relatively long development period ( Carboniferous to Qua- ternary), second largest area (130,000 km2), and...raw material industries such as non-ferrous metals during the Eighth 5-Year-Plan period (1991-95). The Second Phase of the Xiaolongtan Power Plant...generating capacity of China’s electric power industry climbed the step to 100.000MW and during the 4-year period from 1988 to 1991, our electric power

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-25

    distant regions, the 1,000-li-long Hexi Corridor, and 800-li-long Qin Chuan in Ningxia and Shaanxi. I. Several New Industrial Base Areas Arise Today...equipment. China’s huge transformer, with a maximum capacity of 360,000 kV , was developed here. China’s largest civilian aircraft manufacturing company is...lifting oil, and so on, and their products are being sold worldwide. Electric power has enabled Qinghai and Ningxia to build several large wool spinning

  16. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  17. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  18. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  19. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-08-31

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  20. China cuts energy intensity, but overall energy growth continues, report notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    A new report states that China has cut its energy intensity—defined as energy use per unit of economic output—by 19.1% from 2006 to 2010, reversing the previous upward trend. However, energy use and carbon emissions in the country continue to grow sharply, according to the Climate Policy Initiative's (CPI) Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development in China: 2010, the second of such reports. China nearly hit its goal of a 20% target reduction in energy intensity during that time period, which spanned the country's eleventh Five-Year Period (FYP) for social and economic development, but during that same period energy-related growth in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China increased by 33.6%, from 5.15 billion tons to 6.88 billion tons, said Qi Ye, CPI's Beijing office director, at a 2 February briefing held at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C.

  1. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  2. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Osowitt, M.

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-26

    Fushuang; SICHUAN RIBAO, 30 Nov 91] 17 THERMAL POWER Construction of Shuangliao Plant Said To Be Going Smoothly [Zhou Fugen, Su Wancai, et al; JILIN...Nenggui, Huang Kaijin; SICHUAN RIBAO, 3 Jan 92] 26 Shanshan Field Has 500,000-Ton Production Capability [Jiang Yifeng, Fan Jinfei; XINJIANG RIBAO...Ningxia], and other basins . Projections by geology departments indicate that Tarim Basin has one- seventh of China’s total petroleum reserves and one

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    are even smaller. Analysis of the average sulfur content of the coal from China’s primary coking coal mines (Table 1) shows that with the exception...SiC layer (for TRISO particles), the maximum heat treatment temperature for the spherical fuel elements must be held below 2000°Cini, but it is hard... TRISO particles with SiC interlayers is important for the relatively high pressure cold pressing and molding technique161. This procedure is carried

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Changsheng, Fei Weiwei; RENMIN RIBAO, 30 Sep 92] 10 Coal, Electric Power, Crude Oil Production Set Record for Comparable Periods [Zhang Chaowen; RENMIN...Tarim during the 1991-95 period , in accordance with China’s general plan for development of the petroleum industry. Reserves in Turpan-Hami and...conditions, the officials said, investment can be cut, the construction period shortened, and the potential for economic efficiency greatly increased

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-23

    cooperatively developed by China and the ACT Consol- idated Task—an organization composed of AGIP (the Italian National Oil Company) Overseas Company...industry more quickly. To accelerate development, we must actively develop pit-mouth power plants and reduce the pressure on transportation. Reform is...state-run coal mines only completed a little more than two-fifths of the planned scale for starting construction. This shows that the pressure for

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    enterprises in Jiangsu and Zhejiang have been forced to shut down 5 days and operate 2 days. Inadequate power supplies at the Guizhou Aluminum Plant...provinces of Zhejiang , Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Yun- nan. Their net coal imports in 1980 were 33.18...transmitted to Zhejiang , Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Anhui via the East China Grid. It has become an indispensable part of power needs for industrial and

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Northwest can be seen as a veritable treasure house. It includes Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and the Xinjiang Uygur and Ningxia Hui...oil fields of Karamay and Kekaya in Xinjiang; Yumen in Gansu ; Lenghu in Qinghai; and Yanchang in Shaanxi, there are also possibilities of even...metal minerals have been found in Xinjiang. In Gansu , nickel deposits make up about 72 percent of the country’s total, the largest not only in China

  9. China’s Energy Security and the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    thermal units 4 (Btu) according to the U. S . Energy Information Administration’s International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO01), or about one-third of U.S...unsatisfactory (Khalilzad et al. 1999, 10). Their rhetoric repeatedly charges that U. S . power and influence, which it believes excessive, should be “cut down...positive image this nation had of itself prior to “national humiliation” is one it has struggled ever since to get back. Whether Chinese fear is derived

  10. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  11. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  12. China’s Energy Insecurity and the South China Sea Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    the South China Sea dispute because of the potential influence of Chinese mercantilism on energy resource acquisition, the US, and its regional...that would afford non-member countries SPR protection in the event of an emergency. Such a move could also help discourage Chinese mercantilism by...33 Brzezinski and Mearsheimer, “Clash of the Titans,” 46-50. 34 Wu Lei and Shen Qinyu, “Will China Go to War Over Oil?,” Far Eastern Economic

  13. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  18. Energy and environment legislative digest 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-15

    This Digest (published every year) is a compilation of energy and environmental legislation enacted by the Southern States Energy Board's 18 member states and territories during the 2008 legislative session.

  19. Energy/environment opportunities for civil engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. ); White, W.B. ); Machiels, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on energy-related aspects of waste management. Topics include: environmental effects of decommissioning nuclear sites, reclamation of uranium failings sites, nuclear power plant risk assessment, energy from waste, and resource recovery systems.

  20. Texas - Energy Collaborations Working for the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  1. Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

  2. Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the EPA-developed Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades, a PDF guide that provides a set of best practices for improving indoor air quality in conjunction with energy upgrade work in homes.

  3. The Energy-Environment Simulator as a Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-Environment Simulators, provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, can be used to help individuals experience the effects of unbridled energy consumption for the next century on a national or worldwide scale. The simulator described is a specially designed analog computer which models the real-world energy situation. (MP)

  4. The Energy-Environment Simulator as a Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use, availability, and flexibility of the Energy-Environment Simulator, a specially designed analog computer which simulates the real-world energy situation and which is programed with estimated United States and world supplies of energy sources and estimated United States energy demands. (MP)

  5. The Energy-Environment Simulator as a Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-Environment Simulators, provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, can be used to help individuals experience the effects of unbridled energy consumption for the next century on a national or worldwide scale. The simulator described is a specially designed analog computer which models the real-world energy situation. (MP)

  6. Energy Structure and Energy Security under Climate Mitigation Scenarios in China.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how energy structure and energy security in China will change in the future under climate mitigation policy scenarios using Representative Concentration Pathways in a computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China needs to shift its energy structure from fossil fuel dominance to renewables and nuclear. The lower the allowable emissions, the larger the shifts required. Among fossil fuels, coal use particularly must significantly decrease. Such structural shifts will improve energy self-sufficiency, thus enhancing energy security. Under the policy scenarios, energy-source diversity as measured by the Herfindahl Index improves until 2050, after which diversity declines because of high dependence on a specific energy source (nuclear and biomass). Overall, however, it is revealed that energy security improves along with progress in climate mitigation. These improvements will also contribute to the economy by reducing energy procurement risks.

  7. Energy Structure and Energy Security under Climate Mitigation Scenarios in China

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken’ichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how energy structure and energy security in China will change in the future under climate mitigation policy scenarios using Representative Concentration Pathways in a computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China needs to shift its energy structure from fossil fuel dominance to renewables and nuclear. The lower the allowable emissions, the larger the shifts required. Among fossil fuels, coal use particularly must significantly decrease. Such structural shifts will improve energy self-sufficiency, thus enhancing energy security. Under the policy scenarios, energy-source diversity as measured by the Herfindahl Index improves until 2050, after which diversity declines because of high dependence on a specific energy source (nuclear and biomass). Overall, however, it is revealed that energy security improves along with progress in climate mitigation. These improvements will also contribute to the economy by reducing energy procurement risks. PMID:26660094

  8. China Report, Economic Affairs, Energy, Status and Development -- 35

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22161 4 W NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency...a New Period of Development] [Text] Beijing, 26 Dec (ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE)—A new situation of quick, balanced, and all-round growth has emerged in...year and that its energy industry had entered a new period of development. In regard to the coal industry, which yields 70 percent of China’s energy

  9. Coal and the environment -- Meeting the needs of China

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, D.H.

    1997-09-01

    The author first gives a quick introduction to Foster Wheeler, his employer, with emphasis on activities in the China power market so as to set the background for his talk. He then gives a brief refresher on China`s geography, demographics, and coal resources. This will be followed by power production needs of China and associated environmental concerns. Finally, some near-term and long-term technological solutions to the environmental impact are discussed, followed by some observations and concluding remarks.

  10. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  11. Energy and the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.

    This 17-chapter book (which may also be used as a textbook) provides a thorough insight into the basic facts about energy as well as new and transitional technologies such as synthetic fuels. The book also helps examine the economic, societal, and political aspects of the energy situation in detail, consistently providing technical data to support…

  12. Energy and the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.

    This 17-chapter book (which may also be used as a textbook) provides a thorough insight into the basic facts about energy as well as new and transitional technologies such as synthetic fuels. The book also helps examine the economic, societal, and political aspects of the energy situation in detail, consistently providing technical data to support…

  13. Energy/Environment Fact Book. Decision Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This collection of data and graphics were prepared in response to a request from the White House Energy Policy and Planning Staff. The focus of this document is on those environmental issues which will, in the near and midterm future, prove important to the rapid development of domestic energy resources. This report emphasizes coal because of its…

  14. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  15. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  16. Design and Implement of Astronomical Cloud Computing Environment In China-VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhua; Cui, Chenzhou; Mi, Linying; He, Boliang; Fan, Dongwei; Li, Shanshan; Yang, Sisi; Xu, Yunfei; Han, Jun; Chen, Junyi; Zhang, Hailong; Yu, Ce; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chuanjun; Cao, Zihuang; Fan, Yufeng; Liu, Liang; Chen, Xiao; Song, Wenming; Du, Kangyu

    2017-06-01

    Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    described. The hybrid breeder can provide sufficient fuel for a PWR or FBR. A system consisting of fusion-fission hybrid breeders and PWRs or FBRs is...deuterium, tritium ) as a clean energy source with an extremely abundant fuel supply. The development and application of fusion energy is a very difficult... tritium combustion, will be reached in the near future. However, the commercialization of fusion is still a long way off, probably by the middle of the

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-28

    have water resources that could be used for small hydropower stations during the Eighth 5-Year Plan period , was launched. The programme could...million tons of standard coal through energy conservation over a ten year period was one-third that of developing that amount of energy resources, a...which is responsible for issuing laws and regulations, and for planning, and also held periodic conferences with the two major systems to assure

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to exchange goods for energy on the international market . For this reason, both ends of this region’s production process -- import of raw materials...object saying that in a situation in which all the countries of the world are striving to reduce their dependence on the world’s energy market ...nanyao, perfume , and so on, and the Simao forest product base area. According to the information, the Manwan Hydropower Station which now has 18

  20. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-03-08

    An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment--the neighborhood form and street form--on residents' active travel. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke's ρ², increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions.

  1. Energy and environment; The light path

    SciTech Connect

    Ausubel, J.H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for 200 years, the world has progressively lightened its energy diet by favoring hydrogen atoms over carbon in our hydrocarbon stew. The successful decarbonization of the energy system, the key to the alleviation of numerous environmental problems, will ultimately depend on the use of pure hydrogen fuel produced form sources and processes that are carbon-free. The outlook for aggregate reductions in the materials that an individual consumes, dematerialization, is less certain. Rapid evolution of the energy system along its current trajectory, combined with cultural change, can avert the environmental danger.danger.

  2. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  3. When to store energy in a stochastic environment.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2011-05-01

    The ability to store energy enables organisms to deal with temporarily harsh and uncertain conditions. Empirical studies have demonstrated that organisms adapted to fluctuating energy availability plastically adjust their storage strategies. So far, however, theoretical studies have investigated general storage strategies only in constant or deterministically varying environments. In this study, we analyze how the ability to store energy influences optimal energy allocation to storage, reproduction, and maintenance in environments in which energy availability varies stochastically. We find that allocation to storage is evolutionarily optimal when environmental energy availability is intermediate and energy stores are not yet too full. In environments with low variability and low predictability of energy availability, it is not optimal to store energy. As environments become more variable or more predictable, energy allocation to storage is increasingly favored. By varying environmental variability, environmental predictability, and the cost of survival, we obtain a variety of different optimal life-history strategies, from highly iteroparous to semelparous, which differ significantly in their storage patterns. Our results demonstrate that in a stochastically varying environment simultaneous allocation to reproduction, maintenance, and storage can be optimal, which contrasts with previous findings obtained for deterministic environments. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. WHEN TO STORE ENERGY IN A STOCHASTIC ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store energy enables organisms to deal with temporarily harsh and uncertain conditions. Empirical studies have demonstrated that organisms adapted to fluctuating energy availability plastically adjust their storage strategies. So far, however, theoretical studies have investigated general storage strategies only in constant or deterministically varying environments. In this study, we analyze how the ability to store energy influences optimal energy allocation to storage, reproduction, and maintenance in environments in which energy availability varies stochastically. We find that allocation to storage is evolutionarily optimal when environmental energy availability is intermediate and energy stores are not yet too full. In environments with low variability and low predictability of energy availability, it is not optimal to store energy. As environments become more variable or more predictable, energy allocation to storage is increasingly favored. By varying environmental variability, environmental predictability, and the cost of survival, we obtain a variety of different optimal life-history strategies, from highly iteroparous to semelparous, which differ significantly in their storage patterns. Our results demonstrate that in a stochastically varying environment simultaneous allocation to reproduction, maintenance, and storage can be optimal, which contrasts with previous findings obtained for deterministic environments. PMID:21108636

  5. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the region consumes 20 percent of the world’s energy. Based on "Asian Pacific Statistical Annuals" of the United Nations, in the 23-year period from...to 2.16 billion tons of coal equivalent. Over the same period , the production of energy rose from only 680 million tons of coal equivalent to 2.04...of the gross value of production in developed countries was 4.7 percent. In the same period , the growth in the Asian Pacific region, including

  7. Recent trends of energy consumption and air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.Z.; Hao, J.M.; Hu, M.Y.; Nie, Y.F.

    2007-03-15

    The relationship between air pollution and energy consumption is a hot topic that is receiving increased attention by industry, regulatory agencies, as well as the public. China is currently undergoing a profound economic and social transition. Since the late 1990s, China's energy production and consumption have undergone an unexpectedly precipitous up-and-down fluctuation, and the related air pollution has changed dramatically. In this study, energy use and the related air pollution during the past years are analyzed and discussed in detail. Further, suggestions on sustainable energy use, air pollution control, as well as CO{sub 2}, abatement are proposed. By 2003, the total primary energy consumption of China had reached 1678.00 million tons (MT) of standard coal equivalent. As a result, emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NOx increased to 21.58 and 16.13 MT in 2003, respectively. Acid rain pollution worsened nationwide after 2000, with the areas of acid rain remaining stable while some seriously acid rain polluted areas worsened. This implies that more rigorous regulations, standards, and effective economic policies are needed.

  8. China model: Energy modeling the modern dynasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Jason

    1996-05-01

    In this paper a node-based microeconomic analysis is used to model the Chinese energy system. This model is run across multiple periods employing Lagrangian Relaxation techniques to achieve general equilibrium. Later, carbon dioxide emissions are added and the model is run to answer the question, {open_quotes}How can greenhouse gas emissions be reduced{close_quotes}?

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    For example, the IIASA [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis] energy model, which is based on economic development and population...Like the IIASA model, the model described here was based on scenarios, including human computations and decisions, computer calculations, and direct

  10. Mercury Release to Aquatic Environments from Anthropogenic Sources in China from 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Luo, Yao; Zhang, Haoran; Shen, Huizhong; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan

    2016-08-02

    Based on an analysis of measured data and distribution factors, we developed the China Aquatic Mercury Release (CAMR) model, which we used to calculate an inventory of mercury (Hg) that was released to aquatic environments from primary anthropogenic sources in China. We estimated a total release of 98 tons of Hg in 2012, including coal-fired power plants (17%), nonferrous metal smelting (33%), coal mining and washing (25%), domestic sewage (17%), and other sectors (8.3%). The total primary anthropogenic Hg released to aquatic environments in China decreased at an annual average rate of 1.7% between 2001 and 2012, even though GDP grew at an annual average rate of 10% during this period. In addition to the Hg that was released to aquatic environments in China's provinces, we estimated the Hg release amounts and intensities (in g/km(2)·yr) for China's 58 secondary river basins. The highest aquatic Hg release intensities in China were associated with industrial wastewater on the North China Plain and domestic sewage in eastern China and southern China. We found that the overall uncertainty of our inventory ranges from -22% to 32%. We suggest that the inventory provided by this study can help establish a more accurate map of regional and global Hg cycling; it also has implications for water quality management in China.

  11. The Future of Energy and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frois, Bernard

    2011-05-01

    This brief review is a tribute to Professor Akito Arima on the occasion of his 80th birthday, celebrated at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. Professor Akito Arima has played a major role in nuclear physics and the development of international collaborations. He has strongly encouraged the science community to bridge university research and industry, and to connect science to the needs of the world population. This paper describes the present challenges of producing enough energy for the world population in a context of diminishing fossil fuels and climate change. Coal, gas and nuclear energy dominate the scene at short and medium term, while new energy technologies are very promising in the long term. In contrast with the situation ten years ago, a significant expansion of nuclear power is planned all over the world.

  12. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  13. Periglacial process and Pleistocene environment in northern China

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xudong; Liu Dongsheng ); Yan Fuhua )

    1991-03-01

    In the present time, five kinds of periglacial phenomena have been defined: ice wedges, periglacial involutions, congelifolds, congeliturbations, and loess dunes. From the stratigraphical and geochronological data, the periglacial process is divided into six stages. (1) Guanting periglacial stage, characterized by the congeliturbative deposits that have developed in early Pleistocene Guanting loess-like formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 2.43 Ma B.P. (2) Yanchi periglacial stage, characterized by the congelifold that has developed in middle Pleistocene Yanchi Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.50 Ma B.P. (3) Zhaitang periglacial stage (II), characterized by the periglacial involutions that have developed in lower middle Pleistocene Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.30 Ma B.P. (4) Zhaitang periglacial state (I), characterized by the ice (soil) wedge that has developed in upper-middle Pleistocene Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.20 Ma B.P. (5) Qiansangyu periglacial stage (II), characterized by the ice (sand) wedges that has developed in late Pleistocene Malan loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.13 Ma B.P. (6) Qiansangyu periglacial stage (I), characterized by the ice (soil) wedge that has developed in late Pleistocene Malan loess-like formation. Thermoluminescent dating gives 0.018 Ma B.P. Spore-pollen composition analysis shows that the savannah steppe environment prevailed in northern China during Pleistocene periglacial periods. These fossilized periglacial phenomena indicate a rather arid and windy periglacial environment with a mean annual temperature estimated some 12-15C colder than that in the present.

