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Sample records for china ii insights

  1. Insights into Buforin II Membrane Translocation from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Buforin II is a histone-derived antimicrobial peptide that readily translocates across lipid membranes without causing significant membrane permeabilization. Previous studies showed that mutating the sole proline of buforin II dramatically decreases its translocation. As well, researchers have proposed that the peptide crosses membranes in a cooperative manner through forming transient toroidal pores. This paper reports molecular dynamics simulations designed to investigate the structure of buforin II upon membrane entry and evaluate whether the peptide is able to form toroidal pore structures. These simulations showed a relationship between protein-lipid interactions and increased structural deformations of the buforin N-terminal region promoted by proline. Moreover, simulations with multiple peptides show how buforin II can embed deeply into membranes and potentially form toroidal pores. Together, these simulations provide structural insight into the translocation process for buforin II in addition to providing more general insight into the role proline can play in antimicrobial peptides. PMID:23022591

  2. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  3. Haze insights and mitigation in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuliang; Wang, Yuesi; He, Hong; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Xinming; Zhu, Tingyu; Ge, Maofa; Zhou, Ju; Tang, Guiqian; Ma, Jinzhu

    2014-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the chemical and physical features of haze in China, focusing on the relationship between haze and atmospheric fine particles, and the formation mechanism of haze. It also summarizes several of control technologies and strategies to mitigate the occurrence of haze. The development of instruments and the analysis of measurements of ambient particles and precursor concentrations have provided important information about haze formation. Indeed, the use of new instruments has greatly facilitated current haze research in China. Examples of insightful results include the relationship between fine particles and haze, the chemical compositions and sources of particles, the impacts of the aging process on haze formation, and the application of technologies that control the formation of haze. Based on these results, two relevant issues need to be addressed: understanding the relationship between haze and fine particles and understanding how to control PM2.5.

  4. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  5. Structural insight into the type-II mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue; Li, Wenfei; Li, Jian; Wang, Jiawei; Ge, Jingpeng; Xu, Duo; Liu, Yanjing; Wu, Kaiqi; Zeng, Qingyin; Wu, Jia-Wei; Tian, Changlin; Zhou, Bing; Yang, Maojun

    2012-11-15

    The single-component type-II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) serve as alternatives to the multisubunit respiratory complex I (type-I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1), also called NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.5.3) in catalysing electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The yeast NDH-2 (Ndi1) oxidizes NADH on the matrix side and reduces ubiquinone to maintain mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) homeostasis. Ndi1 is a potential therapeutic agent for human diseases caused by complex I defects, particularly Parkinson's disease, because its expression restores the mitochondrial activity in animals with complex I deficiency. NDH-2s in pathogenic microorganisms are viable targets for new antibiotics. Here we solve the crystal structures of Ndi1 in its substrate-free, NADH-, ubiquinone- and NADH-ubiquinone-bound states, to help understand the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2s. We find that Ndi1 homodimerization through its carboxy-terminal domain is critical for its catalytic activity and membrane targeting. The structures reveal two ubiquinone-binding sites (UQ(I) and UQ(II)) in Ndi1. NADH and UQ(I) can bind to Ndi1 simultaneously to form a substrate-protein complex. We propose that UQ(I) interacts with FAD to act as an intermediate for electron transfer, and that NADH transfers electrons through this FAD-UQ(I) complex to UQ(II). Together our data reveal the regulatory and catalytic mechanisms of Ndi1 and may facilitate the development or targeting of NDH-2s for potential therapeutic applications.

  6. New Insight into GO, Cadmium(II), Phosphate Interaction and Its Role in GO Colloidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuemei; Wu, Qunyan; Xu, Huan; Shao, Dadong; Tan, Xiaoli; Shi, Weiqun; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jiaxing; Chai, Zhifang; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-09-01

    This study establishes the relationship between the graphene oxide (GO) colloidal behavior and the co-adsorption of Cd(II) and phosphate (P(V)) on GO. Results reveal that the interactions among GO, Cd(II), and P(V) exhibit a significant dependence on solution chemistry and addition sequences and that these interactions subsequently affect the GO colloidal behavior. The GO aggregation is pH-dependent at pH < 4.0 and depends apparently on the binding ability of Cd(II) to GO at pH > 4.0. When the components were added simultaneously, the presence of P(V) enhances the GO binding capacity toward Cd(II), confirmed by theoretical calculation, resulting in the greater destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH 3.0-9.5, while the formation of Cd3(PO4)2 precipitate leads to a lower destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH > 9.5. Both pH and addition sequence affect the destabilizing ability of Cd(II) + P(V). These new insights are expected to provide valuable information not only for the application of GO as a potential adsorbent in multicomponent systems for heavy metal ion and oxyanion co-removal but also for the fate and risk assessment of GO after serving as heavy metal ion and oxyanion carrier.

  7. New Insight into GO, Cadmium(II), Phosphate Interaction and Its Role in GO Colloidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuemei; Wu, Qunyan; Xu, Huan; Shao, Dadong; Tan, Xiaoli; Shi, Weiqun; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jiaxing; Chai, Zhifang; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-09-01

    This study establishes the relationship between the graphene oxide (GO) colloidal behavior and the co-adsorption of Cd(II) and phosphate (P(V)) on GO. Results reveal that the interactions among GO, Cd(II), and P(V) exhibit a significant dependence on solution chemistry and addition sequences and that these interactions subsequently affect the GO colloidal behavior. The GO aggregation is pH-dependent at pH < 4.0 and depends apparently on the binding ability of Cd(II) to GO at pH > 4.0. When the components were added simultaneously, the presence of P(V) enhances the GO binding capacity toward Cd(II), confirmed by theoretical calculation, resulting in the greater destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH 3.0-9.5, while the formation of Cd3(PO4)2 precipitate leads to a lower destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH > 9.5. Both pH and addition sequence affect the destabilizing ability of Cd(II) + P(V). These new insights are expected to provide valuable information not only for the application of GO as a potential adsorbent in multicomponent systems for heavy metal ion and oxyanion co-removal but also for the fate and risk assessment of GO after serving as heavy metal ion and oxyanion carrier. PMID:27479690

  8. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  9. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity Provides Insight into Microbial Pathways and Stress Responses in the Saline Qinghai Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  10. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  11. Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: an update on and insights to its prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Man-Hua; Wang, Feng-Guo; Li, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Bei-Bei; Deng, Su-Fang; Hu, Jun; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Man-Lin; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered the major pathogen of porcine circovirus associated-diseases (PCVAD) that causes large economic losses for the swine industry in the world annually, including China. Since the first report of PCV2 in 1998, it has been drawing tremendous attention for the government, farming enterprises, farmers, and veterinary practitioners. Chinese researchers have conducted a number of molecular epidemiological work on PCV2 by molecular approaches in the past several years, which has resulted in the identification of novel PCV2 genotypes and PCV2-like agents as well as the description of new prevalence patterns. Since late 2009, commercial PCV2 vaccines, including the subunit vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have already been used in Chinese swine farms. The aim of this review is to update the insights into the prevalence and control of PCV2 in China, which would contribute to understanding the epidemiology, control measures and design of novel vaccines for PCV2.

  12. Current insights into the diagnosis and treatment of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in China

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFs) account for 20% of pediatric BMFs. Although recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of IBMFs in China have been published recently, improvements are still needed in making precise diagnoses and properly treating pediatric patients with IBMFs. This review provides current insights into IBMFs in China. The data of our single institution data showed that pediatric patients with IBMFs accounted for 7.4% of BMFs. However, the number of reported cases with IBMFs may be underestimated than the actual morbidity in China because of limitations in the detection approaches and lacking of awareness of these diseases in local hospitals. Although patients with IBMFs are candidates for bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy, their phenotypic heterogeneity can delay or incompetent diagnosis. The golden standard test for Fanconi anemia is the chromosome breakage test, but it can be completed by few hospital and diagnostic companies in China. In addition, there are still no consistent standardized testing methods for other rare IBMFs. Recently, the combined application of targeted capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides and accurate and efficient diagnostic method for IBMFs. PMID:27358883

  13. Aircraft observations of dust and pollutants over northeast China: Insight into the meteorological mechanisms of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L. T.; Stehr, J. W.; McClure, B.; Krotkov, N.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.; Xia, X.; Ban, X.; Gong, F.; Yuan, J.; Yang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The meteorological mechanisms for lofting trace gases and aerosols out of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere are key to understanding local air pollution problems as well as regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate issues. Over the North American continent, convective storms and lifting in warm conveyor belts transport pollutants into the free troposphere. Little is known about the vertical distribution of pollutants and dust over east Asia, and the processes leading to transport, transformation, and removal of these species remain uncertain. To provide insight into these mechanisms, we report on eight flights based out of Shenyang in NE China as part of the U.S./China EAST-AIRE project conducted in April 2005. We evaluate profiles of trace species, along with back trajectories and satellite data, in the meteorological context of cyclonic systems. The warm-sector PBL air ahead of a cold front was highly polluted, while in the free troposphere concentrations of trace gases and aerosols were lower, but well above background; we measured ˜300 ppb CO, ˜2 ppb SO2, ˜70 ppb O3, and ˜ 8 × 10-5 m-1 aerosol scattering between ˜1000 and 4000 m altitude. Satellite observations indicate that the entire plume contained almost 105 tons of SO2 and that the gas decayed with a lifetime of 3-5 d. Roughly the same mass of aerosol was transported into the free troposphere. Over the east Asian continent, dry convection appears to dominate with warm conveyor belts first coming into play as the cyclonic systems move off the coast.

  14. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Cd(II) on loess soil from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yunmin; Zhan, Liangtong; Li, Zhenze; Tang, Qiang

    2009-12-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that has caused serious public health problems. It is necessary to find a cost effective method to deal with wastewater containing Cd(II). Loess soils in China have proven to be a potential adsorbent for Cd(II) removal from wastewater. The adsorption capacity of loess towards Cd(II) has been determined to be about 9.37 mg g(-1). Slurry concentration, initial solution pH, reaction time and temperature have also been found to significantly influence the efficiency of Cd(II) removal. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of loess soil from China can be best-fit with the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics model, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and the system disorder increased with duration. The natural organic matter in loess soil is mainly responsible for Cd(II) removal at pH < 4.2, while clay minerals contribute to a further gradual adsorption process. Chemical precipitation dominates the adsorption stage at pH > 8.97. Further studies using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra of Cd(II) laden loess soil and Cd(II) species distribution have confirmed the adsorption mechanism.

  15. Structural basis for the inhibition of truncated islet amyloid polypeptide aggregation by Cu(II): insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rivillas-Acevedo, Lina; Sánchez-López, Carolina; Amero, Carlos; Quintanar, Liliana

    2015-04-20

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting over 300 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of T2D is the presence of amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the islets of Langerhans of pancreatic β-cells. Recent reports indicate that Cu(II) can inhibit the aggregation of human IAPP, although the mechanism for this inhibitory effect is not clear. In this study, different spectroscopic techniques and model fragments of IAPP were employed to shed light on the structural basis for the interaction of Cu(II) with human IAPP. Our results show that Cu(II) anchors to His18 and the subsequent amide groups toward the C-terminal, forming a complex with an equatorial coordination mode 3N1O at physiological pH. Cu(II) binding to truncated IAPP at the His18 region is the key event for its inhibitory effect in amyloid aggregation. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies indicate that the monomeric Cu(II)-IAPP(15-22) complex differs significantly from Cu(II) bound to mature IAPP(15-22) fibers, suggesting that copper binding to monomeric IAPP(15-22) competes with the conformation changes needed to form β-sheet structures, thus delaying fibril formation. A general mechanism is proposed for the inhibitory effect of copper and other imidazole-binding metal ions in IAPP amyloid formation, providing further insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of T2D.

  16. Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Aerobic Copper(II)-Catalyzed Methoxylation of Arylboronic Esters and Insights into Aryl Transmetalation to Copper(II).

    PubMed

    King, Amanda E; Ryland, Bradford L; Brunold, Thomas C; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-11-26

    We previously reported a preliminary mechanistic study of aerobic Cu(OAc)(2)-catalyzed methoxylation of 4-tolylboronic ester (King, et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 5044-5045), which revealed that aryl transmetalation from the boronic ester to Cu(II) is the turnover-limiting step. In the present study, more-thorough kinetic and spectroscopic studies provide additional insights into transmetalation pathway and the identity of the Cu(II) catalyst resting state(s). EPR spectroscopic studies show that at least two copper(II) species are present under catalytic conditions and their relative populations vary as a function of reaction time and acidity of the arylboronic ester, and are influenced by addition of acetic acid or acetate to the reaction mixture. Analysis of kinetic data and (11)B NMR and EPR spectra under diverse reaction conditions suggests that aryl transmetalation occurs from a tetracoordinate, anionic boronate to a cationic Cu(II) species, mediated by a methoxide-bridge. PMID:23204631

  17. Insight into the Structure of Light Harvesting Complex II and its Stabilization in Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2009-01-01

    The structure of spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in a solution of the detergent n-octyl-{beta}-d-glucoside (BOG), was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Physicochemical characterization of the isolated complex indicated that it was pure (>95%) and also in its native trimeric state. SANS with contrast variation was used to investigate the properties of the protein-detergent complex at three different H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast match points, enabling the scattering properties of the protein and detergent to be investigated independently. The topological shape of LHC II, determined using ab initio shape restoration methods from the SANS data at the contrast match point of BOG, was consistent with the X-ray crystallographic structure of LHC II (Liu et al. Nature 2004 428, 287-292). The interactions of the protein and detergent were investigated at the contrast match point for the protein and also in 100% D{sub 2}O. The data suggested that BOG micelle structure was altered by its interaction with LHC II, but large aggregate structures were not formed. Indirect Fourier transform analysis of the LHC II/BOG scattering curves showed that the increase in the maximum dimension of the protein-detergent complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer of detergent surrounding the protein. A model of the LHC II/BOG complex was generated to interpret the measurements made in 100% D{sub 2}O. This model adequately reproduced the overall size of the LHC II/BOG complex, but demonstrated that the detergent does not have a highly regular shape that surrounds the hydrophobic periphery of LHC II. In addition to demonstrating that natively structured LHC II can be produced for functional characterization and for use in artificial solar energy applications, the analysis and modeling approaches described here can be used for characterizing detergent-associated {alpha}-helical transmembrane proteins.

  18. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Vander Heiden, Jason; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-03-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and

  19. New Insights into Nisin's Antibacterial Mechanism Revealed by Binding Studies with Synthetic Lipid II Analogues.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Peter; Oppedijk, Sabine F; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-12

    Nisin is the preeminent lantibiotic, and to date its antibacterial mechanism has been investigated using a variety of techniques. While nisin's lipid II-mediated mode of action is well-established, a detailed analysis of the thermodynamic parameters governing this interaction has not been previously reported. We here describe an approach employing isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the affinity of nisin for lipid II and a number of synthetic lipid II precursors and analogues. Our measurements confirm the pyrophosphate unit of lipid II as the primary site of nisin binding and also indicate that the complete MurNAc moiety is required for a high-affinity interaction. Additionally, we find that while the pentapeptide unit of the lipid II molecule is not required for strong binding by nisin, it does play an important role in stabilizing the subsequently formed nisin-lipid II pore complex, albeit at an entropic cost. The anchoring of lipid II in a membrane environment was also found to play a significant role in enhancing nisin binding and is required in order to achieve a high-affinity interaction. PMID:26653142

  20. Single molecule microscopy reveals mechanistic insight into RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex assembly and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Abigail E.; Kugel, Jennifer F.; Goodrich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a complex process that requires general transcription factors and Pol II to assemble on DNA into preinitiation complexes that can begin RNA synthesis upon binding of NTPs (nucleoside triphosphate). The pathways by which preinitiation complexes form, and how this impacts transcriptional activity are not completely clear. To address these issues, we developed a single molecule system using TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy and purified human transcription factors, which allows us to visualize transcriptional activity at individual template molecules. We see that stable interactions between polymerase II (Pol II) and a heteroduplex DNA template do not depend on general transcription factors; however, transcriptional activity is highly dependent upon TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF. We also found that subsets of general transcription factors and Pol II can form stable complexes that are precursors for functional transcription complexes upon addition of the remaining factors and DNA. Ultimately we found that Pol II, TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF can form a quaternary complex in the absence of promoter DNA, indicating that a stable network of interactions exists between these proteins independent of promoter DNA. Single molecule studies can be used to learn how different modes of preinitiation complex assembly impact transcriptional activity. PMID:27112574

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of boehmite-rich coals: New insights from the Haerwusu Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, D.; Ma, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Boehmite-rich coal of Pennsylvanian age was discovered earlier at the Heidaigou Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. This paper reports new results on 29 bench samples of the no. 6 coal from a drill core from the adjacent Haerwusu Surface Mine, and provides new insights into the origin of the minerals and elements present. The results show that the proportion of inertinite in the no. 6 coal is higher than in other Late Paleozoic coals in northern China. Based on mineral proportions (boehmite to kaolinite ratio) and major element concentrations in the coal benches of the drill core, the no. 6 coal may be divided into five sections (I to V). Major minerals in Sections I and V are kaolinite. Sections II and IV are mainly kaolinite with a trace of boehmite, and Section III is high in boehmite. The boehmite is derived from bauxite in the weathered surface (Benxi Formation) in the sediment-source region. The no. 6 coal is rich in Al2O3 (8.89%), TiO2 (0.47%), Li (116????g/g), F (286????g/g), Ga (18????g/g), Se (6.1????g/g), Sr (350????g/g), Zr (268????g/g), REEs (172????g/g), Pb (30????g/g), and Th (17????g/g). The elements are classified into five associations by cluster analysis, i.e. Groups A, B, C, D, and E. Group A (ash-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Li) and Group B (REE-Sc-In-Y-K2O-Rb-Zr-Hf-Cs-U-P2O5-Sr-Ba-Ge) are strongly correlated with ash yield and mainly have an inorganic affinity. The elements that are negatively or less strongly correlated with ash yield (with exceptions of Fe2O3, Be, V, and Ni) are grouped in the remaining three associations: Group C, Se-Pb-Hg-Th-TiO2-Bi-Nb-Ta-Cd-Sn; Group D, Co-Mo-Tl-Be-Ni-Sb-MgO-Re-Ga-W-Zn-V-Cr-F-Cu; and Group E, S-As-CaO-MnO-Fe2O3. Aluminum is mainly distributed in boehmite, followed by kaolinite. The high correlation coefficients of the Li-ash, Li-Al2O3, and Li-SiO2 pairs indicate that Li is related to the aluminosilicates in the coal. The boehmite-rich coal is high in gallium and F, which occur in boehmite and the

  2. China and India: Different Educational Paths toward Prosperity. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Kumar, Krishna B.

    2008-01-01

    Different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating economic growth. The two countries started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s; however, different policies, strategies, and historical circumstances have led them through different routes. China has…

  3. Insights into the strategies used by related group II introns to adapt successfully for the colonisation of a bacterial genome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Fernando M; Molina-Sánchez, María Dolores; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs and site-specific mobile retroelements found in bacterial and organellar genomes. The group II intron RmInt1 is present at high copy number in Sinorhizobium meliloti species, and has a multifunctional intron-encoded protein (IEP) with reverse transcriptase/maturase activities, but lacking the DNA-binding and endonuclease domains. We characterized two RmInt1-related group II introns RmInt2 from S. meliloti strain GR4 and Sr.md.I1 from S. medicae strain WSM419 in terms of splicing and mobility activities. We used both wild-type and engineered intron-donor constructs based on ribozyme ΔORF-coding sequence derivatives, and we determined the DNA target requirements for RmInt2, the element most distantly related to RmInt1. The excision and mobility patterns of intron-donor constructs expressing different combinations of IEP and intron RNA provided experimental evidence for the co-operation of IEPs and intron RNAs from related elements in intron splicing and, in some cases, in intron homing. We were also able to identify the DNA target regions recognized by these IEPs lacking the DNA endonuclease domain. Our results provide new insight into the versatility of related group II introns and the possible co-operation between these elements to facilitate the colonization of bacterial genomes.

  4. Structural insights into Transcriptional Repression by non-coding RNAs that bind to Human Pol II

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Fang, Jie; Grob, Patricia; Yakovchuk, Petro; Goodrich, James A.; Nogales, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription is regulated in response to environmental changes as well as developmental cues. In mammalian cells subjected to stress conditions such as heat shock, transcription of most protein-coding genes decreases, while the transcription of heat shock protein genes increases. Repression involves direct binding to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) of certain non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are upregulated upon heat shock. Another class of ncRNAs is also upregulated and binds to Pol II, but does not inhibit transcription. Incorporation of repressive ncRNAs into pre-initiation complexes prevents transcription initiation, while non-repressive ncRNAs are displaced from Pol II by TFIIF. Here, we present cryo-EM reconstructions of human Pol II in complex with six different ncRNAs from mouse and human. Our structures show that both repressive and non-repressive ncRNAs bind to a conserved binding site within the cleft of Pol II. The site, also shared with a previously characterized yeast aptamer, is close to the active center and thus in an ideal position to regulate transcription. Importantly, additional RNA elements extend flexibly beyond the docking site. We propose that the differences concerning the repressive activity of the ncRNA analyzed must be due to the distinct character of these more unstructured, flexible segments of the RNA that emanate from the cleft. PMID:22954660

  5. Insights into the electronic structure of Cu(II) bound to an imidazole analogue of westiellamide.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Hanson, Graeme R; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Noble, Christopher J; Riley, Mark J; Seibold, Bjoern

    2014-12-01

    Three synthetic analogues of westiallamide, H3L(wa), have previously been synthesized (H3L(1-3)) that have a common backbone (derived from l-valine) with H3L(wa) but differ in their heterocyclic rings (imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, and oxazoline). Herein we explore in detail through high-resolution pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) the geometric and electronic structures of the mono- and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of these cyclic pseudo hexapeptides. Orientation-selective hyperfine sublevel correlation, electron nuclear double resonance, and three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy of [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) reveal delocalization of the unpaired electron spin onto the ligating and distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic rings and that they are magnetically inequivalent. DFT calculations confirm this and show similar spin densities on the distal heteroatoms in the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in the other cyclic pseudo hexapeptide [Cu(II)(H2L(2,3,wa))(MeOH)2](+) complexes. The magnetic inequivalencies in [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) arise from different orientations of the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion, and the delocalization of the unpaired electron onto the distal heteroatoms within these N-methylimidazole rings depends upon their location with respect to the Cu(II) d(x(2)-y(2)) orbital. A systematic study of DFT functionals and basis sets was undertaken to examine the ability to reproduce the experimentally determined spin Hamiltonian parameters. Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) using MAG-ReSpect or ORCA with a BHLYP/IGLO-II Wachters setup with SOC corrections and ∼38% Hartree-Fock exchange gave the best predictions of the g and A((63)Cu) matrices. DFT calculations of the (14)N hyperfine and quadrupole parameters for the distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic

  6. Two modes of extension in the North China Craton: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton was formed around 1.8 Ga by collision and amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks. It remained tectonically stable since then until Mesozoic, when its eastern part experienced wide-distributed extension and volcanism. This distributed extension waned down in the early Cenozoic, and was replaced by localized extension (rifting) in the western part of the North China Craton. We have developed a series of viscoplastic finite element models to investigate the lithospheric conditions associated with these changing modes of extension in the North China Craton. Our results show that the wide-distributed extension in North China requires a thin and hot lithosphere, which is probably the result of delamination or thermal erosion of the lithospheric root under the eastern part of the North China Craton. The localized rifting during the late Cenozoic in the western part of the North China Craton indicates a relatively cold and thick lithosphere. Furthermore, preexisting lithospheric weakening was needed to explain the formation of the Late Cenozoic rift zones. These preexisting weakening zones may be inherited from the Paleoprotozoic collision that formed the North China Craton.

  7. Atomic-level insights into metabolite recognition and specificity of the SAM-II riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Urmi; Kelley, Jennifer M.; Hamelberg, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Although S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a metabolic by-product of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), differs from SAM only by a single methyl group and an overall positive charge, SAH binds the SAM-II riboswitch with more than 1000-fold less affinity than SAM. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the molecular basis of such high selectivity in ligand recognition by SAM-II riboswitch. The biosynthesis of SAM exclusively generates the (S,S) stereoisomer, and (S,S)-SAM can spontaneously convert to the (R,S) form. We, therefore, also examined the effects of (R,S)-SAM binding to SAM-II and its potential biological function. We find that the unfavorable loss in entropy in SAM-II binding is greater for (S,S)- and (R,S)-SAM than SAH, which is compensated by stabilizing electrostatic interactions with the riboswitch. The positively charged sulfonium moiety on SAM acts as the crucial anchor point responsible for the formation of key ionic interactions as it fits favorably in the negatively charged binding pocket. In contrast, SAH, with its lone pair of electrons on the sulfur, experiences repulsion in the binding pocket of SAM-II and is enthalpically destabilized. In the presence of SAH, similar to the unbound riboswitch, the pseudoknot structure of SAM-II is not completely formed, thus exposing the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Unlike SAM, this may further facilitate ribosomal assembly and translation initiation. Our analysis of the conformational ensemble sampled by SAM-II in the absence of ligands and when bound to SAM or SAH reveals that ligand binding follows a combination of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms. PMID:22194311

  8. Structural and functional insight into TAF1-TAF7, a subcomplex of transcription factor II D

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suparna; Lou, Xiaohua; Hwang, Peter; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Wang, Xiaoping; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Fletterick, Robert J.; Jacobson, Raymond H.; Webb, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is a multiprotein complex that nucleates formation of the basal transcription machinery. TATA binding protein-associated factors 1 and 7 (TAF1 and TAF7), two subunits of TFIID, are integral to the regulation of eukaryotic transcription initiation and play key roles in preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly. Current models suggest that TAF7 acts as a dissociable inhibitor of TAF1 histone acetyltransferase activity and that this event ensures appropriate assembly of the RNA polymerase II-mediated PIC before transcriptional initiation. Here, we report the 3D structure of a complex of yeast TAF1 with TAF7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The structure displays novel architecture and is characterized by a large predominantly hydrophobic heterodimer interface and extensive cofolding of TAF subunits. There are no obvious similarities between TAF1 and known histone acetyltransferases. Instead, the surface of the TAF1–TAF7 complex contains two prominent conserved surface pockets, one of which binds selectively to an inhibitory trimethylated histone H3 mark on Lys27 in a manner that is also regulated by phosphorylation at the neighboring H3 serine. Our findings could point toward novel roles for the TAF1–TAF7 complex in regulation of PIC assembly via reading epigenetic histone marks.

  9. Low Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in an Ancient Population from China: Insight into Social Organization at the Fujia Site.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Li, Chunxiang; Luan, Fengshi; Li, Zhenguang; Li, Hongjie; Cui, Yinqiu; Zhou, Hui; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the social organization of a population associated with the Dawenkou period, we performed ancient DNA analysis of 18 individuals from human remains from the Fujia site in Shandong Province, China. Directly radiocarbon dated to 4800-4500 cal BP, the Fujia site is assumed to be associated with a transitional phase from matrilineal clans to patrilineal monogamous families. Our results reveal a low mitochondrial DNA diversity from the site and population. Combined with Y chromosome data, the pattern observed at the Fujia site is most consistent with a matrilineal community. The patterns also suggest that the bond of marriage was de-emphasized compared with the bonds of descent at Fujia.

  10. Will China's Cooperative Medical System fail again? Insight from farmer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Tang, Kam Ki; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the sustainability of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) by evaluating the satisfaction rate of its participants-the farmers. The study related the overall satisfaction of the farmers to their satisfaction with the four different aspects of the program. It also identified which personal and program attributes affect the farmers' satisfaction rate. Survey data of 1278 households from 66 counties in Shandong Province of China were collected in 2011 using a multi-stage stratified cluster-sampling method. To overcome the nepotistic barriers in rural China, field surveys in each township were conducted by university students from the same place. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions and structural equation modeling method. The results showed that 86% of the farmers were either satisfied or very satisfied with the NCMS and 82% indicated their intention to continue participating in the program. Aside from its financial benefits, both the publicity and reimbursement procedure of the program were found to be significant factors in influencing the satisfaction of the farmers. Majority of the participants held positive opinions toward the NCMS, contradicting the negative assessments made by many previous studies. Given the high proportion of farmers willing to continue with the program, it is likely to be sustainable in the near future. Greater publicity and education efforts should be made to make the farmers better informed about the program, and measures should be taken to improve its reimbursement procedure and the setting of the premium level.

  11. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  12. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  13. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae.