  14. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment—the neighborhood form and street form—on residents’ active travel. Methods: Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. Results: The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke’s ρ2, increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. Conclusions: In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions. PMID:27005645

  15. Transportation: Environment, energy and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Petrakis, L.

    1993-01-11

    In the US, the transportation sector consumes over one quarter of the entire energy used, almost in its entirety as petroleum products, and in quantities greater than the total US domestic oil production. The transportation sector is responsible for a significant fraction of all emissions that either prevent US cities from achieving compliance with EPA air quality standards or have serious global change implications. Finally, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and employment due to the sector are low and incommensurate with the high fraction of energy that the transportation sector consumes. We examine below this situation in some detail and make recommendations for improvements.

  16. Energy and environment. A Sandia technology bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, L.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-03-01

    This bulletin discusses the following: decontamination of polluted water by using a photocatalyst to convert ultraviolet energy into electrochemical energy capable of destroying organic waste and removing toxic metals; monitoring oil spills with SAR by collecting data in digital form, processing the data, and creating digital images that are recorded for post-mission viewing and processing; revitalization of a solar industrial process heat system which uses parabolic troughs to heat water for foil production of integrated circuits; and an electronic information system, EnviroTRADE (Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange) for worldwide exchange of environmental restoration and waste management information.

  17. Energy & Man's Environment Impact Study. Summary of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, J. Stuart

    An evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of Energy and Man's Environment (EME), a nonprofit energy organization which conducts energy programs in 15 states around the United States. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who is the consumer of EME workshops and the user of EME materials? (2) How do participants view EME workshops.…

  18. Energy & Man's Environment Impact Study. Summary of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, J. Stuart

    An evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of Energy and Man's Environment (EME), a nonprofit energy organization which conducts energy programs in 15 states around the United States. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who is the consumer of EME workshops and the user of EME materials? (2) How do participants view EME workshops.…

  19. Citizens' Workshops on Energy and the Environment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    The citizens' workshops provide the opportunity for discussion of a wide variety of issues relating to energy and the environment. They are conducted by qualified energy specialists. In the workshops citizens are able to make judgments on the use of energy resources, environmental effects, growth, and the quality of life using the…

  20. Relationships among Environment, Climate, and Longevity in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Rosenberg, Mark; Hou, Lingli; Hu, Mengjin

    2017-10-08

    Human longevity is influenced by environment and nutrition. We considered environmental and nutritional factors relating to longevity in Chinese cities. We found higher 85+/65+ distribution ratios, indicating enhanced longevity, in the coastal and southern regions of China. These areas also featured higher humidity, low standard deviation of monthly temperature, higher levels of selenium (Se) distribution in soil, and greater sea fish consumption. Moderate climate is more conducive to longevity, however, there is no significant difference in longevity between different sub-climatic types within moderate climate; the relation between humidity and longevity is not always positive, the relation between altitude and longevity is not always negative. Nutritional factors like Se and omega-3 fatty acids contained in sea fish were crucial to longevity. In contrast, the consumption of meat and freshwater fish were less related to longevity. Taken together, humidity, altitude, and per capita sea fish consumption, when evaluated via geographically weighted regression, explained 66% and 68% of longevity among Chinese individuals in 2000 and 2010, respectively. Other factors require further discussion.

  1. JPRS Report. Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-03

    thus accelerating their desertification , and the expansion of desert area and the shift in the rain belt caused by so rapid a change in air...level. The coal supply areas are primarily in Shanxi, western Inner Mongolia , Shaanxi, Ningxia, and western Henan, while the energy-poor areas of the...Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, covers 32,000 sq km. The field boasts reserves of 239 billion tons of high quality coal, which has a low ash and

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-18

    EC Database on Energy Policy Inaugurated [EC PRESS RELEASE, 16 Dec 87] 17 FACTORY AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS FRG’s Nixdorf, Volkswagen Share CIM...because research is still primarily conducted on a theo - retical level, although a few industrial companies have already brought out several...developed a prototype printer which uses ferrofluids instead of ink. Hitachi protects the hard disks of auxiliary memories by mag- netic-liquid

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    January-August Percentage increase in total for January-August compared to same period in 1991 Total Monthly Total production of energy resources...particular during periods of coal shortages, the quality of coal has continually JPRS-CEN-92-013 24 December 1992 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS declined...grids are large generators 125MW and larger. During the 5-year period , 45.000MW in new thermal power gener- ators will be placed into operation

  4. The Energy and Environment Glossary, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Dalton, Edward

    This is a glossary of words that commonly appear in energy education and environmental education materials. With over 750 words ranging from "abatement" to "zooplankton" this publication includes some uncommon terms such as "anadromous,""film badge,""putrescible," and "tritium." Space is…

  5. The Energy and Environment Glossary, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Dalton, Edward

    This is a glossary of words that commonly appear in energy education and environmental education materials. With over 750 words ranging from "abatement" to "zooplankton" this publication includes some uncommon terms such as "anadromous,""film badge,""putrescible," and "tritium." Space is…

  6. The development of ecological environment in China based on the system dynamics method from the society, economy and environment perspective.

    PubMed

    Guang, Yang; Ge, Song; Han, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The harmonious development in society, economy and environment are crucial to regional sustained boom. However, the society, economy and environment are not respectively independent, but both mutually promotes one which, or restrict mutually complex to have the long-enduring overall process. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship and interaction of society, economy and environment in China based on the data from 2004 to 2013. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was employed to identify the main factors effecting the society, economy and environment subsystems, and SD (system dynamics) method used to carry out dynamic assessment for future state of sustainability from society, economy and environment perspective with future indicator values. Sustainable development in China was divided in the study into three phase from 2004 to 2013 based competitive values of these three subsystems. According to the results of PCA model, China is in third phase, and the economy growth is faster than the environment development, while the social development still maintained a steady and rapid growth, implying that the next step for sustainable development in China should focus on society development, especially the environment development.

  7. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  8. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  9. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Levine, Mark

    2009-06-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it to the rank of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modelling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities. From this analysis, we can conclude that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020. This increase will be driven primarily by urbanization, in combination with increases in living standards. In the urban and higher income Chinese households of the future, most major appliances will be common, and heated and cooled areas will grow on average. These shifts will offset the relatively modest efficiency gains expected according to current government plans and policies already in place. Therefore, levelling and reduction of growth in residential energy demand in China will require a new set of more aggressive efficiency policies.

  10. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-12-31

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  11. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  12. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan and, as such, it is a crucial year to push forward the work of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Important large-scale energy conservation policies issued in 2011 include Outline of the 12th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of The People’s Republic of China (the “Plan”) and Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Comprehensive Work Proposal for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (GF (2011) No. 26) (the “Proposal”). These two policies have established strategic objectives for energy conservation during the 12th Five-Year Plan in China, and they have also identified the key tasks and direction of energy efficiency programs for energy-using products.

  13. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  15. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  16. About E3: Economy – EnergyEnvironment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page explains EPA's E3 – Economy, Energy, and Environment – program, a federal and local technical assistance initiative, helping manufacturers adapt and thrive with a focus on sustainability.

  17. Focus issue introduction: renewable energy and the environment.

    PubMed

    Seassal, Christian; Koshel, John

    2013-05-06

    This focus issue highlights selected contributions from authors who presented promising concepts at OSA's Renewable Energy and the Environment Optics and Photonics Congress held 11-15 November 2012 in Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

  18. The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. Background The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Methods Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Results Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Conclusion Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. Relevance to clinical practice The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work

  19. China's environment and the challenge of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen A. Day

    2005-01-15

    China has been experiencing extraordinary economic growth for over two decades. Behind the remarkable statistics, however, it is facing a pressing issue: balancing its economic development needs with protecting its environmental resources. The environmental issue in China has a profound impact on the rest of the world as well, in such concerns as global warming and ethical and legal considerations about environmental enforcement. This book covers a broad range of topics, from specific environmental assessments in key sectors (i.e. desertification) to the policy implications of China's entry into the WTO.

  20. Genetic engineering of energy crops: a strategy for biofuel production in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guosheng; Peng, Liangcai

    2011-02-01

    Biomass utilization is increasingly considered as a practical way for sustainable energy supply and long-term environment care around the world. In concerns with food security in China, starch or sugar-based bioethanol and edible-oil-derived biodiesel are harshly restricted for large scale production. However, conversion of lignocellulosic residues from food crops is a potential alternative. Because of its recalcitrance, current biomass process is unacceptably expensive, but genetic breeding of energy crops is a promising solution. To meet the need, energy crops are defined with a high yield for both food and biofuel purposes. In this review, main grasses (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and miscanthus) are evaluated for high biomass production, the principles are discussed on modification of plant cell walls that lead to efficient biomass degradation and conversion, and the related biotechnologies are proposed in terms of energy crop selection. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Energy, the Environment, and Public Policy: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R.; Edwards, Amy N.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a videotape of the same name. Experts from the fields of energy and the environment, along with an official from the U.S. Department of Energy, discuss these concerns. The video is a condensation of five programs produced by Close Up Television and Video as part of a national institute for high school social…

  2. Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the findings of a national panel which investigated the present situation and future policy options regarding energy and the environment. Three sections comprise the report: (1) a chapter dealing with energy supply, consumption, pricing and policy; (2) an analysis of environmental issues such as land use, toxic substances,…

  3. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-12-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020 ; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  4. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  5. Energy harvesting schemes for building interior environment monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylka, Pawel; Pociecha, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    A vision to supply microelectronic devices without batteries making them perpetual or extending time of service in battery-oriented mobile supply schemes is the driving force of the research related to ambient energy harvesting. Energy harnessing aims thus at extracting energy from various ambient energy "pools", which generally are cost- or powerineffective to be scaled up for full-size, power-plant energy generation schemes supplying energy in electric form. These include - but are not limited to - waste heat, electromagnetic hum, vibrations, or human-generated power in addition to traditional renewable energy resources like water flow, tidal and wind energy or sun radiation which can also be exploited at the miniature scale by energy scavengers. However, in case of taking advantage of energy harvesting strategies to power up sensors monitoring environment inside buildings adaptable energy sources are restrained to only some which additionally are limited in spatial and temporal accessibility as well as available power. The paper explores experimentally an energy harvesting scheme exploiting human kinesis applicable in indoor environment for supplying a wireless indoor micro-system, monitoring ambient air properties (pressure, humidity and temperature).

  6. Energy expenditure on recreational visits to different natural environments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Lewis R; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Adrian H; Herbert, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity poses a significant challenge to physical and mental health. Environmental approaches to tackle physical inactivity have identified natural environments as potentially important public health resources. Despite this, little is known about characteristics of the activity involved when individuals visit different types of natural environment. Using Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey, we examined 71,603 English respondents' recreational visits to natural environments in the past week. Specifically, we examined the intensity of the activities they undertook on the visits (METs), the duration of their visit, and the associated total energy expenditure (MET minutes). Visits to countryside and urban greenspace environments were associated with more intense activities than visits to coastal environments. However, visits to coastal environments were associated with the most energy expenditure overall due to their relatively long duration. Results differed by the urbanity or rurality of the respondent's residence and also how far respondents travelled to their destination. Knowledge of what types of natural environment afford the highest volumes and intensities of physical activity could inform landscape architecture and exercise prescriptions. Isolating activity-supporting characteristics of natural environments that can be translated into urban design is important in providing physical activity opportunities for those less able to access expansive environments.

  7. Investigation on the Standard for Energy and Environmental Designof Residential House in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yumiko, Ogawa; Weijun, Gao; Nan, Zhou; Toshiyuki, Watanabe; Hiroshi,Yoshino; Toshio, Ojima

    2004-07-01

    In this research, the authors have carried out the researchto investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of theresidential building in China. Efforts have also been made to promote abetter understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard forarchitects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficientbuilding design in China. The results can mainly summarized as follows:(1) As for the thermal environment design, the climate of China has beenclassified five zones. (2) The sunlight, lighting, ventilationenvironment of residential building have been specified in the newstandards. (3) Prescribed the building design elements, such as layout,orientation, shape, color, plan and the type of window. In particular,the thermal insulation measures for heating system has been added in hotsummer and cold winter region, which was not described in old standard.(4) It is admitted that there is still a difference compared with thestandard of many foreign countries, and the improvement in the furtherheat insulation performance and positive execution of the standardcontinue to be expected.

  8. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and

  9. Fueling the dragon: Energy security in China -- Is there a role for US policy

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    Many authors talk about the rising power of China and the `China threat.` One area where conflict has frequently been predicted is in China`s pursuit of energy security. This thesis explores China`s energy situation, options available to meet rising demand, environmental impact of these options, and possible ways to mitigate these effects. The thesis then determines to what extent China will be unable to meet its needs from domestic sources and have to look overseas. Then, a review of China`s most likely overseas suppliers will explain where China`s actions could be threatening to US interests, and where fears are overblown. The areas where concern is most warranted is in China`s increasing dependence on imports for its oil needs, and its continued reliance on coal usage. The desire to ensure secure oil supplies has led China to deal with Iran and Iraq, despite US desires to isolate these nations. China is also increasing its influence throughout the Middle East, Central Asia, South America, and retains claims in the South China Sea. While actions in these regions are not necessarily threatening, US policy can play a role in keeping it that way.

  10. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  11. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  12. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  13. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  14. White Paper: Unleashing Energy Efficiency Retrofits Through Energy Performance Contracts in China and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Liu, Manzhi; Meng, Lu; Miao, Pei; Dai, Fan; Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Roshchanka, Volha; Halverson, Mark

    2015-09-15

    Energy performance contracting (EPC) is a mechanism that uses private sector investment and expertise to deploy energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. China and the United States both have large, growing EPC markets. This White Paper shares key insights on each market, including strengths and barriers inherent to these markets, compares the two markets, and sets forth options for enhancing EPC markets in each country. The White Paper concludes with recommendations structured around common goals of both countries.

  15. The effects of economic development and built environment on diabetes in CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-09-29

    With rapid economy growth, the prevalence of obesity, and related chronic diseases, has increased greatly. Although this has been widely recognized, little attention has been paid to the influence of built environment and economic growth, particularly for developing countries. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and the built environment while considering the effects of socioeconomic change in China. Three nationally representative samples are constructed and employed mainly based on various sources of data, such as the China National Nutrition and Health Survey, World Health Organization, and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey in 2013. The explanatory variables representing the built environment and influential factors include the health outcomes, economic indicators, local health facilities, regional dummies, and demographic features. OLS, robust regressions, and a set of binary choice models are used to estimate the possible relationship. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabetes is associated with both the broader built environment and individual economic factors in China. China's sharp economic growth in the recent decades has greatly increased the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, when also considering other influential factors. Although the results can not specify causal mechanism, some useful results can be clearly discovered and subsequently a few important policy implications can be provided for the sustainable and healthy development of China's urban planning or built environment.

  16. The research on the impact of energy-environment policy on regional development—based on CGE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we will focus on study the impact of energy and environment regulatory on the inter-regional coordinated development from the regional level. Making use of multi-regional energy-economy-environmental computable general equilibrium(CGE) model, we will analysis the effect of regional energy regulation in the future. We will research the impact of the carbon emissions trading and other environmental policy on regional economic development and industrial structure. The results show that the regulation of energy and environment can promote regional industry to upgrade and different policies of energy and environmental are needed to implement to mitigate the negative impact on the economy of different regions. In the paper, we expand the traditional regional energy-environmental CGE model tools for providing new quantitative methods to study regional energy and environmental problems in China.

  17. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  18. China’s Energy Security and Its Military Modernization Efforts: How China Plans to Dominate the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-23

    Zweig and Bi Jianhai, "China’s Global Hunt for Energy," Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 (2005): 30-31. 47 Ibid.: 30. This article goes on to state that...Source: David Zweig and Bi Jianhai, "China’s Global Hunt for Energy," Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 (2005): 28 vulnerability has set Beijing scrambling...Jianhai, David Zweig and Bi. "China’s Global Hunt for Energy." Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 (2005): 25. Jijun, Li. "Traditional Military Thinking and the

  19. The research on the fairness of carbon emissions for China's energy based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuxian; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Lu, Qingshui; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    This article firstly calculated China's energy carbon emissions of 30 provinces in 2010 with the method of carbon emission inventories of 2006 IPCC based on the data of China energy statistical yearbook, and then calculated its carbon emission intensity with GDP data in China's statistical yearbook. Next according to the formed formula the author calculated the EEI (Economic Efficiency Index) and ECI (Ecological Carrying Index) and made some corresponding figures with the help of GIS to analyze the fairness of the China's energy CO2 emissions in 2010.The results showed that the distribution of China's CO2 emissions for energy in 2010 become lower from the Bohai bay to the surroundings and the west circle provinces are with the lowest energy carbon emissions. The intensity distribution of China's CO2 emissions for energy in 2010 becomes higher from southeast China to north China. The distributions of EEI, ECI and for China's energy CO2 emissions are quite different from each other, and also with their comprehensive result. As to the fairness of China's energy CO2 emissions in 2010, we can say that the south provinces are better than those of Bohai bay areas (except Beijing and Tianjing).

  20. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to 77

  1. Interregional sharing of energy conservation targets in China: Efficiency and equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dan

    Energy conservation is a long-term strategic policy in China to support its economic and social development. This policy strategy is important for saving resources, protecting the environment, and ensuring the secure supply of energy to all economic activities. However, energy conservation often involves large amounts of investment and may also have dampening impacts on some local and regional economies. Moreover, energy conservation and efficiency improvement have many features of a public good. Therefore, government policy and intervention play a strong role to foster regional efforts and cooperative interregional actions on this issue. This dissertation introduces and analyzes a promising policy instrument---an interregional energy conservation-quota trading system---to help China fulfill its national energy conservation objective in an efficient and equitable way. To analyze the workings of the energy conservation-quota trading system, trading entities are first determined. In this study, statistical analyses (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) are applied to identify regional aggregations of provinces of China to act as the trading units. The marginal energy conservation cost curves of these regions are developed using engineering-economic methods and regression analysis. Simulations of interregional conservation-quota trading are undertaken after China's conservation goals in 2010 are allocated among regions according to several equity criteria. Various equity criteria are applied and analyzed in this study because of the philosophical differences in the appropriate definition of the concept. The trading simulations yield several important findings. First, the introduction of an interregional quota trading system can minimize both regional net compliance costs and national total conservation costs, irrespective of how the conservation tasks are initially allocated among regions according to different equity rules. Second, regional welfare

  2. Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    2009-02-01

    The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

  3. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  4. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  5. Clear water, blue skies: China`s environment in the new century

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The second volume in a seven-volume series examining China`s recent history, where it is today, and the path it should follow during the first two decades of the 21st century. It provides an overview of the country`s strengths and weaknesses as well as its obstacles and options.