  14. Atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic. Part II: insight from modeling.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Ashu; Ryzhkov, Andrew; Durnford, Dorothy; Lehnherr, Igor; Steffen, Alexandra; Morrison, Heather

    2015-03-15

    A review of mercury in the Canadian Arctic with a focus on field measurements is presented in part I (see Steffen et al., this issue). Here we provide insights into the dynamics of mercury in the Canadian Arctic from new and published mercury modeling studies using Environment Canada's mercury model. The model simulations presented in this study use global anthropogenic emissions of mercury for the period 1995-2005. The most recent modeling estimate of the net gain of mercury from the atmosphere to the Arctic Ocean is 75 Mg year(-1) and the net gain to the terrestrial ecosystems north of 66.5° is 42 Mg year(-1). Model based annual export of riverine mercury from North American, Russian and all Arctic watersheds to the Arctic Ocean are in the range of 2.8-5.6, 12.7-25.4 and 15.5-31.0 Mg year(-1), respectively. Analysis of long-range transport events of Hg at Alert and Little Fox Lake monitoring sites indicates that Asia contributes the most ambient Hg to the Canadian Arctic followed by contributions from North America, Russia, and Europe. The largest anthropogenic Hg deposition to the Canadian Arctic is from East Asia followed by Europe (and Russia), North America, and South Asia. An examination of temporal trends of Hg using the model suggests that changes in meteorology and changes in anthropogenic emissions equally contribute to the decrease in surface air elemental mercury concentrations in the Canadian Arctic with an overall decline of ~12% from 1990 to 2005. A slow increase in net deposition of Hg is found in the Canadian Arctic in response to changes in meteorology. Changes in snowpack and sea-ice characteristics and increase in precipitation in the Arctic related with climate change are found to be primary causes for the meteorology-related changes in air concentrations and deposition of Hg in the region. The model estimates that under the emissions reduction scenario of worldwide implementation of the best emission control technologies by 2020, mercury

  15. Structural insight into the evolutionary and pharmacologic homology of glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III

    SciTech Connect

    Hlouchova, Klara; Barinka, Cyril; Konvalinka, Jan; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2009-10-23

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII) is a metalloenzyme that belongs to the transferrin receptor/glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII; EC 3.4.17.21) superfamily. GCPIII has been studied mainly because of its evolutionary relationship to GCPII, an enzyme involved in a variety of neuropathologies and malignancies, such as glutamatergic neurotoxicity and prostate cancer. Given the potential functional and pharmacological overlap between GCPIII and GCPII, studies addressing the structural and physiological properties of GCPIII are crucial for obtaining a deeper understanding of the GCPII/GCPIII system. In the present study, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the human GCPIII ectodomain in a 'pseudo-unliganded' state and in a complex with: (a) L-glutamate (a product of hydrolysis); (b) a phosphapeptide transition state mimetic, namely (2S,3'S)-{l_brace}[(3'-amino-3'-carboxy-propyl)-hydroxyphosphinoyl]methyl{r_brace}-pentanedioic acid; and (c) quisqualic acid, a glutamate biostere. Our data reveal the overall fold and quaternary arrangement of the GCPIII molecule, define the architecture of the GCPIII substrate-binding cavity, and offer an experimental evidence for the presence of Zn{sup 2+} ions in the bimetallic active site. Furthermore, the structures allow us to detail interactions between the enzyme and its ligands and to characterize the functional flexibility of GCPIII, which is essential for substrate recognition. A comparison of these GCPIII structures with the equivalent GCPII complexes reveals differences in the organization of specificity pockets, in surface charge distribution, and in the occupancy of the co-catalytic zinc sites. The data presented here provide information that should prove to be essential for the structurally-aided design of GCPIII-specific inhibitors and might comprise guidelines for future comparative GCPII/GCPIII studies.

  16. New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tea E.; Hannington, Mark D.; Leybourne, Matthew; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea hosts the largest known hydrothermal ore deposit on the ocean floor and the only modern analog of brine pool-type metal deposition. The deposit consists mainly of chemical-clastic sediments with input from basin-scale hydrothermal and detrital sources. A characteristic feature is the millimeter-scale layering of the sediments, which bears a strong resemblance to banded iron formation (BIF). Quantitative assessment of the mineralogy based on relogging of archived cores, detailed petrography, and sequential leaching experiments shows that Fe-(oxy)hydroxides, hydrothermal carbonates, sulfides, and authigenic clays are the main "ore" minerals. Mn-oxides were mainly deposited when the brine pool was more oxidized than it is today, but detailed logging shows that Fe-deposition and Mn-deposition also alternated at the scale of individual laminae, reflecting short-term fluctuations in the Lower Brine. Previous studies underestimated the importance of nonsulfide metal-bearing components, which formed by metal adsorption onto poorly crystalline Si-Fe-OOH particles. During diagenesis, the crystallinity of all phases increased, and the fine layering of the sediment was enhanced. Within a few meters of burial (corresponding to a few thousand years of deposition), biogenic (Ca)-carbonate was dissolved, manganosiderite formed, and metals originally in poorly crystalline phases or in pore water were incorporated into diagenetic sulfides, clays, and Fe-oxides. Permeable layers with abundant radiolarian tests were the focus for late-stage hydrothermal alteration and replacement, including deposition of amorphous silica and enrichment in elements such as Ba and Au.

  17. Mesozoic lacewings from China provide phylogenetic insight into evolution of the Kalligrammatidae (Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Kalligrammatidae are distinctive, large, conspicuous, lacewings found in Eurasia from the Middle Jurassic to mid Early Cretaceous. Because of incomplete and often inadequate fossil preservation, an absence of detailed morphology, unclear relationships, and unknown evolutionary trends, the Kalligrammatidae are poorly understood. Results We describe three new subfamilies, four new genera, twelve new species and four unassigned species from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan and mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formations of China. These kalligrammatid taxa exhibit diverse morphological characters, such as mandibulate mouthparts in one major clade and siphonate mouthparts in the remaining four major clades, the presence or absence of a variety of distinctive wing markings such as stripes, wing spots and eyespots, as well as multiple major wing shapes. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the Kalligrammatidae are divided into five principal clades: Kalligrammatinae Handlirsch, 1906, Kallihemerobiinae Ren & Engel, 2008, Meioneurinae subfam. nov., Oregrammatinae subfam. nov. and Sophogrammatinae subfam. nov., each of which is accorded subfamily-level status. Our results show significant morphological and evolutionary differentiation of the Kalligrammatidae family during a 40 million-year-interval of the mid Mesozoic. Conclusion A new phylogeny and classification of five subfamilies and their constituent genera is proposed for the Kalligrammatidae. These diverse, yet highly specialized taxa from northeastern China suggest that eastern Eurasia likely was an important diversification center for the Kalligrammatidae. Kalligrammatids possess an extraordinary morphological breadth and panoply of adaptations during the mid-Mesozoic that highlight our conclusion that their evolutionary biology is much more complex than heretofore realized. PMID:24912379

  18. Insights from an observational assessment of park-based physical activity in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hong; Liao, Xiong; Schuller, Kristyn; Cook, Angelie; Fan, Si; Lan, Guilian; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, parks have been shown to be an important community asset for physical activity (PA), but little is known about the relationship between park usage and physical activity in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between park user characteristics and PA in Nanchang, China. In June 2014, 75,678 people were observed in eight parks over 12 days using SOPARC, a validated systematic observation tool. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PA and park user characteristics. Most park users were older adults (53.5%) or adults (34.6%). Overall, 55% of park users engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fewer women were observed in parks than men, but were 66% more likely to be engaged in MVPA than men. Park users were more likely to be observed in MVPA between 6–9 am and when the temperature was below 30 °C. Chinese park users were more active (55%) than US studies in Tampa (30%), Chicago (49%), and Los Angeles (34%). More research is necessary to identify features of parks that are associated with greater PA so that effective interventions can be developed to promote active park use in Chinese citizens. PMID:26844171

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in China: an insight into the status quo.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kefang; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Guangqiao; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-07-28

    Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogenic inflammation and and gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC). Cough-related animal models have been developed, including models for esophageal reflux, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis. Normal reference values for differential cell counts in induced sputum, cough sensitivity and esophageal 24-h pH monitoring in Chinese healthy subjects have been established. By using a modified algorithm for the etiological diagnosis of chronic cough, the causes of chronic cough have been investigated across a number of cities in China. The most common causes of chronic cough are cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, upper airway cough symptoms, atopic cough and GERC, however, there are some regional variations. The Chinese National Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Cough were drafted in 2005, updated in 2009, and have been widely publicized and disseminated through many channels since their publication.

  20. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  1. Propagated rifting in the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea: Insights from analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiwei; Li, Jiabiao

    2016-10-01

    How the South China Sea rifted has long been a puzzling question that is still debated, particularly with reference to the Southwest Sub-basin (SWSB). Analogue modelling remains one of the most useful tools for testing rift models and processes. Here, we present and discuss a series of analogue modelling experiments designed to investigate the rifting process of the SWSB. Convincing geophysical results were compiled to provide realistic constraints to test the experimental results and interpretations. A heterogeneous lithosphere model with a varied lithospheric structure showed tectono-morphological features similar to the natural case of the SWSB, indicating that the initial thermal condition and rheological stratification of the lithosphere should have a dominant effect on the rifting process of the SWSB. Rigid tectonic blocks existed in the continental margin, such as the Macclesfield Bank and the Reed Bank, and they played important roles in both the shaping of the continent-ocean boundary and the coupling between the crust and mantle. The initial thermal condition and rheological stratification of the lithosphere under the South China Sea controlled the propagated rifting process of the SWSB. Extension was centred on the deep troughs between the rigid blocks, and the break-up occurred in these areas between them. The westward rifting propagation is best explained with a heterogeneous lithosphere model characterized by varied lithospheric structure, and it was responsible for producing the V-shaped configuration of the SWSB.

  2. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  3. New insight on the opening of the South China Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Kun; Armada, Leo; Doo, Wen-Bin; Yeh, Yi-Ching

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South China Sea (SCS) plays an important role on the geodynamics of Southeast Asia. Recent results from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 confirmed that the SCS seafloor spreading stopped in the middle Miocene. However, the definite mechanism for the SCS opening is still enigmatic. Using multi-beam bathymetric data, seismic reflection profiles and geomagnetic modeling, we have analyzed the seafloor-spreading pattern and geomagnetic stripes of the SCS. Our results show that an excessive magma supply affecting the SCS occurred at the Early Miocene Climatic Optimum (EMCO). Consequently, four major tectonic events ensued. Firstly, the East Subbasin of the SCS dramatically changed its seafloor spreading direction from north-south to northwest-southeast. Secondly, a northeastward propagating rift occurred in the East Subbasin but stopped in the middle Miocene, just before the cessation of the SCS seafloor spreading. Thirdly, the opening of the SCS extended southwestward and created the Southwest Subbasin. Fourthly, the initiation of the southeastward subduction of the SCS lithosphere occurred and the Manila Trench was formed.

  4. Initial insights into the age and origin of the Kubuqi sand sea of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Forman, Steven; Hu, Fangen; Zhang, Deguo; Liu, Ziting; Li, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    The Kubuqi Desert is the only active sand sea in the semiarid regions of northern China and occurs along the southern margin of the Yellow River. Little is known about the age and origin of this large (17,000 km2) sand sea with a present annual precipitation of 200-480 mm. Sand drift potentials indicated net capable winds for aeolian transport are from the northwest, though winds are stronger to north beyond the dune field than within the sand sea. Geomorphic and stratigraphic observations indicate that Holocene aeolian sand often drapes over bedrock and river terraces as a palimpsest landscape. Field investigations identified four stratigraphic sections with multiple aeolian sand units and palaeosols, with age control by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains. Palaeosols are weakly developed, mostly accumulative A horizon with organic carbon content < 1% and reflect sand sheet deposition possibly in a steppe environment. Although sediments near river channels or former lakes might give old ages, the initial formation and age of the Kubuqi sand sea should be judged from the occurrence of the sandy palimpsest of the landscape that is OSL dated to the Holocene in general. The latest period of aeolian reactivation may be related to human activity associated with grazing and farming from lost cities in the Kubuqi Desert during the Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) and the Tang (A.D. 608 - 907) Dynasties. Also, variable discharge of the Yellow River with local diversions for irrigation and throughout the catchment resulted in possibly an increased supply of aeolian particles for dune field expansion in the past 2 ka.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds from Chongming Island, Yangtze estuary, China: insight into migratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junxia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhou, Peng; Xu, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Sum-PBDEs concentrations in shorebirds and Anatidae ducks muscles from Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve ranged from 21-324 to 14-159ngg(-1) lw, respectively. PBDEs were detected in muscles of all the studied species. Compared with flyways around the world, migratory waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian flyway exhibited lower PBDEs burdens than those reported on Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway in Europe and Pacific, Atlantic, Mississippi flyway in North America. Residential Eurasian tree sparrow samples indicated few PBDE products were used in Chongming Island developed in the idea of world famous eco-island. There was no significant difference in PBDEs concentrations between shorebirds and ducks. However, PBDEs composition varied between them. BDE 209 (29-44%) contributed to sum-PBDEs more than BDE 47 (17-19%) in muscles of ducks, while BDE 47 was the predominant congener in shorebirds contributing 32-48%. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes and stomach content analysis indicated shorebirds and ducks had the same dietary composition, but showed different preference to bivalves, gastropods and crustaceans for shorebirds and aquatic plant material for ducks. Migratory species had inherent migratory routes and thus had exposure to PBDEs during their stay in breeding grounds, stopover sites and wintering grounds with high use of different commercial PBDE mixtures. Higher percentage of BDE 209 in ducks than shorebirds suggested that breeding ranges and wintering grounds of ducks comprise wetlands in inland and coastal China and Korea where decaBDEs pollution was serious in Asian-Pacific region. Our findings reveal the influence of migratory behavior on PBDEs distribution in migratory waterbirds. PMID:23411092

  6. Sequencing Insights into Microbial Communities in the Water and Sediments of Fenghe River, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sidan; Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Lei; Ding, Aizhong; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    The connection between microbial community structure and spatial variation and pollution in river waters has been widely investigated. However, water and sediments together have rarely been explored. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze microbes in 24 water and sediment samples from natural to anthropogenic sources and from headstream to downstream areas. These data were used to assess variability in microbial community structure and diversity along in the Fenghe River, China. The relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was statistically analyzed. An average of 1682 operational taxonomic units was obtained. Microbial diversity increased from the headstream to downstream and tended to be greater in sediment compared with water. The water samples near the headstream endured relatively low Shannon and Chao1 indices. These diversity indices and the number of observed species in the water and sediment samples increase downstream. The parameters also differ in the two river tributaries. Community structures shift based on the extent of nitrogen pollution variation in the sediment and water samples. The four most dominant genera in the water community were Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonas. In the sediments, the most dominant genera were Stramenopiles, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Comamonadaceae. The number of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the headstream water slightly differed from that in the sediment but varied considerably in the downstream sediments. Statistical analysis showed that community variation is correlated with changes in ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. This study identified different microbial community structures in river water and sediments. Overall this study emphasized the need to elucidate spatial variations in bacterial diversity in water and sediments associated with physicochemical gradients and to show the effects of such

  7. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  8. Crustal features of the northeastern South China Sea: insights from seismic and magnetic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Doo, Wen-Bin; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Liu, Char-Shine; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2012-12-01

    We interpret seven two-dimensional deep-penetration and long-offset multi-channel seismic profiles in the northernmost South China Sea area, which were collected by R/V Marcus G. Langseth during the TAIwan GEodynamics Research (TAIGER) project in 2009. To constrain the crustal characteristics, magnetic inversion and forward magnetic modeling were also performed. The seismic results clearly show tilted faulting blocks in the upper crust and most of the fault plane connects downward to a quasi-horizontal detachment as its bottom in the south of the Luzon-Ryukyu transform plate boundary. North of the plate boundary, a small-scale failed rifted basin (minimum 5 km in crustal thickness) with negative magnetization probably indicates an extended continental origin. Significant lower crustal material (LCM) was imaged under a crustal fracture area which indicated a continent and ocean transition origin. The thickest LCM (up to 6.5 km) is located at magnetic isochron C15 that is probably caused by the magma supply composite of a Miocene syn-rift volcanic event and Pliocene Dongsha volcanic activity for submarine volcanoes and sills in the surrounding area. The LCM also caused Miocene crustal blocks to be uplifted reversely as 17 km crustal thickness especially in the area of magnetic isochron C15 and C16. In addition, the wide fault blocks and LCM co-existed on the magnetic striped area (i.e. C15-C17) in the south of the Luzon-Ryukyu transform plate boundary. Magnetic forward modeling suggests that the whole thick crustal thickness (>12 km thick) needs to be magnetized in striped way as oceanic crust. However, the result also shows that the misfit between observed and synthetic magnetic anomaly is about 40 nT, north of isochron C16. The interval velocity derived from pre-stack time migration suggests that the crust is composed of basaltic intrusive upper crust and lower crustal material. The crustal nature should refer to a transition between continent and ocean. Thus, the

  9. Geothermal regime of Tarim basin, NW China: insights from borehole temperature logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Lei, X.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal regime of sedimentary basin is vital for understanding basin (de)formation process, hydrocarbon generation status and assessing the resource potential. Located at the Precambrian craton block, the Tarim basin is the largest intermountain basin in China, which is also the ongoing target of oil and gas exploration. Previous knowledge of thermal regime of this basin is from limited oil exploration borehole testing temperature, the inherent deficiency of data of this type makes accurate understanding of its thermal regime impossible. Here we reported our latest steady temperature logging results in this basin and analyze its thermal regime as well. In this study, 10 temperature loggings are conducted in the northern Tarim basin where the major oil and gas fields are discovered. All the boreholes for temperature logging are non-production wells and are shut in at least more than 2~3 years, ensuring the temperature equilibrium after drilling. The derived geothermal gradient varies from 20.2 to 26.1 degree/km, with a mean of 22.0 degree/km. However, some previous reported gradients in this area are obviously lower than our results; for example, the previous gradient of THN2 well is 13.2 degree/km but 23.2 degree/km in this study, and not enough equilibrium time in previous logging accounts for this discrepancy. More important, it is found that high gradients usually occur in the gas field and the gradients of the gas fields are larger than those in other oil fields, indicating higher thermal regime in gas field. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear, and the upward migration of hot fluid along fault conduit is speculated as the possible mechanism for this high geothermal anomaly in the oil and gas fields. Combined with measured thermal conductivity data, 10 new heat flow values are also achieved, and the heat flow of the Tarim basin is between 38mW/m2 and 52mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. This relatively low heat flow is coincident with that of typical

  10. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  11. Subcellular localization of a fluorescent derivative of CuII(atsm) offers insight into the neuroprotective action of CuII(atsm).

    PubMed

    Price, Katherine Ann; Crouch, Peter J; Lim, SinChun; Paterson, Brett M; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Donnelly, Paul S; White, Anthony R

    2011-12-01

    Copper complexes of bis(thiosemicarbazone) (Cu(II)(btsc)s) have been studied as potential anti-cancer agents and hypoxia imaging agents. More recently, Cu(II)(btsc)s have been identified as possessing potent neuroprotective properties in cell and animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Despite their broad range of pharmacological activity little is known about how cells traffic Cu(II)(btsc)s and how this relates to potential anti-cancer or neuroprotective outcomes. One method of investigating sub-cellular localization of metal complexes is through confocal fluorescence imaging of the compounds in cells. Previously we harnessed the fluorescence of a pyrene group attached to diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(ii)) (Cu(II)(atsm)), (Cu(II)L(1)). We demonstrated that Cu(II)L(1) was partially localized to lysosomes in HeLa cancer epithelial cells. Here we extend these studies to map the sub-cellular localization of Cu(II)L(1) in M17 neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of M17 or HeLa cells led to rapid association of the Cu-complex into distinct punctate structures that partially co-localized with lysosomes as assessed by co-localization with Lysotracker and acridine orange. No localization to early or late endosomes, the nucleus or mitochondria was observed. We also found evidence for a limited association of Cu(II)L(1) with autophagic structures, however, this did not account for the majority of the punctate localization of Cu(II)L(1). In addition, Cu(II)L(1) revealed partial localization with ER Tracker and was found to inhibit ER stress induced by tunicamycin. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the sub-cellular localization of a Cu(II)(atsm) derivative in cells of a neuronal origin and the partial association with lysosome/autophagic structures and the ER may have a potential role in neuroprotection.

  12. Characterization of DMSO Coordination to Palladium(II) in Solution and Insights into the Aerobic Oxidation Catalyst, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tianning; White, Paul; Guzei, Ilia; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 (TFA = trifluoroacetate) is an effective catalyst for a number of different aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we provide insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to palladium(II) in both the solid state and in solution. A crystal structure of Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 confirms that the solid-state structure of this species has one O-bound and one S-bound DMSO ligand, and a crystallographically characterized mono-DMSO complex, trans-Pd(DMSO)(OH2)(TFA)2, exhibits an S-bound DMSO ligand. 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopic studies show that, in EtOAc and THF-d8, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 consists of an equilibrium mixture of Pd(S-DMSO)(O-DMSO)(TFA)2 and Pd(S-DMSO)2(TFA)2. The O-bound DMSO is determined to be more labile than the S-bound DMSO ligand, and both DMSO ligands are more labile in THF relative to EtOAc as the solvent. DMSO coordination to PdII is substantially less favorable when the TFA ligands are replaced with acetate. An analogous carboxylate ligand effect is observed in the coordination of PdII to the bidentate sulfoxide ligand, 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane. DMSO coordination to Pd(TFA)2 is shown to be incomplete in AcOH-d4 and toluene-d8, resulting in PdII/DMSO adducts with < 2:1 DMSO:PdII stoichiometry. Collectively, these results provide useful insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to PdII under catalytically relevant conditions. PMID:23092381

  13. The Synthesis and Origin of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan IIInsights from Nucleotide Sugar Formation and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Peled, Maor; Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; O’Neill, Malcolm A.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that the structurally complex pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) exists in the primary cell wall as a borate cross-linked dimer and that this dimer is required for the assembly of a functional wall and for normal plant growth and development. The results of several studies have also established that RG-II structure and cross-linking is conserved in vascular plants and that RG-II likely appeared early in the evolution of land plants. Two features that distinguish RG-II from other plant polysaccharides are that RG-II is composed of 13 different glycoses linked to each other by up to 22 different glycosidic linkages and that RG-II is the only polysaccharide known to contain both apiose and aceric acid. Thus, one key event in land plant evolution was the emergence of genes encoding nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes that generate the activated forms of apiose and aceric acid required for RG-II synthesis. Many of the genes involved in the generation of the nucleotide sugars used for RG-II synthesis have been functionally characterized. By contrast, only one glycosyltransferase involved in the assembly of RG-II has been identified. Here we provide an overview of the formation of the activated sugars required for RG-II synthesis and point to the possible cellular and metabolic processes that could be involved in assembling and controlling the formation of a borate cross-linked RG-II molecule. We discuss how nucleotide sugar synthesis is compartmentalized and how this may control the flux of precursors to facilitate and regulate the formation of RG-II. PMID:22639675

  14. New insight into the effects of Ca(II) on cake layer structure in submerged membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Meng, Xiangzhou; Fan, Jinhong; Xia, Siqing

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Ca(II) on the structure of the cake layer in submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) were investigated in this study. Three parallel laboratory-scale SMBRs were operated with synthetic municipal wastewater with three Ca(II) levels (82, 208 and 410 mg l(-1)). As the Ca(II) concentration increased, the sludge floc size increased and the molecular weight of the soluble microbial products (SMP) in the bulk liquid decreased. These observations were attributed to the neutralization and bridging function of Ca(II). Furthermore, Ca(II) addition did not change the thickness of the cake layer, but inhibited the deposition of other elements, such as Al, Si, Mg, and Fe. As a result of Ca(II) addition, the cake layer became less compact and more porous. The interspaces among the flocs in the cake layer helped to reduce the membrane fouling potential.

  15. Geometrical and optical benchmarking of copper(II) guanidine-quinoline complexes: insights from TD-DFT and many-body perturbation theory (part II).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Rohrmüller, Martin; Jesser, Anton; dos Santos Vieira, Ines; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Ground- and excited-state properties of copper(II) charge-transfer systems have been investigated starting from density-functional calculations with particular emphasis on the role of (i) the exchange and correlation functional, (ii) the basis set, (iii) solvent effects, and (iv) the treatment of dispersive interactions. Furthermore (v), the applicability of TD-DFT to excitations of copper(II) bis(chelate) charge-transfer systems is explored by performing many-body perturbation theory (GW + BSE), independent-particle approximation and ΔSCF calculations for a small model system that contains simple guanidine and imine groups. These results show that DFT and TD-DFT in particular in combination with hybrid functionals are well suited for the description of the structural and optical properties, respectively, of copper(II) bis(chelate) complexes. Furthermore, it is found an accurate theoretical geometrical description requires the use of dispersion correction with Becke-Johnson damping and triple-zeta basis sets while solvent effects are small. The hybrid functionals B3LYP and TPSSh yielded best performance. The optical description is best with B3LYP, whereby heavily mixed molecular transitions of MLCT and LLCT character are obtained which can be more easily understood using natural transition orbitals. An natural bond orbital analysis sheds light on the donor properties of the different donor functions and the intraguanidine stabilization during coordination to copper(I) and (II).

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Provide Insights into Epitopes Coupled to the Soluble and Membrane-Bound MHC-II Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Epitope recognition by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) is essential for the activation of immunological responses to infectious diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that this molecular event takes place in the MHC-II peptide-binding groove constituted by the α and β light chains of the heterodimer. This MHC-II peptide-binding groove has several pockets (P1-P11) involved in peptide recognition and complex stabilization that have been probed through crystallographic experiments and in silico calculations. However, most of these theoretical calculations have been performed without taking into consideration the heavy chains, which could generate misleading information about conformational mobility both in water and in the membrane environment. Therefore, in absence of structural information about the difference in the conformational changes between the peptide-free and peptide-bound states (pMHC-II) when the system is soluble in an aqueous environment or non-covalently bound to a cell membrane, as the physiological environment for MHC-II is. In this study, we explored the mechanistic basis of these MHC-II components using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which MHC-II was previously co-crystallized with a small epitope (P7) or coupled by docking procedures to a large (P22) epitope. These MD simulations were performed at 310 K over 100 ns for the water-soluble (MHC-IIw, MHC-II-P7w, and MHC-II-P22w) and 150 ns for the membrane-bound species (MHC-IIm, MHC-II-P7m, and MHC-II-P22m). Our results reveal that despite the different epitope sizes and MD simulation environments, both peptides are stabilized primarily by residues lining P1, P4, and P6-7, and similar noncovalent intermolecular energies were observed for the soluble and membrane-bound complexes. However, there were remarkably differences in the conformational mobility and intramolecular energies upon complex formation, causing some differences with respect to how the two peptides are

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations to provide insights into epitopes coupled to the soluble and membrane-bound MHC-II complexes.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Epitope recognition by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) is essential for the activation of immunological responses to infectious diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that this molecular event takes place in the MHC-II peptide-binding groove constituted by the α and β light chains of the heterodimer. This MHC-II peptide-binding groove has several pockets (P1-P11) involved in peptide recognition and complex stabilization that have been probed through crystallographic experiments and in silico calculations. However, most of these theoretical calculations have been performed without taking into consideration the heavy chains, which could generate misleading information about conformational mobility both in water and in the membrane environment. Therefore, in absence of structural information about the difference in the conformational changes between the peptide-free and peptide-bound states (pMHC-II) when the system is soluble in an aqueous environment or non-covalently bound to a cell membrane, as the physiological environment for MHC-II is. In this study, we explored the mechanistic basis of these MHC-II components using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which MHC-II was previously co-crystallized with a small epitope (P7) or coupled by docking procedures to a large (P22) epitope. These MD simulations were performed at 310 K over 100 ns for the water-soluble (MHC-IIw, MHC-II-P(7w), and MHC-II-P(22w)) and 150 ns for the membrane-bound species (MHC-IIm, MHC-II-P(7m), and MHC-II-P(22m)). Our results reveal that despite the different epitope sizes and MD simulation environments, both peptides are stabilized primarily by residues lining P1, P4, and P6-7, and similar noncovalent intermolecular energies were observed for the soluble and membrane-bound complexes. However, there were remarkably differences in the conformational mobility and intramolecular energies upon complex formation, causing some differences with respect to how the two peptides

  18. pH-specific aqueous synthetic chemistry in the binary cadmium(II)-citrate system. Gaining insight into cadmium(II)-citrate speciation with relevance to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kefalas, E T; Dakanali, M; Panagiotidis, P; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Kyrikou, I; Karligiano, N; Bino, A; Salifoglou, A

    2005-06-27

    The involvement of Cd(II) in toxic manifestations and pathological aberrations in lower and higher organisms entails interactions with low and high molecular mass biological targets. To understand the relevant chemistry in aqueous media, we have launched pH-dependent synthetic efforts targeting Cd(II) with the physiological ligand citric acid. Reactions of Cd(II) with citric acid upon the addition of NaOH at pH 2.5 and pyridine at pH 3 and the addition of ammonia at pH approximately 7 led to the new complexes [Cd3(C6H5O7)2(H2O)5] x H2O (1) and (NH4)[Cd(C6H5O7)(H2O)] x H2O (2), respectively. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy (FT-IR and NMR), and X-ray crystallography. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, with a = 18.035(6) A, b = 10.279(4) A, c = 12.565(4) A, beta = 109.02(1) degrees, V = 2202(2) A3, and Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1), with a = 9.686(4) A, b = 8.484(4) A, c = 7.035(3) A, beta = 110.28(1) degrees, V = 542.3(4) A3, and Z = 2. Complex 1 is a trinuclear assembly with the citrate ligand securing a stable metallacyclic ring around one Cd(II), with the terminal carboxylates spanning into the coordination sphere of two nearby Cd(II) ions. Complex 2 contains mononuclear units of Cd(II) bound by citrate in an overall coordination number of 8. In both 1 and 2, the participating citrates exhibit three different modes of coordination, thus projecting a distinct yet variable aqueous structural chemistry of Cd(II) with physiological substrates. The pH-dependent chemistry and its apparent structural diversity validate past solution speciation studies, projecting the existence of mononuclear species such as the one in the anion of 2. The spectroscopic and structural properties of 2 emphasize the significance of the information emerging from synthetic studies that otherwise would not have been revealed through conventional solution studies, while concurrently shedding

  19. The Ll.LtrB intron from Lactococcus lactis excises as circles in vivo: insights into the group II intron circularization pathway.

    PubMed

    Monat, Caroline; Quiroga, Cecilia; Laroche-Johnston, Felix; Cousineau, Benoit

    2015-07-01

    Group II introns are large ribozymes that require the assistance of intron-encoded or free-standing maturases to splice from their pre-mRNAs in vivo. They mainly splice through the classical branching pathway, being released as RNA lariats. However, group II introns can also splice through secondary pathways like hydrolysis and circularization leading to the release of linear and circular introns, respectively. Here, we assessed in vivo splicing of various constructs of the Ll.LtrB group II intron from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The study of excised intron junctions revealed, in addition to branched intron lariats, the presence of perfect end-to-end intron circles and alternatively circularized introns. Removal of the branch point A residue prevented Ll.LtrB excision through the branching pathway but did not hinder intron circle formation. Complete intron RNA circles were found associated with the intron-encoded protein LtrA forming nevertheless inactive RNPs. Traces of double-stranded head-to-tail intron DNA junctions were also detected in L. lactis RNA and nucleic acid extracts. Some intron circles and alternatively circularized introns harbored variable number of non-encoded nucleotides at their splice junction. The presence of mRNA fragments at the splice junction of some intron RNA circles provides insights into the group II intron circularization pathway in bacteria.

  20. Metagenomic insights into the dominant Fe(II) oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria from an iron mat at Lō´ihi, Hawai´l

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Heidelberg, John F.; Dhillon, Ashita; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Zetaproteobacteria are among the most prevalent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at deep-sea hydrothermal vents; however, knowledge about their environmental significance is limited. We provide metagenomic insights into an iron mat at the Lō´ihi Seamount, Hawai´l, revealing novel genomic information of locally dominant Zetaproteobacteria lineages. These lineages were previously estimated to account for ~13% of all local Zetaproteobacteria based on 16S clone library data. Biogeochemically relevant genes include nitrite reductases, which were previously not identified in Zetaproteobacteria, sulfide:quinone oxidases, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo). Genes assumed to be involved in Fe(II) oxidation correlate in synteny and share 87% amino acid similarity with those previously identified in the related Zetaproteobacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Overall, Zetaproteobacteria genes appear to originate primarily from within the Proteobacteria and the Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. and are predicted to facilitate adaptation to a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in addition to microaerophilic Fe(II) and H2S oxidation. This dataset represents the first metagenomic study of FeOB from an iron oxide mat at a deep-sea hydrothermal habitat. PMID:23518919

  1. Insights into the Mechanism of Fe(II) Adsorption and Oxidation at Fe-Clay Mineral Surfaces from First-Principles Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-10-02

    Interfacial reactivity of redox-active iron-bearing mineral surfaces plays a crucial role in many environmental processes including biogeochemical cycling of various elements and contaminants. Herein, we apply density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations to provide atomistic insights into the heterogeneous reaction between aqueous Fe(II) and the Fe-bearing clay mineral nontronite Fe2Si4O10(OH)2 by studying its adsorption mechanism and interfacial Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer (ET) at edge and basal surfaces. We find that edge-bound Fe(II) adsorption complexes at different surface sites (ferrinol, silanol and mixed) may coexist on both (010) and (110) edge facets, with complexes at ferrinol FeO(H) sites being the most energetically favorable and coupled to proton transfer. Calculation of the ET activation energy suggests that interfacial ET into dioctahedral Fe(III) sheets is probable at the clay edges and occurs predominantly but not exclusively through the complexes adsorbed at ferrinol sites and might also involve mixed sites. No clear evidence is found for complexes on basal surface that are compatible with ET through the basal sheet despite this experimentally hypothesized ET interface. This study suggests a strong pH-dependence of Fe(II) surface complexation at basal versus edge facets and highlights the importance of the protonation state of bridging ligands and proton coupled electron transfer to facilitate ET into Fe-rich clay minerals.

  2. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaqiang; Tian, Lixia; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Xiangjing; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China.

  3. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaqiang; Tian, Lixia; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Xiangjing; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China. PMID:26098353

  4. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous Guojialing-type granodiorites in northwestern Jiaodong terrane carry significant records for strong mantle-crust interaction during the destruction of North China Craton (NCC); however, the definite petrogenetic mechanism and detailed magmatic process remain an enigma. Titanite in igneous rocks can serve as an effective petrogenetic indicator. Here, we present integrated geochronological and geochemical studies on titanites from Guojialing-type granodiorites and their dioritic enclaves to constrain their petrogenesis. Titanites from granodiorites (G-type) and plagioclase-rich dioritic enclaves (E-type-I) present an identical U-Pb age (~ 130 Ma) and an indistinguishable wide range of Zr and total REEs contents, and Th/U ratios. However, these two types of titanites exhibit distinct micro-scale textures and geochemical compositions. G-type titanites are characterized by oscillatory zonings with two Light BSE zones (LBZ) and two or three dark BSE zones, whereas E-type-I titanites are marked by core-mantle-rim zonings. Drastic increase of LREEs, Zr, Hf, and Fe and decrease of Nb, Ta, Al, and F contents are observed in LBZ of G-type titanites, whereas remarkable reduction of LREEs, Zr, and Hf and elevation of F contents are observed from the cores to the mantles of E-type-I titanites. Based on Zr-in-titanite thermometry, G-type titanites are interpreted to have experienced twice notable temperature increase, while E-type-I titanites are inferred to have undergone a rapid cooling process. Furthermore, we suggest that the drastic chemical changes in G-type and E-type-I titanites are ascribed to early-stage magma mixing between a colder felsic magma and a Fe-, REE-rich hotter dioritic magma. Compared to G-type and E-type-I titanites, titanites from plagioclase-poor dioritic enclaves (E-type-II) are characterized by their occurrence in interstitial space and present a relatively younger U-Pb age (~ 128 Ma) and much narrower and lower range of Zr, total

  5. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  6. Iron isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite revisited: New insights based on a multi-direction approach to equilibrium and isotopic exchange rate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Beard, Brian L.; Reddy, Thiruchelvi R.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2014-08-01

    The Fe isotope compositions of naturally occurring Fe oxide minerals provide insights into biogeochemical processes that occur in modern and ancient environments. Key to understanding isotopic variations in such minerals is knowledge of the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation factors between common minerals and aqueous Fe species. Because experimental measurements of isotopic fractionation may reflect a combination of kinetic and equilibrium fractionations during rapid dissolution and precipitation, even in experiments that employ the three-isotope method, assessment of the attainment of equilibrium is often difficult. Here, we re-examine Fe isotope exchange, via a 57Fe tracer, and natural mass-dependent fractionation, through changes in initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, between aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) and goethite. This approach uses the three-isotope method, but is distinct in its evaluation of kinetic isotope fractionation and the attainment of equilibrium by: (i) employing a multi-direction approach to equilibrium at 22 °C via reaction of three Fe(II)aq solutions that had different initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, (ii) conducting isotopic exchange experiments at elevated temperature (50 °C), and (iii) modifying the rate of isotopic exchange through a combination of trace-element substitutions and particle coarsening to evaluate corresponding temporal changes in fractionation trajectories that may reflect changing instantaneous fractionation factors. We find that rapid isotopic exchange produces kinetic isotope effects between Fe(II)aq and goethite, which shifts the 56Fe/54Fe ratios of Fe(II)aq early in reactions toward that of goethite, indicating that the instantaneous Fe(II)aq-goethite fractionation factor under kinetic conditions is small. Importantly, however, this kinetic fractionation is “erased” with continued reaction, and this is evident by the congruence for multiple-exchange trajectories of distinct initial Fe(II)aq solutions toward the same final value

  7. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  8. Noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an Amur tiger population in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Tianxiao; Nie, Yonggang; Xie, Yan; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. Due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. However, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in China. In this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 hair sample to investigate the population size and genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province, China. From the samples, we determined that 23 fecal samples and 1 hair sample were from 7 Amur tigers: 2 males, 4 females and 1 individual of unknown sex. Interestingly, 2 fecal samples that were presumed to be from tigers were from Amur leopards, highlighting the significant advantages of noninvasive genetics over traditional methods in studying rare and elusive animals. Analyses from this sample suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers is much lower than that of Bengal tigers, consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of this Hunchun population in China was lower than that of the adjoining subpopulation in southwest Primorye Russia, likely due to sampling bias. Considering the small population size and relatively low genetic diversity, it is urgent to protect this endangered local subpopulation in China.

  9. Noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an Amur tiger population in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Tianxiao; Nie, Yonggang; Xie, Yan; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. Due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. However, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in China. In this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 hair sample to investigate the population size and genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province, China. From the samples, we determined that 23 fecal samples and 1 hair sample were from 7 Amur tigers: 2 males, 4 females and 1 individual of unknown sex. Interestingly, 2 fecal samples that were presumed to be from tigers were from Amur leopards, highlighting the significant advantages of noninvasive genetics over traditional methods in studying rare and elusive animals. Analyses from this sample suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers is much lower than that of Bengal tigers, consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of this Hunchun population in China was lower than that of the adjoining subpopulation in southwest Primorye Russia, likely due to sampling bias. Considering the small population size and relatively low genetic diversity, it is urgent to protect this endangered local subpopulation in China. PMID:26663614

  10. Insights into water coordination associated with the Cu(II)/Cu(I) electron transfer at a biomimetic Cu centre.

    PubMed

    Porras Gutiérrez, Ana Gabriela; Zeitouny, Joceline; Gomila, Antoine; Douziech, Bénédicte; Cosquer, Nathalie; Conan, Françoise; Reinaud, Olivia; Hapiot, Philippe; Le Mest, Yves; Lagrost, Corinne; Le Poul, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The coordination properties of the biomimetic complex [Cu(TMPA)(H2O)](CF3SO3)2 (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) have been investigated by electrochemistry combined with UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy in different non-coordinating media including imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids, for different water contents. The solid-state X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex shows that the cupric centre lies in a N4O coordination environment with a nearly perfect trigonal bipyramidal geometry (TBP), the water ligand being axially coordinated to Cu(II). In solution, the coordination geometry of the complex remains TBP in all media. Neither the triflate ion nor the anions of the ionic liquids were found to coordinate the copper centre. Cyclic voltammetry in all media shows that the decoordination of the water molecule occurs upon monoelectronic reduction of the Cu(II) complex. Back-coordination of the water ligand at the cuprous state can be detected by increasing the water content and/or decreasing the timescale of the experiment. Numerical simulations of the voltammograms allow the determination of kinetics and thermodynamics for the water association-dissociation mechanism. The resulting data suggest that (i) the binding/unbinding of water at the Cu(I) redox state is relatively slow and equilibrated in all media, and (ii) the binding of water at Cu(I) is somewhat faster in the ionic liquids than in the non-coordinating solvents, while the decoordination process is weakly sensitive to the nature of the solvents. These results suggest that ionic liquids favour water exchange without interfering with the coordination sphere of the metal centre. This makes them promising media for studying host-guest reactions with biomimetic complexes.

  11. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. Methods The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Results Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02–4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). Conclusion The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China. PMID:27701471

  12. Antimicrobial effects of copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes provide new insight into their biochemical mode of action.

    PubMed

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Paterson, Brett M; Donnelly, Paul S; McEwan, Alastair G

    2014-04-01

    The copper(II) complexes of bis-thiosemicarbazones (Cu(btsc)) such as Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) are neutral, lipophilic compounds that show promise as therapeutics for the treatment of certain neurological diseases and cancers. Although the effects of these compounds have been described at the cellular level, there is almost no information about their biochemical mode of action. In this work, we showed that Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) displayed antimicrobial activities against the human obligate pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae that were more than 100 times more potent than Cu(NO3)2 salt alone. Treatment with Cu(btsc) also produced phenotypes that were consistent with copper poisoning, but the levels of intracellular copper were undetectable by ICP MS. We observed that Cu(btsc) interacted with proteins in the cell membrane. Systematic measurements of O2 uptake further demonstrated that treatment with both Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) led to dose-dependent inhibition of respiratory electron transfer processes via succinate and NADH dehydrogenases. These dehydrogenases were not inhibited by a non-btsc source of Cu(II). The results led us to conclude that the biochemical mechanism of Cu(btsc) action is likely more complex than the present, simplistic model of copper release into the cytoplasm. PMID:24435165

  13. On the controversial fitting of susceptibility curves of ferromagnetic Cu(II) cubanes: insights from theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a tetranuclear Cu(II) complex, [Cu(4) (HL)(4)], which has a 4+2 cubane-like structure (H(3) L=N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(acetylacetoneimine)). These theoretical calculations indicate a quintet (S=2) ground state; the energy-level distribution of the magnetic states confirm Heisenberg behaviour and correspond to an S(4) spin-spin interaction model. The dominant interaction is the ferromagnetic coupling between the pseudo-dimeric units (J(1) =22.2 cm(-1)), whilst a weak and ferromagnetic interaction is found within the pseudo-dimeric units (J(2) =1.4 cm(-1)). The amplitude and sign of these interactions are consistent with the structure and arrangement of the magnetic Cu 3d orbitals; they accurately simulate the thermal dependence of magnetic susceptibility, but do not agree with the reported J values (J(1) =38.4 cm(-1), J(2) =-18.0 cm(-1)) that result from the experimental fitting. This result is not an isolated case; many other polynuclear systems, in particular 4+2 Cu(II) cubanes, have been reported in which the fitted magnetic terms are not consistent with the geometrical features of the system. In this context, theoretical evaluation can be considered as a valuable tool in the interpretation of the macroscopic behaviour, thus providing clues for a rational and directed design of new materials with specific properties.

  14. China’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    This report includes an evaluation of China’s current activities and future direction in building energy efficiency R&D and its relevance to DOE’s R&D activities under the Building Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The researchers reviewed the major R&D programs in China including the so-called 973 Program, the 863 Program, and the Key Technology R&D Program1 as well as the research activities of major research institutes. The report also reviewed several relevant documents of the Chinese government, websites (including the International Energy Agency and national and local governments in China), newsletters, and financial information listed in the program documents and websites.

  15. Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A; Zhou, Zhonghe; Zhang, Fucheng

    2006-01-01

    In studies of the evolution of avian flight there has been a singular preoccupation with unravelling its origin. By contrast, the complex changes in morphology that occurred between the earliest form of avian flapping flight and the emergence of the flight capabilities of extant birds remain comparatively little explored. Any such work has been limited by a comparative paucity of fossils illuminating bird evolution near the origin of the clade of extant (i.e. ‘modern’) birds (Aves). Here we recognize three species from the Early Cretaceous of China as comprising a new lineage of basal ornithurine birds. Ornithurae is a clade that includes, approximately, comparatively close relatives of crown clade Aves (extant birds) and that crown clade. The morphology of the best-preserved specimen from this newly recognized Asian diversity, the holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui Zhou and Zhang 2001, complete with finely preserved wing and tail feather impressions, is used to illustrate the new insights offered by recognition of this lineage. Hypotheses of avian morphological evolution and specifically proposed patterns of change in different avian locomotor modules after the origin of flight are impacted by recognition of the new lineage. The complete articulated holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui, from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, in north-eastern China, arguably the best-preserved basal ornithurine specimen yet discovered, provides the earliest evidence consistent with the presence of extant avian tail feather fanning. PMID:16533313

  16. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy and Cellular Biology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects.

  17. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found thatmore » upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.« less

  18. An exo-β-(1→3)-D-galactanase from Streptomyces sp. provides insights into type II arabinogalactan structure

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Naomi X.-Y.; Lee, Joanne; Ellis, Miriam; Liao, Ming-Long; Mau, Shaio-Lim; Guest, David; Janssen, Peter H.; Kováč, Pavol; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena A.

    2012-01-01

    An exo-β-(1→3)-D-galactanase (SGalase1) that specifically cleaves the β-(1→3)-D-galactan backbone of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) was isolated from culture filtrates of a soil Streptomyces sp. Internal peptide sequence information was used to clone and recombinantly express the gene in E. coli. The molecular mass of the isolated enzyme was ~45 kDa, similar to the 48.2 kDa mass predicted from the amino acid sequence. The pI, pH and temperature optima for the enzyme were ~7.45, 3.8 and 48 °C, respectively. The native and recombinant enzymes specifically hydrolysed β-(1→3)-D-galacto-oligo- or poly-saccharides from the upstream (non-reducing) end, typical of an exo-acting enzyme. A second homologous Streptomyces gene (SGalase2) was also cloned and expressed. SGalase2 was similar in size (47.9 kDa) and enzyme activity to SGalase1 but differed in its pH optimum (pH 5). Both SGalase1 and SGalase2 are predicted to belong to the CAZy glycosyl hydrolase family GH 43 based on activity, sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis. The Km and Vmax of the native exo-β-(1→3)-D-galactanase for de-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) were 19 mg/ml and 9.7 μmol D-Gal/min/mg protein, respectively. The activity of these enzymes is well suited for the study of type II galactan structures and provides an important tool for the investigation of the biological role of AGPs in plants. De-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) was used as a model to investigate the use of these enzymes in defining type II galactan structure. Exhaustive hydrolysis of dGA resulted in a limited number of oligosaccharide products with a trisaccharide of Gal2GlcA1 predominating. PMID:22464224

  19. A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Zhao, You-Xing; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Bera, Subir; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2006-12-01

    A cache of shoots, leaves and fruits dated by (14)C at 2500 years B.P. were unearthed in the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. By comparing the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the plant remains found in the tomb and specimens of modern plants, it is shown that the remains belong to Cannabis. Based on the shamanistic background of the deceased man and ancient customs, it is assumed that the Cannabis was utilized for ritual/medicinal purposes. PMID:16879937

  20. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy, and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe C.; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects. PMID:26734600

  1. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy, and Cellular Biology.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe C; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects. PMID:26734600

  2. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  3. Kinetic effects of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration: nitrile hydratase insights from bioinspired ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Davinder; Nguyen, Tho N; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic investigations inspired by the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase were performed on a series of ruthenium(II) complexes to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration. The rate of benzonitrile hydration was quantified as a function of catalyst, nitrile, and water concentrations. Precatalysts L(n)RuPPh3 (n = 1-3; L(1) = 4,7-bis(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(2) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(3) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfenato-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane) were activated by substitution of triphenylphosphine with substrate in hot dimethylformamide solution. Rate measurements are consistent with a dynamic equilibrium between inactive aqua (L(n)Ru-OH2) and active nitrile (L(n)Ru-NCR) derivatives with K = 21 ± 1, 9 ± 0.9, and 23 ± 3 for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Subsequent hydration of the L(n)Ru-NCR intermediate yields the amide product with measured hydration rate constants (k's) of 0.37 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 1.59 ± 0.12 M(-1) h(-1) for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Temperature dependent studies reveal that sulfur oxidation lowers the enthalpic barrier by 27 kJ/mol, but increases the entropic barrier by 65 J/(mol K). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ (Ru); 6-31G(d) (all other atoms)) support a nitrile bound catalytic cycle with lowering of the reaction barrier as a consequence of sulfur oxidation through enhanced nitrile binding and attack of the water nucleophile through a highly organized transition state. PMID:25397591

  4. Comparative Raman study of four plant metallothionein isoforms: Insights into their Zn(II) clusters and protein conformations.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Mireia; Tinti, Anna; Bofill, Roger; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Silvia; Torreggiani, Armida

    2016-03-01

    Four Metallothioneins (MTs) from soybean (Glycine max) were heterologously synthesized and comparatively analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The participation of protein donor groups (S-thiol and N-imidazol) in Zn(II) chelation, as well as the presence of secondary structure elements was comparatively analysed. Metal clusters with different geometry can be hypothesised for the four GmMTs: a cubane-like or an adamantane-like metal cluster in Zn-GmMT1, and dinuclear Zn-S clusters in Zn-GmMT2, Zn-GmMT3 and Zn-GmMT4. The latter have also a similar average Cys/Zn content, whereas a lower ratio is present in Zn-GmMT1. This is possible thanks to the involvement in metal coordination of a greater number of bridging Cys, as well as of some carboxylate groups. As regards secondary structure elements, a large content of β-turn segments is present in all four Zn-GmMTs, especially for isoforms 1 and 4. β-strands give a contribution to the folding of three GmMTs isoforms, and the highest percentage was found in Zn-GmMT2 (~45%). Conversely, the α-helix content is negligible in all the GmMTs except in Zn-GmMT3, where this peculiar feature coincides with the possible involvement of the two His residues in metal coordination. Conversely, His is predominantly free and present as tautomer I in Zn-GmMT4. In conclusion, this work illustrates the attractive potential of Raman spectroscopy, combined with other techniques, to be a very informative tool for evidencing structural differences among in vivo synthesized metal-MT complexes.

  5. Insights into characteristics, sources, and evolution of submicron aerosols during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Tang, L. L.; Wang, Z.; Yu, H. X.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, D.; Qin, W.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zhang, H. L.; Zhou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric submicron particulate matter (PM1) is one of the most significant pollution components in China. Despite its current popularity in the studies of aerosol chemistry, the characteristics, sources and evolution of atmospheric PM1 species are still poorly understood in China, particularly for the two harvest seasons, namely, the summer wheat harvest and autumn rice harvest. An Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for online monitoring of PM1 components during summer and autumn harvest seasons in urban Nanjing, in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) region of China. PM1 components were shown to be dominated by organic aerosol (OA, 39 and 41%) and nitrate (23 and 20%) during the harvest seasons (the summer and autumn harvest). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the ACSM OA mass spectra resolved four OA factors: hydrocarbon-like mixed with cooking-related OA (HOA + COA), fresh biomass-burning OA (BBOA), oxidized biomass-burning-influenced OA (OOA-BB), and highly oxidized OA (OOA); in particular the oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings. Both fresh and oxidized BBOA exhibited apparent diurnal cycles with peak concentration at night, when the high ambient relative humidity and low temperature facilitated the partitioning of semi-volatile organic species into the particle phase. The fresh BBOA concentrations for the harvests are estimated as BBOA = 15.1 × (m/z 60-0.26% × OA), where m/z (mass-to-charge ratio) 60 is a marker for levoglucosan-like species. The (BBOA + OOA-BB)/ΔCO, (ΔCO is the CO minus background CO), decreases as a function of f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA signal), which might indicate that BBOA was oxidized to less volatile OOA, e.g., more aged and low volatility OOA (LV-OOA) during the aging process. Analysis of air mass back trajectories indicates that the high BB pollutant concentrations are linked to the air masses from the western (summer harvest) and southern (autumn harvest) areas.

  6. Nonchromophoric halide ligand variation in polyazine-bridged Ru(II),Rh(III) bimetallic supramolecules offering new insight into photocatalytic hydrogen production from water.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hannah Mallalieu; White, Travis A; Stone, Brittany N; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Brewer, Karen J

    2015-04-01

    The new bimetallic complex [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhBr2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (1) (Ph2phen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) was synthesized and characterized to compare with the Cl(-) analogue [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhCl2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (2) in an effort to better understand the role of halide coordination at the Rh metal center in solar H2 production schemes. Electrochemical properties of complex 1 display a reversible Ru(II/III) oxidation, and cathodic scans indicate multiple electrochemical mechanisms exist to reduce Rh(III) by two electrons to Rh(I) followed by a quasi-reversible dpp(0/-) ligand reduction. The weaker σ-donating ability of Br(-) vs Cl(-) impacts the cathodic electrochemistry and provides insight into photocatalytic function by these bimetallic supramolecules. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit identical light-absorbing properties with UV absorption dominated by intraligand (IL) π → π* transitions and visible absorption by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions to include a lowest energy Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (1)MLCT transition (λ(abs) = 514 nm; ε = 16 000 M(-1) cm(-1)). The relatively short-lived, weakly emissive Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (3)MLCT excited state (τ = 46 ns) for both bimetallic complexes is attributed to intramolecular electron transfer from the (3)MLCT excited state to populate a low-energy Ru(dπ) → Rh(dσ*) triplet metal-to-metal charge transfer ((3)MMCT) excited state that allows photoinitiated electron collection. Complex 1 outperforms the related Cl(-) bimetallic analogue 2 as a H2 photocatalyst despite identical light-absorbing and excited-state properties. Additional H2 experiments with added halide suggest ion pairing plays a role in catalyst deactivation and provides new insight into observed differences in H2 production upon halide variation in Ru(II),Rh(III) supramolecular architectures.

  7. Phosphorus release: A biogeochemical insight from a restored lakeside wetland in the Yangtze-huaihe region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Shan, Baoqing; Zhang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    The heavy intensification of agriculture in East China since the 1980s caused the decrease of lake area and water storage capacity with impediment of regulation, lake eutrophication and frequent floods. Many restoration projects have been conducted. However, the knowledge of biogeochemical factors that drive nutrient cycles during the early stage of restoration is still limited. We studied the effect of the remediation of a patch of near-shore shallow wetland on the northern bank of Chaohu Lake in the Yangtze-Huaihe region, China, which was used as rice paddy for many years, on the behavior of phosphorus. Redox potential (ORP), temperature and dissolved oxygen were monitored in situ from May 2006 to November 2007. Samples of soil pore water were collected during this time for the determination of different forms of iron and phosphorus. ORP showed a clear transition of the wetland soil from an oxidized state in winter to a reduced state in summer. The decrease of ORP correlated with the release of large amounts of Fe and P. The maxima of total dissolved Fe and total dissolved P in the summer of the second year were (13.8 +/- 6.8) mg/L and (0.88 +/- 0.27) mg/L, respectively. It is worth noticing that P concentration far exceeded the critical value of lake eutrophication (0.02 mg/L). The pressure of P release to the adjacent lake during the first two years of wetland restoration from rice fields should be taken into account by environmental policy makers.

  8. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  9. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the labor was expended in the cropping system. Human and animal manure provided most of the nutrients for crop and mulberry production. About two-thirds of the total manure was used in crop production and one-third in the mulberry plantations. The only fossil energy input was a few hand tools. Approximately 55% of the grain was consumed directly by local residents, about one-third of the grain was used to make an alcohol drink and produce distillers' grains, which was fed to pigs, and only 2% of the grains were exported outside the agroecosystem. About two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used as household fuel, while the remainder was returned to the field as an organic fertilizer. Pork accounted for 85% and silk cocoons 14% of the total animal products produced. Even though the agroecosystem was generally sustainable in terms of energy, the major environmental problem was that two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used for household fuel. This reduced nutrient cycling in the system. Insufficient land was available to produce fuelwood; thus, crop residues were the primary source of fuel for the people.

  10. Contribution of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota to cyclopentyl tetraethers in the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea: impact on the TEX86 paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Zhang, C. L.; Xie, W.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, P.

    2015-08-01

    TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms) has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature (SST). While Marine Group I (MG I) Thaumarchaeota have been commonly believed to be the source for GDGTs, Marine Group II (MG II Euryarchaeota) have recently been suggested to contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. However, little is known how the MG II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs may influence TEX86 in marine sediment record. In this study, we characterize MG II Euryarchaeota-produced GDGTs and assess the likely effect of these tetraether lipids on TEX86. Analyses of core lipid (CL-) and intact polar lipid (IPL-) based GDGTs, 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting MG II Euryarchaeota were performed on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water) and its estuary (mixing water) to the coastal South China Sea (seawater). The results showed that the community composition varied along the salinity gradient with MG II Euryarchaeota as the second dominant group in the mixing water and seawater. qPCR data indicated that the abundance of MG II Euryarchaeota in the mixing water was three to four orders of magnitude higher than the river water and seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG II Euryarchaeota vs. total archaea and the relative abundance of GDGTs-1, -2, -3, or -4 as well as the ring index based on these compounds, which collectively suggest that MG II Euryarchaeota may actively produce GDGTs in the water column. These results also show strong evidence that MG II Euryarchaeota synthesizing GDGTs with 1-4 cyclopentane moieties may bias TEX86 in the water column and sediments. This study highlights that valid interpretation of TEX86 in sediment record, particularly in coastal oceans, needs to consider the

  11. Taurus II Stage Test Simulations: Using Large-Scale CFD Simulations to Provide Critical Insight into Plume Induced Environments During Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struzenberg, L. L.; West, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of targeted Loci/CHEM CFD simulations to evaluate the effects of a dual-engine first-stage hot-fire test on an evolving integrated launch pad/test article design. This effort was undertaken as a part of the NESC Independent Assessment of the Taurus II Stage Test Series. The underlying conceptual model included development of a series of computational models and simulations to analyze the plume induced environments on the pad, facility structures and test article. A pathfinder simulation was first developed, capable of providing quick-turn around evaluation of plume impingement pressures on the flame deflector. Results from this simulation were available in time to provide data for an ongoing structural assessment of the deflector. The resulting recommendation was available in a timely manner and was incorporated into construction schedule for the new launch stand under construction at Wallops Flight Facility. A series of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) quasi-steady simulations representative of various key elements of the test profile was performed to identify potential concerns with the test configuration and test profile. As required, unsteady Hybrid-RANS/LES simulations were performed, to provide additional insight into critical aspects of the test sequence. Modifications to the test-specific hardware and facility structures thermal protection as well as modifications to the planned hot-fire test profile were implemented based on these simulation results.

  12. Two tales of the continental lithospheric mantle prior to the destruction of the North China Craton: Insights from Early Cretaceous mafic intrusions in western Shandong, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2012-11-01

    Weakened lithospheric zones such as the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and Tan-Lu fault zone played important roles in the destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the late Mesozoic. Early Cretaceous mafic intrusions in western Shandong, contemporary with extensive magmatism during the destruction of the NCC, delineate two spatially distinct mantle domains (EM1- and EM2-like) beneath the craton’s interior and weakened lithospheric zones, respectively. The Jinan and Zouping gabbros from the craton interior (∼128 Ma) show fractionated LREE and nearly flat HREE patterns ([La/Yb]N = 2.94-8.95; [Dy/Yb]N = 1.23-1.69) with notable negative Ta, Nb and Ti anomalies. They have strong negative εNd(t) (-15.7 to -7.1), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7060) and negative zircon εHf(t) of -20.0 to -6.2. These “crustal fingerprints” cannot be explained by crustal contamination, but were likely derived from a hybrid mantle source. Crustal delamination or detachment during the Early Paleoproterozoic might be responsible for the involvement of Early Precambrian crustal materials in the Mesozoic mantle source beneath the southeastern NCC. In comparison, the Early Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks from regions (e.g., Yinan, Mengyin and Fangcheng) adjacent to the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and Tan-Lu fault zone have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7059-0.7119), suggesting modification of the lithospheric mantle by melts/fluids derived from the Yangtze crust. The Mesozoic crustal delamination may have triggered the destruction of the lithospheric root beneath the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, whereas the lithospheric thinning beneath the interior of the southeastern NCC is attributed to the thermo-mechanical erosion by lateral convective asthenosphere.

  13. Rock Burst Intensity Classification Based on the Radiated Energy with Damage Intensity at Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Feng, Xia-Ting; Li, Qing-Peng; Luo, Ru-Zhou; Li, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the radiated energy of 133 rock bursts monitored by a microseismic technique at the Jinping II hydropower station, in Sichuan province, China, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative classification methods for the rock burst intensity. Then, we investigated the characteristics, magnitude, and laws of the radiated energy, as well as the relationship between the rock burst radiated energy and intensity. Then, we selected the energy as an evaluation index for the rock burst intensity classification, and proposed a new rock burst intensity quantitative classification method, which utilized the hierarchical clustering analysis technique with the complete-linkage method. Next, we created a new set of criteria for the quantitative classification of the rock burst intensity based on radiated energy and surrounding rock damage severity. The new criteria classified the rock burst intensity into five levels: extremely intense, intense, moderate, weak, and none, and the common logarithms of the radiated energy of each level were >7 lg( E/J), >4 lg( E/J) and <7 lg( E/J), >2 lg( E/J) and <4 lg( E/J), >1 lg( E/J) and <2 lg( E/J), and <1 lg( E/J), respectively. Finally, we investigated the factors influencing the classification, and verified its feasibility and applicability via several practical rock burst examples.