  6. Harsh Environment Wireless MEMS Sensors for Energy & Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    sensors ( maintanance free, no battery) • Readout distance of 1-5 m (1 ms sweep time) • Sensor uses surface acoustic wave on LiNbO3 J. H. Kuypers...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Harsh Environment Wireless MEMS Sensors for Energy & Power 5a. CONTRACT...Approved For Public Release, Distribution Unlimited Harsh Environment Wireless MEMS Sensors for Energy & Power Albert (“Al”) P. Pisano, Professor and

  7. Population, environment dynamics, poverty and quality of life in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, B

    1996-12-01

    This article focuses on the growth in poverty, environmental concerns, and Chinese government efforts to eliminate poverty with integrated programs. China had 1.2 billion people in February 1995, or 20% of total world population on 7% of the world's arable land. The rate of natural increase was 1.1% in 1996. China's population could double to 2.4 billion by 2060. About 14 million people are added every year. China has about 300 million women of childbearing age. Even with 1 child per woman, population would grow by 300 million. 18 provinces have population growth over the national average of 1.49%. Many of these provinces are also provinces with high population density, high poverty ratios, and higher than 2 birth orders. The highest growth is in western China. Poor households have a lower quality of life, more disabled members, high rates of endemic disease, and illiteracy. Among the very poor without adequate food or clothing, environmental protection is a meaningless concept. Poverty alleviation strategies have shifted from relief to economic development. State support combined with local resources in a pooling approach pays for poverty alleviation programs. The central government's share will increase until the year 2000. The number of poor was 80 million in 1994 (9% of total population) living in 592 poor counties in remote and mountainous areas. The number of poor was reduced to 65 million in 1996. An integrated approach of family planning and poverty alleviation operates in Jinzhai County of Anhui province. China is determined to reorient to a "service-oriented, client- centered, woman-sensitive, and rural-emphasized approach."

  8. The Coon Rapids Energy/Environment Demonstration (CREED) project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.G.

    1995-11-01

    A proposal to enhance and broaden the appeal of the Coon Rapids Dam Regional Park (CRDRP), in the northern suburbs of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, by including within it a major educational demonstration of the interrelationship between energy use, the environment and the economic health of Minnesota, is described. The paper discusses the need for such an educational project, the location and advantageous features of the CSRDRP site, brief histories of the Park, Dam and the CREED initiative, key components of the current proposal and how they will be implemented, and eligibility criteria for the sponsored demonstrations. It concludes with an overview of the vision for the enterprise which will feature two major parts: (1) working system models of renewable energy conversion systems, conservation methods and energy efficient devices; and (2) a buildings complex for educational seminars, workshops, and courses on the energy/environment equation for the general public, kindergarten through adult.

  9. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  10. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  11. An energy standard for residential buildings in south China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu Joe; Lang, Siwei; Hogan, John; Lin, Haiyan

    2003-07-01

    To curb the spiraling demand for building energy use, China's Ministry of Construction has worked at developing and implementing building energy standards, starting with a standard for heated residential buildings in the Cold regions in 1986, followed by a standard for residential buildings in the Hot Summer Cold Winter Region in central China in 2001. In July 2001, a similar effort was started to develop a standard for residential buildings in the Hot Summer Warm Winter Region, comprising of the entirety or large portions of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Fujian. The target for the standard is to improve the thermal efficiency of buildings by 50 percent compared to current construction, which are typically uninsulated and have single-pane windows. Because of the importance of controlling window solar gain, the standard developed tables specifying the required window thermal transmittance and shading coefficient for differing window-to-wall ratios. The intent of such trade-off table is to permit flexibility in the location and size of windows, as long as their thermal performances meet the requirements of the standard. For further flexibility, the standard provides three methods of compliance: (1) a simple set of prescriptive requirements, (2) a simplified performance calculation, and (3) a detailed computer-based performance calculation using a Custom Budget approach.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  13. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, O.; Ouedraogo, A.; Kuznik, F.; Baillis, D.; Koulidiati, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m2/year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  14. CALORSTOCK 1994: Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M. T.; Lund, P. D.

    This publication is the second volume of the Proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the Sixth International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage held in Espoo, Finland on 22-25 Aug. 1994. This volume contains 51 presentations from the following six sessions: Chemical storage; Heat storage and environment; Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; Water storage pits and tanks; Cooling; and National activities.

  15. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  16. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    PubMed

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.

  17. [Radiation Environment Study of Near Space in China Area].

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiao-dong; Sun, Ji-lin; Li, Zheng-qiang; Chen, Xing-feng; Xing, Jin; Xu, Hua; Qie, Li-li; Lü, Yang; Li, Yang; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Aerospace activity in near space (20-50 km) has become a research hotspot for aviation big countries worldwide. Solar radiation study, as the prerequisite to carry out aerospace activity, is facing the barrier of lacking of observation in near space layer. Ozone is the most important factor that affects radiation value in this layer. Based on ECMWF reanalysis data, this input key parameter and its horizontal, vertical and temporal characteristics are analyzedwith results showing obvious regional features in temporal-spatial distribution and varieties. With meteorological data and surface parameters, near space over China is divided into 5 parts. Key factors' value is confirmed over each division. With SBDART radiation transfer model, solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation simulation in near space are conducted separately. Results show that it is influenced by latitude, total ozone and its vertical distribution, radiation varies under complex rules. The average year and monthly solar radiation strengthens changes with latitude reduction, while annual range changes reversely. Air absorbing is related to latitude and land-sea contrast and shows different values and seasonal variations. The ultraviolet radiation over South China Sea reaches its maximum value and minimum annual range, as well as minimum monthly range with value strengthening in summer and weakening in winter. In other areas radiation increases in summer while weakens in winter, monthly range shows double peaks with higher value in spring and autumn, lower in summer and winter. Air absorption in ultraviolet radiation is influenced by multiple factors, vertical varieties over areas besides South China Sea enhance in summer time. The vertical changes of monthly ranges affected by air absorption show consistence in higher and lower layer in June and July, while in other months ranges are bigger in higher layer.

  18. THE CLEAN ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT GUIDE TO ACTION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide to Action identifies and describes sixteen clean energy policies and strategies that are delivering economic and environmental results for states. For each policy, the Guide describes: Objectives and benefits of the policy; Examples of states that have implemented the policy; Responsibilities of key players at the state level, including typical roles of the main stakeholders; Opportunities to coordinate implementation with other federal and state policies, partnerships and technical assistance resources; Best practices for policy design, implementation, and evaluation, including state examples; Action steps for states to take when adopting or modifying their clean energy policies, based on existing state experiences; Resources for additional information on individual state policies, legislative and regulatory language, and analytical tools and methods. States participating in the Clean Energy-Environment State Partnership Program will use the Guide to Action to: Develop their own Clean Energy-Environment Action Plan that is appropriate to their state; Identify the roles and responsibilities of key decision-makers, such as environmental regulators, state legislatures, public utility commissioners, and state energy offices; Access and apply technical assistance resources, models, and tools available for state-specific analyses and program implementation; and Learn from each other as they develop their own clean energy programs and policies.

  19. 76 FR 18813 - China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 1, 2011. It... concerning the securities of China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd. (``CHJI''), a Nevada...

  20. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  1. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  2. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  3. Nuclear neutrino energy spectra in high temperature astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misch, G. Wendell; Fuller, George M.

    2016-11-01

    Astrophysical environments that reach temperatures greater than ˜100 keV can have significant neutrino energy loss via both plasma processes and nuclear weak interactions. We find that nuclear processes likely produce the highest-energy neutrinos. The important weak nuclear interactions include both charged current channels (electron capture and emission and positron capture and emission) and neutral current channels (deexcitation of nuclei via neutrino pair emission). We show that, in order to make a realistic prediction of the nuclear neutrino spectrum, one must take nuclear structure into account; in some cases, the most important transitions may involve excited states, possibly in both parent and daughter nuclei. We find that the standard technique of producing a neutrino energy spectrum by using a single transition with a Q value and matrix element chosen to fit published neutrino production rates and energy losses will not accurately capture important spectral features.

  4. Me and My Environment. Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    Presented is the experimental edition of Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment, which consists of 25 life science curriculum activities intended for the 13-to-15-year-old educable mentally retarded child. The curriculum guide is being used in the final field test prior to revision. Stressed throughout the program are ecological themes,…

  5. Determination of water environment standards based on water quality criteria in China: Limitations and feasibilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Zhou, Yunqiao; Bi, Cencen; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Giesy, John P

    2017-07-01

    There is a need to formulate water environment standards (WESs) from the current water quality criteria (WQC) in China. To this end, we briefly summarize typical mechanisms applied in several countries with longer histories of developing WESs, and three limitations to formulating WESs in China were identified. After analyzing the feasibility factors including economic development, scientific support capability and environmental policies, we realized that China is still not ready for a complete change from its current nation-wide unified WES system to a local-standard-based system. Thus, we proposed a framework for transformation from WQC to WESs in China. The framework consists of three parts, including responsibilities, processes and policies. The responsibilities include research authorization, development of guidelines, and collection of information, at both national and local levels; the processes include four steps and an impact factor system to establish water quality standards; and the policies include seven specific proposals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Radiative effects of aerosols on the environment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbin

    Anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of aerosol precursors and aerosols over China are among the highest in major countries of the world. Due to large emissions of soot and dust, aerosol absorption is high. Based on the observed direct and diffuse irradiance, a single scattering albedo of about 0.8 is derived for two large agri/eco/industrial areas. Aerosol direct effect can exert various environmental impacts in China. Photochemical activities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are significantly reduced because of reductions in photolysis rates and in emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons. Crop yields under optimal conditions can be reduced due to the reduction in surface solar irradiance. The most significant aerosol radiative perturbation is in changing the air-surface interaction and diurnal evolution of ABL. Reductions in various surface heat fluxes due to aerosols depend on soil moisture. Over a relatively dry surface, the evaporation has a small change, leading to the largest decrease of surface skin temperature at noon. Over a relatively wet surface, a substantial reduction in evaporation results in the largest surface cooling in the early morning. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) can be reduced by an amount comparable to the observed decrease of DTR. The longwave absorption of aerosols can lead to an increase of the daily minimum temperature and contributes to about 20% of the decrease in the DTR. The near-surface air temperature has the largest cooling in the early morning because the ABL is shallow and the temperature is sensitive to the radiative perturbation. As a result of the reduced sensible heat flux, the surface layer becomes more stable. Moreover, the aerosol heating enhances the stabilization of surface layer and in turn further reduces the sensible heat flux. As a result the ABL height can be reduced substantially. This will have many important ramifications, including trapping/accumulation of air pollutants, and perturbing the water

  7. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  8. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  9. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  10. Human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment of China: implication for ecopharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Bingshu; Hu, Xiamin

    2015-06-01

    Antibacterial residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of antibacterials for its population growth and economic development in recent years. In this article, we summarized the current situation of human-use antibacterial pollution in Chinese water (wastewaters, natural and drinking waters) and solid matrices (sludge, sediment, and soil) reported in 33 peer-reviewed papers. We found that, although there are adequate wastewater treatment systems in China, human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment were reported almost throughout the whole country. Three most frequently prescribed classes of antibacterials in China, including quinolones, macrolides, and β-lactam, were also the predominant classes of residues in Chinese environment, manifested as the high concentration and detection frequency. In view of this alarming situation, we have presented that ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) might be implemented in the antibacterial drug administration of China, as the active participation of the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory authorities from the diffuse source of antibacterial pollution. Considering EPV experience of developed countries together with the actual conditions of China, we have identified some approaches that can be taken, including:• Focus on education;• Further strengthening and persevering the antibacterial stewardship strategies and pharmaceutical take-back programs in China;• Designing greener antibacterials with better degradability in the environment;• Implementing environmental risk assessment prior to launch of new drugs;• Strengthening collaboration in EPV-related areas.

  11. Family Income, Home Environment, Parenting, and Mathematics Achievement of Children in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Ming

    2005-01-01

    Using standardized tests and surveys of eighth graders in China and the United States, this study explores the relationships among family income, parenting, home environment, and mathematics achievement. Focusing on Chinese only children and American children with no more than one sibling, the study found that the mathematics achievement of…

  12. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    Treesearch

    Lixin Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Zhandong Li; Jianwu Tang; Peter Caldwell; et al

    2011-01-01

    Urban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined...

  13. From Environment to Sustainable Development: China's Strategies for ESD in Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to provide an overview of the reorientation of education in China in the period 1998-2009 with regard to development issues. During this time, the focus has shifted gradually from the environment and health to education for sustainable development. The article centres on highlighting the main interventions and strategies adopted…

  14. From Environment to Sustainable Development: China's Strategies for ESD in Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to provide an overview of the reorientation of education in China in the period 1998-2009 with regard to development issues. During this time, the focus has shifted gradually from the environment and health to education for sustainable development. The article centres on highlighting the main interventions and strategies adopted…

  15. International Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Environment in Graduate Programs at One Normal University in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwin, Thawdar; Aslam, Sarfraz; Mukhale, Phoebe Naliaka

    2017-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the international students' perceptions of their learning environment in graduate programs at one normal university in China. The study used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sample comprised 91 international students, 51 Master and 40 doctoral from three schools: Education, Life Sciences…

  16. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  17. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest IndustrialEnterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming EnterpriseProgram

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy efficiency policiesresulted in a decoupling of the traditionally linked relationship betweenenergy use and gross domestic product (GDP) growth, realizing a four-foldincrease in GDP with only a doubling of energy use. However, during Chinas transition to a market-based economy in the 1990s, many of thecountry's energy efficiency programs were dismantled and between 2001 and2005 China's energy use increased significantly, growing at about thesame rate as GDP. Continuation of this one-to-one ratio of energyconsumption to GDP given China's stated goal of again quadrupling GDPbetween 2000 and 2020 will lead to significant demand for energy, most ofwhich is coal-based. The resulting local, national, and globalenvironmental impacts could be substantial.In 2005, realizing thesignificance of this situation, the Chinese government announced anambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20percent between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizingthis goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. Thecomprehensive energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for33 percent of national and 47 percent of industrial energy usage in 2004.Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets wereannounced for each enterprise. Activities to be undertaken includebenchmarking, energy audits, development of energy saving action plans,information and training workshops, and annual reporting of energyconsumption. This paper will describe the program in detail, includingthe types of enterprises included and the program activities, and willprovide an analysis of the progress and lessons learned todate.

  18. US energy policy in a changing market environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1986-09-01

    The drop in oil prices has brought energy policy issues back into discussion. The diversity of policy proposals suggests that clearly defined objectives are needed to avoid quick-fix solutions. The analysis traces the history of policies affecting the US oil industry, then focuses on recent changes in the policy environment. The author weighs recent proposals against those policy objectives he considers appropriate for the US. The three objectives of national security, efficient extraction of energy resources, and economic stability provide a common frame of reference for this purpose. Policymakers should only intervene in the energy market when they can improve the allocation of resources in accordance with these objectives. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Invisible transportation infrastructure technology to mitigate energy and environment.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Faruque

    2017-01-01

    Traditional transportation infrastructure built by heat trapping products and the transportation vehiles run by fossil fuel, both causing deadly climate change. Thus, a new technology of invisible Flying Transportation system has been proposed to mitigate energy and environmental crisis caused by traditional infrastructure system. Underground Maglev system has been modeled to be constructed for all transportation systems to run the vehicle smoothly just over two feet over the earth surface by propulsive and impulsive force at flying stage. A wind energy modeling has also been added to meet the vehicle's energy demand when it runs on a non-maglev area. Naturally, all maglev infrastructures network to be covered by evergreen herb except pedestrian walkways to absorb CO2, ambient heat, and moisture (vapor) from the surrounding environment to make it cool. The research revealed that the vehicle will not require any energy since it will run by superconducting electromagnetic force while it runs on a maglev infrastructure area and directed by wind energy while it runs on non-maglev area. The proposed maglev transportation infrastructure technology will indeed be an innovative discovery in modern engineering science which will reduce fossil fuel energy consumption and climate change dramatically.

  20. Energy and water vapor transport in a turbulent stratified environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Richiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulations about the transport of kinetic energy and unsaturated water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying turbulent flows with different energy. This interface lies in a shearless stratified environment modeled by means of Boussinesq's approximation. Water vapor is treated as a passive scalar (Kumar et al. 2014). Initial conditions have Fr2 between 0.64 and 64 (stable case) and between -3.2 and -19 (unstable case) and Reλ = 250 . Dry air is in the lower half of the domain and has a higher turbulent energy, seven times higher than the energy of moist air in the upper half. In the early stage of evolution, as long as | F r2 | > 1 , stratification plays a minor role and the flows follows closely neutral stratification mixing. As the buoyancy terms grows, Fr2 ~ O (1) , the mixing process deeply changes. A stable stratification generates a separation layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air into the moist one, characterized by a relative increment of the turbulent dissipation rate compared to the local turbulent energy. On the contrary, an unstable stratification sligthy enhances the entrainment. Growth-decay of energy and mixing layer thichness are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments.

  1. Energy aware path planning in complex four dimensional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Anjan

    This dissertation addresses the problem of energy-aware path planning for small autonomous vehicles. While small autonomous vehicles can perform missions that are too risky (or infeasible) for larger vehicles, the missions are limited by the amount of energy that can be carried on board the vehicle. Path planning techniques that either minimize energy consumption or exploit energy available in the environment can thus increase range and endurance. Path planning is complicated by significant spatial (and potentially temporal) variations in the environment. While the main focus is on autonomous aircraft, this research also addresses autonomous ground vehicles. Range and endurance of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be greatly improved by utilizing energy from the atmosphere. Wind can be exploited to minimize energy consumption of a small UAV. But wind, like any other atmospheric component , is a space and time varying phenomenon. To effectively use wind for long range missions, both exploration and exploitation of wind is critical. This research presents a kinematics based tree algorithm which efficiently handles the four dimensional (three spatial and time) path planning problem. The Kinematic Tree algorithm provides a sequence of waypoints, airspeeds, heading and bank angle commands for each segment of the path. The planner is shown to be resolution complete and computationally efficient. Global optimality of the cost function cannot be claimed, as energy is gained from the atmosphere, making the cost function inadmissible. However the Kinematic Tree is shown to be optimal up to resolution if the cost function is admissible. Simulation results show the efficacy of this planning method for a glider in complex real wind data. Simulation results verify that the planner is able to extract energy from the atmosphere enabling long range missions. The Kinematic Tree planning framework, developed to minimize energy consumption of UAVs, is applied for path planning

  2. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    In recent years China's energy consumption has increased rapidly. The problem of high energy consumption intensity and low energy utilization efficiency is serious, and the contradiction between economic development and energy and environmental resources has become increasingly acute, making energy conservation and consumption reduction an important society-wide concern. At the same time, global climate change has and will continue to have profound impacts on human survival and development, and is another major challenge to all countries. In order to accelerate China's energy conservation and emission reduction work, the National Leading Group to Address Climate Change, Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction was founded with Premier Wen Jiabao as the head, and the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction' and 'China's National Program of Addressing Climate Change' were issued, under which China's energy conservation and emission reduction work has been fully deployed. Efforts to promote energy efficiency have been further strengthened in all levels of government, and various policies and measures have progressively been issued and implemented. In addition, based on China's experience with implementing energy-saving priority strategies over the past 20+ years, our government established a goal of a 20% decrease in energy consumption per unit GDP in the 'Eleventh Five-year Development Plan'. Furthermore, in November 2009, in order to support global greenhouse gas emission reduction activities and promote China's low carbon economic development, the government established a further 40-50% reduction in energy consumption per unit GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2005. Improving energy utilization efficiency by scientific and technological progress will undoubtedly play an important role in achieving the above stated objectives. The improvement of energy efficiency of energy consuming products has always been an important component

  3. Collaboration on Renewable Energy Standards, Testing, and Certification under the U.S. China Renewable Energy Partnership: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.; Kurtz, S.; Lin, W.

    2012-06-01

    During November 2009, the U.S. China Renewable Energy Partnership agreement was authorized in Beijing by Presidents Obama and Hu from the U.S. and China. One of the principle tasks under this new program is the collaboration of the U.S. and China on the topic of renewable energy standards, testing, and certification with an initial focus on solar PV and wind topics. This paper will describe and discuss the activities which have taken place under the bilateral collaboration to date.