  14. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  15. Big insights from tiny peridotites: Evidence for persistence of Precambrian lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Walker, Richard J.; Xu, Wen-liang; Gao, Shan; Wu, Fu-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the eastern North China Craton (NCC) lost its ancient lithospheric mantle root during the Phanerozoic. The temporal sequence, spatial extent, and cause of the lithospheric thinning, however, continue to be debated. Here we report olivine compositions, whole-rock Re-Os isotopic systematics, and platinum-group element abundances of small (< 2 cm in maximum dimension) mantle peridotite xenoliths from two basalt localities from the eastern NCC, Wudi (Cenozoic) and Fuxin (Cretaceous). These locations lie far (~ 150-200 km) from the Tan-Lu fault, which has been linked to lithospheric replacement in the eastern NCC. Peridotites at both locations have fertile to moderately refractory compositions (Fo < 91.5), while highly refractory (Fo > 92) lithospheric mantle is largely absent. Osmium isotopic data suggest the Wudi peridotites experienced melt depletion primarily during the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.8 Ga), although an Archean Os model age for one xenolith indicates incorporation of a minor component of Archean lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that a previously unrecognized Paleoproterozoic orogenic event removed and replaced the original Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the sedimentary basin at the southern edge of the Bohai Sea. By contrast, the Fuxin peridotites, entrained in Cretaceous basalts that crop out along the northern edge of the eastern NCC, document the coexistence of both ancient (≥ 2.3 Ga) and modern lithospheric mantle components. Here, the original Late Archean-Early Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle was, at least partially, removed and replaced prior to 100 Ma. Combined with literature data, our results show that removal of the original Archean lithosphere occurred within Proterozoic collisional orogens, and that replacement of Precambrian lithosphere during the Mesozoic may have been spatially associated with the collisional boundaries and the strike-slip Tan-Lu fault, as well as the onset of Paleo

  16. Patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic diversity during a long-term succession of forest on the Loess Plateau, China: insights into assembly process

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Yaoxin; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Ruichang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the drivers underlying the distribution of biodiversity during succession is a critical issue in ecology and conservation, and also can provide insights into the mechanisms of community assembly. Ninety plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. The taxonomic and phylogenetic (alpha and beta) diversity were quantified within six succession stages. Null models were used to test whether phylogenetic distance observed differed from random expectations. Taxonomic beta diversity did not show a regular pattern, while phylogenetic beta diversity decreased throughout succession. The shrub stage occurred as a transition from phylogenetic overdispersion to clustering either for NRI (Net Relatedness Index) or betaNRI. The betaNTI (Nearest Taxon Index) values for early stages were on average phylogenetically random, but for the betaNRI analyses, these stages were phylogenetically overdispersed. Assembly of woody plants differed from that of herbaceous plants during late community succession. We suggest that deterministic and stochastic processes respectively play a role in different aspects of community phylogenetic structure for early succession stage, and that community composition of late succession stage is governed by a deterministic process. In conclusion, the long-lasting evolutionary imprints on the present-day composition of communities arrayed along the succession gradient. PMID:27272407

  17. Patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic diversity during a long-term succession of forest on the Loess Plateau, China: insights into assembly process.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Yaoxin; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Ruichang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the drivers underlying the distribution of biodiversity during succession is a critical issue in ecology and conservation, and also can provide insights into the mechanisms of community assembly. Ninety plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. The taxonomic and phylogenetic (alpha and beta) diversity were quantified within six succession stages. Null models were used to test whether phylogenetic distance observed differed from random expectations. Taxonomic beta diversity did not show a regular pattern, while phylogenetic beta diversity decreased throughout succession. The shrub stage occurred as a transition from phylogenetic overdispersion to clustering either for NRI (Net Relatedness Index) or betaNRI. The betaNTI (Nearest Taxon Index) values for early stages were on average phylogenetically random, but for the betaNRI analyses, these stages were phylogenetically overdispersed. Assembly of woody plants differed from that of herbaceous plants during late community succession. We suggest that deterministic and stochastic processes respectively play a role in different aspects of community phylogenetic structure for early succession stage, and that community composition of late succession stage is governed by a deterministic process. In conclusion, the long-lasting evolutionary imprints on the present-day composition of communities arrayed along the succession gradient. PMID:27272407

  18. Patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic diversity during a long-term succession of forest on the Loess Plateau, China: insights into assembly process.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Yaoxin; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Ruichang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the drivers underlying the distribution of biodiversity during succession is a critical issue in ecology and conservation, and also can provide insights into the mechanisms of community assembly. Ninety plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. The taxonomic and phylogenetic (alpha and beta) diversity were quantified within six succession stages. Null models were used to test whether phylogenetic distance observed differed from random expectations. Taxonomic beta diversity did not show a regular pattern, while phylogenetic beta diversity decreased throughout succession. The shrub stage occurred as a transition from phylogenetic overdispersion to clustering either for NRI (Net Relatedness Index) or betaNRI. The betaNTI (Nearest Taxon Index) values for early stages were on average phylogenetically random, but for the betaNRI analyses, these stages were phylogenetically overdispersed. Assembly of woody plants differed from that of herbaceous plants during late community succession. We suggest that deterministic and stochastic processes respectively play a role in different aspects of community phylogenetic structure for early succession stage, and that community composition of late succession stage is governed by a deterministic process. In conclusion, the long-lasting evolutionary imprints on the present-day composition of communities arrayed along the succession gradient.

  19. China.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    China's 3rd national census will belong to the era of modern census taking. Over 6 million enumerators will be involved along with 29 computers for data processing. The 3-year budget exceeds the equivalent of $135 million. A pilot census was taken in the city and country of Wuxi in Jiangsu province south of Shanghai during June 1980. Additional pilot censuses are to be conducted in the provinces beginning early in 1981. The full count is scheduled to be 1 year later on July 1, 1982. Results will be processed and made available by 1984 so that planners can utilize them in drafting the 5-year development plan for 1985-1990. The censuses of 1953 and 1964 yeilded little data by modern standards. The longterm objective of the Population Census Office is to build up a modern census taking capability. This will provide data for the formulation of population and development policies, programs to implement those policies, and family planning activities. Another longterm objective is to extend the new data processing system to 399 prefectures and 2168 counties in China. The equipment will be subsequently used in related research activities. For the current census, a complete organization of census offices, census working teams, and census working groups will be established at successive administrative levels down to neighborhood (urban) and brigade (rural) levels, beginning early in 1981. The full census will cover 29 provinces of China. Approximately 6 million enumerators will each cover about 30-40 households. 2 models of computer and corresponding data entry systems are being used: 8 Wang VS 2200 systems and 21 IBM 4300 series systems from the U.S. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities is supplying equipment and technical assistance for the entire census amounting to more than $15 million. The Population Census Office will analyze and publish the census data. PMID:12279210

  20. New insights into the petrogenesis of volcanic rocks in the Shanghang Basin in the Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Bagas, Leon; Liang, Qing-Ling

    2015-06-01

    The Mesozoic Shanghang Basin in southeastern China consists of Early Cretaceous mottled coarse-grained clastic and volcanic rocks, and Late Cretaceous clastic rocks. The volcanic rocks are intermediate-mafic to felsic and spatially close to the famous Zijinshan Mineral Field. In order to better understand the timing, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of these volcanic rocks and the relationship between magmatism and metallogeny in the mineral field, U-Pb zircon geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies were completed on the volcanic rocks. Fifteen LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses of the volcanic rocks yield weighted mean ages of between 105 and 99 Ma. Major and trace element geochemistry shows that these rocks are mostly high-K to shoshonitic, enriched in LREE and Th, U, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The volcanic rocks have 87Sr/86Sri ratios of between 0.70732 and 0.70977, 206Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 18.57-19.77, 207Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 15.64-15.71, 208Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 38.87-40.62, 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.282589-0.282823, εNdT values of -7.5 to -4.7, and εHf(t) values of -4.2 to 4. Such characteristics, with similarities to coeval volcanic and intrusive rocks adjacent to the basin, suggest that the parent magma of the Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the basin and their contemporaneous intrusives originated from crustal melts with a juvenile component. Petrogenetically, fractional crystallization with minor wall-rock assimilation is the controlling process in deriving a wide range of more evolved rocks. With reference to the ore-forming events and isotopic features of ore-related intrusions in the Zijinshan Mineral Field, we propose that volcanism in the Shanghang Basin and coeval magmatism in the mineral field are related to the formation of the regional porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au-Mo-Ag deposits in an extension tectonic setting related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  1. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in Northwest China: insights from High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-06-01

    An aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 12 July-7 August 2012. The average PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. The organics was consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution mass spectra of organic aerosols (OA) identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns both with peak at ~07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8) corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ∼07:00-15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak at ~08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon peak in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by mixing down of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during night time. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA also showed similarity with that of

  2. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  3. Leaf evolution in early-diverging ferns: insights from a new fern-like plant from the Late Devonian of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Ming; Xu, Hong-He; Xue, Jin-Zhuang; Wang, Qi; Liu, Le

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims With the exception of angiosperms, the main euphyllophyte lineages (i.e. ferns sensu lato, progymnosperms and gymnosperms) had evolved laminate leaves by the Late Devonian. The evolution of laminate leaves, however, remains unclear for early-diverging ferns, largely represented by fern-like plants. This study presents a novel fern-like taxon with pinnules, which provides new insights into the early evolution of laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. Methods Macrofossil specimens were collected from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation of Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, South China. A standard degagement technique was employed to uncover compressed plant portions within the rock matrix. Key Results A new fern-like taxon, Shougangia bella gen. et sp. nov., is described and represents an early-diverging fern with highly derived features. It has a partially creeping stem with adventitious roots only on one side, upright primary and secondary branches arranged in helices, tertiary branches borne alternately or (sub)oppositely, laminate and usually lobed leaves with divergent veins, and complex fertile organs terminating tertiary branches and possessing multiple divisions and numerous terminal sporangia. Conclusions Shougangia bella provides unequivocal fossil evidence for laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. It suggests that fern-like plants, along with other euphyllophyte lineages, had independently evolved megaphylls by the Late Devonian, possibly in response to a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Among fern-like plants, planate ultimate appendages are homologous with laminate pinnules, and in the evolution of megaphylls, fertile organs tend to become complex. PMID:25979918

  4. Changes in monsoon-driven upwelling in the South China Sea over glacial Terminations I and II: a multi-proxy record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatzki, Henrik; Sarnthein, Michael; Andersen, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Upwelling intensity in the South China Sea has changed over glacial-interglacial cycles in response to orbital-scale changes in the East Asian Monsoon. Here, we evaluate new multi-proxy records of two sediment cores from the north-eastern South China Sea to uncover millennial-scale changes in winter monsoon-driven upwelling over glacial Terminations I and II. On the basis of U/Th-based speleothem chronology, we compare these changes with sediment records of summer monsoon-driven upwelling east of South Vietnam. Ocean upwelling is traced by reduced (UK'37-based) temperature and increased nutrient and productivity estimates of sea surface waters (δ13C on planktic foraminifera, accumulation rates of alkenones, chlorins, and total organic carbon). Accordingly, strong winter upwelling occurred north-west of Luzon (Philippines) during late Marine Isotope Stage 6.2, Heinrich (HS) and Greenland stadials (GS) HS-11, GS-26, GS-25, HS-1, and the Younger Dryas. During these stadials, summer upwelling decreased off South Vietnam and sea surface salinity reached a maximum suggesting a drop in monsoon rains, concurrent with speleothem records of aridity in China. In harmony with a stadial-to-interstadial see-saw pattern, winter upwelling off Luzon in turn was weak during interstadials, in particular those of glacial Terminations I and II, when summer upwelling culminated east of South Vietnam. Most likely, this upwelling terminated widespread deep-water stratification, coeval with the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Yet, a synchronous maximum in precipitation fostered estuarine overturning circulation in the South China Sea, in particular as long as the Borneo Strait was closed when sea level dropped below -40 m.

  5. Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed; Derriche, Zoubir; Denoyel, Renaud; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude

    2011-05-15

    [Mg{sub 1-x} Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}][(NO{sub 3}){sub x}, nH{sub 2}O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar (R=(1-x)/x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were calculated. The experimental values for {Delta}G{sup o} in temperature range between 10 and 40 {sup o}C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural and thermodynamical insight of adsorption/Intercalation of OII in Mg{sub R}Al LDH Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The nitrate containing hydrotalcite-like compounds (Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method. {yields} Adsorption of anionic orange dye(OII) is studied on LDHs at different temperatures. {yields} The adsorption process is well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. {yields} Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. {yields} Adsorption process does not occur on the surface of the LDH only but an intercalation process is also occurring concomitantly according to the thermodynamical values.

  6. Effect of pectin on adsorption of Cu(II) by two variable-charge soils from southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-hai; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yuan-chun; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-12-01

    The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II). The effect of pectin decreased with rising pH in the pH range 3.5-6.0, although the extent of electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) by both soils was markedly greater over the pH range. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement of soil colloids indicated that adsorption of pectin by the soils made the negative charge on both soils more negative, which was responsible for the increase in the electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) induced by the addition of pectin. In conclusion, pectin-enhanced adsorption of Cu(II) especially at low pH would be beneficial to the soils as it would decrease the activity and mobility of Cu(II) in acidic variable-charge soils.

  7. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (P<0.05). This finding could indicate the biological changes in the cartilage and bone in human brucellosis.

  8. Zinc(II) Binding Site to the Amyloid-β Peptide: Insights from Spectroscopic Studies with a Wide Series of Modified Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Zn(II) ion has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to its ability to modulate the aggregating properties of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, where Aβ aggregation is a central event in the etiology of the disease. Delineating Zn(II) binding properties to Aβ is thus a prerequisite to better grasp its potential role in AD. Because of (i) the flexibility of the Aβ peptide, (ii) the multiplicity of anchoring sites, and (iii) the silent nature of the Zn(II) ion in most classical spectroscopies, this is a difficult task. To overcome these difficulties, we have investigated the impact of peptide alterations (mutations, N-terminal acetylation) on the Zn(Aβ) X-ray absorption spectroscopy fingerprint and on the Zn(II)-induced modifications of the Aβ peptides’ NMR signatures. We propose a tetrahedrally bound Zn(II) ion, in which the coordination sphere is made by two His residues and two carboxylate side chains. Equilibria between equivalent ligands for one Zn(II) binding position have also been observed, the predominant site being made by the side chains of His6, His13 or His14, Glu11, and Asp1 or Glu3 or Asp7, with a slight preference for Asp1. PMID:27665863

  9. Aliphatic C-C Bond Cleavage of α-Hydroxy Ketones by Non-Heme Iron(II) Complexes: Mechanistic Insight into the Reaction Catalyzed by 2,4'-Dihydroxyacetophenone Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Rubina; Paria, Sayantan; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2015-11-16

    2,4'-Dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase (DAD) is a bacterial non-heme enzyme that carries out oxygenative aliphatic C-C bond cleavage of 2,4'-dihydroxyacetophenone (an α-hydroxy ketone) with the incorporation of both the oxygen atoms of dioxygen into the cleavage products. The crystal structure of the iron enzyme DAD has recently been determined, but very little is known about the mechanism of the C-C bond cleavage reaction. With the objective of gaining insights into the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by DAD, six new biomimetic iron(II)-α-hydroxy ketone complexes, [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(PHAP)] (1), [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(HCH)] (2), [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(HBME)] (3), [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(CHPE)] (4), [(6-Me3-TPA)Fe(II)(PHAP)](+) (5), and [(6-Me3-TPA)Fe(II)(HCH)](+) (6) (Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)borate, 6-Me3-TPA = tris(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)amine, PHAP-H = 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone, HCH-H = 2-hydroxycyclohexanone, HBME-H = 2-hydroxy-1,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone, and CHPE-H = 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethanone), have been isolated and characterized. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 2 shows a five-coordinate iron(II) complex with one tridentate facial ligand and a monoanionic bidentate α-hydroxy ketone, resulting in a distorted-square-pyramidal coordination geometry at the iron center. The iron(II) complexes react with dioxygen to oxidatively cleave the aliphatic C-C bonds of the coordinated α-hydroxy ketones to afford 2 equiv of carboxylic acids. Mechanistic studies reveal that the C-C bond cleavage reaction proceeds through an intradiol pathway. Additionally, the coordinated α-hydroxy ketones in all of the complexes, except in complex 4, undergo two-electron oxidation to form the corresponding 1,2-diketones. However, the yields of 1,2-diketones are higher with the iron complexes of the tripodal N4 ligand (6-Me3-TPA) in comparison to the facial N3 ligand (Tp(Ph2)). These results strongly support the natural selection of a facial N3

  10. Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Qiao, Wei-Hua; Chen, You-Tao; Wang, Rong-Sheng; Cao, Li-Rong; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Yuan, Nan-Nan; Li, Zi-Chao; Zeng, Han-Lai; Yang, Qing-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that China is one of the domestication centres of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), and common wild rice (O. rufipogon) is the progenitor of O. sativa. However, the number of domestication times and the geographic origin of Asian cultivated rice in China are still under debate. In this study, 100 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 111 accessions of common wild rice in China were selected to examine the relationship between O. sativa and O. rufipogon and thereby infer the domestication and evolution of O. sativa in China through sequence analyses of six gene regions, trnC-ycf6 in chloroplast genomes, cox3 in mitochondrial genomes and ITS, Ehd1, Waxy, Hd1 in nuclear genomes. The results indicated that the two subspecies of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated independently from different populations of O. rufipogon with gene flow occurring later from japonica to indica; Southern China was the genetic diversity centre of O. rufipogon, and the Pearl River basin near the Tropic of Cancer was the domestication centre of O. sativa in China.

  11. Solution Conditions Affect the Ability of the K30D Mutation To Prevent Amyloid Fibril Formation by Apolipoprotein C-II: Insights from Experiments and Theoretical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Todorova, Nevena; Zlatic, Courtney O; Gooley, Paul R; Griffin, Michael D W; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Yarovsky, Irene

    2016-07-12

    Apolipoproteins form amphipathic helical structures that bind lipid surfaces. Paradoxically, lipid-free apolipoproteins display a strong propensity to form cross-β structure and self-associate into disease-related amyloid fibrils. Studies of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) amyloid fibrils suggest that a K30-D69 ion pair accounts for the dual abilities to form helix and cross-β structure. Consistent with this is the observation that a K30D mutation prevents fibril formation under standard fibril forming conditions. However, we found that fibril formation by K30D apoC-II proceeded readily at low pH and a higher salt or protein concentration. Structural analysis demonstrated that K30D apoC-II fibrils at pH 7 have a structure similar to that of the wild-type fibrils but are less stable. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type apoC-II fibril model at pH 7 and 3 showed that the loss of charge on D69 at pH 3 leads to greater separation between residues K30 and D69 within the fibril with a corresponding reduction in β-strand content around residue 30. In contrast, in simulations of the K30D mutant model at pH 7 and 3, residues D30 and D69 moved closer at pH 3, accompanied by an increase in β-strand content around residue 30. The simulations also demonstrated a strong dominance of inter- over intramolecular contacts between ionic residues of apoC-II and suggested a cooperative mechanism for forming favorable interactions between the individual strands under different conditions. These observations demonstrate the important role of the buried K30-D69 ion pair in the stability and solution properties of apoC-II amyloid fibrils. PMID:27311794

  12. [Study on the co-adsorption mechanism of Pb (II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess in northwestern China].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Chao; Wang, Jia-Hong

    2013-08-01

    The co-adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess were investigated with batch adsorption procedures, and the co-adsorption mechanism was studied with approaches of SEM, FT-IR, XRD and theoretical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess fit better the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity of q(m) is 12.5 and 0.64 mg x g(-1) for Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess, respectively, and the reaction could be illustrated with pseudo-second order kinetic equation. The SEM micrograph of loess surface varies little after the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos, and certain wave peaks of FTIR spectra red-shift, disappears or intensity-decrease, with the XRD pattern and theoretical analysis, the adsorption mechanism is described as follows: the adsorption of Pb (II) on arid loess is the chemical-effect of coordination-complexation and Van der Waals force; the physical-adsorption on chlorpyrifos involves the interception function, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals force, and chemical adsorption effect to some extent. The organic matter in arid loess plays an important role in Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos adsorption.

  13. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae.

    PubMed

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-10-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3' terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species.

  14. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27530662

  15. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  16. Testing promoter activity in the trypanosome genome: isolation of a metacyclic-type VSG promoter, and unexpected insights into RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, M; Graham, S; Hartmann, C; Clayton, C

    1998-09-01

    In trypanosomes, most genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units. Individual mRNAs are generated by 5'-trans splicing and 3' polyadenylation. Remarkably, no regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription has been detected although many RNAs are differentially expressed during kinetoplastid life cycles. Demonstration of specific class II promoters is complicated by the difficulty in distinguishing between genuine promoter activity and stimulation of trans splicing. Using vectors that were designed to allow the detection of low promoter activities in a transcriptionally silent chromosomal context, we isolated a novel trypanosome RNA polymerase I promoter. We were however unable to detect class II promoter activity in any tested DNA fragment. We also integrated genes which were preceded by a T3 promoter into the genome of cells expressing bacteriophage T3 polymerase: surprisingly, transcription was alpha-amanitin sensitive. One possible interpretation of these results is that in trypanosomes, RNA polymerase II initiation is favored by genomic accessibility and double-strand melting. PMID:9709032

  17. Properties of impurity-bearing ferrihydrite II: Insights into the surface structure and composition of pure, Al- and Si-bearing ferrihydrite from Zn(II) sorption experiments and Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, A. Cristina; Levard, Clément; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Gordon E.

    2013-10-01

    Naturally occurring ferrihydrite often contains impurities such as Al and Si, which can impact its chemical reactivity with respect to metal(loid) adsorption and (in)organic or microbially induced reductive dissolution. However, the surface composition of impure ferrihydrites is not well constrained, and this hinders our understanding of the factors controlling the surface reactivity of these nanophases. In this study, we conducted Zn(II) adsorption experiments combined with Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on pure ferrihydrite (Fh) and Al- or Si-bearing ferrihydrites containing 10 and 20 mol% Al or Si (referred to as 10AlFh, 20AlFh and 10SiFh, 20SiFh) to evaluate Zn(II) uptake in relation to Zn(II) speciation at their surfaces. Overall, Zn(II) uptake at the surface of AlFh is similar to that of pure Fh, and based on Zn K-edge EXAFS data, Zn(II) speciation at the surface of Fh and AlFh also appears similar. Binuclear bidentate IVZn-VIFe complexes (at ∼3.46 Å (2C[1]) and ∼3.25 Å (2C[2])) were identified at low Zn(II) surface coverages from Zn K-edge EXAFS fits. With increasing Zn(II) surface coverage, the number of second-neighbor Fe ions decreased, which was interpreted as indicating the formation of IVZn polymers at the ferrihydrite surface, and a deviation from Langmuir uptake behavior. Zn(II) uptake at the surface of SiFh samples was more significant than at Fh and AlFh surfaces, and was attributed to the formation of outer-sphere complexes (on average 24% of sorbed Zn). Although similar Zn-Fe/Zn distances were obtained for the Zn-sorbed SiFh samples, the number of Fe second neighbors was lower in comparison with Fh. The decrease in second-neighbor Fe is most pronounced for sample 20SiFh, suggesting that the amount of reactive surface Fe sites diminishes with increasing Si content. Although our EXAFS results shown here do not provide evidence for the existence of Zn-Al or Zn-Si complexes, their presence is not excluded for Zn-sorbed Al

  18. Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2012-04-01

    Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new

  19. Combined EXAFS and DFT structure calculations provide structural insights into the 1:1 multi-histidine complexes of Cu(II) , Cu(I) , and Zn(II) with the tandem octarepeats of the mammalian prion protein.

    PubMed

    Pushie, M Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H; McDonald, Alex; Millhauser, Glenn L; George, Graham N

    2014-07-28

    The metal-coordinating properties of the prion protein (PrP) have been the subject of intense focus and debate since the first reports of its interaction with copper just before the turn of the century. The picture of metal coordination to PrP has been improved and refined over the past decade, but structural details of the various metal coordination modes have not been fully elucidated in some cases. In the present study, we have employed X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to structurally characterize the dominant 1:1 coordination modes for Cu(II) , Cu(I) , and Zn(II) with an N-terminal fragment of PrP. The PrP fragment corresponds to four tandem repeats representative of the mammalian octarepeat domain, designated as OR4 , which is also the most studied PrP fragment for metal interactions, making our findings applicable to a large body of previous work. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have provided additional structural and thermodynamic data, and candidate structures have been used to inform EXAFS data analysis. The optimized geometries from DFT calculations have been used to identify potential coordination complexes for multi-histidine coordination of Cu(II) , Cu(I) , and Zn(II) in an aqueous medium, modelled using 4-methylimidazole to represent the histidine side chain. Through a combination of in silico coordination chemistry as well as rigorous EXAFS curve-fitting, using full multiple scattering on candidate structures derived from DFT calculations, we have characterized the predominant coordination modes for the 1:1 complexes of Cu(II) , Cu(I) , and Zn(II) with the OR4 peptide at pH 7.4 at atomic resolution, which are best represented as square-planar [Cu(II) (His)4 ](2+) , digonal [Cu(I) (His)2 ](+) , and tetrahedral [Zn(II) (His)3 (OH2 )](2+) , respectively.

  20. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  1. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system.

  2. Binding of Sudan II and IV to lecithin liposomes and E. coli membranes: insights into the toxicity of hydrophobic azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Gao, Hong-Wen; Ren, Jiao-Rong; Chen, Ling; Li, Yu-Cheng; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Zhao, He-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Sudan red compounds are hydrophobic azo dyes, still used as food additives in some countries. However, they have been shown to be unsafe, causing tumors in the liver and urinary bladder in rats. They have been classified as category 3 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of hypotheses that could explain the mechanism of carcinogenesis have been proposed for dyes similar to the Sudan red compounds. Traditionally, investigations of the membrane toxicity of organic substances have focused on hydrocarbons, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT. In contrast to hydrocarbons, Sudan red compounds contain azo and hydroxy groups, which can form hydrogen bonds with the polar head groups of membrane phospholipids. Thus, entry may be impeded. They could have different toxicities from other lipophilic hydrocarbons. The available data show that because these compounds are lipophilic, interactions with hydrophobic parts of the cell are important for their toxicity. Lipophilic compounds accumulate in the membrane, causing expansion of the membrane surface area, inhibition of primary ion pumps and increased proton permeability. Results This work investigated the interactions of the amphiphilic compounds Sudan II and IV with lecithin liposomes and live Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli corresponds to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the Sudan red compounds – lecithin liposome solutions, the binding ratio of Sudan II to lecithin is 1/31 and that of Sudan IV to 1/314. The binding constant of the Sudan II-lecithin complex is 1.75 × 104 and that of the Sudan IV-lecithin complex 2.92 × 105. Besides, the influences of pH, electrolyte and temperature were investigated and analyzed quantitatively. In the Sudan red compounds – E.coli mixture, the binding ratios of Sudan II and Sudan IV to E.coli membrane phospholipid are 1/29 and 1/114. The binding constants

  3. New insights into Phanerozoic tectonics of south China: Part 1, polyphase deformation in the Jiuling and Lianyunshan domains of the central Jiangnan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhao, Guochun; Johnston, Stephen T.; Cui, Jianjun; Xin, Yujia

    2016-04-01

    The central Jiangnan Orogen, genetically formed by the Proterozoic Yangtze-Cathaysia collision, presents as a composite structural feature in the Phanerozoic with multiple ductile and brittle fabrics whose geometries, kinematics, and ages are crucial to decipher the tectonic evolution of south China. New structural observations coupled with thermochronological and geochronological studies of these fabrics document four main stages of deformation. The earliest stage in early Paleozoic time (460-420 Ma) corresponds to combined E-trending dextral and northwest directed thrust shearing that was variably partitioned in anastomosing high-strain zones under greenschist-facies conditions (~400-500°C), related to the continued Yangtze-Cathaysia convergence externally driven by the suturing of south China with Australia. This event was heterogeneously overprinted by the second stage characterized by ~E-oriented folding in middle Triassic time, geodynamically resulting from the continental collision of south China with Indochina and North China. The third stage was locally developed by northwest and southeast vergent thrusts that truncated ~E-oriented folds in the Late Jurassic, due to northwestward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The latest stage involved normal faulting and tectonic unroofing in Cretaceous time, which resulted in basin opening and reset footwall 40Ar/39Ar ages in proximity to the Hengshan detachment fault, associated with roll-back of the subducting Paleo-Pacific plate.

  4. Akt Activation and Inhibition of Cytochrome C Release: Mechanistic Insights into Leptin-promoted Survival of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liang, Zhen-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Hu, Bo; Xing, Xiang-Bin; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk of perinatal death, partly due to defects in lung development. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone, is involved in fetal lung development. We previously demonstrated that treatment with exogenous leptin during gestation significantly promotes fetal lung maturity in the rat model of FGR. In this study, to delineate the molecular pathways through which leptin may enhance fetal lung development, we investigated the impact of leptin treatment on the survival of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), essential leptin-responsive cells involved in lung development, in a rat model of FGR. The rat model of FGR was induced in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by partial uterine artery and vein ligation. In vivo and in vitro analyses of fetal lung tissues and freshly-isolated cultured AECs, respectively, showed that leptin protects type II AECs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Further molecular studies revealed the role of Akt activation in the leptin-mediated promotion of survival of type II AECs. The data also showed that the anti-apoptotic effects of leptin are dependent on phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, and involve the down-regulation of caspases 3 and 9, upregulation of pro-survival proteins Bcl-2, and p-Bad, and inhibition of the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Taken together, our data suggested that leptin enhances the maturity of fetal lungs by mediating the regulation of caspase-3 and -9 during hypoxia-induced apoptosis of type II AECs and provide support for the potential of leptin as a therapeutic agent for promoting lung development in FGR.