  4. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  5. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.

  6. Variations of China's emission estimates: response to uncertainties in energy statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chaopeng; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo; Li, Meng; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of China's energy statistics is of great concern because it contributes greatly to the uncertainties in estimates of global emissions. This study attempts to improve the understanding of uncertainties in China's energy statistics and evaluate their impacts on China's emissions during the period of 1990-2013. We employed the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) model to calculate China's emissions based on different official data sets of energy statistics using the same emission factors. We found that the apparent uncertainties (maximum discrepancy) in China's energy consumption increased from 2004 to 2012, reaching a maximum of 646 Mtce (million tons of coal equivalent) in 2011 and that coal dominated these uncertainties. The discrepancies between the national and provincial energy statistics were reduced after the three economic censuses conducted during this period, and converging uncertainties were found in 2013. The emissions calculated from the provincial energy statistics are generally higher than those calculated from the national energy statistics, and the apparent uncertainty ratio (the ratio of the maximum discrepancy to the mean value) owing to energy uncertainties in 2012 took values of 30.0, 16.4, 7.7, 9.2 and 15.6 %, for SO2, NOx, VOC, PM2.5 and CO2 emissions, respectively. SO2 emissions are most sensitive to energy uncertainties because of the high contributions from industrial coal combustion. The calculated emission trends are also greatly affected by energy uncertainties - from 1996 to 2012, CO2 and NOx emissions, respectively, increased by 191 and 197 % according to the provincial energy statistics but by only 145 and 139 % as determined from the original national energy statistics. The energy-induced emission uncertainties for some species such as SO2 and NOx are comparable to total uncertainties of emissions as estimated by previous studies, indicating variations in energy consumption could be an important source of

  7. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  8. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  9. Heuristic Scheduling in Grid Environments: Reducing the Operational Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, Christian

    In a world where more and more businesses seem to trade in an online market, the supply of online services to the ever-growing demand could quickly reach its capacity limits. Online service providers may find themselves maxed out at peak operation levels during high-traffic timeslots but too little demand during low-traffic timeslots, although the latter is becoming less frequent. At this point deciding which user is allocated what level of service becomes essential. The concept of Grid computing could offer a meaningful alternative to conventional super-computing centres. Not only can Grids reach the same computing speeds as some of the fastest supercomputers, but distributed computing harbors a great energy-saving potential. When scheduling projects in such a Grid environment however, simply assigning one process to a system becomes so complex in calculation that schedules are often too late to execute, rendering their optimizations useless. Current schedulers attempt to maximize the utility, given some sort of constraint, often reverting to heuristics. This optimization often comes at the cost of environmental impact, in this case CO 2 emissions. This work proposes an alternate model of energy efficient scheduling while keeping a respectable amount of economic incentives untouched. Using this model, it is possible to reduce the total energy consumed by a Grid environment using 'just-in-time' flowtime management, paired with ranking nodes by efficiency.

  10. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-01

    The dominant image of China's energy system is of billowing smokestacks from the combustion of coal. More heavily dependent on coal than any other major country, China uses it for about 70 percent of its energy (NBS, 2008). Furthermore, until recently, China had very few environmental controls on emissions from coal combustion; recent efforts to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions appear to be meeting with some success (Economy, 2007, 2009). Figure 1 shows the dominant use of coal in China's energy system from 1950 to 1980 (NBS, various years). However, this is just one side of China's energy story. Figure 2 illustrates the second part, and what may be the most important part of the story - China's energy system since 1980, shortly after Deng Xiaoping assumed full leadership. This figure compares the trends in energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) by indexing both values to 100 in 1980. The upper line shows what energy consumption in China would have been if it had grown at the same rate as GDP, since energy consumption usually increases in lockstep with GDP in an industrializing, developing country, at least until it reaches a high economic level. The lower line in Figure 2 shows China's actual energy consumption, also indexed to 1980. The striking difference between the lines shows that GDP in China grew much faster than energy demand from 1980 to 2002. As a result, by 2002 energy and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were more than 40% percent of what they would have been if energy and GDP had grown in tandem. In the next chapter of China's energy history, from 2002 to 2005, the increase in energy demand outstripped a very rapidly growing economy, and because of the large size of the Chinese economy, the increase had substantial impacts. The construction of power plants increased to 100 gigawatts per year; over the three-year period newly constructed plants had a capacity of more than 30 percent of total electricity

  11. Natural environment suitability of China and its relationship with population distributions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Ma, Hanqing

    2009-12-01

    The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI) model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1) the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2) There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies.

  12. Natural Environment Suitability of China and Its Relationship with Population Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Ma, Hanqing

    2009-01-01

    The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI) model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1) the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2) There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies. PMID:20049243

  13. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel

  14. Energy in the Environment - Initiatives 2004-08

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Jehn

    2009-09-11

    Under the Energy and Environment Initiative, the GWPC/GWPRF will expand the oil and gas electronic commerce initiatives used to enhance the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and the Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA). The GWPC/GWPRF has identified the following priorities for work efforts during the time period that will act as the base from which selections for each work period will be proposed. Work tasks will be presented for each reporting period by the GWPC from areas selected from the general list of priorities.

  15. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  16. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases.

  17. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  18. Environment-assisted quantum walks in photosynthetic energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Masoud; Rebentrost, Patrick; Lloyd, Seth; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2008-11-07

    Energy transfer within photosynthetic systems can display quantum effects such as delocalized excitonic transport. Recently, direct evidence of long-lived coherence has been experimentally demonstrated for the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex [Engel et al., Nature (London) 446, 782 (2007)]. However, the relevance of quantum dynamical processes to the exciton transfer efficiency is to a large extent unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical framework for studying the role of quantum interference effects in energy transfer dynamics of molecular arrays interacting with a thermal bath within the Lindblad formalism. To this end, we generalize continuous-time quantum walks to nonunitary and temperature-dependent dynamics in Liouville space derived from a microscopic Hamiltonian. Different physical effects of coherence and decoherence processes are explored via a universal measure for the energy transfer efficiency and its susceptibility. In particular, we demonstrate that for the FMO complex, an effective interplay between the free Hamiltonian evolution and the thermal fluctuations in the environment leads to a substantial increase in energy transfer efficiency from about 70% to 99%.

  19. Multi-energy imagers for a radiotherapy treatment environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Liu, Langechuan; Liang, Albert K.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Koniczek, Martin; Jiang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Over the last ~15 years, the central goal in external beam radiotherapy of maximizing dose to the tumor while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues has been greatly facilitated by the development and clinical implementation of many innovations. These include megavoltage active matrix flat-panel imagers (MV AMFPIs) designed to image the treatment beam, and separate kilovoltage (kV) AMFPIs and x-ray sources designed to provide high-contrast projection and cone-beam CT images in the treatment room. While these systems provide clinically valuable information, a variety of advantages would accrue through introduction of the capability to produce clinically useful, high quality imaging information at multiple energies (e.g., kV and MV) from a single detector along the treatment beam direction. One possible approach for achieving this goal involves substitution of the x-ray converters used in conventional MV AMFPIs with thick, segmented crystalline scintillators designed for dual-energy operation, coupled with the addition of x-ray imaging beams that contain a significant diagnostic component. A second approach involves introduction of a large area, monolithic array of photon counting pixels with multiple energy thresholds and event counters, which could provide multi-spectral views of the treatment beam with improved contrast. In this paper, the motivations behind, and the merits of each approach are described. In addition, prospects for such dual-energy imagers and photon counting array designs are discussed in the context of the radiotherapy environment.

  20. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  1. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan Byrne, Owen Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  2. Embodied Energy Use in China's Infrastructure Investment from 1992 to 2007: Calculation and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Ren, Bingqun; Zhou, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China's embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China's total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China's economy. PMID:23365534

  3. Embodied energy use in China's infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007: calculation and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Ren, Bingqun; Zhou, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China's embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China's total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China's economy.

  4. Counting on Energy. Project E3 (Energy, Economics, and the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr.; Reese, D. Chris

    Five units are designed to provide an opportunity for in-depth, technical analysis in the fields of energy, economics, and the environment. In an effort to move upper elementary and secondary students beyond general awareness, activities call for the application of numbers where typically only vague generalities are discussed. Within each chapter,…

  5. Counting on Energy. Project E3 (Energy, Economics, and the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr.; Reese, D. Chris

    Five units are designed to provide an opportunity for in-depth, technical analysis in the fields of energy, economics, and the environment. In an effort to move upper elementary and secondary students beyond general awareness, activities call for the application of numbers where typically only vague generalities are discussed. Within each chapter,…

  6. The impact of urbanization on the community food environment in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Su, Chang; Du, Shufa; Wang, Youfa

    2017-05-01

    Research on how urbanization has influenced the food environment in China is limited. The study aimed to examine the impact of urbanization on the food environment in China. Longitudinal data collected during 1989-2009 from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used, which covered 9 provinces in China. Urbanicity index (0-10) was assessed using an urbanicity scale. Final analyses included 216 communities. Random-effect models were used in analyses. Urbanization (higher urbanicity index) increased the odds of having fast food restaurants (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 2.18-3.54) and other indoor restaurants (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 2.28-3.76) within the community, the odds of having supermarkets (OR=2.43, 95% CI: 2.04-2.89) and free markets (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.77-3.70) within 30 minutes' bus ride from the community. Food prices for apples (β=0.06, 95% CI: 0.04-0.08) and lean pork (β =0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03) increased with urbanicity, while prices for other food did not. Urbanicity was positively associated with community norms for fast food consumption (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.22-1.33), fast food preferences (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.12) and nutrition knowledge (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Urbanization is associated with food environment in China. The findings provide insight for future economic development and public health efforts related to urbanization.

  7. Changes in surface energy partitioning in China over the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yitian; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Cheng, Chi-Han

    2017-05-01

    Surface energy balance and the partitioning of sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) play key roles in land-atmosphere feedback. However, the lack of long-term observations of surface energy fluxes, not to mention spatially extensive ones, limits our understanding of how the surface energy distribution has responded to a warming climate over recent decades (1979-2009) at the national scale in China. Using four state-of-the-art reanalysis products with long-term surface energy outputs, we identified robust changes in surface energy partitioning, defined by the Bowen ratio (BR = SHF/LHF), over different climate regimes in China. Over the past three decades, the net radiation showed an increasing trend over almost the whole of China. The increase in available radiative energy flux, however, was balanced by differential partitioning of surface turbulent fluxes, determined by local hydrological conditions. In semi-arid areas, such as Northeast China, the radiative energy was transferred largely into SHF. A severe deficiency in near-surface and soil moistures led to a significant decreasing trend in LHF. The combined effect of increased SHF and decreased LHF resulted in significant upward trends in the BR and surface warming over Northeast China. In contrast, in the wet monsoon regions, such as southern China, increased downward net radiation favored a rise in LHF rather than in SHF, leading to a significant decreasing trend in the BR. Meanwhile, the increased LHF partly cancelled out the surface warming. The warming trend in southern China was smaller than that in Northeast China. In addition to impacts on heat-related events, the changes in the BR also reflected recent cases of extreme drought in China. Our results indicate that information regarding the BR may be valuable for drought monitoring, especially in regions prone to such conditions.

  8. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  9. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China.

  10. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qingke; Zhou, Changjun; Shu, Xiang; He, Qiang; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment. PMID:28788648

  11. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qingke; Zhou, Changjun; Shu, Xiang; He, Qiang; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-05-13

    Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  12. The principle and main structure design on national database of poverty, environment, and development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjie; Feng, Xiangfeng; Yu, Zhuoyuan; Cui, Jing

    2009-07-01

    Poverty is listed as the one of eight "Millennium Development Goals" by UN Summit. From 1978 to 2004, rural poverty population in China is cut to 26.1 million from 250 million. In order to support the decision maker to make nice planning in elimination of poverty and promotion of regional sustainable development in China, the GIS based systemic and comprehensive database for poverty, environment and development is proposed and designed in the paper. Additionally, the design principle and main content of the database is discussed by utilization modern technology, such as spatialtemporal and tree-ring data models for data structuring and coding, in order to represent current poverty status, spatial distribution and temporal variations, and to explore the relationship among poverty, environment and development ultimately.

  13. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  14. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun

    2008-12-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

  15. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  16. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  17. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  19. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  20. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  1. 75 FR 68784 - Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... public health by promoting healthy environments; development and implementation of control strategies... affect the indoor environment; and the development and dissemination of information to educate key... Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  2. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2006-02-21

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E& ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E&ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E&ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held March 6-9, 2006. The following sections describe the overall

  3. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  4. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced.

  5. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry for China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Qing; Shi, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary industry has been developed in recent years. And it is very important to find the factors influenced the energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry. A decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions for China is set up by adopting logarithmic mean weight Divisia method based on the identity of carbon emissions. The model is adopted to analyze the influence of energy structure, energy efficiency, tertiary industry structure and economic output to energy-related carbon emissions in China from 2000 to 2009. Results show that the contribution rate of economic output and energy structure to energy-related carbon emissions increases year by year. Either is the contribution rate of energy efficiency or the tertiary industry restraining to energy-related carbon emissions. However, the restrain effect is weakening.

  7. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  8. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    Global energy markets and climate change in the twenty first century depend, to an extraordinary extent, on China. China is now, or will soon be, the world's largest energy consumer. Since 2007, China has been the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite its large and rapidly expanding influence on global energy markets and the global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumption and GHG emissions in China are low relative to developed countries. The Chinese economy, and with it energy use and GHG emissions, are expected to grow vigorously for at least the next two decades, raising a question of critical historical significance: How can China's economic growth imperative be meaningfully reconciled with its goals of greater energy security and a lower carbon economy? Most scholars, governments, and practitioners have looked to technology---energy efficiency, nuclear power, carbon capture and storage---for answers to this question. Alternatively, this study seeks to root China's future energy and emissions trajectory in the political economy of its multiple transitions, from a centrally planned to a market economy and from an agrarian to a post-industrial society. The study draws on five case studies, each a dedicated chapter, which are organized around three perspectives on energy and GHG emissions: the macroeconomy; electricity supply and demand; and nitrogen fertilizer production and use. Chapters 2 and 3 examine how growth and structural change in China's macroeconomy have shaped energy demand, finding that most of the dramatic growth in the country's energy use over the 2000s was driven by an acceleration of its investment-dominated, energy-intensive growth model, rather than from structural change. Chapters 4 and 5 examine efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the share of renewable generation in the electric power sector, concluding that China's power system lacks the flexibility in generation, pricing, and demand to

  9. Environment, Energy and Sustainability from a Systems Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, N. E.; Webster, M. D.; Trancik, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present a framework for teaching and learning about environment, energy and sustainability issues from the perspective of the emerging field of engineering systems. Engineering systems integrates approaches from engineering, management and social sciences to address systems with a high degree of technical and social complexity of importance to human societies. We share approaches to integrating engineering systems research and teaching from the Engineering Systems Division at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Topics include simulation and modeling; risk assessment; technology assessment; coupled human-natural systems; and optimization. We show how we have applied active learning techniques using simple models (e.g. climate and economic system modeling) to help students understand the dynamics of complexity in environmental systems and their interacting human components.

  10. Fluxes of water and energy in physically heterogeneous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Davenport, D.W.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluxes of water and energy at the near-surface environment are tightly interrelated with a heterogeneous vegetation pattern that is a mosaic of tree canopies and intercanopy area. The objective was to improve the ability to predict these interrelationships, which are not well quantified. The authors (1) quantified how vegetation overstory determines the patterns of soil moisture and near-ground solar radiation, (2) developed spatial neighborhood analyses that demonstrated how woody plants exploit canopy/intercanopy heterogeneity, (3) developed a spatially explicit model for predicting near-ground solar radiation for sites along a grassland-forest continuum, (4) developed a water balance model that predicted temporal shifts in soil moisture between canopy and intercanopy patches, and (5) used the collective results to assess large-scale ecosystem responses to climate variations that lead to accelerated soil erosion.

  11. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-12-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services--and a host of other vital services--must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  12. [Assessment of ecological environment effects of coastal development in Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Tuo; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Through the analysis of the development activities and the ecological environment in coastal of Hebei Province, China, an index system for evaluating the ecological environment effect, composed of 28 indices, was set up by the pressure, state and response subsystems. Using the comprehensive index evaluation method, the integrated effects of ecological environment index (EI) was calculated and its grading criterion was founded. The results showed that the ecological environment effect of Hebei Province coastal development varied from being relatively small, normal and then relatively large from 1984 to 2010, and its acceptance degree evolved from being acceptable to being unacceptable. Because the resource and environment pressures caused by coastal development were serious and a delay existed in the state relative to the response, the improvement of various measures in the response subsystem did not show a positive effect on the state, and the environmental quality of ocean showed a degrading trend. Due to the differences in coastal development pattern and strength, the ecological environment effect of development activities showed some spatial differences. The ecological environment effect of Qinhuangdao coastal development was the minimum, followed by Cangzhou and Tangshan. Cangzhou and Tangshan had reached unacceptable levels and needed to further strengthen the restoration and protection of ecological environment.

  13. The Main Problems in the Development of Geothermal Energy Industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiahong; Wang, Shejiao; Li, Feng

    2017-04-01

    As early as 1980-1985, the geothermal energy research group of the Institute of Geology and Geophisics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has proposed to pay attention to geothermal energy resources in oil fields. PetroChina began to study the geothermal energy resources in the region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 1995. Subsequently, the geothermal resources in the Huabei, Daqing and Liaohe oil regions were evaluated. The total recoverable hot water of the three oilfields reached 19.3 × 1011m3. PetroChina and Kenya have carried out geothermal energy development and utilization projects, with some relevant technical achievements.On the basis of many years' research on geothermal energy, we summarized the main problems in the formation and development of geothermal energy in China. First of all, China's geothermal resources research is still unable to meet the needs of the geothermal energy industry. Secondly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy requires multi-disciplinary cooperation. Thirdly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy needs consideration of local conditions. Finally, the development and utilization of geothermal energy resources requires the effective management of local government.

  14. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-02

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  16. Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-30

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small.

  17. Characterization of an energy storage capacitor in abnormal thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.; Chen, K.C.; Baron, R.V.

    2000-01-05

    There are applications of high-voltage, energy-storage, capacitors where it is desirable that the energy storage capability can be reliably and predictably negated in abnormal environments such as fire. This property serves as a safety feature to prevent events of unintended consequence. The present paper describes studies of the thermal response characteristics of a cylindrically wound, discrete Mylar film/foil capacitor design. The experimental setups that simulate fires will be presented. Three different heat input geometries were employed: uniform radial input, spot radial input, and axial input. Heat input was controlled via feedback system to maintain specific temperature ramp rates. Both capacitor voltage and current were monitored during the thermal excursion to ascertain the failure temperature, i.e. when the capacitor permanently shorts. Temperature of failure data is presented for the three heat input cases along with a statistical analysis of the results and application implications. The physics of failure will be described in terms of the thermal/mechanical properties of the Mylar.