  5. Biophysical Insights into How Spike Threshold Depends on the Rate of Membrane Potential Depolarization in Type I and Type II Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic spike threshold plays a critical role in neuronal input-output relations. In many neurons, the threshold potential depends on the rate of membrane potential depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. There are two basic classes of neural excitability, i.e., Type I and Type II, according to input-output properties. Although the dynamical and biophysical basis of their spike initiation has been established, the spike threshold dynamic for each cell type has not been well described. Here, we use a biophysical model to investigate how spike threshold depends on dV/dt in two types of neuron. It is observed that Type II spike threshold is more depolarized and more sensitive to dV/dt than Type I. With phase plane analysis, we show that each threshold dynamic arises from the different separatrix and K+ current kinetics. By analyzing subthreshold properties of membrane currents, we find the activation of hyperpolarizing current prior to spike initiation is a major factor that regulates the threshold dynamics. The outward K+ current in Type I neuron does not activate at the perithresholds, which makes its spike threshold insensitive to dV/dt. The Type II K+ current activates prior to spike initiation and there is a large net hyperpolarizing current at the perithresholds, which results in a depolarized threshold as well as a pronounced threshold dynamic. These predictions are further attested in several other functionally equivalent cases of neural excitability. Our study provides a fundamental description about how intrinsic biophysical properties contribute to the threshold dynamics in Type I and Type II neurons, which could decipher their significant functions in neural coding. PMID:26083350

  6. Hydrogen-bond vibrational and energetic dynamical properties in sI and sII clathrate hydrates and in ice Ih: Molecular dynamics insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Somendra Nath; English, Niall J.

    2015-10-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on cubic (sI and sII) polymorphs of methane hydrate, and hexagonal ice (ice Ih), to study the dynamical properties of hydrogen-bond vibrations and hydrogen-bond self-energy. It was found that hydrogen-bond energies are greatest in magnitude in sI hydrates, followed by sII, and their energies are least in magnitude in ice Ih. This is consistent with recent MD-based findings on thermal conductivities for these various materials [N. J. English and J. S. Tse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015901 (2009)], in which the lower thermal conductivity of sI methane hydrate was rationalised in terms of more strained hydrogen-bond arrangements. Further, modes for vibration and energy-transfer via hydrogen bonds in sI hydrate were found to occur at higher frequencies vis-à-vis ice Ih and sII hydrate in both the water-librational and OH⋯H regions because of the more strained nature of hydrogen bonds therein.

  7. Hydrogen-bond vibrational and energetic dynamical properties in sI and sII clathrate hydrates and in ice Ih: Molecular dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somendra Nath; English, Niall J

    2015-10-21

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on cubic (sI and sII) polymorphs of methane hydrate, and hexagonal ice (ice Ih), to study the dynamical properties of hydrogen-bond vibrations and hydrogen-bond self-energy. It was found that hydrogen-bond energies are greatest in magnitude in sI hydrates, followed by sII, and their energies are least in magnitude in ice Ih. This is consistent with recent MD-based findings on thermal conductivities for these various materials [N. J. English and J. S. Tse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015901 (2009)], in which the lower thermal conductivity of sI methane hydrate was rationalised in terms of more strained hydrogen-bond arrangements. Further, modes for vibration and energy-transfer via hydrogen bonds in sI hydrate were found to occur at higher frequencies vis-à-vis ice Ih and sII hydrate in both the water-librational and OH⋯H regions because of the more strained nature of hydrogen bonds therein. PMID:26493912

  8. Hydrogen-bond vibrational and energetic dynamical properties in sI and sII clathrate hydrates and in ice Ih: Molecular dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somendra Nath; English, Niall J

    2015-10-21

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on cubic (sI and sII) polymorphs of methane hydrate, and hexagonal ice (ice Ih), to study the dynamical properties of hydrogen-bond vibrations and hydrogen-bond self-energy. It was found that hydrogen-bond energies are greatest in magnitude in sI hydrates, followed by sII, and their energies are least in magnitude in ice Ih. This is consistent with recent MD-based findings on thermal conductivities for these various materials [N. J. English and J. S. Tse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015901 (2009)], in which the lower thermal conductivity of sI methane hydrate was rationalised in terms of more strained hydrogen-bond arrangements. Further, modes for vibration and energy-transfer via hydrogen bonds in sI hydrate were found to occur at higher frequencies vis-à-vis ice Ih and sII hydrate in both the water-librational and OH⋯H regions because of the more strained nature of hydrogen bonds therein.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Fe(II) β-diketonato complexes with relevance to acetylacetone dioxygenase: insights into the electronic properties of the 3-histidine facial triad.

    PubMed

    Park, Heaweon; Baus, Jacob S; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T

    2011-12-01

    A series of high-spin iron(II) β-diketonato complexes have been prepared and characterized with the intent of modeling the substrate-bound form of the enzyme acetylacetone dioxygenase (Dke1). The Dke1 active site features an Fe(II) center coordinated by three histidine residues in a facial geometry--a departure from the standard 2-histidine-1-carboxylate (2H1C) facial triad dominant among nonheme monoiron enzymes. The deprotonated β-diketone substrate binds to the Fe center in a bidentate fashion. To better understand the implications of subtle changes in coordination environment for the electronic structures of nonheme Fe active sites, synthetic models were prepared with three different supporting ligands (L(N3)): the anionic (Me2)Tp and (Ph2)Tp ligands ((R2)Tp = hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate substituted with R-groups at the 3- and 5-pyrazole positions) and the neutral (Ph)TIP ligand ((Ph)TIP = tris(2-phenylimidazol-4-yl)phosphine). The resulting [(L(N3))Fe(acac(X))](0/+) complexes (acac(X) = substituted β-diketonates) were analyzed with a combination of experimental and computational methods, namely, X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis absorption and (1)H NMR), and density functional theory (DFT). X-ray diffraction results for complexes with the (Me2)Tp ligand revealed six-coordinate Fe(II) centers with a bound MeCN molecule, while structures of the (Ph2)Tp and (Ph)TIP complexes generally exhibited five-coordinate geometries. Each [(L(N3))Fe(acac(X))](0/+) complex displays two broad absorption features in the visible region that arise from Fe(II)→acac(X) charge transfer and acac(X)-based transitions, consistent with UV-vis data reported for Dke1. These absorption bands, along with the Fe redox potentials, are highly sensitive to the identity of L(N3) and substitution of the β-diketonates. By interpreting the experimental results in conjunction with DFT calculations, detailed electronic-structure descriptions of the

  10. Establishment of trophic continuum in the food web of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem: insight from carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Deling; Li, Hongyan; Tang, Qisheng; Sun, Yao

    2005-12-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (delta (13)C and delta (15)N) are used to study the trophic structure of food web in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem. The trophic continuum of pelagic food web from phytoplankton to top preyer was elementarily established, and a trophic structure diagram in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was outlined in combination with carbon isotopic data of benthic organisms, which is basically consistent with and makes some improvements on the simplified Yellow Sea food web and the trophic structure diagram drawn based on the biomass of main resource population during 1985-1986. This result indicates that the stable isotope method is a potential useful means for further studying the complete marine food web trophic continuum from viruses to top predators and food web stability. PMID:16483132

  11. DETERMINATION OF ELASTIC WAVE VELOCITY AND RELATIVE HYPOCENTER LOCATIONS USING REFRACTED WAVES. II. APPLICATION TO THE HAICHENG, CHINA, AFTERSHOCK SEQUENCE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ma, Xiufang

    1985-01-01

    The authors located the aftershocks of the February 4, 1975 Haicheng, China, aftershock sequence using an arrival time difference (ATD) simultaneous inversion method for determining the near-source (in situ) velocity and the location of the aftershocks with respect to a master event. The aftershocks define a diffuse zone, 70 km multiplied by 25 km, trending west-northwest, perpendicular to the major structural trend of the region. The main shock and most of the large aftershocks have strike-slip fault plane solutions. The preferred fault plane strikes west-northwest, and the inferred sense of motion is left-lateral. The entire Haicheng earthauake sequence appears to have been the response of an intensely faulted range boundary to a primarily east-west crustal compression and/or north-south extension.

  12. Science insights.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    "Below is an essay by Prof. Tanabe originally written in Japanese. It gives an insight to Prof. Tanabe's inquiring mind and his approach to science. He also seek, as always, to inspire and nudge the young to scientific discovery".

  13. Insights into anticancer activity and mechanism of action of a ruthenium(II) complex in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liubin; Lv, Gaochao; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Huixin; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    A ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(NHC)Cl2] (NHC=1,3-bis(4-(tert-butyl)benzylimidazol-2-ylidene), referred to as L-4, has been designed and synthesized recently in order to look for new anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. The anticancer activity and mechanism of action of L-4 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells were systematically investigated. The results revealed that L-4 exerted strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of EC109 cells, and it arrested EC109 cells at G2/M phase, accompanied with the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of EC109 can be induced by L-4 via inhibiting the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), decreasing the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of EC109 induced by L-4 was also observed from the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, overload of Ca(2+), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), redistribution of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3/-9. However, the effects of L-4 on the cell viability, GR activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis induction were remarkably attenuated by adding the reactive oxygen species scavenger, NAC. Therefore, it was concluded that L-4 can inhibit the proliferation of EC109 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggested that the ruthenium(II) complex might be a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent for human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27262377

  14. Spectroscopic and Computational Characterization of the NO Adduct of Substrate-Bound Fe(II) Cysteine Dioxygenase: Insights into the Mechanism of O2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Blaesi, Elizabeth J.; Gardner, Jessica D.; Fox, Brian G.; Brunold, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a mononuclear non-heme iron(II)-dependent enzyme critical for maintaining appropriate cysteine (Cys) and taurine levels in eukaryotic systems. Since CDO possesses both an unusual 3-His facial ligation sphere to the iron center and a rare Cys-Tyr crosslink near the active site, the mechanism by which it converts Cys and molecular oxygen to cysteine sulfinic acid is of broad interest. However, as of yet direct experimental support for any of the proposed mechanisms is still lacking. In this study, we have used NO as a substrate analogue for O2 to prepare a species that mimics the geometric and electronic structures of an early reaction intermediate. The resultant unusual S=1/2 {FeNO}7 species was characterized by magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electronic absorption spectroscopies, as well as computational methods including density functional theory and semi-empirical calculations. The NO adducts of Cys- and selenocysteine (Sec)-bound Fe(II)CDO exhibit virtually identical electronic properties; yet, CDO is unable to oxidize Sec. To explore the differences in reactivity between Cys- and Sec-bound CDO, the geometries and energies of viable O2-bound intermediates were evaluated computationally, and it was found that a low-energy quintet-spin intermediate on the Cys reaction pathway adopts a different geometry for the Sec-bound adduct. The absence of a low-energy O2 adduct for Sec-bound CDO is consistent with our experimental data and may explain why Sec does not act as a substrate for CDO. PMID:23906193

  15. The Semiquinone-Iron Complex of Photosystem II: Structural Insights from ESR and Theoretical Simulation; Evidence that the Native Ligand to the Non-Heme Iron Is Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Jin, Lu; Jaszewski, Adrian; Smith, Paul J.; Krausz, Elmars; Rutherford, A. William; Pace, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The semiquinone-iron complex of photosystem II was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Two forms of the signal were investigated: 1), the native g ∼ 1.9 form; and 2), the g ∼ 1.84 form, which is well known in purple bacterial reaction centers and occurs in photosystem II when treated with formate. The g ∼ 1.9 form shows low- and high-field edges at g ∼ 3.5 and g < 0.8, respectively, and resembles the g ∼ 1.84 form in terms of shape and width. Both types of ESR signal were simulated using the theoretical approach used previously for the BRC complex, a spin Hamiltonian formalism in which the semiquinone radical magnetically interacts (J ∼ 1 cm−1) with the nearby high-spin Fe2+. The two forms of ESR signal differ mainly by an axis rotation of the exchange coupling tensor (J) relative to the zero-field tensor (D) and a small increase in the zero-field parameter D (∼6 cm−1). Density functional theory calculations were conducted on model semiquinone-iron systems to identify the physical nature of these changes. The replacement of formate (or glutamate in the bacterial reaction centers) by bicarbonate did not result in changes in the coupling environment. However, when carbonate (CO32−) was used instead of bicarbonate, the exchange and zero-field tensors did show changes that matched those obtained from the spectral simulations. This indicates that 1), the doubly charged carbonate ion is responsible for the g ∼ 1.9 form of the semiquinone-iron signal; and 2), carbonate, rather than bicarbonate, is the ligand to the iron. PMID:19804734

  16. The semiquinone-iron complex of photosystem II: structural insights from ESR and theoretical simulation; evidence that the native ligand to the non-heme iron is carbonate.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nicholas; Jin, Lu; Jaszewski, Adrian; Smith, Paul J; Krausz, Elmars; Rutherford, A William; Pace, Ron

    2009-10-01

    The semiquinone-iron complex of photosystem II was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Two forms of the signal were investigated: 1), the native g approximately 1.9 form; and 2), the g approximately 1.84 form, which is well known in purple bacterial reaction centers and occurs in photosystem II when treated with formate. The g approximately 1.9 form shows low- and high-field edges at g approximately 3.5 and g < 0.8, respectively, and resembles the g approximately 1.84 form in terms of shape and width. Both types of ESR signal were simulated using the theoretical approach used previously for the BRC complex, a spin Hamiltonian formalism in which the semiquinone radical magnetically interacts (J approximately 1 cm(-1)) with the nearby high-spin Fe(2+). The two forms of ESR signal differ mainly by an axis rotation of the exchange coupling tensor (J) relative to the zero-field tensor (D) and a small increase in the zero-field parameter D ( approximately 6 cm(-1)). Density functional theory calculations were conducted on model semiquinone-iron systems to identify the physical nature of these changes. The replacement of formate (or glutamate in the bacterial reaction centers) by bicarbonate did not result in changes in the coupling environment. However, when carbonate (CO(3)(2-)) was used instead of bicarbonate, the exchange and zero-field tensors did show changes that matched those obtained from the spectral simulations. This indicates that 1), the doubly charged carbonate ion is responsible for the g approximately 1.9 form of the semiquinone-iron signal; and 2), carbonate, rather than bicarbonate, is the ligand to the iron.

  17. A comprehensive biological insight of trinuclear copper(II)-tin(IV) chemotherapeutic anticancer drug entity: in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Yusra; Arjmand, Farukh; Zaidi, Nida; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Zubair, Haseeb; Akhtar, Kafil; Hossain, Mobarak; Shadab, G G H A

    2014-08-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP) causes severe systemic toxicity, which limits its application in cancer treatment. Nevertheless, incorporation of endogenously present essential metal ions (copper) in anticancer drug regimes in a heterometallic ligand scaffold can substantially modulate the toxic effects of non-essential metals (platinum), thereby reducing unwanted toxic side effects. A chiral l-tryptophan derived [bis(1,2-diaminobenzene) copper(II)] chloride complex [CuSn2(Trp)] was previously synthesized by us as an active chemotherapeutic agent. Furthermore, we have explored CuSn2(Trp) induced in vitro cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines and in vivo acute and systemic toxicities in healthy female Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) rats. MTT assay showed that CuSn2(Trp) exhibits strong anticancer potency against ovarian (PA-1) and prostate carcinomas (PC-3) but lower potency towards liver (HepG2) and breast carcinomas (MCF-7). Further, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CuSn2(Trp) kills PA-1 cells dose-dependently after 48 h treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and western blotting revealed that the plausible mechanism behind CuSn2(Trp) cytotoxicity was apoptosis, which was substantiated by cleavage of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, it has lower toxicity than CDDP in rats as evident from its eight fold (98.11 mg kg(-1)) more medial lethal dose (LD50) than CDDP (12 mg kg(-1)). Besides, the safety profile of CuSn2(Trp) was also established and no measurable DNA damage, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were observed when assessed as a function of oxidative stress markers in contrast to CDDP at equivalent lower doses. Our findings are of high importance in the context of further in vivo cancer studies on the CuSn2(Trp) drug entity.

  18. Insights into the dynamics of planetary interiors obtained through the study of global distribution of volcanoes II: Tectonic implications from Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañon-Tapia, Edgardo

    2014-06-01

    The distribution of volcanic features is ultimately controlled by processes taking place beneath the surface of a planet. For this reason, characterization of volcano distribution at a global scale can be used to obtain insights concerning dynamic aspects of planetary interiors. Until present, studies of this type commonly have focused on volcanic features of a specific type (e.g., large volcanoes in Venus or hot-spot volcanism on Earth), or have concentrated on relatively small regions (i.e., vent distribution within individual volcanic fields), but no comparison of extensive databases has been made by using the same tools in both planets. In this work, the description of the distribution of volcanic features observed over the entire surface of Venus is made using the same tool used for Earth, and is applied to an extensive database. The analysis is based on density contours obtained with the Fisher kernel. As a result, several groupings of volcanoes are identified refining the already documented concentration of volcanoes on the BAT zone. In particular some doughnut-like patterns are observed that might be related to the action of mantle plumes. The occurrence of such features on Earth, as well as the existence of a uniform distribution of background volcanism on both planets, suggests similarities on their geodynamic behavior that had not been identified previously.

  19. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Penultimate Glacial Monsoon Record From Hulu and Dongge Caves, China and Global Correlations of Events Surrounding Termination II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Ming, Y.; Liu, W.; Cai, Y.; An, Z.; Yuan, D.; Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.

    2004-12-01

    We have obtained the oxygen isotope record of three stalagmites from Hulu Cave (eastern China, 32° 30'N, 119° 10'E), offering a high-resolution absolute-dated record of Asian monsoon climate over much of the penultimate glacial period. Previously, stalagmites were analyzed from Dongge Cave (southern China, 25° 17'N, 108° 5'E), located approximately 1200 km to the southwest of Hulu Cave, providing a detailed account of δ 18O variations over about the same time period (Yuan et al., 2004; Kelly et al., in review). The δ 18O patterns from the Hulu and Dongge stalagmites appear to be broadly similar across the overlapping portions of the records, indicating that the stalagmites are recording a regional climate signal. Asian Monsoon climate during the penultimate glacial period follows orbitally induced insolation changes, though it is punctuated by numerous sub-orbital scale climate events. The heaviest δ 18O values during the penultimate glacial period were initiated at ˜136 ka B.P. in both records, and are largely maintained for the next ˜6 kyr until abrupt strengthening of the monsoon at Monsoon Termination II. This interval is generally characterized by less variability than seen during the earlier portions of MIS 6, with δ 18O values remaining around -5‰ . Kelly et al. (in review) have called this extended interval of time the "Weak Monsoon Interval" (WMI). The WMI, however, is punctuated by one distinct climate event, occurring at 134.5 ± 1.0 ka B.P. in the Hulu record and 133.6 ± 1.0 ka B.P. in the Dongge record. This event may correlate with warming in the Alps at 135 ± 1.2 ka B.P., as indicated by an interval of speleothem growth from Spannagel Cave (Spötl et al., 2002). We also demonstrate that the monsoon intensity correlates well with atmospheric CH4 concentrations over the last two glacial cycles. In particular, we correlate the abrupt jump in CH4 concentrations at ˜129 ka B.P. with our Monsoon Termination II. Based upon this correlation

  20. Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.

  1. Health and social impacts of biomass gasification for household energy in rural China: Assessment from three perspectives and emergent insights from their synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Susan Lynn

    Solid fuels such as coal, wood, and crop straw supply some fraction of household cooking and heating fuel for more than one billion people in China. As these fuels do not generally combust cleanly in household stoves, their use levies large health and environmental burdens, particularly in rural regions. Production of clean-burning fuels from agricultural residue offers one prospect for mitigating health and social burdens imposed by household use of solid fuels. This dissertation explores the question: how might production of clean-burning household fuels from agricultural residues affect human health and social conditions in rural China? I approach this question from three perspectives. First, a technically plausible but currently unproven village-scale energy technology is explored in a scenario bounded by natural resources and substantiated by engineering specifications, estimates of indoor exposures to air pollution, and epidemiological analyses. This analysis asks at the national (China) level: how might rural health burdens be mitigated and greenhouse gas emissions reduced by such a technology? Secondly, I perform wintertime indoor air quality monitoring in a Chinese village where coal and wood are used for heating and a variety of solid and "improved" fuels, including gas and electricity, are used for cooking. This fieldwork characterizes rural indoor air quality in terms of 24-hour and peak-period (1-hour) carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations and 24-hour airborne nicotine (a proxy for environmental tobacco smoke), as well as daily exposures of primary cooks to CO. I also explore relationships between observed measures of indoor air quality and investigate household structural and behavioral factors as determinants of air quality. The third perspective is an ethnographic case study of a demonstration project for production of household fuel from agricultural residue in Hechengli Village, Jilin Province, China. With an emphasis on

  2. [Morphological and taxonomical studies on anisakidae larvae found in marine fishes of China. II. Gulf of Tong King].

    PubMed

    Sun, S Z; Tsutomu, K; Noboru, K

    1992-01-01

    A survey on Anisakidae larvae in 29 species (134 specimens) of marine fishes in the Gulf of Tong King has been carried out. Anisakidae larvae were detected in 15 out of 29 species. The detected specimens were identified as larvae of Anisakis simplex, Hysterothylacium and Pseudoterranova. The parasitization rate of Anisakis simplex larvae, the main pathogen of anisakiasis, in fishes was 30.6% (41/134), while the parasitization rates of Hysterothylacium and Pseudoterranova larvae were comparatively low. Hysterothylacium larvae China type I detected from Muraenesox cinereus and Trichiurus haumela was a new record. Their morphological characteristics were summarized as follows: 1. Length 10.78-14.18 mm, Width 0.25-0.38 mm, the length of the esophagus is 1.14-1.73 mm, intestinal cecum 0.77-1.24 mm and ventricular appendage 6.27-8.40 mm, extending parallelly with the intestine to the last quarter of the larva; 2. Boring tooth was present, but mucron was absent; 3. No genital anlage was observed. PMID:1394905

  3. High-order Cu(II) chloro-complexes in LiCl brines: Insights from density function theory and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ji; Yi, Hai-Bo; Xu, Jia-Jia

    2015-09-01

    Cu(II) complexation by chloride is relevant to the transport of copper in near-surface geologic environments, yet the existence of high-order Cu(II) chloro-complexes still remains in dispute. In this study, the structure characteristics and stabilities of [CuClx]2-xaq (x = 3, 4, 5) complexes have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. [CuCl3]- and [CuCl4]2- species can both be tracked, while the [CuCl5]3-aq complex cannot be recorded during MD simulations of trace Cu2+ in chloride-rich brines. DFT calculations indicate that contact ion pair (CIP) conformers of [CuCl3]- species are less stable than its solvent separated ion pair (SSIP) conformers, in which one Cl- stays in the second coordination sphere of the centered Cu2+. MD simulations also reveal that the SSIP conformer is apt to appear in the aqueous solution than its CIP conformer. It seems that the third Cl- is more likely in the second coordination shell of center Cu2+ in [CuCl3]-. Meanwhile, the characteristic peak around 385 nm resolved in UV-Vis spectra experiments, which was attributed to the [CuCl3]- complex, could also be resulted from some SSIP structures of the [CuCl3]- complex. In MD simulations, the complex [CuCl4]2-aq is found more stable than [CuCl3]-aq. The surrounding water molecules around [CuClx]2-xaq (x = 3, 4) enhance their stabilities in Cl- brines, especially for [CuCl4]2-aq. The hydration shell of [CuCl4]2-aq species is more intact than that of [CuCl3]2-aq, and the residence time of a water molecule in the second coordination sphere of Cu ion in the [CuCl4]2-aq complex is also obviously longer than that of [CuCl3]-aq. The [CuCl4]2-aq complex can even be recorded in the less concentrated (6.33 m) Cl- solution, while the [CuCl3]-aq complex is tracked only in the 16.32 m Cl- brine. Meanwhile, the possibilities of [CuCl3]-aq and [CuCl4]2-aq complexes found in 16.32 m Cl- solutions both decrease with increasing temperature

  4. Fundamental insights into conformational stability and orbital interactions of antioxidant (+)-catechin species and complexation of (+)-catechin with zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasarawan, Nuttawisit; Thipyapong, Khajadpai; Sirichai, Somsak; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2013-09-01

    Conformational stability of (+)-catechin species in water has been examined with density functional theory, associated with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of solvation. Factors such as electron delocalization, lone-pair electron donation and intramolecular hydrogen bonding substantially contribute to the conformational stabilization. Upon deprotonation, the HOMO and LUMO energies for (+)-catechin are both elevated; the energy gaps for the deprotonated species are narrower than the energy gap for the neutral species. The preferential deprotonation occurs at the C3'-, C5-, C7- and C4'-OH groups successively. The pKa value at 9.3 predicted for the most acidic OH group agrees well with previous experimental data; however the values are overestimated for the less acidic OH groups due to limitations of the PCM for charged solutes and/or complex nature of true deprotonation pathways. Formation of hydrogen radicals should be promoted at high pH values following the bond dissociation enthalpies. Complexation of (+)-catechin with either zinc(II) or oxovanadium(IV) is favored at the 1:1 metal-to-ligand (M:L) mole ratio, with the oxovanadium(IV) complex showing higher reaction preference. At M:L = 1:2, formation of two isomeric complexes are plausible for each type of metal ion. Effects of stoichiometry and isomerism on the computational spectral features of the possibly formed metal complexes have been described.

  5. Insights into dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines catalyzed by a (PNN)-Ru(II) hydride complex: unusual metal-ligand cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guixiang; Li, Shuhua

    2011-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of dehydrogenative coupling of primary alcohols and amines mediated by a PNN-Ru(II) hydride complex (PNN = (2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethylaminomethyl)pyridine)). A plausible reaction pathway was proposed which contains three stages: (1) The alcohol dehydrogenation reaction to generate the aldehyde and H(2); (2) The aldehyde-amine condensation reaction to form the hemiaminal intermediate; (3) The dehydrogenation process of the hemiaminal intermediate to yield the final amide product with the liberation of H(2). The first and third stages occur via a similar pathway: (a) Proton transfer from the substrate to the PNN ligand; (b) Intramolecular rearrangement of the deprotonated substrate to form an anagostic complex; (c) Hydride transfer from the deprotonated substrate to the Ru center to yield the trans-dihydride intermediate and the aldehyde (or amide); (d) Benzylic proton migration from the PNN ligand to the metal center forming a dihydrogen complex and subsequent H(2) liberation to regenerate the catalyst. In all these steps, the metal-ligand cooperation plays an essential role. In proton transfer steps (a) and (d), the metal-ligand cooperation is achieved through the aromatization/dearomatization processes of the PNN ligand. While in steps (b) and (c), their collaboration are demonstrated by the formation of an anagostic interaction between Ru and the C-H bond and two ionic hydrogen bonds supported by the PNN ligand. PMID:21942421

  6. Communication: Librational dynamics in water, sI and sII clathrate hydrates, and ice Ih: Molecular-dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Christian J; English, Niall J

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for liquid water, and on metastable sI and sII polymorphs of empty hydrate lattices, in addition to ice Ih, in order to study the dynamical properties of librational motion (rotation oscillation) depicted by protons in water molecules. In particular, hydrate lattices were found to display prominent "bifurcated" features, or peaks, at circa 70 and 80-95 meV (or ∼560 and 640-760 cm(-1), respectively), also displayed by ice, in essentially quantitative agreement with experimental neutron-scattering data. However, observed differences in dispersion between these librational modes between these two structures (both hydrate polymorphs vis-à-vis ice), owing primarily to density effects, have been decomposed into contributions arising from angular-velocity dynamics about axes in the local molecular frame of water molecules, with in-plane "wagging" and "twisting" rationalising one mode at ∼70 meV, and out-of-plane motion for the higher-frequency band. This was confirmed explicitly by a type of de facto normal-mode analysis, in which only immediate layers of water molecules about the one under consideration were allowed to move. In contrast, liquid water displayed no marked preference for such local in- or out-of-plane modes characterising librational motion, owing to the marked absence of rigid, pentamers or hexamers therein. PMID:26851900

  7. Mechanistic insight into alcohol oxidation mediated by an efficient green Cu(II)-bipy catalyst with and without TEMPO by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Meiyan; Wu, Zhijian

    2010-06-14

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the alcohol oxidation to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the Cu-bipy (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) catalyst with and without TEMPO (TEMPO stands for 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy). In the presence of TEMPO, two mechanisms are proposed, which are (1) TEMPO and the alcohol coordinate to the Cu center and react in the coordination sphere, and (2) the formation of the nitronium cation. On the basis of our calculations, the nitronium cation mechanism can be ruled out. For the case without TEMPO, it is found that the change of the Cu oxidation states (Cu(II) <--> Cu(I)) plays an important role in assisting the catalytic reaction cycle, while the O(2) molecule assists the formation of the product acetaldehyde. In addition, the overall activation barrier with TEMPO is preferred over the pathway without TEMPO by 5.2 kcal mol(-1). This is consistent with the experimental observation that the Cu-bipy catalyst in the absence of TEMPO is less efficient when compared with that in the presence of TEMPO. The difference in mechanism is discussed tentatively based on the molecular orbitals.

  8. Communication: Librational dynamics in water, sI and sII clathrate hydrates, and ice Ih: Molecular-dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Christian J; English, Niall J

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for liquid water, and on metastable sI and sII polymorphs of empty hydrate lattices, in addition to ice Ih, in order to study the dynamical properties of librational motion (rotation oscillation) depicted by protons in water molecules. In particular, hydrate lattices were found to display prominent "bifurcated" features, or peaks, at circa 70 and 80-95 meV (or ∼560 and 640-760 cm(-1), respectively), also displayed by ice, in essentially quantitative agreement with experimental neutron-scattering data. However, observed differences in dispersion between these librational modes between these two structures (both hydrate polymorphs vis-à-vis ice), owing primarily to density effects, have been decomposed into contributions arising from angular-velocity dynamics about axes in the local molecular frame of water molecules, with in-plane "wagging" and "twisting" rationalising one mode at ∼70 meV, and out-of-plane motion for the higher-frequency band. This was confirmed explicitly by a type of de facto normal-mode analysis, in which only immediate layers of water molecules about the one under consideration were allowed to move. In contrast, liquid water displayed no marked preference for such local in- or out-of-plane modes characterising librational motion, owing to the marked absence of rigid, pentamers or hexamers therein.