  18. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  19. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  20. Human cancer risk from the inhalation of formaldehyde in different indoor environments in Guiyang City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Tian; Liu, Zao-Rong; Bai, Yu-Hua

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the risk of human cancer from the inhalation of formaldehyde in different indoor environments in Guiyang City in China. Offices had the highest mean formaldehyde concentration (0.11 mg/m(3)) and classrooms had the lowest mean formaldehyde concentration (0.04 mg/m(3)). The cancer risk levels in different indoor environments ranged from 6.96 x 10(-6 )to 2.48 x 10(-4) and were greater than the acceptable cancer risk 1 x 10(-6). High human formaldehyde risks imply a critical influence on human health in Guiyang City. The highest cancer risk values occurred in bedrooms (ranging from 1.87 in 10,000 to 2.48 in 10,000). For office workers, offices were the highest risk environment after bedrooms where formaldehyde concentration levels were identified. Students were the most sensitive population, and the highest priority should be given to protecting their health in indoor environments. Regulations and standards for low emission materials and public education in relation to indoor pollution are highly recommended in China to protect human health.

  1. Clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient across China: adaptation of clonality to environments.

    PubMed

    Ye, Duo; Hu, Yukun; Song, Minghua; Pan, Xu; Xie, Xiufang; Liu, Guofang; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant clonality, the ability of a plant species to reproduce itself vegetatively through ramets (shoot-root units), occurs in many plant species and is considered to be more frequent in cold or wet environments. However, a deeper understanding on the clonality-climate relationships along large geographic gradients is still scarce. In this study we revealed the clonality-climate relationships along latitudinal gradient of entire China spanning from tropics to temperate zones using clonality data for 4015 vascular plant species in 545 terrestrial communities. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that, in general, the preponderance of clonality increased along the latitudinal gradient towards cold, dry or very wet environments. However, the distribution of clonality in China was significantly but only weakly correlated with latitude and four climatic factors (mean annual temperature, temperature seasonality, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality). Clonality of woody and herbaceous species had opposite responses to climatic variables. More precisely, woody clonality showed higher frequency in wet or climatically stable environments, while herbaceous clonality preferred cold, dry or climatically instable environments. Unexplained variation in clonality may be owed to the influences of other environmental conditions and to different clonal strategies and underlying traits adopted by different growth forms and phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, in-depth research in terms of more detailed clonal growth form, phylogeny and additional environmental variables are encouraged to further understand plant clonality response to climatic and/or edaphic conditions.

  2. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  3. Gender differences in home environments related to childhood obesity in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoxu; Wu, Hongjiao; Lee, Thomas; Wang, Christina M B; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Maddock, Jay E

    2014-10-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing in China, with rates doubling between 2000 and 2010. Several large, epidemiological studies have shown boys to be consistently more likely to be obese than girls. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the home environment and parenting practices related to childhood obesity. A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sampling of 522 (86.1% response rate) primary caregivers of children ages 2-10 years was conducted in four locations in Nanchang, China, in the spring of 2013 using face-to-face, anonymous questionnaires. Boys were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than girls to watch more television (TV) per week, be allowed to have snacks/sweets or soft drinks without permission, and to have sugary drinks at snacks and meals. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to have parental encouragement and support for physical activity, participate in organized sports/group activities, and have fresh fruits accessible. Parents also believed that boys eat too much junk foods or their favorite foods if not controlled. Few differences were noted in the actual physical environment in the home, including access to sports equipment, junk food availability, and access to media. RESULTS indicate that parents tend to be more permissive with boys than girls, allowing them access to unhealthy foods and more TV time. These differences may contribute to the higher prevalence of obesity in boys in China.

  4. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2013-11-15

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected as contaminants of emerging concern ubiquitously in the aquatic environment in China and worldwide. A clear picture of PPCP contamination in the Chinese aquatic environment is needed to gain insight for both research and regulatory needs (e.g. monitoring, control and management). The occurrence data of 112 PPCPs in waters and sediments in China has been reviewed. In most cases, the detected concentration of these PPCPs in waters and sediments were at ng/L and ng/g levels, which were lower than or comparable to those reported worldwide. A screening level risk assessment (SLERA) identified six priority PPCPs in surface waters, namely erythromycin, roxithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole. The results of SLERA also revealed that the hot spots for PPCP pollution were those river waters affected by the megacities with high density of population, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Shanghai. Limitations of current researches and implications for future research in China were discussed. Some regulatory issues were also addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Changes of regional environment quality pattern in China since 1986-2008].

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei-Hua; Sun, Ming-Kun; Lu, Yu-Qi

    2011-03-01

    For further study of regional differences and the pattern of changes in environmental quality in China since 1986-2008, we perform the principal component analysis, standard deviation, Mann-Kendall and cluster analysis on 18 environmental quality indexes in 28 provinces of China in this paper. Those indexes refer to pollutant emission, pollutants treatment capacities and pollutant emission of per unit land area, etc. The paper indicates that regional environmental quality in China has been increased slightly during this period. It can be divided into four stages: 1986-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2005 and 2005-2008. The overall patterns of regional environmental quality is the West is higher than the East in general, while the environmental quality of the eastern part have been changed somewhat. For more details, the regional environmental quality in China in 1986 is composed of two parts, the eastern part and the western part, while in 2000 and 2001 the eastern part, the middle part and the western part appears as the overall pattern. For the year of 2005, the regional environmental quality in the western is higher than that of the eastern; meanwhile, the eastern can be divided into the northern part, the middle part and the southern part, and the environmental quality in northern part is better than that of the southern part, southern part is better than that of the middle part. This pattern hardly changed in 2008, except that the area with poor environment quality region had expanded. Pollutant emission of per unit land area played as a main factor; yet both the pollutant emission and the reuse of pollutants impacted the pattern specifically. In addition, the national macro policies, the regional policies, the regional economic and the industrial structure can be primary reason for the change of regional environmental quality pattern in China as well.

  6. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  7. Study of energy budget of the earth`s surface in China

    SciTech Connect

    Guodong, Gao

    1997-12-31

    In this study, while the results of the investigation on the components of energy budget of the earth`s surface in China are summarized, various methods for determining the components of energy balance are also discussed and analyzed. Using the data of the ordinary meteorological observation from more than 200 stations and the actinometric observation of more than 70 stations, which are distributed in areas of different conditions, we computed the amount of the components of energy budget and plotted a series of maps showing the distribution of each components for every month and the year in China. The feature of their geographical distribution and annual variation was also considered.

  8. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  10. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2015-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  11. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  12. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  13. Developing Conservation Attitudes and Energy Concepts in Individuals of Various Cognitive Levels, Using the Energy Environment Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Dennis D.; Heikkinen, Michael W.

    Reported is a study of the effectiveness of the Energy Environment Simulator (EES) in developing energy awareness and positive attitudes towards energy issues in students at various levels of cognitive development. The EES is a portable computer model of U.S. energy resources, environmental quality and food distribution. Subjects were students…

  14. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation.

  15. The Energy Puzzle Between the United States and China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and Secure America’s Energy Supplies, Provide Consumers with Choices to Reduce Costs and Save Energy, and Innovate our Way to a Clean Energy Future...conversation, clean energy and alternative fuel research and development, and cooperation with other countries in the world. As one of the worlds...region. Lastly, the U.S. and the rest of the world are in a race for developing clean energy . With clean energy comes the requirement of advanced

  16. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude.

  17. An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Ji; Zhang, Aiping; Lam, Shu Kee; Zhang, Xuesong; Thomson, Allison M.; Lin, Erda; Jiang, Kejun; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page G.; Yu, Sha; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhou, Sheng

    2016-01-05

    Biomass has been widely recognized as an important energy source with high potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while minimizing environmental pollution. In this study, we employ the Global Change Assessment Model to estimate the potential of agricultural and forestry residue biomass for energy production in China. Potential availability of residue biomass as an energy source was analyzed for the 21st century under different climate policy scenarios. Currently, the amount of total annual residue biomass, averaged over 2003-2007, is around 15519PJ in China, consisting of 10818PJ from agriculture residues (70%) and 4701PJ forestry residues (30%). We estimate that 12693PJ of the total biomass is available for energy production, with 66% derived from agricultural residue and 34% from forestry residue. Most of the available residue is from south central China (3347PJ), east China (2862PJ) and south-west China (2229PJ), which combined exceeds 66% of the total national biomass. Under the reference scenario without carbon tax, the potential availability of residue biomass for energy production is projected to be 3380PJ by 2050 and 4108PJ by 2095, respectively. When carbon tax is imposed, biomass availability increases substantially. For the CCS 450ppm scenario, availability of biomass increases to 9002PJ (2050) and 11524PJ (2095), respectively. For the 450ppm scenario without CCS, 9183 (2050) and 11150PJ (2095) residue biomass, respectively, is projected to be available. Moreover, the implementation of CCS will have a little impact on the supply of residue biomass after 2035. Our results suggest that residue biomass has the potential to be an important component in China's sustainable energy production portfolio. As a low carbon emission energy source, climate change policies that involve carbon tariff and CCS technology promote the use of residue biomass for energy production in a low carbon-constrained world.

  18. Energy and the Environment. Final Report, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E., Ed.; Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    These self-contained energy units were developed by Florida teachers to help high school students better understand energy, energy conservation, and life-styles. The major objectives are to help students understand the science and technology of energy, make informed and fair judgments on energy options, make personal life-style commitments which…

  19. Hospital organizational environment and staff satisfaction in China: A large-scale survey.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shu; Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Cai, Baota; Yu, Min

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study are to explore the satisfaction of health-care staff in Chinese public hospitals with different aspects of their organizational environment and to identify factors affecting this satisfaction. The satisfaction of hospital staff members with organizational environment could be associated with the quality of patient care and patients' satisfaction. The design of the study is in the form of a survey. A questionnaire survey was performed from April to November 2008 to collect demographic characteristics of hospital staff members and analyse which organizational environment factors (hospital security policy and professional care, environmental security, safety of operations and management of human resources) influence staff satisfaction. Hospital members' satisfaction scores were high for hospital security policy and professional care but lower for safety of operations, the security of the environment and management of the human resources (lowest). Multivariate analysis identified that hospital size (large hospitals scoring highest), department (non-clinical department such as administrative or logistics department), professional title (student), position (administration) and years of employment (<3 years) were independently positively associated with overall satisfaction with organizational environment (P < 0.05). These results indicated that in China, hospital staff members were mostly dissatisfied with the administration and management of human resources. The organizational environment of hospitals should be improved to improve staff satisfaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues.

  1. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  2. Learn about Energy and its Impact on the Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean energy includes renewable energy, energy efficiency and efficient combined heat and power. All forms of electricity generation have an environmental impact on our air, water and land, but it varies.

  3. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  4. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  5. Major energy plants and their potential for bioenergy development in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  6. Analysis on the Impact of Tax Policy over China's New Energy Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bin; Li, Yang

    Energy is a kind of resource which can be used directly or offer people what they need by some conversions, the development of energy is the headspring of economic growth With the development of our national economy, new energy industry has become China's current vigorously the mainstream of development The analysis on influence of tax policy on the development of national new energy industry is mainly discussed, as well as the alternative analysis on the production output and sales tax aspects in the areas of new energy, and based on this, some tax policy suggestions on how to promote the development of national new energy industry are given finally.

  7. Energy Demand and Its Effect on the Environment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Topics included are: Energy use; crude oil production; environmental impacts; air pollution; electrical energy consumption; household appliances; population growth, residential and commercial; and related subjects.

  8. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  9. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  10. How well have China's recent five-year plans been implemented for energy conservation and air pollution control?

    PubMed

    Mao, XianQiang; Zhou, Ji; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2014-09-02

    This study evaluates how well China's 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have been implemented in terms of energy conservation and air pollution control and deconstructs the effects of the economic, energy, and environmental policies included in the Plans. A "counterfactual" comparative-scenario method is deployed, which assumes a business as usual scenario in which the changes in economic, energy, and environmental parameters are "frozen", and then reactivates them one by one, with the help of LEAP modeling. It is found that during the 11th Five-Year Plan period, the binding targets were basically achieved. Economic growth put a great strain upon the energy demand and the environment, but energy policy made a decisive contribution by promoting energy efficiency and structure. Environmental policy promoted the deployment of end-of-pipe treatment which led to the control of certain air pollutants but at the expense of an increase in energy use and in the emission of other pollutants. During the ongoing 12th Five-Year Plan period, energy policy's potential for efficiency improvement is shrinking, but economic policy is restraining economic growth thus making a positive contribution. Environmental policy attempts to enforce multipollutant reduction, but there is still insufficient focus on the cocontrol of different pollutants and CO2.

  11. Smoking experimentation among elementary school students in China: influences from peers, families, and the school environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Koplan, Jeffrey; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Changwei; Guo, Chaoran; Liu, Jing; Li, Hui; Kegler, Michelle; Redmon, Pam; Eriksen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate experimentation with smoking among primary school students in China. Data were acquired from a recent survey of 4,073 students in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9-12) in 11 primary schools of Ningbo City. The questions were adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Results suggest that although the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE) encourages smoke-free schools, experimentation with cigarettes remains a serious problem among primary school students in China. Peers, family members, and the school environment play important roles in influencing smoking experimentation among students. Having a friend who smoked, seeing a family member smoke, and observing a teacher smoking on campus predicted a higher risk of experimentation with smoking; the exposure to anti-tobacco materials at school predicted a lower risk of experimentation with smoking. The evidence suggests that public health practitioners and policymakers should seek to ensure the implementation of smoke-free policies and that intervention should target young people, families, and communities to curb the commencement of smoking among children and adolescents in China.

  12. Smoking Experimentation among Elementary School Students in China: Influences from Peers, Families, and the School Environment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Koplan, Jeffrey; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Changwei; Guo, Chaoran; Liu, Jing; Li, Hui; Kegler, Michelle; Redmon, Pam; Eriksen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate experimentation with smoking among primary school students in China. Data were acquired from a recent survey of 4,073 students in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9–12) in 11 primary schools of Ningbo City. The questions were adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Results suggest that although the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE) encourages smoke-free schools, experimentation with cigarettes remains a serious problem among primary school students in China. Peers, family members, and the school environment play important roles in influencing smoking experimentation among students. Having a friend who smoked, seeing a family member smoke, and observing a teacher smoking on campus predicted a higher risk of experimentation with smoking; the exposure to anti-tobacco materials at school predicted a lower risk of experimentation with smoking. The evidence suggests that public health practitioners and policymakers should seek to ensure the implementation of smoke-free policies and that intervention should target young people, families, and communities to curb the commencement of smoking among children and adolescents in China. PMID:23991172

  13. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  14. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 45 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students apply knowledge of energy uses to energy conservation in the home and develop an awareness of their own social responsibilities for energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of six objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  15. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 4, 5, and 6 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  16. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 6, 7, and 8 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  17. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 9 and 10 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  18. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 11 and 12 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  19. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 9 and 10 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  20. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 11 and 12 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  1. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 4, 5, and 6 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  2. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 6, 7, and 8 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  3. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 45 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students apply knowledge of energy uses to energy conservation in the home and develop an awareness of their own social responsibilities for energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of six objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  4. Modelling the effects of contaminated environments on HFMD infections in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyan; Xiao, Yanni; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) has spread widely in mainland China increasing in prevalence in most years with serious consequences for child health. The HFMD virus can survive for a long period outside the host in suitable conditions, and hence contaminated environments may play important roles in HFMD infection. A new mathematical model was proposed and used to investigate the roles that asymptomatic individuals and contaminated environments played in HFMD dynamics. The model includes both direct transmission between susceptible and infected individuals and indirect transmission via free-living infectious unites in the environment. Theoretical analysis shows that the disease goes to extinction if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, whilst otherwise the disease persists. By fitting the proposed model to surveillance data we estimated the basic reproduction number as 1.509. Numerical simulations show that increasing the rate of virus clearance and decreasing transmission rates can delay epidemic outbreaks and weaken the severity of HFMD. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the basic reproduction number is sensitive to the transmission rate induced by asymptomatic infectious individuals and parameters associated with contaminated environments such as the indirect transmission rate, the rate of clearance and the virus shedding rates. This implies that asymptomatic infectious individuals and contaminated environments contribute substantially to new HFMD infections, and so would be targets for effective control measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Initial Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of PCB-HASL in Typical Outdoor Environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Yi, Pan; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    A long-term (1, 3, and 6 months) outdoor exposure test was performed for lead-free hot air solder leveling printed circuit boards (PCB-HASL) in typical environments in China and the corrosion behavior and mechanism of outdoor PCB-HASL were investigated. In a dry environment PCB-HASL corroded slightly, because of the protective effect of surface oxide films. Corrosion spread from places where dust particles were deposited or mold spores were adsorbed. Under the combined effects of humidity and contamination, large amounts of granular corrosion products with a loose structure were generated, greatly reducing the protective effect of the Sn layer. Furthermore, protection of the edges of the plates was poor, and corrosion products from these regions migrated rapidly on the FR-4 board. When a 12 V electrical bias was applied, Sn and Cu migrated simultaneously. In the electrochemical migration process the effect of humidity was much more critical than that of contamination.

  6. U.S.-China Competition for Energy Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    116 Zachary Karabell, “Can an Eagle Hug a Panda ?” Time, November 30, 2009. 34 Table 1. U.S.-China post-1950s Economic Relations...with conflict resolution and build trust. This created a strong condition whereby these economic giants were able to cooperate in a greater array of...sgp/crs/row/RL30946.pdf (accessed August 25, 2009). Karabell, Zachary. “Can an Eagle Hug a Panda ?” Time, November 30, 2009. Klare, Michael. Blood and

  7. Life cycle water use of energy production and its environmental impacts in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-12-17

    The energy sector is a major user of fresh water resources in China. We investigate the life cycle water withdrawals, consumptive water use, and wastewater discharge of China's energy sectors and their water-consumption-related environmental impacts, using a mixed-unit multiregional input-output (MRIO) model and life cycle impact assessment method (LCIA) based on the Eco-indicator 99 framework. Energy production is responsible for 61.4 billion m(3) water withdrawals, 10.8 billion m(3) water consumption, and 5.0 billion m(3) wastewater discharges in China, which are equivalent to 12.3%, 4.1% and 8.3% of the national totals, respectively. The most important feature of the energy-water nexus in China is the significantly uneven spatial distribution of consumptive water use and its corresponding environmental impacts caused by the geological discrepancy among fossil fuel resources, fresh water resources, and energy demand. More than half of energy-related water withdrawals occur in the east and south coastal regions. However, the arid north and northwest regions have much larger water consumption than the water abundant south region, and bear almost all environmental damages caused by consumptive water use.

  8. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions

  9. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jianjun; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng, Wei; Yang, Le; Im, Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  10. Nanoclimate environment of cyanobacterial communities in China's hot and cold hyperarid deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Liu, Shuangjiang; Zhou, Peijin; McKay, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper analyzes linkages between lithic (lithobiontic, lithophytic) cyanobacterial community (LCC) abundance and climate across a wide range of environmental conditions and geographical distance in China's northwest region, an area containing some of the world's oldest, driest and most isolated deserts. In situ monitoring and long-term climate data show that extreme heterogeneity in liquid water availability characterizes the LCC environment across multiple spatial and temporal scales, with rainfall and snowmelt being the main moisture sources. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) primarily dictates LCC ecology across sites, but the interacting effects of temperature, moisture and light create a gradient of soil liquid water (ALW, 505-1839 hr yr-1) and conditions suitable for metabolic activity (200-922 hr yr-1) that also correlate with LCC abundance (0.99 ± 0.2% to 12.6 ± 1.8%). In situ soil temperatures indicate a minimum range of thermal tolerance for LCC in China's deserts of -23.8°C to 53.8°C. Through a comparison of similar available climate data for other deserts, we conclude that from a microbial physiological standpoint, although the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert represents the driest nanoclimate environment recorded and the Dry Valleys in Antarctica represent the coldest desert conditions, it is the high-altitude deserts in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that offer the coldest and driest recorded extremes for LCC on Earth.