  9. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B–BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed “moving metal” mechanism

  10. Identification of polyproline II regions derived from the proline-rich nuclear receptor coactivators PNRC and PNRC2: new insights for ERα coactivator interactions.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C; Miclet, E; Broutin, I; Gallo, D; Pelekanou, V; Kampa, M; Castanas, E; Leclercq, G; Jacquot, Y

    2013-10-01

    Protein-protein interactions are crucial for signal transductions required for cell differentiation and proliferation. Their modulation is therefore key to the development of therapeutic alternatives, particularly in the context of cancer. According to literature data, the polyproline-rich nuclear receptor coactivators PNRC and PNRC2 interact with estrogen receptor (ERα) through their PxxP SH3-binding motifs. In a search to identify the molecular features governing this interaction, we explored using electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations, the capacity of a range of putative biologically active peptides derived from these proteins and containing this PxxP motif(s) to form polyproline II (PPII) domains. An additional more exhaustive structural study on a lead PPII peptide was also performed using 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With the exception of one of all the investigated peptides (PNRC-D), binding assays failed to detect any affinity for Grb2 SH3 domains, suggesting that PPII motifs issued from Grb2 antagonists have a binding mode distinct from those derived from Grb2 agonists. Instead, the peptides revealed a competitive binding ability against a synthetic peptide (ERα17p) with a putative PPII-cognate domain located within a coregulator recruitment region of ERα (AF-2 site). Our work, which constitutes the first structure-related interaction study concerning PNRC and PNRC2, supports not only the existence of PxxP-induced PPII sequences in these coregulators, but also confirms the presence of a PPII recognition site in the AF-2 of the steroid receptor ERα, a region important for transcription regulation.

  11. Structural insights into the editing of germ-line-encoded interactions between T-cell receptor and MHC class II by Vα CDR3.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lu; Langley, Ries J; Wang, Qian; Topalian, Suzanne L; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2012-09-11

    The conserved diagonal docking mode observed in structures of T-cell receptors (TCRs) bound to peptide-MHC ligands is believed to reflect coevolution of TCR and MHC genes. This coevolution is supported by the conservation of certain interactions between the germ-line-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR)1 and CDR2 loops of TCR and MHC. However, the rules governing these interactions are not straightforward, even when the same variable (V) region recognizes the same MHC molecule. Here, we demonstrate that the somatically generated CDR3 loops can markedly alter evolutionarily selected contacts between TCR and MHC ("CDR3 editing"). To understand CDR3 editing at the atomic level, we determined the structure of a human melanoma-specific TCR (G4) bound to the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1 and an epitope from mutant triose phosphate isomerase (mutTPI). A comparison of the G4-mutTPI-DR1 complex with a complex involving a TCR (E8) that uses the same Vα region to recognize the same mutTPI-DR1 ligand as G4 revealed that CDR1α adopts markedly different conformations in the two TCRs, resulting in an almost entirely different set of contacts with MHC. Based on the structures of unbound G4 and E8, the distinct conformations of CDR1α in these TCRs are not induced by binding to mutTPI-DR1 but result from differences in the length and sequence of CDR3α that are transmitted to CDR1α. The editing of germ-line-encoded TCR-MHC interactions by CDR3 demonstrates that these interactions possess sufficient intrinsic flexibility to accommodate large structural variations in CDR3 and, consequently, in the TCR-binding site.

  12. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  13. Control of Lunar and Martian dust--experimental insights from artificial and natural cyanobacterial and algal crusts in the desert of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongding; Cockell, Charles S; Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Chen, Lanzhou; De Philippis, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Studies on the colonization of environmentally extreme ground surfaces were conducted in a Mars-like desert area of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, with microalgae and cyanobacteria. We collected and mass-cultured cyanobacterial strains from these regions and investigated their ability to form desert crusts artificially. These crusts had the capacity to resist sand wind erosion after just 15 days of growth. Similar to the surface of some Chinese deserts, the surface of Mars is characterized by a layer of fine dust, which will challenge future human exploration activities, particularly in confined spaces that will include greenhouses and habitats. We discuss the use of such crusts for the local control of desert sands in enclosed spaces on Mars. These experiments suggest innovative new directions in the applied use of microbe-mineral interactions to advance the human exploration and settlement of space.

  14. Control of Lunar and Martian dust--experimental insights from artificial and natural cyanobacterial and algal crusts in the desert of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongding; Cockell, Charles S; Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Chen, Lanzhou; De Philippis, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Studies on the colonization of environmentally extreme ground surfaces were conducted in a Mars-like desert area of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, with microalgae and cyanobacteria. We collected and mass-cultured cyanobacterial strains from these regions and investigated their ability to form desert crusts artificially. These crusts had the capacity to resist sand wind erosion after just 15 days of growth. Similar to the surface of some Chinese deserts, the surface of Mars is characterized by a layer of fine dust, which will challenge future human exploration activities, particularly in confined spaces that will include greenhouses and habitats. We discuss the use of such crusts for the local control of desert sands in enclosed spaces on Mars. These experiments suggest innovative new directions in the applied use of microbe-mineral interactions to advance the human exploration and settlement of space. PMID:18240967

  15. An advanced, new long-legged bird from the Early Cretaceous of the Jehol Group (northeastern China): insights into the temporal divergence of modern birds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Chiappe, Luis M; Zhang, Yuguang; Bell, Alyssa; Meng, Qingjin; Ji, Qiang; Wang, Xuri

    2014-11-14

    We describe a new ornithuromorph bird species, Gansus zheni from the Lower Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of the Jiufotang Formation (Jehol Group), Liaoning Province, China. A cladistic analysis resolves Gansus zheni as the sister taxon of the roughly contemporaneous Gansus yumenensis (Xiagou Formation, Gansu Province), and together as the most immediate outgroup to Ornithurae. Gansus zheni is the most advanced bird known today for the Jehol Biota. Its discovery provides the best-documented case of inter-basinal correlations (Jehol and Changma basins of Liaoning and Gansu provinces, respectively) using low-taxonomic clades of fossil birds. The existence of close relatives of Ornithurae in deposits formed at about 120 million years ago helps to mitigate the long-standing controversy between molecular and paleontological evidence for the temporal divergence of modern birds (Neornithes).

  16. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments.

  17. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. PMID:26615482

  18. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed.

  19. 2D magnetotelluric imaging of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, Yangtze metallogenic belt, eastern China: An insight into the crustal structure and tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangbin; Yan, Jiayong

    2016-08-01

    Two parallel NW-trending magnetotelluric (MT) profiles were placed perpendicularly to the main structures of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, one of the seven ore districts in the middle-lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt of eastern China. In October-December 2013, the MT data acquisition was carried out at 117 sites with 0.5-1 km site spacing. The MT data has a good quality in the frequency range between 320 and 0.01 Hz. The dimensionality analysis and 2D resistivity inversion results indicate that: (1) the deep of the ore district with three-dimensional structural characteristics, but two-dimensional structural characteristics for shallow; (2) there is a clear correlation between resistivity and the main geological units of the ore district, as well as correlation with mapped surface faults; (3) the Gandan deep fault (GDF) and Jiangnan deep fault (JNF) extend from the surface to 10 km deep, with dip of NW45°, and dip angles larger than 60°. A series of NE-trending acidic intrusive rocks were controlled by the GDF.

  20. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Wang, Qiyuan; Canonaco, Francesco; Li, Guohui; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Zhengqiang; Cao, Junji; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-03-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 µg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 and 243 ± 47 µg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC) were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 µg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 µg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate). Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide). Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 µm) inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure was developed to

  1. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  2. Coupled pyrite concentration and sulfur isotopic insight into the paleo sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Taladay, Katie; Lu, Hongfeng; Hu, Gaowei; Sun, Fei; Lin, Rongxiao

    2016-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is an important diagenetic redox boundary within marine sediments where the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction, can promote sulfur isotopic enrichments in several solid phase minerals including pyrite (FeS2). Authigenic pyrite can form in concentrated abundances within the SMTZ and as such, can be used as a proxy to identify paleo-SMTZs. This study uses enrichments in 34S and anomalously high abundances of authigenic pyrites in 287 samples from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to determine the paleo-SMTZ. The pyrite samples were collected from sediment cores acquired at three sites, each of which are known to be located in natural gas hydrate-bearing regions. We assess the relative abundances of authigenic pyrites, the types of pyrite morphologies recovered in the cored sediments, and the sulfur isotopic values of recovered pyrite samples using two methods: (1) handpicked sample analysis using a binocular microscope, and (2) the chromium reduction method. Our results show that pyrite concentrations and sulfur isotopic compositions exhibit synchronous fluctuations, particularly from 6.8 m below seafloor (mbsf) to 8.4 mbsf at all three study sites. There is a significant increase in the occurrence of rod-like pyrite morphology within this key interval. We define the position of the paleo-SMTZ by the presence of anomalously high accumulations of pyrites at greater than 5.0 wt.% using the handpicking method or greater than 0.5 wt.% via the chromium reduction method, along with positive Δδ34S excursions greater than 10.0‰ VCDT. We discovered a regional paleo-SMTZ that is shallower than the modern SMTZ, suggesting a previous period of elevated methane flux from depth, possibly related to widespread gas hydrate dissociation.

  3. National Assessment of Statin Therapy in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insight from China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study, 2001, 2006, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Li, Jing; Li, Xi; Nasir, Khurram; Zhang, Haibo; Wu, Yongjian; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Qing; Downing, Nicholas S.; Desai, Nihar R.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Background Statin therapy is among the most effective treatments to improve short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The use of statin, and the intensity of their use, has not been described in acute myocardial infarction patients in China, a country with a rapidly growing burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Using a nationally representative sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 162 Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006 and 2011, we identified 14,958 patients eligible for statin therapy to determine rates of statin use and the intensity of statin therapy, defined as those statin regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering of at least 40%, to identify factors associated with the use of statin therapy. Statin use among hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction increased from 27.9% in 2001 to 72.5% in 2006, and 88.8% in 2011 (P<0.001 for trend). Regional variation in statin use correspondingly decreased over time. Among treated patients, those receiving intensive statin therapy increased from 1.0% in 2001 to 24.2% in 2006 to 57.2% in 2011(P<0.001 for trend). Patients without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measured were less likely to be treated with statin or to receive intensive therapy. Conclusions The use of statin therapy has dramatically increased over the past decade in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, half of patients still did not receive intensive statin therapy in 2011.Given that guidelines strongly endorse intensive statin therapy for acute myocardial infarction patients, initiatives promoting the use of statin therapy, with attention to treatment intensity, would support further improvements in practice. PMID:27058862

  4. Marine redox conditions in the middle Proterozoic ocean and isotopic constraints on authigenic carbonate formation: Insights from the Chuanlinggou Formation, Yanshan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Love, Gordon D.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Hardisty, Dalton; Feng, Lianjun; Bates, Steven M.; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Qirui; Chu, Xuelei; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2015-02-01

    To improve our understanding of ocean chemistry and biogeochemical cycling following the termination of large-scale Paleoproterozoic iron formation (IF) deposition (∼1.85 billion years ago [Ga]), we conducted a Fe-S-C-Mo geochemical study of the ∼1.65 Ga Chuanlinggou Formation, Yanshan Basin, North China. Despite the cessation of IF deposition, our results suggest the presence of anoxic but non-euxinic (ferruginous) conditions persisted below the surface mixed layer for the deepest portion of the continental rifting basin and that this pattern is apparently independent of the local organic carbon content. However, our paired S-isotope data of carbonate-associated sulfate and pyrite suggest presence of sulfate in pore fluids, which is not consistent with insufficient sulfate for bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column. Despite evidence for deposition under anoxic conditions, sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) concentrations are mostly not enriched relative to average continental crust. This relationship is consistent with the notion that sulfide-dominated conditions in the water column and/or the sediments are required for Mo enrichment and validates past assertions that Mo enrichment patterns in ancient shales track both the local presence and global distribution of euxinia specifically. In addition, we identified extensive diagenetic carbonate precipitation in the upper Chuanlinggou Formation with only moderately negative δ13C values (-3.4 ± 1.4‰). We propose, with support from a numerical model, that these diagenetic carbon isotope values were most likely derived from precipitation of carbonates dominantly in the methanic zone within the sediments. Diagenetic carbonate precipitation in the methanic zone is likely to have been more extensive in the Proterozoic than the Phanerozoic due to porewater oxidant limitation.

  5. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  6. Nutrient limitation in three lowland tropical forests in southern China receiving high nitrogen deposition: insights from fine root responses to nutrient additions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Yoh, Muneoki; Gilliam, Frank S; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition to tropical forests may accelerate ecosystem phosphorus (P) limitation. This study examined responses of fine root biomass, nutrient concentrations, and acid phosphatase activity (APA) of bulk soil to five years of N and P additions in one old-growth and two younger lowland tropical forests in southern China. The old-growth forest had higher N capital than the two younger forests from long-term N accumulation. From February 2007 to July 2012, four experimental treatments were established at the following levels: Control, N-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), P-addition (150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N+P-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) plus 150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)). We hypothesized that fine root growth in the N-rich old-growth forest would be limited by P availability, and in the two younger forests would primarily respond to N additions due to large plant N demand. Results showed that five years of N addition significantly decreased live fine root biomass only in the old-growth forest (by 31%), but significantly elevated dead fine root biomass in all the three forests (by 64% to 101%), causing decreased live fine root proportion in the old-growth and the pine forests. P addition significantly increased live fine root biomass in all three forests (by 20% to 76%). The combined N and P treatment significantly increased live fine root biomass in the two younger forests but not in the old-growth forest. These results suggest that fine root growth in all three study forests appeared to be P-limited. This was further confirmed by current status of fine root N:P ratios, APA in bulk soil, and their responses to N and P treatments. Moreover, N addition significantly increased APA only in the old-growth forest, consistent with the conclusion that the old-growth forest was more P-limited than the younger forests.

  7. News insights of the hydrology of the Northwestern subtropical Pacific Ocean from ɛNd investigations of the South China Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Christophe, C.; Liu, Z.; Douville, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Seawater Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd) extracted from planktonic foraminifera G. ruber have been investigated on core MD05-2904 located on the northwestern margin of the South China Sea (SCS) at 2000 m water depth to reconstruct hydrological variations since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the western subtropical North Pacific that still poorly documented. For the last 25 kyr, ɛNd values obtained on foraminifera present large range from -4 to -6.7 suggesting large changes in the contribution of the NPDW (ɛNd = -4) and the UCDW (ɛNd -6 to -8) in the western Pacific. The glacial ɛNd values (~ -6.5) are interestingly similar to those obtained in the South Atlantic and in the Indian Ocean during the LGM and indicate a strong northward propagation of the Southern Sourced Water (SSW) in the subtropical western North Pacific. During the deglaciation, ɛNd records indicate a relatively decreased proportion of the SSW in the deep-water component of the western subtropical Pacific interrupted by two negative excursions of the ɛNd implying higher proportion of SSW during the time intervals 17 - 15 cal kyr BP and 10 - 8 cal kyr BP coeval to the Heinrich Statial 1 (HS1) and the early Holocene. The seawater ɛNd record is also well correlated to δ13C record obtained on benthic foraminifera Cibicides wuellerstorfi of the SCS and Southern Ocean confirming that ɛNd record reflect global circulation changes. The negative shifts centered on the Heinrich Statial 1 (HS1) is coeval with an enhanced upwelling in the Southern Ocean associated to pole wards shifts of the southern westerly inducing a enhanced formation of the SSW that propagate to the subtropical western Pacific. The negative excursion of the ɛNd during the Early Holocene (~10 - 8 cal kyr BP) indicate a relatively higher proportion of the SSW that could be associated to a higher production of the SSW as it was already recently observed in the South Atlantic and/or a possible reduction of the NPIW in the North

  8. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at a regional background site in North China using PMF linked with radiocarbon analysis: insight into the contribution of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Qu, Lin; Ji, Ling; Zhi, Guorui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fine particles (PM2.5) at a background site in North China in the winter of 2014 was done using statistical analysis, radiocarbon (14C) measurement and positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling. Results showed that the concentration of PM2.5 was 77.6 ± 59.3 µg m-3, of which sulfate (SO42-) concentration was the highest, followed by nitrate (NO3-), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and ammonium (NH4+). As demonstrated by backward trajectory, more than half of the air masses during the sampling period were from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, followed by Mongolia and the Shandong Peninsula. Cluster analysis of chemical species suggested an obvious signal of biomass burning in the PM2.5 from the Shandong Peninsula, while the PM2.5 from the BTH region showed a vehicle emission pattern. This finding was further confirmed by the 14C measurement of OC and EC in two merged samples. The 14C result indicated that biogenic and biomass burning emission contributed 59 ± 4 and 52 ± 2 % to OC and EC concentrations, respectively, when air masses originated from the Shandong Peninsula, while the contributions fell to 46 ± 4 and 38 ± 1 %, respectively, when the prevailing wind changed and came from the BTH region. The minimum deviation between source apportionment results from PMF and 14C measurement was adopted as the optimal choice of the model exercises. Here, two minor overestimates with the same range (3 %) implied that the PMF result provided a reasonable source apportionment of the regional PM2.5 in this study. Based on the PMF modeling, eight sources were identified; of these, coal combustion, biomass burning and vehicle emission were the main contributors of PM2.5, accounting for 29.6, 19.3 and 15.9 %, respectively. Compared with overall source apportionment, the contributions of vehicle emission, mineral dust, coal combustion and biomass burning increased when air masses came from the BTH region, Mongolia and the Shandong

  9. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter) were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species

  10. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim: insights from igneous rocks in the Kuluketage area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xun; Xu, Yi-Gang; Long, Xiao-Ping; Shi, Xue-Fa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The composition of lower crust of the Tarim Craton in NW China is essential to understand the petrogenesis of the ~290-275 Ma Tarim basalts and associated intermediate-felsic rocks. However, it remains poorly constrained because extremely sparse granulite terrains or granulite xenoliths have been found in the Tarim Craton. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are reported for the Neoarchean and Neoproterozoic igneous rocks widely distributed in the northern margin of the Tarim Craton. The Neoarchean granitic gneisses show fractionated REE (rare earth element) patterns [(La/Yb) N = 12-58, YbN = 10.6-36] with pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. These features, together with negative ɛNdi (-0.7 to -3.2) suggest that they were derived from melting of mafic lower crust. The Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorites are strongly depleted in HREE with (La/Yb) N up to 55. They are characterized by high Sr (671-789 ppm) but very low Y (7.10-8.06 ppm) and Yb contents (0.47-0.58 ppm), showing typical features of adakitic rocks. The samples with different SiO2 contents display identical 87Sr/86Sri (0.7101-0.7103), ɛNdi (-14.1 to -15.7) and Pb isotopes (208Pb/204Pbi = 36.94-37.07). These features together with arc-like trace element patterns suggest that they were derived from melting of thickened lower crust. In comparison, the Neoproterozoic hornblende-biotite granodiorites have similar trace element compositions except for weaker depletion in HREE and have lower 87Sr/86Sri (0.7078) and initial Pb isotopes, and higher ɛNdi (-12.3 to -12.7). This suggests that they were formed by melting of old lower continental crust at a shallower depth than the biotite granodiorites. These rocks were derived from the lower crust, thus providing valuable information on the nature of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim. Combined with published data, the 87Sr/86Sri, ɛNdi, 206Pb/204Pbi and ɛHfi of the northern Tarim lower crust ranges from 0.7055 to 0.7103, from -12 to -17

  11. The Boundary of Tectonic Units of the South China Continent in the Meso-Neoproterozoic - Early Paleozoic: Insights from Integrated Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Gao, R.; Meng, X.; Zhang, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The South China continent (SCC), located in the transition zone of the Eurasia, India and Pacific plates, formed in the Meso-Neoproterozoic by collision of the Yangtze block and the Cathaysia block. However, the boundaries of the two blocks before the late Paleozoic (from Meso-Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic) remain debated in the literature due to strong and complex tectonic and magmatic activities since then. The south of Jiangnan archicontinent is covered mostly by the thick strata since the late Paleozoic, the surface of which is widely covered by the vegetation. And the regional tectonic deformation is extremely complicated with few basal outcrops. For decades, a variety of geophysical detections have been performed in the SCC for understanding the deep structure and tectonic evolution, including deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles, magnetotelluric sounding (MT) profiles, gravity and magnetic surveys and a small amount of deep seismic reflection profiles. However, due to the limitations of resolution and accuracy of the observed geophysical data in the past, especially short of the deep seismic reflection profiles to reveal fine lithosphere structure, different scientists presented various views on the division of tectonic units in the SCC. In quite recent years, the SinoProbe-02 project launched a long profile of geophysical detections across the two blocks in the SCC, including deep seismic reflection, DSS, MT, and broadband seismic observation, the resolution and accuracy of which had been improved greatly. These newly data will benefit better understanding the deep structure and tectonic evolution of the SCC. Here, we assembled high-resolution Bouguer gravity anomalies and aeromagnetic anomalies data in the SCC. The magnetic data were reduced to the pole by used a varying magnetic inclinations algorithm. We then performed anomaly separation and multi-scales lineation structure analysis on the gravity and RTP magnetic data, and then did 3D fusion

  12. Hydrologically-driven variations in the karst-related carbon sink fluxes: Insights from high-resolution monitoring of three karst catchments in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Cheng; Liu, Zaihua; Zhao, Min; Yang, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall (P), discharge (Q), water temperature, pH, and specific electrical conductivity (EC) of the three karst catchments, Banzhai, Huanghou and Houzhai, with different land uses and carbonate lithologies but similar subtropical monsoonal climate, in Guizhou Province, Southwest China, were monitored with CTDP 300 high-resolution multi-parameter data loggers during the period of May 2007-October 2013. In addition, HCO3- and calcium concentrations were titrated in the field and the other major ions determined in the laboratory once every one or two months. Simple linear regression models were used to link the continuous chemical data to in situ measured data to estimate the concentration of HCO3-, the CO2 partial pressures and the calcite saturation indices on the high-resolution logger data. Continuous karst-related carbon sink fluxes (CSFs) were also estimated with the continuous Q and HCO3- concentrations in each catchment area. The primary goal of this study is to understand how discharge and HCO3- concentration determine the CSFs at the storm scale, seasonal scale and annual scale, and to estimate the CSFs for the three studied catchments. Results show that the variation in runoff (river discharge) played a more important role in controlling the CSFs than the variation in HCO3- for all the karst catchments, because of the chemostatic behavior of HCO3- in the catchments. Soil coverage, vegetation and bedrock lithology determined the CSFs by controlling the proportion of precipitation that recharges groundwater (and thus Q), and controlling the soil CO2 productivity (and thus HCO3-). The average CSFs in the Banzhai, Huanghou and Houzhai karst catchments were 29 ± 3, 33 ± 5 and 39 ± 8 t-CO2 km-2 a-1, respectively, which are 15 times higher than those CSFs by silicate weathering in the silicate-rock catchments with similar hydrology, showing the dominant role of carbonate weathering in the rock-weathering-related carbon sink. The interannual change in CSFs was

  13. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in northwest China: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-12-01

    An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 11 July-7 August 2012. The average (PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory (PM1 (NR-(PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105 μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. Organic aerosol (OA) on average consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns, both with peak at ~ 07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8), corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking-emission related OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ~ 07:00 and 15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak between ~ 08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon maximum in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by downward mixing of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during nighttime. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA was

  14. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, M.; Huang, R.-J.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Wang, Q.-Y.; Canonaco, F.; Li, G. H.; Bozzetti, C.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, R.-J.; Li, Z.-Q.; Cao, J. J.; Baltensperger, U.; El-Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-11-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 μg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 μg m-3 and 243 ± 47 μg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC) were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 μg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 μg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate). Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide). Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm) inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure was developed

  15. A westward propagating slab tear model for Late Triassic Qinling Orogenic Belt geodynamic evolution: Insights from the petrogenesis of the Caoping and Shahewan intrusions, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangyang; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Wanyi; Deng, Zhengbin; Chen, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Late Triassic granitoid intrusions are widespread in the South Qinling Belt (SQB), providing excellent subjects to understand the geodynamic evolution of the Qinling Orogenic Belt and the collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and Yangtze Craton (YZC). This study shows newly obtained geological, geochemical and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data of the Caoping and Shahewan intrusions, revealing that the Caoping intrusion consists of ~ 215 Ma fined-grained granites, and ~ 221-215 Ma porphyritic and coarse to medium-grained tonalites, granodiorites and monzogranites, which assemble with coeval mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). The Shahewan intrusion is composed of ~ 215-210 Ma porphyritic granodiorites and monzogranites, which also assemble with coeval MMEs. The fine-grained granites from the Caoping intrusion are characterized by high SiO2, Rb and (La/Yb)N ratio, but low MgO, CaO and Sc contents, with εHf(t) values of - 8.6 to + 4.3 and TDM2(Hf) ages of 883-1596 Ma, suggesting that they are mainly derived from partial melting of the Meso- to Neoproterozoic metagreywackes. The porphyritic and coarse to medium-grained granitoid rocks from both Caoping and Shahewan intrusions are characterized by higher MgO, CaO, Sc, Mg# values, but low SiO2, Rb contents and (La/Yb)N ratio, with εHf(t) values of - 0.7 to + 2.8 and TDM2(Hf) values of 961-1158 Ma, suggesting that they are mainly formed by magma mixing between melts that were derived from Meso- to Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the SQB and metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The MMEs from Caoping and Shahewan intrusions are characterized by low SiO2, Sr/Y ratio, high MgO, K2O, Rb, Sc, total REE contents, with εHf(t) values of + 0.5 to + 6.1 and TDM(Hf) values of 661-846 Ma, suggesting that they are produced by partial melting of metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The rapakivi-like textures of the rocks from Shahewan intrusion may be caused by continued underplating and injection of mafic magma resulting in higher

  16. Solid state and dynamic solution structures of O-carbamidine amidoximes gives further insight into the mechanism of zinc(II)-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Kirill I.; Novikov, Alexander S.; Tolstoy, Peter M.; Bolotin, Dmitrii S.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Zolotarev, Andrey A.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Three new iminium salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](p-TolSO3)·½H2O ([1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O; R/R‧ = NMe2/PhCH21, NMe2/p-BrC6H42, N(CH2)5/p-BrC6H43) were synthesized via ZnII-mediated amidoxime-cyanamide coupling and their solid structures were studied by X-ray diffraction. Solution structure and conformational changes of [1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O were studied by dynamic NMR. The obtained quantitative data were supported by DFT calculations. All the obtained results help to understand the relative stability of the salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](X) (R = NAlk2, Alk, Ar) and give a further insight into the mechanism of ZnII-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. The electron delocalization and sesquialteral bonds in the [H2Ndbnd C(NR2)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ system was recognized by estimation of values of activation energy barriers (14-18 kcal/mol by DNMR and 16-17 kcal/mol by DFT calculations) for the rotation around the CN bonds for the NR2 groups and inspection of the solid-state X-ray data along with the Wiberg bond indices (intermediate single/double bond order for the CN distances). This electron delocalization is responsible for the stabilization of the positively charged iminium cation. The moderate strength hydrogen bonding between the oxime N atom and the =NH2 group, which is verified from the X-ray, DNMR experiments, and by using quantum chemical calculations, stabilizes the iminium salt, but it is still weak to prevent the heterocyclization. Theoretical calculations of the heterocyclization of [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ to 1,2,4-oxadiazoles demonstrated that it is kinetically hindered to a greater extent for R = NAlk2 and this explains their lower reactivity as compared to the iminium salts with R = Alk, Ar.

  17. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses.

  18. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Taking four wheat varieties developed by Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, as test materials, with the measurement of content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of flag leaf, the PS II photochemistry efficiency of abaxial and adaxial surface of flag leaf and its adaptation to strong solar radiation during the period of heading stage in Xiangride region were investigated with the pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The results indicated that flag leaf angle mainly grew in horizontal state in Gaoyuan 314, Gaoyuan 363 and Gaoyuan 584, and mainly in vertical state in Gaoyuan 913 because of its smaller leaf area and larger width. Photosynthetic pigments were different among the 4 varieties, and positively correlated with intrinsic PS II photochemistry efficiencies (Fv/Fm). In clear days, especially at noon, the photosynthetic photoinhibition was more serious in abaxial surface of flag leaf due to directly facing the solar radiation, but it could recover after reduction of sunlight intensity in the afternoon, which meant that no inactive damage happened in PS II reaction centers. There were significant differences of PS II actual and maximum photochemical efficiencies at the actinic light intensity (ΦPS II and Fv'/Fm') between abaxial and adaxial surface, and their relative variation trends were on the contrary. The photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and NPQ) had a similar tendency in both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Although ΦPS II and qP were lower in adaxial surface of flag leaf, the Fv'/Fm' was significantly higher, which indicated that the potential PS II capture efficiency of excited energy was higher. The results demonstrated that process of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching could effectively dissipate excited energy caused by strong solar radiation, and there were higher adaptation capacities in wheat varieties natively cultivated in

  19. Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation frequency and antithrombin activity levels in 120 of deep venous thrombosis and 150 of cerebral infarction patients in a single center in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-sen; Tang, Yang-ming; Tang, Mei-qing; Qing, Zi-Ju; Shu, Chang; Tang, Xiang-qi; Deng, Ming-yang; Tan, Li-ming

    2010-09-01

    Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation shows a relatively high frequency in western population. Some studies suggest that the mutation is an independent genetic risk factor both for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for arterial thrombosis, but whether the mutation has racial difference or has a general significance for thrombophilia remains unclear. In this study we performed an analysis of the prevalence of the mutation in Chinese southern population; Also, the antithrombin activity levels were evaluated in each investigated individual. The studies included 120 patients with DVT, 150 patients with cerebral infarction, and 110 controls. The mutation was detected using polymerase chain reaction/PvuII restrictive fragment length polymorphism procedures. Antithrombin activity assay was done using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that no antithrombin Cambridge II mutation was detected in all three groups (DVT, cerebral infarction and controls), the incidence was 0/380. Plasma antithrombin activity was 91.37% +/- 16.15% in the DVT patients and 102.68% +/- 13.10% in the controls; the antithrombin activity was significantly reduced in the DVT group (P < 0.0001). In DVT patients, eight cases were identified as primary antithrombin deficiency, accounting for an incidence of 6.7%. No significant difference was found for antithrombin activity between cerebral infarction group and controls. These results suggest that antithrombin Cambridge II mutation has a racial difference, and may not be a valuable risk factor of thrombophilia in Asian population, and antithrombin deficiency remains a major genetic risk factor for DVT patients in China.

  20. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  1. International clinical trials of HIV vaccines: II. phase I trial of an HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine evaluating an accelerated immunization schedule in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Forrest, B D; Li, Z; Xue, P; Hanson, C V; Duan, S; Cheng, H; Li, M; Wang, C Y; Koff, W C

    1997-06-01

    A Phase 1, double-blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in Longchuan County, China, to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine in a target population at risk for HIV infection, and to establish the infrastructure for future large-scale HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 100 microg or 500 microg of vaccine or alum placebo, and were given three injections at an accelerated 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The vaccine was well tolerated with no significant local or systemic reactions observed in any subjects. Fifty-five percent (100 microg dose) and 64% (500 microg dose) of subjects who received the vaccine produced binding antibody to the immunogen as determined by ELISA. However, HIV-1 (MN) neutralizing antibody was detected in only 23% (3/13) of subjects with detectable HIV-1 specific binding antibody. It was concluded that this prototype HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine was well tolerated, safe and immunogenic, and that a 0, 1, 2 month schedule was not as effective in stimulating HIV-1 specific neutralizing antibodies compared with previous trials utilizing a 0, 1, 6 month schedule. Finally, this trial demonstrated that well-designed HIV vaccine trials can be performed at this clinical trials site in Yunnan, China, and that this site should be considered for conducting larger safety, immunogenicity and efficacy trials of candidate HIV vaccines.

  2. Urban dust in the Guanzhong basin of China, part II: A case study of urban dust pollution using the WRF-Dust model.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Zhang, Rong; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Li, Guohui

    2016-01-15

    We developed a regional dust dynamical model (WRF-Dust) to simulate surface dust concentrations in the Guanzhong (GZ) basin of China during two typical dust cases (19th Aug. and 26th Nov., 2013), and compared model results with the surface measurements at 17 urban and rural sites. The important improvement of the model is to employ multiple high-resolution (0.5-500 m) remote sensing data to construct dust sources. The new data include the geographic information of constructions, croplands, and barrens over the GZ basin in summer and winter of 2013. For the first time, detailed construction dust emissions have been introduced in a regional dust model in large cities of China. Our results show that by including the detailed dust sources, model performance at simulating dust pollutions in the GZ basin is significantly improved. For example, the simulated dust concentration average for the 17 sites increases from 28 μg m(-3) to 59 μg m(-3), closing to the measured concentration of 66 μg m(-3). In addition, the correlation coefficient (r) between the calculated and measured dust concentrations is also improved from 0.17 to 0.57, suggesting that our model better presents the spatial variation. Further analysis shows that urban construction activities are the crucial source in controlling urban dust pollutions. It should be considered by policy makers for mitigating particulate air pollution in many Chinese cities.

  3. Proofs that Develop Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics educators have noted that mathematicians do not only read proofs to gain conviction but also to obtain insight. The goal of this article is to discuss what this insight is from mathematicians' perspective. Based on interviews with nine research-active mathematicians, two sources of insight are discussed. The first is reading a…

  4. Kohler's Insight Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windholtz, George

    1985-01-01

    Psychology textbooks frequently present Wolfgang Kohler's two-stick experiment with chimpanzees as having demonstrated insight in learning. Studies that replicated Kohler's work support his findings but not his interpretation in terms of insightful solution. The uncritical inclusion of Kohler's insight interpretation in texts is not warranted in…

  5. Synthesis and magnetic properties of a new family of macrocyclic M(II)3Ln(III) complexes: insights into the effect of subtle chemical modification on single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Feltham, Humphrey L C; Clérac, Rodolphe; Ungur, Liviu; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Powell, Annie K; Brooker, Sally

    2012-10-15

    Thirteen tetranuclear mixed-metal complexes of the hexaimine macrocycle (L(Pr))(6-) have been prepared in a one-pot 3:1:3:3 reaction of copper(II) acetate hydrate, the appropriate lanthanide(III) nitrate hydrate, 1,4-diformyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzene (1), and 1,3-diaminopropane. The resulting family of copper(II)-lanthanide(III) macrocyclic complexes has the general formula Cu(II)(3)Ln(III)(L(Pr))(NO(3))(3)·solvents (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb). X-ray crystal structure determinations carried out on [Cu(3)Ce(L(Pr))(NO(3))(3)(MeOH)(3)] and [Cu(3)Dy(L(Pr))(NO(3))(3)(MeOH)(3)] confirmed that the large Ln(III) ion is bound in the central O(6) site and the three square pyramidal Cu(II) ions in the outer N(2)O(2) sites (apical donor either nitrate anion or methanol molecule) of the Schiff base macrocycle. Only the structurally characterized Cu(3)Tb complex, reported earlier, is a single-molecule magnet (SMM): the other 12 complexes do not exhibit an out-of-phase ac susceptibility signal or hysteresis of magnetization in a dc field. Ab initio calculations allowed us to rationalize the observed magnetic properties, including the significant impact of subtle chemical modification on SMM behavior. Broken-symmetry density functional theory (BS-DFT) calculations show there is a subtle structural balance as to whether the Cu···Cu exchange coupling is ferro- or antiferromagnetic. Of the family of 13 magnetically characterized tetranuclear Cu(II)(3)Ln(III) macrocyclic complexes prepared, only the Tb(III) complex is an SMM: the theoretical reasons for this are discussed.

  6. Health care in China.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Burns, C E; Hellings, P J

    1984-05-01

    Maternal-child nurses are part of a growing number of Americans who have had the opportunity to visit China. An increased understanding of the history and of the health care practices of the Chinese people lends itself to an examination of American values and health practices. The insight developed may aid us as we seek to understand our own health care practices for women and children and to plan for the future in health care. PMID:6728348

  7. Novel insights into mitotic chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Piskadlo, Ewa; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2016-01-01

    The fidelity of mitosis is essential for life, and successful completion of this process relies on drastic changes in chromosome organization at the onset of nuclear division. The mechanisms that govern chromosome compaction at every cell division cycle are still far from full comprehension, yet recent studies provide novel insights into this problem, challenging classical views on mitotic chromosome assembly. Here, we briefly introduce various models for chromosome assembly and known factors involved in the condensation process (e.g. condensin complexes and topoisomerase II). We will then focus on a few selected studies that have recently brought novel insights into the mysterious way chromosomes are condensed during nuclear division. PMID:27508072

  8. Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

  9. Computational insights on crystal structures of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II with either Ca²⁺ or Ca²⁺ substituted by Sr²⁺

    DOE PAGES

    Vogt, Leslie; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pal, Rhitankar; Brudvig, Gary W.; Batista, Victor S.

    2015-01-15

    The oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II can function with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, but the reason for differing turnover rates remains unresolved despite reported X-ray crystal structures for both forms. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, we optimize structures with each cation in both the resting state (S₁) and in a series of reduced states (S₀, S₋₁, and S-₂). Through comparison with experimental data, we determine that X-ray crystal structures with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ are most consistent with the S-₂ state, Mn₄[III,III,III,II] with O4 and O5 protonated. As expected, the QM/MM models show that Ca²⁺/Sr²⁺ substitutionmore » results in elongation of the heterocation bonds and displaces terminal waters W3 and W4. The optimized structures also show that hydrogen-bonded W5 is displaced in all S states with Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, suggesting that this water may play a critical role during water oxidation.« less

  10. Computational insights on crystal structures of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II with either Ca²⁺ or Ca²⁺ substituted by Sr²⁺

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Leslie; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pal, Rhitankar; Brudvig, Gary W.; Batista, Victor S.

    2015-01-15

    The oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II can function with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, but the reason for differing turnover rates remains unresolved despite reported X-ray crystal structures for both forms. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, we optimize structures with each cation in both the resting state (S₁) and in a series of reduced states (S₀, S₋₁, and S-₂). Through comparison with experimental data, we determine that X-ray crystal structures with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ are most consistent with the S-₂ state, Mn₄[III,III,III,II] with O4 and O5 protonated. As expected, the QM/MM models show that Ca²⁺/Sr²⁺ substitution results in elongation of the heterocation bonds and displaces terminal waters W3 and W4. The optimized structures also show that hydrogen-bonded W5 is displaced in all S states with Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, suggesting that this water may play a critical role during water oxidation.

  11. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Perdue, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  12. FBIS report. Science and technology: China, March 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-15

    ;Partial Contents: Science And Technology (China: Feature on CAS Qingdao Marine Research Institute); Computers (China: CASC Institute Imports GTS-3000 Automatic Test Equipment From Grumman in U.S., China: YH-II Supercommuter System Applications Value Nears 10 Billion RMB); Defense Technology (China: 3-D Terrain Visualizaton Model Based on Fractal Interpolation, Delaunay Triangulation, China Develops New Technique for Processing Highly Radioactive Liquid Wastes); Microelectronics (China: Further Details on Huajing Group`s Project 908 (Submicron Development Plan) Released); Physics (Advances in China`s Seismological Observation Technology, China: Photoreport on High-Power Laser Physics Apparatus); National Energy Developments (China: Current Situation of Development of Rural Energy Industry); Oil And Gas (Foreland Basins and Their Hydrocarbon Potential in China); Nuclear Power (Taiwan: Incident Report on TaiPower`s No. 2 Nuclear Power Plant).

  13. The extent of ligament injury and its influence on pelvic stability following type II anteroposterior compression pelvic injuries--A computer study to gain insight into open book trauma.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Jörg; Lingslebe, Uwe; Steinke, Hanno; Werner, Michael; Slowik, Volker; Josten, Christoph; Hammer, Niels

    2014-07-01

    Surgical stabilization of the pelvis following type II anteroposterior compression pelvic injuries (APCII) is based on the assumption that the anterior sacroiliac, sacrospinous, and sacrotuberous ligaments disrupt simultaneously. Recent data on the ligaments contradict this concept. We aimed at determining the mechanisms of ligament failure in APCII computationally. In an individual osteoligamentous computer model of the pelvis, ligament load, and strain were observed for the two-leg stance, APCII with 100-mm symphyseal widening and for two-leg stance with APCII-related ligament failure, and validated with body donors. The anterior sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments had the greatest load with 80% and 17% of the total load, respectively. APCII causes partial failure of the anterior sacroiliac ligament and the pelvis to become horizontally instable. The other ligaments remained intact. The sacrospinous ligament was negligibly loaded but stabilized the pelvis vertically. The interosseous sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments are likely responsible for reducing the symphysis and might serve as an indicator of vertical stability. The sacrospinous ligament appears to be of minor significance in APCII but plays an important role in vertical stabilization. Further research is necessary to determine the influence of alterations in ligament and bone material properties.

  14. Early Paleozoic to Middle Triassic bivergent accretion in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from zircon U-Pb dating of ductile shear zones in central Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yilong; Zhou, Hanwen; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Zhong, Zengqiu

    2014-09-01

    The Solonker suture zone records the termination of convergence in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The timing of termination of the Solonker suture and the tectonic style of the southern CAOB have long been controversial. The Baolidao arc-accretion complex and the Ondor Sum subduction-accretion complex are located immediately to the north and south of the Solonker suture zone respectively. However, the tectonic settings and formation ages of these two complexes are debated. In this paper, we present a systematic study of LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages of multiple units and lithologies from both the complexes to constrain the timing of final collision between the South Mongolian microcontinent and the North China craton. The geochronological results indicate that the northward subduction of the Paleoasian Oceanic lithosphere beneath the South Mongolian microcontinent at ~ 452 Ma induced extensive melting of overriding continental crust. Continuous subduction led to accretionary wedge-continent collision at the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent, represented by the 416 ± 3 Ma granitic activity in the southern margin of the Baolidao arc-accretion complex. After Early Paleozoic collision, widespread magmatism occurred at 316-302 Ma in response to transient extension along the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent. There was a deep marine basin during Permian times to the south of the microcontinent. The closure of this oceanic basin led to Late Paleozoic-Early Triassic north-dipping subduction and final suturing of the CAOB during Late Permian to Middle Triassic times. Proximal forearc sediments composed of arc volcanic and plutonic materials with crystallization ages varying from 299 ± 3 Ma to 267 ± 3 Ma, and some intrusions at 274 ± 2 Ma caused by the melting of continental crust were produced along the northern margin of the Solonker suture zone. Accretion and collision occurred at ~ 263 Ma. The southward subduction

  15. Insights into assessing water quality using taxonomic distinctness based on a small species pool of biofilm-dwelling ciliate fauna in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of using a small species pool from a raw dataset of biofilm-dwelling ciliates for bioassessment based on taxonomic diversity. Samples were collected monthly at four stations within a gradient of environmental stress in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China from August 2011 to July 2012. A 33-species subset was identified from the raw 137-species dataset using a multivariate method. The spatial patterns of this subset were significantly correlated with the changes in the nutrients and chemical oxygen demand. The taxonomic diversity indices were significantly correlated with nutrients. The pair-wise indices of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ(+)) and the taxonomic distinctness (Λ(+)) showed a clear departure from the expected taxonomic pattern. These findings suggest that this small ciliate assemblage might be used as an adequate species pool for discriminating water quality status based on taxonomic distinctness in marine ecosystems.

  16. Late Permian high-Mg andesite and basalt association from northern Liaoning, North China: Insights into the final closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and the orogen-craton boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Lu, Yinghuai; Zong, Keqing

    2016-08-01

    High-Mg andesites (HMAs) and related basalts constitute a volumetrically minor, but genetically important occurrence along most convergent plate margins of various ages on Earth. The details of their petrogenesis can contain critical information for resolving essential geodynamic and crustal evolutionary issues. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the late Permian metamorphosed high-Mg basaltic to andesitic suite from Kaiyuan of northern Liaoning, North China. These rocks feature SiO2 contents ranging from 48.7 to 63.2 wt.%, high Mg# values of 63-75, an enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). They possess whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70417-0.70457, εNd(t) values from - 0.4 to 5.0, and εHf(t) values from 5.1 to 11, as well as zircon εHf(t) values from - 9.4 to 0.4. These features indicate that their petrogenesis most likely involved precursory metasomatism of mantle peridotites by melts from subduction-related sediments, and subsequent partial melting. With a depleted mantle source and possible tectonic link to post-subduction slab break-off, the Kaiyuan suite could present a spatial reference not only for defining the demarcation line between the North China craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic belt (CAOB) in the region, but also for tracing the final location of the cryptic suturing zone of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Synthesizing the suite with coeval igneous episodes as well as concomitant metamorphic events along the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone leads to the characterization of the eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean within a double-sided subduction system during late Permian-Early Triassic.

  17. Genotypes and Mouse Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Animals and Humans in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daohua; Huo, Xingxing; Gao, Jiangmei; Song, Xiaorong; Xu, Xiucai; Huang, Kaiquan; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Yong; Lu, Fangli; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Luo, Qingli; Wang, Xuelong; Shen, Jilong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent population structure studies of T. gondii revealed that a few major clonal lineages predominated in different geographical regions. T. gondii in South America is genetically and biologically divergent, whereas this parasite is remarkably clonal in North America and Europe with a few major lineages including Types I, II and III. Information on genotypes and mouse virulence of T. gondii isolates from China is scarce and insufficient to investigate its population structure, evolution, and transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of 23 T. gondii isolates from different hosts using 10 markers for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed five genotypes; among them three genotypes were atypical and two were archetypal. Fifteen strains belong to the Chinese 1 lineage, which has been previously reported as a widespread lineage from swine, cats, and humans in China. Two human isolates fall into the type I and II lineages and the remaining isolates belong to two new atypical genotypes (ToxoDB#204 and #205) which has never been reported in China. Our results show that these genotypes of T. gondii isolates are intermediately or highly virulent in mice except for the strain TgCtwh6, which maintained parasitemia in mice for 35 days post infection although it possesses the uniform genotype of Chinese 1. Additionally, phylogenetic network analyses of all isolates of genotype Chinese 1 are identical, and there is no variation based on the sequence data generated for four introns (EF1, HP2, UPRT1 and UPRT7) and two dense granule proteins (GRA6 and GRA7). Conclusion/Significance A limited genetic diversity was found and genotype Chinese 1 (ToxoDB#9) is dominantly circulating in mainland China. The results will provide a useful profile for deep insight to the population structure, epidemiology and biological characteristics of T. gondii in China. PMID:23308233

  18. Source insights into the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China as well as the synthetic studies using the new Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoliang; Chen, Gang; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Haiting; Tian, Yingze; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-10-01

    Modeled results are very important for environmental management. Unreasonable modeled result can lead to wrong strategy for air pollution management. In this work, an improved physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) technology known as Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) was developed to the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in urban area. Firstly, synthetic studies were carried out to explore the effectiveness of ME2-SR. The estimated source contributions were compared with the true values. The results suggest that, compared with the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, the ME2-SR method could obtain more physically reliable outcomes, indicating that ME2-SR was effective, especially when apportioning the datasets with no unknown source. Additionally, 11-h daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected from Tianjin in China. The sources of the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China were identified using the new method and the PMF model. The calculated source contributions for ME2-SR for daytime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (38.91 μg m(-3), 26.60%), sulfate and nitrate (38.60 μg m(-3), 26.39%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.26 μg m(-3), 26.16%) and coal combustion (20.14 μg m(-3), 13.77%), and those for nighttime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (18.78 μg m(-3), 12.91%), sulfate and nitrate (41.57 μg m(-3), 28.58%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.39 μg m(-3), 26.39%), and coal combustion (36.76 μg m(-3), 25.27%). The comparisons of the constrained versus unconstrained outcomes clearly suggest that the physical meaning of the ME2-SR results is interpretable and reliable, not only for the specified species values but also for source contributions. The findings indicate that the ME2-SR method can be a useful tool in source apportionment studies, for air pollution management. PMID:27376869

  19. Source insights into the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China as well as the synthetic studies using the new Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoliang; Chen, Gang; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Haiting; Tian, Yingze; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-10-01

    Modeled results are very important for environmental management. Unreasonable modeled result can lead to wrong strategy for air pollution management. In this work, an improved physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) technology known as Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) was developed to the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in urban area. Firstly, synthetic studies were carried out to explore the effectiveness of ME2-SR. The estimated source contributions were compared with the true values. The results suggest that, compared with the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, the ME2-SR method could obtain more physically reliable outcomes, indicating that ME2-SR was effective, especially when apportioning the datasets with no unknown source. Additionally, 11-h daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected from Tianjin in China. The sources of the 11-h daytime and nighttime fine ambient particulate matter in China were identified using the new method and the PMF model. The calculated source contributions for ME2-SR for daytime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (38.91 μg m(-3), 26.60%), sulfate and nitrate (38.60 μg m(-3), 26.39%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.26 μg m(-3), 26.16%) and coal combustion (20.14 μg m(-3), 13.77%), and those for nighttime PM2.5 samples are resuspended dust (18.78 μg m(-3), 12.91%), sulfate and nitrate (41.57 μg m(-3), 28.58%), vehicle exhaust and road dust (38.39 μg m(-3), 26.39%), and coal combustion (36.76 μg m(-3), 25.27%). The comparisons of the constrained versus unconstrained outcomes clearly suggest that the physical meaning of the ME2-SR results is interpretable and reliable, not only for the specified species values but also for source contributions. The findings indicate that the ME2-SR method can be a useful tool in source apportionment studies, for air pollution management.

  20. Integrated in situ U-Pb Age and Hf-O Analyses of Zircon from the Northern Yangtze Block: New Insights into the Neoproterozoic Low-δ18O Magmas in the South China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. N.; Wang, X. C.; Li, Q. L.; Li, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic magmas from the northern Yangtze Block holds a key for the origin of large-scale 18O depletion in the HP and UHP metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, northern margin of the South China Block. We report here the integrated in situ U-Pb dating and O-Hf isotope analyses of zircon grains from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the late Neoproterozoic Suixian Group (SG) from the northern Yangtze Block. Detrital zircon grains display age peaks of 0.73-0.74 Ga, 0.79 Ga, and 2.0 Ga. Zircon U-Pb ages together with Hf-O isotopic composition indicate provenance of SG dominantly from proximal Neoproterozoic igneous rock and likely hidden Paleoproterozoic basement along the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. The zircon δ18O values from SG range from 10.5‰ to 1.3‰. Zircon grains with negative δ18O value, typical result of magma-ice interaction, were not identified in this study. The major phase of low-δ18O (< 4‰) magmas initiated at ca. 780 Ma, long before the first glaciation event (< 715 Ma) in the South China Block. Thus caution should be taken when using low-δ18O zircon grains to infer cold climate. Low-δ18O zircon grains have large ranges of ɛHf(t) values, varying from -15.5 to 10.7, concentrating on negative ɛHf(t). This strongly argues against the possibility that the low-δ18O magma was produced by partial melting of high-temperature hydrothermally altered oceanic crust because this model predicted MORB-like Hf isotopes for the resultant low-δ18O magmas. This study emphasizes that high-T water-rock interaction and continental rifting tectonic setting are essential to generate abundant low-δ18O magmas. The important application of our study is to confirm that most of negative-δ18O zircons identified in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks may not have been inherited from their Neoproterozoic protoliths.

  1. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  2. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Nizhny Tagil massif forms part of the 900-km-long Uralian Platinum Belt (UPB) and represents an undisputable example of a zoned Uralian-type clinopyroxenite-dunite complex (Efimov 1998; Auge et al. 2005). The 47 km2 Nizhny Tagil massif is almond-shape, shear bounded and enclosed by Riphean and Devonian metasediments to the west and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic predominantly mafic igneous rocks to the east. It consists of a platiniferrous dunite core (Fo92-90), surrounded by a clinopyroxenite rim. Recently obtained U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope ages defined the range for UPB complexes between 540 and 425 Ma. Geochronological data for dunite remains scarce being restricted to the Kytlym dunite block (Bea et al. 2001). To fill this gap, we present the first results of uranium-lead ages for 10 grains of zircon, which were extracted by conventional techniques from course-grained dunite sampled at Alexandrovsky Log in the central part of the Nizhny Tagil massif. Most of zircons are subeuhedral, prismatic (80-170 microns long), with an elongation between 1.3 and 1.6, and oscillatory zoning characteristic of igneous rocks. Majority of zircons yield secondary inclusions; some grains show tracers of subdivision and recrystallization, whereas several grains are characterized by curved external counters pointing to specific condition of their evolution. U-Pb analyses were performed with secondary ion mass spectrometer SHRIMP II at VSEGEI, following the procedure described by Williams (1998). Concentrations of U vary from 34 to 520 ppm, Th from 18 to 358 ppm. Three age clusters have been determined. Two subordinate groups are characterized by concordant ages of 585±29 Ma (MSWD=1.07, probability (P) =0.30) and 1608±56 Ma (MSWD=0.07, P=0.79), whereas the main data set cluster around 2781±56 Ma. We assume, therefore, that the Late Archean age testifies the timing of dunite generation in subcontinental mantle, whereas the "youngest" U-Pb age might be linked with timing of formation

  3. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Nizhny Tagil massif forms part of the 900-km-long Uralian Platinum Belt (UPB) and represents an undisputable example of a zoned Uralian-type clinopyroxenite-dunite complex (Efimov 1998; Auge et al. 2005). The 47 km2 Nizhny Tagil massif is almond-shape, shear bounded and enclosed by Riphean and Devonian metasediments to the west and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic predominantly mafic igneous rocks to the east. It consists of a platiniferrous dunite core (Fo92-90), surrounded by a clinopyroxenite rim. Recently obtained U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope ages defined the range for UPB complexes between 540 and 425 Ma. Geochronological data for dunite remains scarce being restricted to the Kytlym dunite block (Bea et al. 2001). To fill this gap, we present the first results of uranium-lead ages for 10 grains of zircon, which were extracted by conventional techniques from course-grained dunite sampled at Alexandrovsky Log in the central part of the Nizhny Tagil massif. Most of zircons are subeuhedral, prismatic (80-170 microns long), with an elongation between 1.3 and 1.6, and oscillatory zoning characteristic of igneous rocks. Majority of zircons yield secondary inclusions; some grains show tracers of subdivision and recrystallization, whereas several grains are characterized by curved external counters pointing to specific condition of their evolution. U-Pb analyses were performed with secondary ion mass spectrometer SHRIMP II at VSEGEI, following the procedure described by Williams (1998). Concentrations of U vary from 34 to 520 ppm, Th from 18 to 358 ppm. Three age clusters have been determined. Two subordinate groups are characterized by concordant ages of 585±29 Ma (MSWD=1.07, probability (P) =0.30) and 1608±56 Ma (MSWD=0.07, P=0.79), whereas the main data set cluster around 2781±56 Ma. We assume, therefore, that the Late Archean age testifies the timing of dunite generation in subcontinental mantle, whereas the "youngest" U-Pb age might be linked with timing of formation

  4. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  5. New insights into the lowest Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for Emeishan large igneous province felsic tuff deposition and the cause of the end-Guadalupian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lixin; Dai, Shifeng; Graham, Ian T.; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Beibei

    2016-11-01

    A previous study suggested that the lowest Xuanwei Formation is derived from weathered clastic materials of silicic composition from the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) based on chemostratigraphic correlations (Al2O3/TiO2 ratios) between the two. In this study, we have adopted the model that the Emeishan mantle plume commenced and terminated within a short duration and have investigated the detailed mineralogy and geochemistry of carefully sampled rocks from the lower sections of the Xuanwei Formation, eastern Yunnan Province, Southwest China. These samples are intensely argillized and characterized by high proportions of clay minerals and quartz. The samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation have an anomalous natural gamma response and high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, Ga and REY (rare earth elements and yttrium). Our results suggest that the samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation represent felsic volcanic tuff instead of acidic clasts as originally proposed. The lowest Xuanwei Formation and the Wangpo Bed are the felsic tuffaceous layers interbedded with clastic rocks derived from the Emeishan high-Ti basalts. Such volcanic layers most likely represent ELIP felsic tuff originated from the extrusive equivalent of Nb-Zr-enriched alkaline syenitic magmatism at the waning stage of Emeishan mantle plume activity. This study has verified the existence of extensive alkaline felsic volcanism of early Late Permian age. Such alkaline volcanism may have been catastrophic and have contributed to the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

  6. Statistical insight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Insight is a database that offers the ability to search across multiple sources of data, including the federal government, private organizations, research centers, and international intergovernmental organizations in one search. Two sample searches on the same topic, a basic and an advanced, were conducted to evaluate the database.

  7. Changing Schools: Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    Over 1,000 communities in 45 states, territories, and the District of Columbia, are mobilized under the AMERICA 2000 banner to reach the 6 National Education Goals. This collection of papers, written by those who have wrestled with the process of school reform, offers useful insights to communities as they begin their process of transforming…

  8. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  9. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops.

  10. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops. PMID:23286003

  11. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523

  12. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  13. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  14. China Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...

  15. The politics of insight.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  16. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  17. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  18. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengliang, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

  19. Values, Music and Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of the education of values in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since the beginning of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It attempts to provide an insight into how the central state has managed the values of music education with respect to the dynamic changes to its political ideology across these four…

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of Chinese Phasmatodea II: Review of the Dataminae Rehn & Rehn, 1939 (Phasmatodea: Heteropterygidae) of China, with descriptions of one new genus and four new species.

    PubMed

    Wai-Chun, George Ho

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with four genera and eight species of the subfamily Dataminae Rehn & Rehn, 1939 from China. One new genus and four new species, Hainanphasma cristata Ho gen. nov. spec. nov., H. diaoluoshanensis Ho spec. nov., Pylaemenespui Ho spec. nov. and Pylaemenes shirakii Ho & Brock spec. nov., are described and illustrated. A new combination is proposed: Planispectrum hainanensis (Chen & He, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from Pylaemenes Stål, 1875 and its male and egg are described for the first time. The occurrence of Orestes mouhotii (Bates, 1865) in China is reconfirmed assessed by an adult specimen collected from Yunnan Province. Pylaemenes guangxiensis (Bi & Li, 1994) is reported for the first time from Vietnam outside the range of China. Keys to the genera and species of the Chinese Dataminae are given.

  1. Cementoenamel junction: An insight.

    PubMed

    Vandana, Kharidi Laxman; Haneet, Ryana Kour

    2014-09-01

    The location and nature of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) are more than descriptive terms used simply to describe some aspects of tooth morphology; however, CEJ gains a lot of clinical significance due to various measurements dependent on it. It may be necessary to determine the location and pathological changes occurring at CEJ to make a diagnosis and treat diseases pertaining to epithelial attachment and gingival margin. However, the information related to CEJ is not discussed commonly. Hence, the present review paper provides an insight on CEJ in both primary and permanent dentition. PMID:25425813

  2. Cementoenamel junction: An insight

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidi Laxman; Haneet, Ryana Kour

    2014-01-01

    The location and nature of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) are more than descriptive terms used simply to describe some aspects of tooth morphology; however, CEJ gains a lot of clinical significance due to various measurements dependent on it. It may be necessary to determine the location and pathological changes occurring at CEJ to make a diagnosis and treat diseases pertaining to epithelial attachment and gingival margin. However, the information related to CEJ is not discussed commonly. Hence, the present review paper provides an insight on CEJ in both primary and permanent dentition. PMID:25425813

  3. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  4. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  5. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  6. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  7. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  8. Insights on STEM Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  9. Osho - Insights on sex

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of “Tantra” which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  10. Single molecule studies of RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horn, Abigail E; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP II transcription have been achieved using classical biochemical and structural techniques; however, aspects of the transcription mechanism cannot be assessed using these approaches. The application of single-molecule techniques to study RNAP II transcription has provided new insight only obtainable by studying molecules in this complex system one at a time.