  11. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  13. Coastal Wind Energy Assessment in the East China Sea with SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xiulin; Chang, Junfang; Shi, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    The development of offshore wind farm needs accurate assessment of coastal wind energy. With the development of satellite remote sensing technology, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides new methods for coastal wind energy resources assessment. In this study, coastal wind energy remote sensing technology based on space-borne SAR is researched. A long time sequence of sea surface wind speed data in the Zhejiang Coastal Waters (ZCW) of the East China Sea were retrieved from ENVISAT ASAR imagery. Based on the wind speed data, the wind energy resources in ZCW were assessed accurately. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the wind energy resources in ZCW were also investigated and analyzed.

  14. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  15. DoD Installations, Energy and the Environment: An Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    Army CO2 Emissions Today Army CO2 Emissions Future? 5 Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Key Energy Goals • Legislation and Executive Orders...more informed facilities energy investment and management decisions OSD Energy Management System Concept Utility Consumption (Elec/Water/Gas/ Oil ...shedding – Intentional islanding – Energy management • Demonstrations at 29 Palms and Ft. Bliss • GE Global Research • 29 Palms • Lockheed Martin • Ft

  16. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  17. Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstrationenergy-efficient office building

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

    2006-08-28

    In July 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and China's Ministry of Science of Technology (MOST) signed a Statement of Work (SOW) to collaborate on the design and construction of an energy-efficient demonstration office building and design center to be located in Beijing. The proposed 13,000 m{sup 2} (140,000 ft{sup 2}) nine-story office building would use U.S. energy-efficient materials, space-conditioning systems, controls, and design principles that were judged to be widely replicable throughout China. The SOW stated that China would contribute the land and provide for the costs of the base building, while the U.S. would be responsible for the additional (or marginal) costs associated with the package of energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements to the building. The project was finished and the building occupied in 2004. Using DOE-2 to analyze the energy performance of the as-built building, the building obtained 44 out of 69 possible points according to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating, including the full maximum of 10 points in the energy performance section. The building achieved a LEED Gold rating, the first such LEED-rated office building in China, and is 60% more efficient than ASHRAE 90.1-1999. The utility data from the first year's operation match well the analysis results, providing that adjustments are made for unexpected changes in occupancy and operations. Compared with similarly equipped office buildings in Beijing, this demonstration building uses 60% less energy per floor area. However, compared to conventional office buildings with less equipment and window air-conditioners, the building uses slightly more energy per floor area.

  18. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  19. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 41 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption, and to develop an awareness of how limited resources affect life style. Each activity,…

  20. Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

    In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

  1. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 33 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources and forms of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of five objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  2. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for kindergarten and grades 1 to 3 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3)…

  3. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for kindergarten and grades 1 to 3 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3)…

  4. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 33 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources and forms of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of five objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  5. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  6. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong; Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin

    2010-05-12

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  7. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Shen, Hongtao; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Wu, Weimin; Dong, Kejun; He, Guozhu; Wang, Xianggao; Yuan, Jian; Wang, Wei; Wu, Shaoyong

    2010-05-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of 79Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of 93Nb(n,2n)92gNb and 238U(n,3n)236U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide 126Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  8. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  9. Assessment of thermal environment landscape over five megacities in China based on Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Siyao; Gong, Huili; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The urban thermal environment is an important element for the urban ecological environment and climate. As megacities are affected by severe thermal environment, this paper selected Landsat 8 to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) studying the thermal environment of five megacities in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Chengdu. Three methods have been applied, quantifying the surface urban heat island intensity, landscape pattern metrics, and spatial autocorrelation. Three main conclusions have been drawn as follows. First, high-LST area is located in the central urban area. Second, the medium-temperature region is the most prevalent. The class-based and the landscape-based metrics can detect the pattern of thermal landscape. The fragmentation is low both in low and high temperature level classes. Third, global Moran's I suggests there is spatial clustering of thermal landscape. Local Moran's I map was able to detect several high-high and low-low clusters, which are the main types of thermal landscape.

  10. Bacterial plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in aquatic environments in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Dan; Wang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yunkun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Mingyu; Xu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human’s health in the 21st century. Understanding and combating this issue requires a full and unbiased assessment of the current status on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and their correlation with each other and bacterial groups. In aquatic environments that are known reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to reach this goal on plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that lead to resistance to quinolones and possibly also to the co-emergence of resistance to β-lactams. Novel findings were made that qepA and aac-(6′)-Ib genes that were previously regarded as similarly abundant with qnr genes are now dominant among PMQR genes in aquatic environments. Further statistical analysis suggested that the correlation between PMQR and β-lactam resistance genes in the environment is still weak, that the correlations between antimicrobial resistance genes could be weakened by sufficient wastewater treatment, and that the prevalence of PMQR has been implicated in environmental, pathogenic, predatory, anaerobic, and more importantly, human symbiotic bacteria. This work provides a comprehensive analysis of PMQR genes in aquatic environments in Jinan, China, and provides information with which combat with the antimicrobial resistance problem may be fought. PMID:28094345

  11. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  12. Bacterial plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in aquatic environments in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Dan; Wang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yunkun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Mingyu; Xu, Hai

    2017-01-17

    Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human's health in the 21(st) century. Understanding and combating this issue requires a full and unbiased assessment of the current status on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and their correlation with each other and bacterial groups. In aquatic environments that are known reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to reach this goal on plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that lead to resistance to quinolones and possibly also to the co-emergence of resistance to β-lactams. Novel findings were made that qepA and aac-(6')-Ib genes that were previously regarded as similarly abundant with qnr genes are now dominant among PMQR genes in aquatic environments. Further statistical analysis suggested that the correlation between PMQR and β-lactam resistance genes in the environment is still weak, that the correlations between antimicrobial resistance genes could be weakened by sufficient wastewater treatment, and that the prevalence of PMQR has been implicated in environmental, pathogenic, predatory, anaerobic, and more importantly, human symbiotic bacteria. This work provides a comprehensive analysis of PMQR genes in aquatic environments in Jinan, China, and provides information with which combat with the antimicrobial resistance problem may be fought.

  13. Chemoinformatics at IFP Energies Nouvelles: Applications in the Fields of Energy, Transport, and Environment.

    PubMed

    Creton, Benoit

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present paper is to summarize chemoinformatics based research, and more precisely, the development of quantitative structure property relationships performed at IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) during the last decade. A special focus is proposed on research activities performed in the "Thermodynamics and Molecular Simulation" department, i. e. the use of multiscale molecular simulation methods in responses to projects. Molecular simulation techniques can be envisaged to supplement dataset when experimental information lacks, thus the review includes a section dedicated to molecular simulation codes, development of intermolecular potentials, and some of their possible applications. Know-how and feedback from our experiences in terms of machine learning application for thermophysical property predictions are included in a section dealing with methodological aspects. The generic character of chemoinformatics is emphasized through applications in the fields of energy, transport, and environment, with illustrations for three IFPEN business units: "Transports", "Energy Resources", and "Processes". More precisely, the review focus on different challenges such as the prediction of properties for alternative fuels, the prediction of fuel compatibility with polymeric materials, the prediction of properties for surfactants usable in chemical enhanced oil recovery, and the prediction of guest-host interactions between gases and nanoporous materials in the frame of carbon dioxide capture or gas separation activities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  15. Pesticide levels and environmental risk in aquatic environments in China--A review.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Steen, Anne Orderdalen; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-08-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of pesticides in the world today. Along with the widespread use of pesticides and industrialization, there is a growing concern for water quality. The present review aims to provide an overview of studies on pesticides in aquatic environments in China. The levels in the water, sediment and biota were scored according to a detailed environmental classification system based on ecotoxicological effect, which is therefore a useful tool for assessing the risk these compounds pose to the aquatic ecosystem. Our review reveals that the most studied areas in China are the most populated and the most developed economically and that the most frequently studied pesticides are DDT and HCH. We show maps of where studies have been conducted and show the ecotoxicological risk the pesticides pose in each of the matrices. Our review pinpoints the need for biota samples to assess the risk. A large fraction of the results from the studies are given an environmental classification of "very bad" based on levels in biota. In general, the risk is higher for DDT than HCH. A few food web studies have also been conducted, and we encourage further study of this important information from this region. The review reveals that many of the most important agricultural provinces (e.g., Henan, Hubei and Hunan) with the largest pesticide use have been the subject of few studies on the environmental levels of pesticides. We consider this to be a major knowledge gap for understanding the status of pesticide contamination and related risk in China. Furthermore, there is also a lack of studies in remote Chinese environments, which is also an important knowledge gap. The compounds analyzed and reported in the studies represent a serious bias because a great deal of attention is given to DDT and HCH, whereas the organophosphate insecticides dominating current use are less frequently investigated. For the future, we point to the need for an organized

  16. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  17. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1].

  18. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article "Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea" [1].

  19. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  20. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. PMID:26900590

  1. A review of energy recovery from waste in China.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Thomas; Flamme, Sabine; Nelles, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Although municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Europe and other developed countries has led to a widespread production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and its incineration in various technical combustion processes, such developments have not yet occurred that widely in developing and transitional economies. This article puts mass-burn technologies and SRF into a China perspective, reviewing issues from technology application problems to emerging trends and future perspectives. Over the last two decades, growing waste volumes have prompted a move to waste incineration, especially in the large densely populated first-tier cities. However, with an organic fraction above 70% and a resulting water content of up to 65%, it is still argued that MSW in China is too moist for incineration. The introduction of mechanical biological treatment (MBT) or mechanical physical stabilization (MPS) technology for SRF production could provide the solution, either by offering further pre-drying options to mass-burn incinerators or by creating SRF to be burnt in co-incineration plants. First experiences of MBT and MPS technologies show promising results in terms of the capacity to deal with organic waste fractions, but the further disposal/utilization of the plants' output stream has not yet been fully addressed.

  2. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-17

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  3. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ~0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ~10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  4. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-01-01

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10–50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy. PMID:28211467

  5. Energy efficiency and the environment: Forging the link

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Crawley, D.; Centolella, P.

    1991-12-31

    Energy efficiency in homes, the workplace and transportation provides one of the most immediate and valuable solutions to the environmental problems that endanger the world. This book addresses the direct correlation between conserving energy and mitigating environmental hazards such as global warming, air pollution, acid rain, and ozone depletion. Twenty chapters focus on how energy efficiency measures and programs can reduce pollutant emissions, and how planners can incorporate environmental externalities in the allocation of natural resources. Based on papers presented at the ACEEE 1990 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, the book is written by leading researchers, program analysts and policymakers. Topics include: global warming--public perspectives and CO{sub 2} reduction potential; efficiency improvements as an acid rain compliance strategy; efficiency and regulatory policy options; environmental externality costs; integrating energy and environmental planning; trees, landscaping and urban heat islands; and CFCs, energy use in buildings.

  6. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  7. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  8. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the

  9. Study on the application of combined cooling, heating and power system with biomass energy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haibin; Sun, Rongfeng; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhao, Baofeng

    2017-08-01

    CCHP (Combined Cooling Heating and Power) system is highly evaluated and developed rapidly around the world possessing better performance than traditional energy systems because of the cascade utilization of energy. Biomass is one of the renewable energy resources that is abundant and has been widely used in China for a long time. In this paper the principle and development of biomass gasification system and CCHP is clarified, the feasibility of combining the two systems together is analyzed from theoretical and technical points of view, and the active significance is also indicated. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop CCHP with Biomass Energy in an agricultural country such as China, which can flourish in the future.

  10. Environment-assisted quantum walks in excitonic energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Rebentrost, Patrick; Lloyd, Seth; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Long-lived quantum coherence has recently been observed experimentally via ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy in excitonic energy transfer within light-harvesting photosynthetic complexes, conjugated polymers, and marine alga even at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate that directed quantum walks lead to an enhancement of energy transfer efficiency in such systems. We introduce two complementary theoretical approaches, based on a Green's function method and energy transfer susceptibilities, to partition open quantum dynamics. We quantify the role of fundamental physical processes involved in energy transport. In particular, we examine the contributions of classical hopping, coherent excitonic Hamiltonian, and phonon-induced decoherence effects for pure dephasing, Markovian, and non-Markovian limits.

  11. Common challenge, collaborative response: a roadmap for US-China cooperation on energy and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-15

    This Report which was produced in partnership between Asia Society's Center on U.S.-China Relations and Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in collaboration with The Brookings Institution, Council on Foreign Relations, National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and Environmental Defense Fund presents both a vision and a concrete Roadmap for such Sino-U.S. collaboration. With input from scores of experts and other stakeholders from the worlds of science, business, civil society, policy, and politics in both China and the United States, the Report, or 'Roadmap', explores the climate and energy challenges facing both nations and recommends a concrete program for sustained, high-level, bilateral engagement and on-the-ground action. The Report recommends that, as a first step in forging this new partnership, the leaders of the two countries should convene a leaders summit as soon as practically possible following the inauguration of Barack Obama to launch a 'U.S.-China Partnership on Energy and Climate Change'. This presidential summit should outline a major plan of joint-action and empower relevant officials in each country to take the necessary actions to ensure its implementation. Priority areas of collaboration include: deploying low-emissions coal technologies; improving energy efficiency and conservation; developing an advanced electric grid; promoting renewable energy; and quantifying emissions and financing low-carbon technologies. 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 apps.

  12. The spatial distribution of remote sensed SO2 in China and its relationship with energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Yunpeng; Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong

    2017-07-01

    The spatial distribution of SO2 in China was analyzed using OMI-Level3 SO2 PBL (planetary boundary layer) column concentration data of 2013. At the same time, the total value of energy consumption per unit area and coal energy consumption per unit area were analyzed and compared with SO2 distribution. Results show that SO2 distribute unevenly in whole China, and even at the provincial level, SO2 concentration difference was obvious. The spatial distribution of SO2 in China displays characteristics of two highest plates as the center, sub-high regions radiate from center, as well as “The east higher than the west, and the north higher than the south”. Energy consumption per unit area and coal consumption per unit area also distribute unevenly, and the two distributions have similar characteristics but different details. The higher similar spatial distributions of SO2 and energy consumption (especially coal consumption) imply the firm connection of SO2 pollution and coal consumption. SO2 pollution in China remains acute, and the control on coal consumption remains important and emergent in recent years.

  13. Energy efficiency measures in China: A three-stage DEA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    This paper measures energy efficiency of 30 regions in China during 2010-2014 by using the three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The results indict that environmental factors and random error both have significant impacts on energy efficiency. After eliminating these influences, the results present that the energy efficiency in developed regions is almost higher than that in undeveloped or resource-rich regions and low scale technical efficiency is the main constraining factor in inefficient regions. Based on the efficiency characteristics, this paper divides all regions into four types and provide differential energy strategies.

  14. Selenium geochemical distribution in the environment and predicted human daily dietary intake in northeastern Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dasong; Liang, Dongli; Lei, Lingming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhiqing

    2015-08-01

    Ping'an is a selenium (Se)-rich region located in northeastern Qinghai Province of China. To better understand the selenium geochemical distribution and its potential ecological effects, this field study investigated the Se distribution in the local environment, soil Se bioavailability, and the daily dietary Se intake of Ping'an residents. Concentrations of total Se were determined in soil, plant, water, and food samples. Results showed that Ping'an is generally a Se-rich region in China. High-Se soil mainly distributes in the north of Hongshuiquan Town in the study region. Se concentration in 43 plant samples varied significantly from not detected (nd) to 904 μg/kg, following a descending order of pasture > grain > vegetable > fruit, which was much lower than other regions in China. The drinking water Se concentrations were also significantly lower than the European and Chinese surface water Se standards of 10 and 50 μg/L. The predicted daily dietary Se intake (48 ± 20 μg per person) in Ping'an met the demand of the WHO-recommended Se amount of 55 μg per person. The Se content is high in soil, but low in different kinds of plants and Se intake, indicating that Se that can be taken up by plants was very low. The K2HPO4-KH2PO4-extractable Se in the soil accounted for only 3% of the total soil Se, indicating that a low soil bioavailable Se might result in low Se accumulation in plant tissues in Ping'an. This might be due to the influences of geochemistry and the inherent properties of the parent materials of these soils. Therefore, further studies need to focus on better understanding the process and influential factors to soil Se bioavailability to successfully utilize the soil Se resource in low-Se-availability areas.

  15. China and the United States - A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-14

    efficiency, lower per unit cost application. Technologies for biomass gasification could result in higher efficiencies when used to produce synthesis gas...energy resources include biomass , hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. See http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary...of wind, solar, and biomass power in China and the United States as the major renewable energy technologies common to both countries. While

  16. Multivariate indications between environment and ground water recharge in a sedimentary drainage basin in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Wang, Xunming; Rioual, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    A paucity of studies on the interaction between environment and ground water recharge severely restricts the ability of people to assess future water resources under changing environment. In this study, an effort to explore the relationship between the arid environment and ground water recharge was carried out using multivariate statistical techniques in a sedimentary drainage basin (the Jungar) in northwestern China. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed based on hydrogeochemical data to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors. Observation of the HCA and PCA analytical results revealed a division of seven clusters (C1 to C7) and three principal components (PC1 to PC3), which explained 59.6%, 16.6% and 10.9% of the variance, respectively, and thus, accounted for the majority of the total variance in the original dataset. Based on these Q-mode HCA clusters and R-mode PAC scores, dominant environmental processes influencing recharge regimes were identified, i.e., geogenic, geomorphoclimatic, and anthropogenic, which separated the recharge regimes into four zones (Zone I to Zone IV). Zones I and II (C4 + C1) were associated to ;elevated hydroclimate degree; coupled to ;low salinity;. Zone III (C2 + C3) was associated to ;moderately elevated salinity; and evidently ;elevated contamination; but coupled to ;low hydroclimate degree;. Zone IV (C5 + C6 + C7) was associated mainly to ;elevated salinity; coupled to ;low or inverse hydroclimate degree;. It revealed that the geogenic processes are more significant (60%) than the geomorphoclimatic (17%) and anthropogenic (11%) processes. As a result, the overall recharge process is rather heterogeneous and is strongly environment dominated in the Jungar drainage system. Compared with other watersheds in arid environment, a distinctive feature of the Jungar waters is that they are affected by a combination of natural and non-natural events, rather than

  17. Energy and the environment: state-by-state resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Contacts are listed for each state and the District of Columbia who can aid citizens and citizen groups seeking information on energy and environmental issues. The chart lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the state energy contact, state environmental contact, legislative contact, and the environmental education coordinator. Hotline numbers are listed for several states. (DCK)

  18. The Development and Use of an Energy Environment Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Frank; Dunlop, David L.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the general background knowledge of the college non-science major with respect to energy-environmental facts and concepts. It was hypothesized that in general, college students have a rather poor background in and lack an understanding of the current energy crises and the related environmental…

  19. ENERGY AND OUR ENVIRONMENT: A SYSTEMS AND LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation to the North Carolina BREATE Conference on March 28, 2017. This presentation provides an overview of energy modeling capabilities in ORD, and includes examples related to scenario development, water-energy nexus, bioenergy, etc. The focus is on system ap...

  20. Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwu; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Ye, Bixiong

    2012-04-01

    Mining and smelting are important economic activities. However, mining-related industries are also some of the largest sources of environmental pollution from heavy metals. China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. A large amount of lead, zinc, and related elements, such as cadmium, have been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and have impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. In some areas, this pollution is hazardous to human health. This article reviews studies published in the past 10 years (2000-2009), on the environmental and human health consequences of lead/zinc mineral exploitation in China. Polluted areas are concentrated in the following areas: the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, west-central Hunan province, central Guangxi province, northern Guangdong, northwestern Henan province, the border between Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and the region of Liaoning province near Bohai. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the main pollutants and are associated with human health effects such as high lead blood levels in children, arthralgia, osteomalacia, and excessive cadmium in urine.

  1. [Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Si-Si; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Qin; Chen, Shui-Hua

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance.

  2. Perceiving the Environment from the Lay Perspective in Desertified Areas, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harry F.; Zhang, David D.

    2008-02-01

    Investigating local people’s environmental perceptions can produce useful information that could be incorporated into decision making processes that help resolve environmental problems. Although China is undergoing severe desertification, the perceptions of the local people toward their degraded environment and the related issues have so far not been actively solicited. This article, which is a supplement to Lee and Zhang’s (2004, 2005) studies, seeks to further investigate the lay public’s general environmental attitudes, perceptions of desertification, interpretations of land-degrading activities, and particularly their interrelations in severely desertified areas. Minqin County in Gansu Province, northern China, was chosen to be the study area. Data was collected via a questionnaire survey ( n = 1138) administered in December 2002. Major findings were: (1) Most respondents had only weak altruistic environmental attitudes, with educational level to be a significant determinant. (2) Respondents’ perceptions of desertification and interpretations of land-degrading activities were contingent on personal attributes, general environmental attitudes, and other conceptions related to desertification. It is recommended that the interrelations between the various aspects of the public’s environmental perceptions should be thoroughly examined to facilitate their participation in environmental management.

  3. Particle size distribution and air pollution patterns in three urban environments in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xinyi; Guinot, Benjamin; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Three urban environments, office, apartment and restaurant, were selected to investigate the indoor and outdoor air quality as an inter-comparison in which CO2, particulate matter (PM) concentration and particle size ranging were concerned. In this investigation, CO2 level in the apartment (623 ppm) was the highest among the indoor environments and indoor levels were always higher than outdoor levels. The PM10 (333 µg/m(3)), PM2.5 (213 µg/m(3)), PM1 (148 µg/m(3)) concentrations in the office were 10-50% higher than in the restaurant and apartment, and the three indoor PM10 levels all exceeded the China standard of 150 µg/m(3). Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 µm, 0.4 to 0.5 µm and 0.5 to 0.65 µm make largest contribution to particle mass in indoor air, and fine particles number concentrations were much higher than outdoor levels. Outdoor air pollution is mainly affected by heavy traffic, while indoor air pollution has various sources. Particularly, office environment was mainly affected by outdoor sources like soil dust and traffic emission; apartment particles were mainly caused by human activities; restaurant indoor air quality was affected by multiple sources among which cooking-generated fine particles and the human steam are main factors.

  4. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

  5. Energy, Economics, and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Educators are faced with the task of teaching students to be responsible stewards of the world's natural resources. This curriculum focuses on three interrelated topics in this area: energy, economics, and the environment. The goal of this book is to: (1) teach students basic knowledge and concepts about energy, the environment, and economics; (2)…

  6. The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

    2002-03-01

    Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

  7. Emerging energy technologies in an island environment: Hawaii. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Shupe, J.W.; Weingart, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Island communities have energy-supply problems that differ appreciably from those of major land masses. There is usually an absence of local fossil fuel reserves, such as oil, natural gas and coal, as well as a limited infrastructure for delivering energy. This lack of flexibility requires island communities to satisfy their energy demands with indigenous resources, plus whatever energy supply is imported by sea. In recent years, the energy needs of many island communities have been met almost entirely by seaborne petroleum. As imported oil has become increasingly more expensive and less secure, greater effort has been directed by some island communities toward the development of their local energy resources. A case study illustrates the progress made to date in one island area - Hawaii - in minimizing its near-total dependence on seaborne petroleum. However, there should be some spin-off of this experience to regional energy planning, not only to other island communities, but also to regions within developing countries that share many of these characteristics. 34 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  8. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  9. Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Bacterial Community Composition in Fresh Water Aquaculture Environment in China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Xueyao; Li, Yafei; Wang, Mianzhi; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-08-01

    Environmental antibiotic resistance has drawn increasing attention due to its great threat to human health. In this study, we investigated concentrations of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides and (fluoro)quinolones) and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, and analyzed bacterial community composition in aquaculture environment in Guangdong, China. The concentrations of sulfametoxydiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin were as high as 446 μg kg(-1) and 98.6 ng L(-1) in sediment and water samples, respectively. The relative abundances (ARG copies/16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies) of ARGs (sul1, sul2, sul3, tetM, tetO, tetW, tetS, tetQ, tetX, tetB/P, qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib, and qnrS) were as high as 2.8 × 10(-2). The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in sediment samples and Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in water samples. The genera associated with pathogens were also observed, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Clostridium. This study comprehensively investigated antibiotics, ARGs, and bacterial community composition in aquaculture environment in China. The results indicated that fish ponds are reservoirs of ARGs and the presence of potential resistant and pathogen-associated taxonomic groups in fish ponds might imply the potential risk to human health.

  10. Energy Choices for Now: Saving, Using, Renewing. An Introduction to Energy in the Environment. Student Book and Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peg; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction to the topic of energy in the environment. It is directed toward the intermediate student as a future citizen who will be involved in making important decisions concerning this vital issue. The materials can be used in any classroom where the topic of the environment is being studied--social studies,…

  11. Energy Choices for Now: Saving, Using, Renewing. An Introduction to Energy in the Environment. Student Book and Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peg; And Others

    This book is designed as an introduction to the topic of energy in the environment. It is directed toward the intermediate student as a future citizen who will be involved in making important decisions concerning this vital issue. The materials can be used in any classroom where the topic of the environment is being studied--social studies,…

  12. Energy for Water Utilization in China and Policy Implications for Integrated Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy are two vital resources for human and are intrinsically linked. China is a country with acute water problems caused by increasing demand, uneven spatial-temporal distribution of water resources, and water quality deterioration. These issues are exacerbating the country's water scarcity. Meanwhile, demands for both traditional and non-traditional water resources continue to rise, driven by the country's rapid economic expansion and industrialization. To meet growing water demands, more and more energy is used for water extraction, transportation and treatment. While projects such as deep groundwater pumping, long distance water transfer and seawater desalination are adding crucial supplies of fresh water, they are consuming an ever greater amount of energy. Thus, a better understanding of water-energy linkages is important for integrated water and energy policy analysis and planning. In this study, data from multiple sources are compiled and used to calculate energy consumption for different processes of water utilization in China, including water abstraction, treatment, and distribution, as well as wastewater treatment and re-use. Sankey diagrams are used to display the magnitude and direction of water and energy flows in China at the national level. Spatial distributions of energy use by different components of the water supply were further mapped at the provincial level to discern regional differences. The results of this study show that, for the main processes considered, water utilization consumes 193.5 TWh of electricity, or about 4% of the total national electricity usage. The highest percentage of energy consumption for water is attributed to water provision process. The outcome of this study has important implications for policy reforms involving water conservation strategies, water supply structure changes and technical solutions, which, in turn, will contribute to achieving the goal of low-energy water utilization in the future.

  13. Carbon dioxide and energy fluxes over a large shallow lake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaosong

    2017-04-01

    The turbulent exchange of carbon dioxide and energy between water and atmosphere over lakes differ from those over vegetated surfaces due to high heat capacity of water and different water ecological environment. For a shallow lake, the underlying surface generally changes between water covered and land covered with water level fluctuation, which significantly influences carbon dioxide and energy fluxes. Continuous measurement of the carbon dioxide (CO2), latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes was made using the eddy covariance method over the Poyang Lake, the largest fresh lake in China, from August 2013 to December 2015. Results indicated that the surface energy budget has a strong seasonal pattern, with peaks in LE and H observed in early August and September. There was 10 days delay between the net radiation and the latent heat flux. More net radiation (Rn) was allocated to the LE rather than H through the year, with monthly mean LE/Rn of 0.65 and H/Rn of 0.11, which caused Bowen ratio was 0.15 in water-covered period, lower than that in land-covered period. The water heat storage experienced shifting from heat storage to heat release, with maximum heat storage in July and maximum heat release in September. The water heat advection was account for 4% to 10% of Rn and peaked in June. The annual evaporation is 875 mm, 893 mm and 1019 mm in 2013 (from August 2013 to July 2014), 2014 and 2015, which was account for approximately 57% of precipitation in the three years. The large lake acted as a CO2 source in inundating period and a CO2 sink in exposure period. The energy fluxes were controlled by environmental factors with timescale dependence. On daily scale, the LE and H were highly correlated with product of wind speed and vapor pressure deficit (UVPD) or wind speed (U) in the water-covered period, and with Rn in the land-covered period. Monthly LE, H and annual H were controlled by Rn, while annual LE was primarily dependent on water depth. Annual CO2 budget

  14. Energy and the Environment for an Expeditionary Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-06

    per square foot since 1985. S• uccess will require Public-Private Partnerships with Industry. Industry expertise and financing are integral to the...waste per month into diesel or jet fuel • Reduce landfill waste and petroleum purchases • Partnership with Defense Energy Support Center (DESC...greenhouse gas emissions • Available 24/7 Develop 500 MW Solar Thermal Energy Plant at Fort Irwin CA • Partnership with Navy and USACE , • Supports

  15. ENERGY AND OUR ENVIRONMENT: A SYSTEMS AND LIFE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a presentation to the North Carolina BREATE Conference on March 28, 2017. This presentation provides an overview of energy modeling capabilities in ORD, and includes examples related to scenario development, water-energy nexus, bioenergy, etc. The focus is on system approaches as well as life cycle assessment data and tools. Provide an overview of system and life cycle approaches to modeling medium to long-term changes in drivers of changes in emissions sources.

  16. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  17. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of renewable energy in China: Studying the experience and making recommendations for Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanshina, T. A.; Kulakov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The article reviews a state policy of China, due to which the country has managed to develop the world's largest sector of renewable energy sources (RES). Basic aspects of the formation and development of a comprehensive system of state support for the sector, i.e., the creation of scientific and technological advancement, stimulation of renewable energy equipment manufacturing, and support for RES electricity generation, are studied. Key programs implemented in specific stages are analyzed. Considerable attention is paid to the role and characteristics of foreign technology transfers. The dynamics of China's RES sector and the results of its rapid growth with the active participation of the state are researched. On the basis of the analysis, it is concluded that, in general, China's experience in development of RES is successful. Using the example of China, it is safe to say that, in the presence of a balanced state policy, a country is able to create in a decade a strong renewable energy equipment industry and to become a leader in the area of RES electricity generation. Specific features and main problems of the Russian RES sector are considered. On the basis of China's experience, recommendations for improving the state policy in RES are made for Russia. According to the authors, first of all, a sharp increase in state support for scientific research and development (R&D), pilot and demonstration projects, recognition of RES as a part of the fuel and energy sector at all tiers of authority, guarantees of state support for RES in the long run, ensuring access to long-term funds, and the creation of state programs supporting households participation in the distributed power generation are needed.

  19. OMI-measured increasing SO2 emissions due to energy industry expansion and relocation in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Jinxiang; Lian, Lulu; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid growth of economy makes China the largest energy consumer and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitter in the world. In this study, we estimated the trends and step changes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) vertical column density (VCD) of SO2 from 2005 to 2015 over China measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We show that these trends and step change years coincide with the effective date and period of the national strategy for energy development and relocation in northwestern China and the regulations in the reduction of SO2 emissions. Under the national regulations for the reduction of SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China, SO2 VCD in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China exhibited the largest decline during 2005-2015 at a rate of -7 % yr-1, followed by the North China Plain (NCP) (-6.7 % yr-1), Sichuan Basin (-6.3 % yr-1), and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) (-6 % yr-1). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test reveals the step change points of declining SO2 VCD in 2009 for the PRD and 2012-2013 for eastern China responding to the implementation of SO2 control regulation in these regions. In contrast, the MK test and regression analysis also revealed increasing trends of SO2 VCD in northwestern China, particularly for several hot spots featured by growing SO2 VCD in those large-scale energy industry bases in northwestern China. The enhanced SO2 VCD is potentially attributable to increasing SO2 emissions due to the development of large-scale energy industry bases in energy-abundant northwestern China under the national strategy for the energy safety of China in the 21st century. We show that these large-scale energy industry bases could overwhelm the trends and changes in provincial total SO2 emissions in northwestern China and contribute increasingly to the national total SO2 emissions in China. Given that northwestern China is more ecologically fragile and uniquely susceptible to atmospheric pollution than the rest of China, increasing SO2

  20. On the Urban-Rural Differences in Classroom Environment in Compulsory Education in the Eastern Coastal Developed Areas of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Furong; Xie, Limin

    2008-01-01

    Totally 789 students from 18 schools (9 primary schools and 9 junior high schools) at a medium managed level from Shanghai, Wenzhou, and Aojiang, which are located in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China were investigated with the questionnaire of Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale in this study. The result indicates that the actual…

  1. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  2. Association between perceived urban built environment attributes and leisure-time physical activity among adults in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng; Tan, Ya-Yun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Neighborhood built environment may influence residents' physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to determine the associations between perceived built environment and leisure-time physical activity in Hangzhou, China. 1440 participants aged 25-59 were randomly selected from 30 neighborhoods in three types of administrative planning units in Hangzhou. International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form and NEWS-A were used to obtain individual-level data. The China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool was used to objectively assess the neighborhood-level built environment. Multi-level regression was used to explore the relationship between perceived built environment variables and leisure-time physical activities. Data was collected in Hangzhou from June to December in 2012, and was analyzed in May 2013. Significant difference between neighborhood random variations in physical activity was identified (P=0.0134); neighborhood-level differences accounted for 3.0% of the variability in leisure-time physical activity. Male residents who perceived higher scores on access to physical activity destinations reported more involvement in leisure-time physical activity. Higher scores on perception of esthetic quality, and lower on residential density were associated with more time in leisure-time walking in women. The present study demonstrated that perceived urban built environment attributes significantly correlate with leisure-time physical activity in Hangzhou, China. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Strategic environments (SWOT) for nuclear energy innovation in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Joon; Oh, Keun-Bae

    2004-07-01

    In prospecting the role of nuclear energy in a future society, it is necessary to foresee the social attitudes towards energy, economy and environment, and to analyze their interactions with the exploitation of nuclear energy itself. As those issues, this article looks upon the change of the socio-economic environment, the concerns about nuclear power and eco-environment, and the sustainability and limits of the energy resources, etc. With this perception, the so-called SWOT analysis is employed to identify the internal strengths (S) and/or weaknesses (W) of nuclear energy compared with other energy competitors on the basis of the evaluation of the external factors which are likely to play the roles of opportunities (O) for and/or threats (T) against the technological change in nuclear energy. (authors)

  4. Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments through Energy Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birr, David

    2000-01-01

    Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average…

  5. Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments through Energy Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birr, David

    2000-01-01

    Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average…

  6. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 10(3) kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development.

  7. Living environment and schooling of children with HIV-infected parents in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Wu, Z; Duan, S; Li, Z; Li, X; Shen, M; Mathur, A; Stanton, B

    2006-10-01

    A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Longchuan County, China, to study the lives of children with HIV-infected parents. Registered HIV-infected drug users and their households were approached and information about the living environment of children < or =15 years of age was collected. Of the 266 households interviewed, there were 213 children < or =15 years old. Forty percent of the children had lost at least one parent. Most of the children resided in a household with low economic status and a high dependency ratio. One-half of the children experienced discordant family relations, family anxiety and shame. Compared to orphans, non-orphans and their families were less likely to receive social support from the community. Orphans and older children were less likely to attend school and more likely to be truant if enrolled in school. Findings in the current study suggest that many children whose parents are infected with HIV or have died from HIV are living in stressful environments with minimal support from the community. Efforts should be taken to provide support and supervision to these children.

  8. Migration and cutoff of meanders in the hyperarid environment of the middle Tarim River, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guo-An; Brierley, Gary John; Wang, Zhaoyin; Jia, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    A meandering channel has developed in the middle Tarim River, the longest inland river flowing through a hyperarid environment in northwestern China. Although the drainage basin of the Tarim River extends over 1 million km2, flow in downstream reaches is largely restricted to summer months, and irrigation pressures have made the flood season increasingly short. The planform morphology, lateral migration rate, and cutoffs of 105 meanders were analysed using multiperiod remote sensing images and field survey analyses of channel bed and bank properties and of riparian vegetation cover. Results show that planform attributes of the meandering Tarim River are similar to those found in other environments. The ratio of the channel centreline length to the neck channel width of meanders ranges between 1.2 and 8.1, the bend curvature (ratio of bend radius to channel width) ranges between 0.30 and 2.8, and the average deflection angle of the bend apexes is 79.9°. Meander migration rates range from 1.4 to 96.7 m y- 1. From 2000 to 2013, 45 cutoffs occurred along the 400-km-long reach. As the riparian vegetation cover is sparse because of limited precipitation and because banks are comprised of dense roots, fine sand and silt materials, but lack clay, bank strength is limited and presents limited constraints upon bend movement.

  9. Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhong; Hong, Huasheng; Zhao, Dongmei; Hong, Liyu

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, organotins pollution were investigated in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Six species of organotin compounds including tributyltin, triphenyltin and their degradation compounds were quantified in the dissolved and particulate phases of the water, and in the sediment using GC-FPD. The concentrations of organotin compounds ranged from 2.2 to 160 ng (Sn) L(-1) dissolved in the water, 0.14-6.7 ng (Sn) L(-1) in suspended particulate matter and nd approximately 26 ng (Sn) g(-1) (dry weight) in the sediment. The highest concentration of total organotin or tributyltin in water was found in a shipyard and at a station near the inlet of the harbor, indicating fresh inputs of antifouling paints to Xiamen's coastal environment. Organotin speciation was performed on sediment cores to investigate contamination trends over the past ten years in the harbor. The results of (210)Pb dating indicated that Xiamen western harbor suffered contamination during 2000. The environmental behavior of organotins such as the enhancement of the microlayer, partitioning between water/suspended particulate matter and between water/sediment are also discussed in this paper.

  10. The impacts of land cover types on urban outdoor thermal environment: the case of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai; Dong, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the microclimatic behavior of different land cover types in urban parks and, the correlation between air temperature and land cover composition to understand how land cover affects outdoor thermal environment during hot summer. To address this issue, air temperatures were measured on four different land cover types at four observation sites inside an urban park in Beijing, China, meanwhile, the land cover composition of each site was quantified with CAD, by drawing corresponding areas on the aerial photographs. The results showed that the average air temperature difference among four land cover types was large during the day and small during the night. At noon, the average air temperature differed significantly among four land cover types, whereas on night, there was no significant difference among different land cover types. Results of the linear regression indicated that during daytime, there was a strong negative correlation between air temperature and percent tree cover; while at nighttime, a significant negative correlation was observed between air temperature and percent lawn cover. It was shown that as the percent tree cover increased by 10 %, the air temperature decreased by 0.26 °C during daytime, while as the percent lawn cover increased by 10 %, the air temperature decreased by 0.56 °C during nighttime. Results of this study help to clarify the effects of land cover on urban outdoor thermal environment, and can provide assistance to urban planner and designer for improving green space planning and design in the future.

  11. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2016-07-12

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. |; Barron, W.F.; LaRocco, P.; Shen, Z.

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  13. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN ); Barron, W.F. ); LaRocco, P. ); Shen, Z. )

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  14. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  15. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  16. Partitioning of initial energy release in a tunnel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, Joshua E.; Lee, Richard J.; Mychajlonka, Kyle; Davis, Andy

    2017-01-01

    After the detonation of an explosive charge in the closed end of a tunnel, product gases and metal fuels can continue to react with one another as well as combust with the available air while expanding down the tunnel. It is that total reaction that drives the blast wave at long distances from the charge. The initial energy release was calculated from pressure wave time of arrival at distances of 5 to 30 tunnel diameters away for several explosives in a 127-mm diameter tunnel using point blast theory. For similarly sized explosives, the anaerobic energy was measured using a detonation calorimeter. Comparisons were made for four explosives: one nearly ideal, two with aluminum, and one with aluminum and an oxidizer. The measured tunnel and calorimeter energies were equal, within error, for the near-ideal explosive. The other three explosives had tunnel and calorimeter energies higher than that which can be accounted for from the detonable ingredients alone, especially in the tunnel. The differences between the tunnel and calorimeter for the three aluminized explosives were taken to be from aerobic combustion of aluminum. The presence of higher concentrations of aluminum or an oxidizer enhanced the amount of aerobic combustion of aluminum. The aluminized explosive with additional oxidizer consumed more than twice the aluminum of the other two in the tunnel. More experiments are needed to better define the early partitioning of anaerobic and aerobic combustion of aluminum in the small-scale tunnel.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  18. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research

  19. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  20. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-05

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

  1. Seismic energy transmission in an intensively scattering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In order to account for some special features of lunar seismograms, namely, the gradual build-up of the signal, the extremely prolonged tail, and the lack of apparent coherence among three orthogonal components of ground motion, a statistical approach is proposed for describing transmission of seismic energy through a medium in which strong scattering takes place. A seismic diffusion theory is presented for a medium with randomly distributed scatterers of a given size distribution. A solution of the resulting diffusion equation for an impulsive energy source gives a curve which fairly closely reproduces the envelope of typical lunar impact seismograms. Since the model is based on constant diffusivity, long-range transmission will require a combination of diffusion and wave propagation treatments for accurate description.

  2. The Centaur Director kicks off Environment and Energy Awareness Week

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Environmental and Energy Awareness Week at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex kicked off with a visit by Center Director Roy Bridges and the Awareness team, who presented him with a t-shirt. Exhibits and displays by KSC and 45th Space Wing organizations detail accomplishments in minimizing environmental impacts and conserving resources. They are on view April 19 - 22 at various sites at KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  3. E3: Economy - Energy - Environment; Supporting Manufacturing Leadership through Sustainability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The E3 initiative is designed to help you thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability and, working together, to promote sustainable manufacturing and economic growth throughout the United States. Within the E3 framework, we can: - Drive Innovation - Increase Manufacturing Productivity - Boost Local Economies - Reduce Environmental Impacts - Foster Development - Conserve Energy and Resources This website provides information and tools for E3, including fact sheets, contacts, and calculators.

  4. [Relationships between population characters of Undinula vulgaris (Copepoda) and environment in the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in 1997 approximately 2000 in the East China Sea (23 degrees 30' approximately 33 degrees N, 118 degrees 30' approximately 128 degrees E), this paper discussed the relationships between the ecological characters of natural Undinula vulgaris population and its environment in the Sea, with the data of 1979 approximately 1980 compared. The results showed that there was a very clear seasonal change of the dominance, abundance, and occurrence frequency of U. vulgaris, i.e.,autumn (0.09, 556 ind x 100 m(-3), 93.69%) >summer (0.03, 86 ind x 100 m(-3), 68.49%) >winter (0.02, 42 ind x 100 m(-3), 53.85%) >spring (0.01, 16 ind x 100 m(-3), 34.35%). As a dominant species of pelagic copepods in the Sea, U. vulgaris showed its predominance mainly in autumn. The percentage of U. vulgaris in the total abundance of pelagic copepods was 2.31% in spring, 4.80% in summer, 3.80% in winter, and 9.90% in autumn, while its occurrence frequency was the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. Comparing the results of this study with the data of 1979 approximately 1980, the importance of U. vulgaris in pelagic copepods in the Sea was decreased in spring, summer and autumn, but increased in winter, which might be related with the global warming in winter. The main environmental factors affecting U. vulgaris abundance were the bottom water factors that closely related with the warm current in the ocean. Because of its sensibility to low temperature and coastal water mass, U. vulgaris could be used as a good indicator of warm current, and, as a good food for fishes, this species plays an important role in marine fishing in the middle-south part of the East China Sea.

  5. Associations between human rights environments and healthy longevity: the case of older persons in China.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bethany L; Qiu, Li; Gu, Danan

    2012-12-15

    Individual health can deteriorate through neglect or violation of human rights or can improve through favorable health policies and programs on human rights. Yet quantitative associations between human rights and health are insufficiently studied. Based on a nationwide dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) with more than 18,800 adults aged 65 and older in mainland China interviewed in 2002 and 2005 and their follow-ups three years later, we examine how an individual's longevity and health are associated with some domains of human rights. We use three individual-level variables in early life stages (whether a respondent went to bed hungry, accessed adequate medical services, and years of schooling), three individual-level variables at present (whether a respondent has adequate housing; whether a respondent has adequate economic resources to support his/her daily subsistence, and whether a respondent gets adequate medical services when in need), and one community-level variable (air quality) as proxies to measure several fundamental domains of human rights in terms of access to adequate food/nutrition, housing/shelter, education, social security, health care, and clean-air environments. An indicator of healthy survival is introduced to measure survivors at sequent follow-ups with a good health condition. Our results demonstrate that better conditions of proxy measures of human rights at different life stages, especially at present, are associated with a higher likelihood of healthy survival after taking various confounding variables into consideration, suggesting the possibility of a significant linkage between good environments in human rights and healthy longevity. These findings may have important implications for promoting better environments in human rights, especially in the context of population aging.

  6. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  7. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small

  8. Negotiating energy dynamics through embodied action in a materially structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Flood, Virginia J.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Wittmann, Michael C.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2013-12-01

    We provide evidence that a learning activity called Energy Theater engages learners with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including disambiguating matter flow and energy flow and theorizing mechanisms for energy transformation. A participationist theory of learning, in which learning is indicated by changes in speech and behavior, supports ethnographic analysis of learners’ embodied interactions with each other and the material setting. We conduct detailed analysis to build plausible causal links between specific features of Energy Theater and the conceptual engagement that we observe. Disambiguation of matter and energy appears to be promoted especially by the material structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants, while objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope. Theorizing mechanisms of energy transformation is promoted especially by Energy Theater’s embodied action, which necessitates modeling the time ordering of energy transformations.

  9. Marine-hydrokinetic energy and the environment: Observations, modeling, and basic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-03-01

    Research at the Interface of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy and the Environment: A Workshop; Minneapolis, Minnesota, 5-7 October 2011 Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy harvesting technologies convert the kinetic energy of waves and water currents into power to generate electricity. Although these technologies are in early stages of development compared to other renewable technologies, such as solar and wind energy, they offer electricity consumers situated near coastlines or inland rivers an alternative energy technology that can help meet renewable portfolio standards. However, the potential environmental impacts of MHK energy are far from well understood, both in general principles and in site-specific cases. As pressure for new MHK energy licenses builds, accelerated research in providing the scientific understanding of harnessing the natural power of water for renewable energy at a competitive cost and without harming the environment becomes a priority.

  10. Economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model for identification of optimal strategies - a case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Long, H. L.; Wan, J.; Jia, JL; Li, X.; Chu, CJ

    2016-08-01

    An economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model is proposed for identification of optimal economic, industry, energy and environment strategies. The EEIEO model is applied to a real case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which is the important economic growth pole of northern China. The EEIEO model could fully consider the interaction between industrial, energy, urbanization and environment sector, and generate the optimized economic development, industrial restructuring, energy consumption and environment management schemes. This is first attempt to introduce economic, energy, industrial, urbanization and environmental sectors into an optimization framework, while sustainable energy and environment development pathways are explored through EEIEO model. The results suggest that: (i) the GDP of BTH region would increase about 73.80% over the planning horizon; (ii) the contribution of tertiary industry for BTH region's economic development would gradually increase from 54.00% in 2015 to 65.00% in 2030; (iii) the consumption of coal would decrease by 36%, and the natural gas would obviously increase by 97.70% over the planning horizon; and (iv) the SO2, smoke and dust emissions and CO2 would reduce by 30.20%, 35.30% and 4.50% from 2015 to 2030, respectively.

  11. Limited formation of isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol under NOx-rich environments in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Sun, Yele; Favez, Olivier; Canonaco, Francesco; Albinet, Alexandre; Couvidat, Florian; Liu, Dantong; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Zhuang; Croteau, Philip L.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Zhou, Hong-cang; Prévôt, André S. H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2017-02-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has potential impacts on regional air quality and climate yet is poorly characterized under NOx-rich ambient environments. We report the first real-time characterization of IEPOX-derived SOA (IEPOX-SOA) in Eastern China in summer 2013 using comprehensive ambient measurements, along with model analysis. The ratio of IEPOX-SOA to isoprene high-NOx SOA precursors, e.g., methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, and the reactive uptake potential of IEPOX was lower than those generally observed in regions with prevailing biogenic emissions, low NOx levels, and high particle acidity, elucidating the suppression of IEPOX-SOA formation under NOx-rich environments. IEPOX-SOA showed high potential source regions to the south with large biogenic emissions, illustrating that the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions might have played an important role in affecting the formation of IEPOX-SOA in polluted environments in Eastern China.

  12. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E.

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  13. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  14. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out.

  15. Damage caused to the environment by reforestation policies in arid and semi-arid areas of China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shixiong; Tian, Tao; Chen, Li; Dong, Xiaobin; Yu, Xinxiao; Wang, Guosheng

    2010-06-01

    Traditional approaches to ecosystem restoration have considered afforestation to be an important tool. To alleviate land degradation in China, the Chinese government has therefore invested huge amounts of money in planting trees. However, the results of more than half a century of large-scale afforestation in arid and semi-arid China have shown that when the trees are not adapted to the local environment, the policy does not improve the environment, and may instead increase environmental degradation. When precipitation is lower than potential evaporation, surface soil moisture typically cannot sustain forest vegetation, and shrubs or steppe species replace the forest to form a sustainable natural ecosystem that exists in a stable equilibrium with the available water supply. The climate of much of northwestern China appears to be unsuitable for afforestation owing to the extremely low rainfall. Although some small-scale or short-term afforestation efforts have succeeded in this region, many of the resulting forests have died or degraded over longer periods, so policymakers must understand that these small-scale or short-term results do not support an inflexible policy of large-scale afforestation throughout arid and semi-arid northwestern China. Rather than focusing solely on afforestation, it would be more effective to attempt to recreate natural ecosystems that are better adapted to local environments and that thus provide a better chance of sustainable, long-term rehabilitation.

  16. Study on impact of energy price comparison on energy saving benefits of heat pump in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Tian, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Bai, H. F.

    2016-08-01

    As to the heat pump technology applying in the HVAC engineering, the relationship between energy saving rate (ESR) and electricity cost saving rate (ECSR) of heat pump should be a positive correlation in theory. But in the actual energy price system, due to the fluctuating energy price comparison, the relationship between them is of less coordination. Moreover, despite the high ESR, the economic benefit of ECSR is lost. In this paper, via the case analysis under the condition of average technical and economic parameters in North China, the critical point rate of economic benefit of ECSR in energy price comparison among prices of residential electricity, steam-coal, and residential natural gas is found, which is about 2:3:8. Also, a viewpoint as well as method is suggested to promote the wide usage of heat pump, balance energy supply structure, save energy consumption, and reduce emissions by optimizing the energy price comparison, which is feasible and desirable to raise the price comparison between residential electricity and natural gas, and reduce the price comparison between residential electricity and steam-coal in a certain extent.

  17. Low Energy Electrons in the Mars Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The ionosphere of Mars is rather poorly understood. The only direct measurements were performed by the Viking 1 and 2 landers in 1976, both of which carried a Retarding Potential Analyzer. The RPA was designed to measure ion properties during the descent, although electron fluxes were estimated from changes in the ion currents. Using these derived low-energy electron fluxes, Mantas and Hanson studied the photoelectron and the solar wind electron interactions with the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. Unanswered questions remain regarding the origin of the low-energy electron fluxes in the vicinity of the Mars plasma boundary. Crider, in an analysis of Mars Global Surveyor Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer measurements, has attributed the formation of the magnetic pile-up boundary to electron impact ionization of exospheric neutral species by solar wind electrons. However, the role of photoelectrons escaping from the lower ionosphere was not determined. In the proposed work, we will examine the role of solar wind and ionospheric photoelectrons in producing ionization in the upper ionosphere of Mars. Low-energy (< 4 keV) electrons will be modeled using the two-stream electron transport code of Link. The code models both external (solar wind) and internal (photoelectron) sources of ionization, and accounts for Auger electron production. The code will be used to analyze Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar wind and photoelectrons down to altitudes below 200 km in the Mars ionosphere, in order to determine the relative roles of solar wind and escaping photoelectrons in maintaining plasma densities in the region of the Mars plasma boundary.

  18. Energy efficiency services: What role in a competitive environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-11-01

    If experience from other industries counts, energy services will remain the strategically critical center of the chessboard in a reconfigured electric utility market. Players who can create customized, integrated packages of customer services will be in a strong position to {open_quotes}create value{close_quotes} in a highly fragmented and competitive industry. The initial phase of disintegration is likely to be followed by period of reintegration, in which non-price services become increasing important. An overview is given on how utilities can deliver value to customers through innovative marketing strategies, leveraging existing knowledge, and the maintaining or building of infrastructure.

  19. Relationships among Energy Price Shocks, Stock Market, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market “underreacting.” The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  20. Study on the China regional economic growth and energy consumption intensity difference convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mei; Wu, Lu

    2017-04-01

    Based on theory of convergence, firstly, per-capita GDP difference convergence model of underdeveloped regions and developing regions compared with developed regions are established, then, convergence model of energy consumption intensity difference compared with per-capita GDP difference is built, from which, it is found that China's regional per-capita GDP growth shows convergence trend, and convergence rate of energy consumption intensity is slightly slower than the per-capita GDP. So, it is suggested that the local government should fully consider the convergence characteristics of regional energy consumption difference to guarantee not only economic growth but also energy saving and emission reduction in order to ensure sustained economic growth in the implementation of energy-saving emission reduction strategies.

  1. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market.

  2. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Benner, Stephen [Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology

    2016-07-12

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  3. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, Stephen

    2012-03-22

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  4. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  5. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  6. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  7. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Zimmer, Carl [New York Times

    2016-07-12

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  8. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, Carl

    2012-03-20

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  9. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)—social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  10. CO emissions in China: Uncertainties and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jie

    2012-03-01

    A bottom-up methodology and an improved database of emission factors combining the latest domestic field measurements are developed to estimate the emissions of anthropogenic CO from China at national and provincial levels. The CO emission factors for major economic sectors declined to varying degrees from 2005 to 2009, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. Total national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation sources dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a much greater role in the less developed western provinces. The uncertainties of national Chinese CO emissions are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation at -20% to +45% (95% confidence interval). Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to satellite observation of CO columns and to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes. The increase in the ratio for emissions of CO2 relative to CO suggests that China has successfully improved combustion efficiencies across its economy in recent years, consistent with national policies to improve energy efficiency and to control criteria air pollutants.

  11. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)-social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  12. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modem levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the downside risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth. That means providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand.

  13. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  14. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  15. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  16. Air quality, environment, and energy. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Part 1 -- Energy -- Estimating Automobile Fuel Consumption in Urban Traffic; Economic Evaluation of Compressed Natural Gas Fleet Conversion and Operation; Part 2 -- Environmental Analysis -- Washington State Department of Transportation Wetland Monitoring Program; Calcium Magnesium Acetate Degradation in Roadside Soil: Acetate Microcosms; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Highway Maintenance Waste; Part 3 -- Air Quality -- Impact of Preaggregation of Highway Network Travel Data on Accuracy of MOBILE4-Based Emissions; Toll Plaza Design to Minimize Carbon Monoxide Levels at Roadway Rights-of-Way; Improving Average Travel Speeds Estimated by Planning Models; Comparison of Vehicular Emissions in Free-Flow and Congestion Using MOBILE4 and Highway Performance Monitoring System; Carbon Monoxide Emission Effects of Drive-Up Facilities; Part 4 -- Historic Preservation -- Finland's Highway and Traffic Museum: Preserving the Nation's Transportation Legacy; Part 5 -- Noise --Field Evaluation of Acoustical Performance of Parallel Highway Noise Barriers in California.

  17. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  18. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  19. Organic trace pollutants in the aquatic environment--regulatory and technical problem-solving approaches in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Koester, Stephan; Beier, Silvio; Zhao, Fang Fang; Sui, Qian; Yu, Gang; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, worldwide awareness of an aquatic environment polluted by organic trace pollutants, e.g. pharmaceutical residues and industrial chemicals, has risen tremendously. The present paper outlines similarities and differences in how to face the organic trace pollutants occurring in the natural and urban water cycles in Germany and China. Our joint review clearly shows that this emerging environmental problem is in both countries being widely discussed on a scientific level and it is evidently perceived in a comparable way. However, while the state of knowledge, which is still unsatisfactory, induces further investigations in China, the research activities in Germany have already led to first full-scale applications to remove trace pollutants. While Germany seems to be one step ahead, China possibly is in a better position for a later trace pollutants removal due to the massively increasing use of membrane bioreactors as a key technology for the necessary expansion of wastewater treatment capacities.

  20. Power Distribution Architecture for High Energy Physic Hostile Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderighi, M.; Citterio, M.; Latorre, S.; Riva, M.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Lanza, A.; Bernardoni, M.; Menozzi, R.; Costabeber, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Sichirollo, F.; Spiazzi, G.; Stellini, M.; Tenti, P.; Baccaro, S.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Busatto, G.; de Luca, V.

    2012-08-01

    In the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the selection of the most suitable architecture able to supply the instrumentation of the experiments represents a critical task today. The power conversion units will have to supply low voltages and high currents to the loads with reduced transmission losses and, moreover, their design will have to face the critical demand of efficiency, robustness and limited size together with the need to operate in hostile environment. The paper discusses the most promising solutions in the power supply distribution networks which could be implemented in the upgraded detectors at the High Luminosity LHC collider. The proposed topologies have been selected by considering their tolerance to high background magnetic field and nuclear radiations as well as their limited electromagnetic noise emission. The analysis focuses on the description of the power supplies for noble liquid calorimeters, such as the Atlas LAr calorimeters, though several outcomes of this research can be applied to other detectors of the future LHC experiments.