  11. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  12. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  13. Systemic sclerosis: Recent insights.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Muriel; Avouac, Jérôme; Kahan, André; Allanore, Yannick

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an orphan connective tissue disease characterized by alterations of the microvasculature, disturbances of the immune system and massive deposition of collagen and other matrix substances in the skin and internal organs. A major achievement of the recent years has been the validation of new classification criteria, allowing earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment of systemic sclerosis, before irreversible fibrosis and organ damage appeared ("window of opportunity"). Raynaud's phenomenon is usually the first sign of the disease and is considered as the main sentinel sign for the identification of very early systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis is clinically heterogeneous and disease course remains unpredictable. Its prognosis depends on cardiopulmonary involvement and recent studies aim to identify serum or genetic biomarkers predictive of severe organ involvement. Moreover, the prospective follow-up of large cohorts has provided and will offer critical material to identify strong prognostic factors. Whereas the outcomes of vascular manifestations of the disease has been recently improved due to targeted therapy, recent data have highlighted that mortality has not changed over the past 40 years. This reflects the absence of efficacy of current available drugs to counteract the fibrotic process. Nevertheless, several targeted immunity therapies, commonly with proven efficacy in other immune diseases, are about to be investigated in systemic sclerosis. Indeed, promising results in small and open studies have been reported. This article deals with recent insights into classification criteria, pathogenesis, organ involvements, outcome and current and possible future therapeutic options in systemic sclerosis.

  14. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Bechara, Antoine; Garavan, Hugh; Childress, Anna Rose; Paulus, Martin P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such `denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and selfawareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction. PMID:19716751

  15. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  16. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture.

  17. China Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Concetta

    1984-01-01

    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  18. Enigmatic insight into collagen.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  19. Enigmatic insight into collagen

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen.

  20. Enigmatic insight into collagen

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  1. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  2. Medicine and health care along the Silk Road. China's population control program among the national minorities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T O

    1985-01-01

    Travel along the Silk Road where many of China's national minorities live gives a new insight into the population growth problem. As a whole China's "one-child-for-one-family" campaign seems to have succeeded in controlling its national population, although the government takes a more liberal attitude toward the national minorities.

  3. The Contemporary Development of Philosophy of Education in Mainland China and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenghong, Jin; Dan, Jau-wei

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces and analyses recent developments in philosophy of education in mainland China and Taiwan. Though Confucianism has very rich insights into education, philosophy of education as a discipline came to China only around 100 years ago. It reached its first climax in the 1920s and 1930s, but then went into decline for nearly half…

  4. Chromatin modification by the RNA Polymerase II elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) involves the coordinated action of numerous regulatory factors. Among these are chromatin-modifying enzymes, which generate a stereotypic and conserved pattern of histone modifications along transcribed genes. This pattern implies a precise coordination between regulators of histone modification and the RNAP II elongation complex. Here I review the pathways and molecular events that regulate co-transcriptional histone modifications. Insight into these events will illuminate the assembly of functional RNAP II elongation complexes and how the chromatin landscape influences their composition and function. PMID:25494544

  5. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  6. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  7. China`s refining/petrochemical industry continues expansion

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    China`s downstream petroleum industry decreased refinery throughput and increased petrochemical production in 1994, compared to 1993 data. A report titled ``China Petroleum Industry `94,`` issued by China Petroleum Newsletter, a publication of China Petroleum Information Institute, summarized China`s refined products and petrochemical production figures for 1994. The report also listed important construction projects at China`s downstream plants. This paper presents data from this report.

  8. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  9. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  10. Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2010-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) is an actin-binding protein that has actin cross-linking and contractile properties and is regulated by the phosphorylation of its light and heavy chains. The three mammalian NM II isoforms have both overlapping and unique properties. Owing to its position downstream of convergent signalling pathways, NM II is central in the control of cell adhesion, cell migration and tissue architecture. Recent insight into the role of NM II in these processes has been gained from loss-of-function and mutant approaches, methods that quantitatively measure actin and adhesion dynamics and the discovery of NM II mutations that cause monogenic diseases. PMID:19851336

  11. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  12. Atomistic insights into rhodopsin activation from a dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Irina G; Best, Robert B; Engel, Stanislav; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Hummer, Gerhard; Costanzi, Stefano

    2008-08-01

    Rhodopsin, the light sensitive receptor responsible for blue-green vision, serves as a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Upon light absorption, it undergoes a series of conformational changes that lead to the active form, metarhodopsin II (META II), initiating a signaling cascade through binding to the G protein transducin (G(t)). Here, we first develop a structural model of META II by applying experimental distance restraints to the structure of lumi-rhodopsin (LUMI), an earlier intermediate. The restraints are imposed by using a combination of biased molecular dynamics simulations and perturbations to an elastic network model. We characterize the motions of the transmembrane helices in the LUMI-to-META II transition and the rearrangement of interhelical hydrogen bonds. We then simulate rhodopsin activation in a dynamic model to study the path leading from LUMI to our META II model for wild-type rhodopsin and a series of mutants. The simulations show a strong correlation between the transition dynamics and the pharmacological phenotypes of the mutants. These results help identify the molecular mechanisms of activation in both wild type and mutant rhodopsin. While static models can provide insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and predict ligand affinity, a dynamic model of activation could be applicable to study the pharmacology of other GPCRs and their ligands, offering a key to predictions of basal activity and ligand efficacy.

  13. New Insights about Letter Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of alphabetic knowledge (letter names, letter sounds, and letter forms) is an important predictor of later literacy achievement. This article describes research findings that provide new insights about how children learn the alphabetic principle and the implications for effective and efficient instruction of the alphabet. Teachers…

  14. Disabled Readers: Insight, Assessment, Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Diane J., Ed.

    Focusing on helping teachers to understand and help children who have reading disabilities, the 13 papers in this volume were prepared by practitioners at various levels from public school, community, and university settings. The papers included in part one offer insights into the concomitant aspects of reading difficulties. Specific topics…

  15. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  16. Psychology of Sport. Issues & Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig, Ed.

    This book is designed to provide instructors and students in sport psychology courses with a learning instrument that combines the continuity of a textbook with the range of opinion, in-depth treatment of selected issues, and insight into research methods of a book of readings. The subject is divided into four topical categories. Under the heading…

  17. Renewable Energy Business Partnerships in China: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for attracting foreign investment, Chinas tax policy, import duties, currency exchange, and renewable joint ventures in China.

  18. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a method for solving problems related to gas laws, the mole concept, molarity, heats of reactions, and other chemical concepts. Also presents another method which was devised to simplify the teaching of stoichiometric calculations using conversion factors. (JN)

  19. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two methods to teach radioactive decay to secondary students with wide ranging abilities. Activities are designed to follow classroom discussions of atomic structure, transmutation, half life, and nuclear decay. Includes "The Tasmanian Empire: A Radioactive Dating Activity" and an exercise to teach concepts of half life without using…

  20. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to solving oxidation-reduction reactions. The advantage of this procedure for both acidic and basic equations is stressed and emphasizes the electrical nature of redox equations. (KR)

  1. Ovine footrot: new insights into bacterial colonisation.

    PubMed

    Maboni, G; Frosth, S; Aspán, A; Tötemeyer, S

    2016-09-01

    Ovine footrot is characterised by interdigital dermatitis (ID) and by the separation of the skin and hoof horn (under-running footrot). Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential pathogen causing footrot; the role of other microorganisms in this disease remains unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the colonisation of D nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Treponema species in biopsies from the ovine interdigital skin of healthy, ID and footrot-affected feet and (ii) to characterise the virulence of D nodosus strains in those biopsies. Postslaughter biopsy samples (n=241) were collected and analysed by real-time PCR to determine prevalence and load of the different bacterial species. The highest prevalence and load of D nodosus were found on feet with ID. The vast majority of samples contained virulent D nodosus and some samples contained both virulent and benign D nodosus Notably, the more pathogenic subspecies of F necrophorum was found in samples from UK sheep. Our findings provide further insights into the role bacterial colonisation may play in the early stage of ID and in the progression towards footrot. PMID:27317761

  2. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  3. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  4. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  5. Insights on the Minority Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Barbara L., Ed.

    Recorded in this booklet are presentations from two symposia entitled "Training Faculty in Aging I and II," sponsored by the Institute of Gerontology, University of the District of Columbia, which were designed to sensitize and educate faculty in colleges and universities on gerontological problems and issues. The first symposium recorded is of a…

  6. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  7. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  8. HIV/AIDS testing at ports of entry in China.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer

    2011-05-01

    In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world. PMID:21368848

  9. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported.

  10. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  11. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  12. The INSIGHT SEIS VBB Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, B.; Mimoun, D.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Laudet, P.; Perez, R.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinuities, thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact and quake rates. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The wind and thermal shield, the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs) and a passive thermal compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a deection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition

  13. Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Republic of China).

    This book provides a comprehensive view of education in the People's Republic of China today. Divided into four sections, the bulk of the book's material is covered in the first section, "Education in China." Section 1 begins with a discussion of educational achievements in China, the present educational situation and basic conditions in 1980, and…

  14. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  15. China?s growing appetite for minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, David; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Fenton, Mike; Jorgenson, John; van Oss, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    During the last 15 years, China's economy and consumption have grown rapidly. This report contains figures and notes from a talk that discusses China's increasing consumption of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, iron ore, petroleum, and steel in context of its developing economy.

  16. Association between interferon gamma 13-CA-repeats polymorphism and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a population of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Kaifei; Yan, Zhaohui; Shuang, Yu; Sun, Jinsong; Tao, Shudong; Fu, Wenyuan; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Interferon Gamma gamma (IFN-γ) 13-CA-repeats polymorphism is associated with a variety of diseases; here we report its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastasis in a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 220 NPC patients in the northern China. The results showed that the distributions of CA13-/CA13-genotypes were significantly higher in the patients with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) and distant metastasis (P<0.001); there was a significant difference between NPC patients with stage I+II and those with stage III+IV regarding CA13+/CA13-(P<0.001) and CA13-/CA13- genotypes (P<0.001); further analysis showed a more pronounced difference between NPC patients with stage I+II+III and those with stage IV for CA13-/CA13-genotype (P<0.001), whereas no difference was found for CA13+/CA13- genotype (P=0.790). Thus, we identify that IFN-γ 13-CA-repeat polymorphism is significantly associated with the metastasis of NPC, which may provide insights into its prognosis and individualized treatment. PMID:26261644

  17. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established.

  18. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. PMID:27638028

  19. Seroprevalence of pertussis in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying Hua; Wang, Lichan; Xu, Jin; Wang, Xinjian; Wei, Chen; Luo, Peng; Ma, Xiao; Hou, Qiming; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis remains an important cause of infant death worldwide and is an ongoing public health concern even in countries with high vaccination coverage. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was undertaken to estimate true incidence rates and gain further insight into the epidemiology and burden of pertussis in China. During 2011, a total of 1080 blood samples were obtained from healthy individuals between 0 and 86 y of age in Zhengzhou, Central China. Serum IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were measured quantitatively using ELISA. The results showed that the geometric mean titers of PT and FHA IgG were 6.48 IU/mL (95% CI: 5.70–7.41 IU/mL) and 11.39 IU/mL (95% CI: 10.22–12.87 IU/mL) among subjects less than 4 y of age, indicating that pertussis antibody levels were low despite high vaccination coverage. Of the 850 subjects ≥4 y of age, 56 (6.6%) had anti-PT IgG titers above 30 IU/mL, and 11 (1.3%) had antibodies titers above 80 IU/mL. The estimated age-specific incidence of infection with B. pertussis revealed a peak incidence in the 31 to 40 y age group, followed by the 41 to 60 y age group. Taken together, these results indicate that pertussis is common in Chinese subjects in Zhengzhou, especially in adults, suggesting that the disease burden is underestimated in China. Therefore, our study stresses the importance of strengthening the diagnostic capacity and improving surveillance system for delineating current epidemiological profiles of pertussis. Most importantly, it may be advisable to re-evaluate the current Chinese pertussis immunization schedule and implement to booster doses for older children, adolescents and adults. PMID:24018405

  20. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about “yes or no,” insight is related to “what” is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight. PMID:27555833

  1. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight. PMID:27555833

  2. Mesoproterozoic - Tonian Paleogeography: New Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoproterozic - Tonian (1600-850 Ma) times are generally associated with a significant part of supercontinental cycle: assembly and breakup of Nuna followed by assembly of Rodinia, The understanding of these processes is hampered by a deficit of reliable geochronological, paleomagnetic and other datasets. Consequently there is a variety of opinions about paleogeographic locations of many Precambrian cratons and terranes and about their kinematics. Almost every new well-dated paleomagnetic pole, or re-dated old paleopole, or discovered LIP event causes significant reconsideration of existing paleogeographic models. Many new exiting results have been reported in last few years from Baltica, Siberia, North China, Australia, Congo-São Francisco and other parts of Nuna and Rodinia. Recent testings of some popular paleogeographic reconstructions (e.g. SAMBA) and re-interpretation of orogenic histories (e.g. Grenville and Sveconorwegian) also require some revisiting of Mesoproterozoic - Tonian paleogeography. This study summarises these new data and new ideas. Proposed updated positions of some continents are now better justified. Most changes are associated with North China and Congo-São Francisco cratons. Kinematics of the transitional period between the breakup of Nuna and the assembly of Rodinia is now better understood and better constrained, but some aspects are still enigmatic and controversial.

  3. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  4. [Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change: IX. Spatiotemporal change characteristics of China agricultural climate resources].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yong; Dai, Shu-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Wen-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 ground surface meteorological data from 558 meteorological stations in China, this paper analyzed the differences of agricultural climate resources in China different regions, and compared the change characteristics of the agricultural climate resources in 1961-1980 (period I) and 1981-2007 (period II), taking the year 1981 as the time node. As compared with period I, the mean annual temperature in China in period II increased by 0.6 degrees C, and the > or = 0 degrees C active accumulated temperature in the growth periods of chimonophilous crops and the > or = 10 degrees C active accumulated temperature in the growth periods of thermophilic crops increased averagely by 123.3 degrees C x d and 125.9 degrees C x d, respectively. In 1961-2007, the mean annual temperature increased most in Northeast China, and the > or = 10 degrees C active accumulated temperature in the growth periods of thermophilic crops increased most in South China. The whole year sunshine hours and the sunshine hours in the growth periods of chimonophilous crops and of thermophilic crops in period II decreased by 125.7 h, 32.2 h, and 53.6 h, respectively, compared with those in period I. In 1961-2007, the annual sunshine hours decreased most in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, while the sunshine hours in the growth periods of chimonophilous crops and of thermophilic crops decreased most in North China and South China, respectively. In the whole year and in the growth periods of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops, both the precipitation and the reference crop evapotranspiration in this country all showed a decreasing trend, with the largest decrement in the precipitation in the whole year and in the growth periods of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in North China, the largest decrement in the reference crop evapotranspiration in the whole year and in the growth periods of thermophilic crops in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and the

  5. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. PMID:26833279

  6. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia.

  7. Headache care in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China.

  8. Insights into electromagnetic interaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Reba; Blank, Martin

    2002-07-01

    Low frequency (< 300 Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce biological changes that include effects ranging from increased enzyme reaction rates to increased transcript levels for specific genes. The induction of stress gene HSP70 expression by exposure to EM fields provides insight into how EM fields interact with cells and tissues. Insights into the mechanism(s) are also provided by examination of the interaction of EM fields with moving charges and their influence on enzyme reaction rates in cell-free systems. Biological studies with in vitro model systems have focused, in general, on the nature of the signal transduction pathways involved in response to EM fields. It is likely, however, that EM fields also interact directly with electrons in DNA to stimulate biosynthesis. Identification of an EM field-sensitive DNA sequence in the heat shock 70 (HSP70) promoter, points to the application of EM fields in two biomedical applications: cytoprotection and gene therapy. EM field induction of the stress protein hsp70 may also provide a useful biomarker for establishing a science-based safety standard for the design of cell phones and their transmission towers.

  9. Insight with hands and things.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition. PMID:27569687

  10. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  11. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  12. Insight Into Sustainability of Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, S. P.

    2002-05-01

    Global modeling often assumes that water is not an issue on the macro scale. WorldWater system dynamics model has been developed for modeling global world water balance and capturing the dynamic character of main variables affecting water availability and use in the future. In spite of not being a novel approach, system dynamics offers (i) a new way for identifying factors that are affecting the future availability of fresh water and provides (ii) insight into the impacts of different development strategies on the future availability of fresh water. WorldWater simulations are clearly demonstrating the strong feedback relation between water availability and different aspects of world development. Results of numerous simulations are contradictory to the assumption made by many global modelers and do confirm that water is an issue on the global scale. Two major observations are made from early model simulations: (a) the use of clean water for dilution and transport of wastewater, if not dealt in other ways, imposes a major stress on the global world water balance; and (b) water use by different sectors is demonstrating quite different dynamics then predicted by classical forecasting tools and other water-models. Inherent linkages between water quantity and quality sectors with food, industry, persistent pollution, technology, and nonrenewable resources sectors of the model create shoot and collapse behavior in water use dynamics. This presentation is discussing a number of different water-related scenarios and their implications on the future water balance. In particular, two extreme scenarios (business as usual - named `Chaos', and unlimited desalination - named `Ocean') will be discussed. Based on the conclusions derived from these two extreme cases a set of more moderate and realistic scenarios (named `Conservation') is proposed.

  13. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  14. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  15. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  16. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  17. Transfer of environmentally sound technologies from Japan to China

    SciTech Connect

    Asuka-Zhang, S.

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan`s technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects, with specific examples of Japan`s technology transfer work in China. Finally, the paper analyzes the successes and challenges of various technology transfer mechanism and provides insight on the direction of Japan`s future environmentally sound technology transfer projects and programs in developing countries.

  18. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  19. Angiotensin II receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Yee, Daniel K; Fluharty, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Angiotensin II plays a key role in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. To correct body fluid deficits that occur during hypovolaemia, an animal needs to ingest both water and electrolytes. Thus, it is not surprising that angiotensin II, which is synthesized in response to hypovolaemia, acts centrally to increase both water and NaCl intake. Here, we review findings relating to the properties of angiotensin II receptors that give rise to changes in behaviour. Data are described to suggest that divergent signal transduction pathways are responsible for separable behavioural responses to angiotensin II, and a hypothesis is proposed to explain how this divergence may map onto neural circuits in the brain.

  20. Logical types and ostensive insight.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, J L

    1991-01-01

    Discrimination of analogic and digital modes in communication allows clearer distinction of transference (mutative) and extra-transference interpretation. Relying on explicit formulation, Strachey introduces 'implicit' mutative interpretation, which is explicitly extra-transferential but transferential as to process. Each interpretive verbalization has an analogic impact pertaining to the analogic unconscious level of archaic objects, and its emitter--the analyst--is its propositional subject. Interpretation can afford to be as explicit as possible inasmuch as it retains the metalevel in which the analyst can remain as third-party to what he formulates, but it must be gradual in making explicit the archaic object he actualizes. It is by 'withholding'--as Strachey says--the validation of the archaic relational analogic 'psychic reality' that is the referent of interpretive 'mapping', and not be verbal 'mapping' in itself, that the 'judgement of reality' underlying ostensive insight comes into play. PMID:1797721

  1. Insightful Workflow For Grid Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Charles Earl

    2008-10-09

    We developed a workflow adaptation and scheduling system for Grid workflow. The system currently interfaces with and uses the Karajan workflow system. We developed machine learning agents that provide the planner/scheduler with information needed to make decisions about when and how to replan. The Kubrick restructures workflow at runtime, making it unique among workflow scheduling systems. The existing Kubrick system provides a platform on which to integrate additional quality of service constraints and in which to explore the use of an ensemble of scheduling and planning algorithms. This will be the principle thrust of our Phase II work.

  2. Proton Transport in Carbonic Anhydrase: Insights from Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Maupin, C. Mark; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This article reviews the insights gained from molecular simulations of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) utilizing non-reactive and reactive force fields. The simulations with a reactive force field explore protein transfer and transport via Grotthuss shuttling, while the non-reactive simulations probe the larger conformational dynamics that underpin the various contributions to the rate-limiting proton transfer event. Specific attention is given to the orientational stability of the His64 group and the characteristics of the active site water cluster, in an effort to determine both of their impact on the maximal catalytic rate. The explicit proton transfer and transport events are described by the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method, as are alternative pathways for the excess proton charge defect to enter/leave the active site. The simulation results are interpreted in light of experimental results on the wild-type enzyme and various site-specific mutations of HCA II in order to better elucidate the key factors that contribute to its exceptional efficiency. PMID:19765680

  3. FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Due to their steep spectra, low-frequency observations of FR II radio galaxies potentially provide key insights in to the morphology, energetics and underlying physics of these powerful radio sources. However, limitations imposed by the previous generation of radio interferometers at metre wavelengths have meant that this region of parameter space remains largely unexplored.In this talk, we present our latest results using LOFAR and the JVLA at frequencies between 50 and 460 MHz which, along with complementary archival radio and X-ray data, now allows us to undertake well resolved, detailed studies of nearby FR II radio galaxies at low frequencies. We discuss how our improved knowledge of the low-energy electron distribution, magnetic field strength and total energy content of the lobes impacts upon our understanding of the dynamics and energetics of nearby FR II radio galaxies and, for the first time, present the spectral structure of these sources on small spatial scales at low frequencies. We conclude by discussing how these findings change our current understanding of the underlying physics of FR II radio galaxies and, ultimately, their impact on the environment and galaxy evolution as a whole.

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  5. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  6. Investigation of lead(II) uptake by Bacillus thuringiensis 016.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the lead(II) biosorption mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) 016 through batch and microscopic experiments. We found that the maximum lead(II) biosorption capacity of Bt 016 was 164.77 mg/g (dry weight). The pH value could affect the biosorption of lead(II) in a large extent. Fourier transform infrared analyses and selective passivation experiments suggested that the carboxyl, amide and phosphate functional groups of Bt 016 played an important role in lead(II) biosorption. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that noticeable lead(II) precipitates were accumulated on bacterial surfaces. Further transmission electron microscopy thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as selected area electron diffraction indicated that lead(II) immobilized on the bacteria could be transformated into random-shaped crystalline lead-containing minerals eventually. This work provided a new insight into lead(II) uptake of Bt, highlighting the potential of Bt in the restoration of lead(II) contaminated repositories. PMID:26271773

  7. Investigation of lead(II) uptake by Bacillus thuringiensis 016.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the lead(II) biosorption mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) 016 through batch and microscopic experiments. We found that the maximum lead(II) biosorption capacity of Bt 016 was 164.77 mg/g (dry weight). The pH value could affect the biosorption of lead(II) in a large extent. Fourier transform infrared analyses and selective passivation experiments suggested that the carboxyl, amide and phosphate functional groups of Bt 016 played an important role in lead(II) biosorption. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that noticeable lead(II) precipitates were accumulated on bacterial surfaces. Further transmission electron microscopy thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as selected area electron diffraction indicated that lead(II) immobilized on the bacteria could be transformated into random-shaped crystalline lead-containing minerals eventually. This work provided a new insight into lead(II) uptake of Bt, highlighting the potential of Bt in the restoration of lead(II) contaminated repositories.

  8. Environmental Management in Mainland China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Thomas T.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of China's environmental pollution management by discussing: China's Environmental Protection Organization; laws and regulations; environmental protection program; education and manpower training; and research into environmental pollution problems. (The author provided technical assistance to China's environmental pollution…

  9. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  10. 77 FR 46686 - Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008) (``Order''). DATES: Effective Date: August 4... China (``PRC''), pursuant to the CIT's remand order in Mid Continent Nail Corp. v. United States, Slip Op. 12- 31, Court No. 10-00247 (March 7, 2012) (``Mid Continent II''). See May 14, 2012...

  11. Traditional and Contemporary Painting in China. A Report of the Visit of the Chinese Painting Delegation to the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China.

    A group of American scholars who visited the People's Republic of China in October and November of 1977 to study Chinese paintings report on their trip. The purpose of the report is to provide information and insights which will be useful to other scholars in the field and which will help promote the development of strong ties between U.S. and…

  12. A role of Histidine151 in the lamprey Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor (lGnRHR-1) : Functional insight of diverse amino acid residues in the position of Tyr of the DRY motif in GnRHR from an ancestral Type II receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kosugi, Takayoshi; Sower, Stacia A.

    2009-01-01

    The highly conserved DRY motif located at the end of the third transmembrane of G protein-coupled receptors has been described as a key motif for several aspects of GPCR functions. However, in the case of the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), the amino acid in the third position in the DRY motif is variable. In the lamprey, a most basal vertebrate, the third amino acid of the “DRY” in GnRHR is His, while it is most often His/Gln in the type II GnRHR. To investigate the functional significance of the substitution of DRY to DRH in the lamprey(l)GnRHR, second messenger signaling, ligand binding and internalization of the wild-type and mutant lGnRH receptors were characterized with site-directed mutagenesis. Treatment of the DRE151 and DRS151 mutant receptors with lamprey GnRH-I significantly reduced inositol phosphate compared to wild-type (DRH151) and DRY151 receptors. The logIC50 of wild-type receptor (−9.554±0.049) was similar to the logIC50 of DRE151, DRS151 and DRX151 mutants, yet these same mutants were shown to significantly reduce cell surface expression. However, the DRY151 mutant compared to the wild-type receptor increased cell surface expression, suggesting that the reduction of IP production was due to the level of the cell surface expression of the mutant receptors. The rate of internalization of DRX151 (35.60%) was reduced compared to wild-type and other mutant receptors. These results suggest that His151 of the lamprey GnRH receptor may play a critical role in the retention of a certain level of cell-surface expression for subsequent cellular second messenger events. PMID:20005226

  13. Insight Into Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Medalia, Alice; Thysen, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Insight into psychotic symptoms is typically poor in schizophrenia; however, it is not known whether insight into neurocognitive impairment is similarly impaired. Most people with schizophrenia experience cognitive dysfunction, and the deficits in attention, memory, and critical thinking have been associated with poor functional outcome. As new treatments are developed for the cognitive impairments, it will be important to know whether patients will be receptive to yet another therapy. Insight is an important factor in treatment compliance and treatment outcome; however, it is not known if patients have insight into their cognitive dysfunction. In order to assess insight into neuro cognitive dysfunction, 75 subjects were administered the Measure of Insight into Cognition–Clinician Rated, a newly created measure based on the Scale to Access the Unawareness of Mental Disorder, that assesses insight into cognitive impairment. Subjects were also administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and Independent Living Scale–Problem Solving to objectively assess neuropsychological status and problem-solving skills needed for independent living. Results demonstrated that virtually all subjects had cognitive impairment, yet insight into their neuro cognitive symptoms was limited. This finding has potential implications for treatment programs seeking to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia PMID:18199632

  14. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight.

  15. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  16. Serendipitous insights involving nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Morton, William R; Swindler, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    Serendipity is discussed as a form of controlled chaos, a phenomenon in a class with synchronicity and other actions affecting research in terms of theory versus observation (e.g., "optional stopping"). Serendipity is a fundamental aspect of basic research, a profitable and normal outcome in the context of "informed observation." The serendipitous finding fits into the following pattern: it is unanticipated, anomalous, and strategic. All observations that have meaning must fit into some context in the observer's mind or suggest a revolutionary new context. It is critically important to maintain access to the resources provided by established primate centers and similar laboratories to capitalize in a timely way on serendipitous findings and to benefit from valuable discoveries made in more directly targeted development investments. Examples are given of serendipitous insights gained in experimentation and observation relative to nonhuman primate research, including both broad and narrow topics. Genomics, which uses comparison-based strategies and capitalizes on the DNA sequences of genetic information, presents what might seem the basis for endless serendipity because nonhuman primates are likely to share most genes present in the human genome. Other topics discussed include infant behavior, birth periodicity, leprosy, cystic fibrosis, environmental enrichment, endocrinology, drug development, and the rapidly expanding study of infectious diseases and pathogen-based bioterrorism. PMID:16179742

  17. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  18. PKCβII Modulation of Myocyte Contractile Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyosook; Robinson, Dustin A; Stevenson, Tamara K; Wu, Helen C; Kampert, Sarah E; Pagani, Francis D; Dyke, D. Brad; Martin, Jody L; Sadayappan, Sakthival; Day, Sharlene M; Westfall, Margaret V

    2012-01-01

    Significant up-regulation of the protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) develops during heart failure and yet divergent functional outcomes are reported in animal models. The goal here is to investigate PKCβII modulation of contractile function and gain insights into downstream targets in adult cardiac myocytes. Increased PKCβII protein expression and phosphorylation developed after gene transfer into adult myocytes while expression remained undetectable in controls. The PKCβII was distributed in a perinuclear pattern and this expression resulted in diminished rates and amplitude of shortening and re-lengthening compared to controls and myocytes expressing dominant negative PKCβII (PKCβDN). Similar decreases were observed in the Ca2+ transient and the Ca2+ decay rate slowed in response to caffeine in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. Parallel phosphorylation studies indicated PKCβII targets phosphatase activity to reduce phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation at residue Thr17 (pThr17-PLB). The PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196 (LY) restored pThr17-PLB to control levels. In contrast, myofilament protein phosphorylation was enhanced by PKCβII expression, and individually, LY and the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A each failed to block this response. Further work showed PKCβII increased Ca2+- activated, calmodulin-dependent kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) expression and enhanced both CaMKIIδ and protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both signaling targets also was resistant to acute inhibition by LY. These later results provide evidence PKCβII modulates contractile function via intermediate downstream pathway(s) in cardiac myocytes. PMID:22587992

  19. The pol II CTD: new twists in the tail.

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Egloff, Sylvain; Murphy, Shona

    2016-09-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) II comprises conserved heptad repeats, and post-translational modification of the CTD regulates transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing. Recently, the spatial patterns of modification of the CTD repeats have been investigated, and new functions of CTD modification have been revealed. In addition, there are new insights into the roles of the enzymes that decorate the CTD. We review these new findings and reassess the role of the pol II CTD in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:27605205

  20. Multi-Objective Scheduling for the Cluster II Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the MUSE multiobjecctive scheduling framework to the Cluster II WBD scheduling domain. Cluster II is an ESA four-spacecraft constellation designed to study the plasma environment of the Earth and it's magnetosphere. One of the instruments on each of the four spacecraft is the Wide Band Data (WBD) plasma wave experiment. We have applied the MUSE evolutionary algorithm to the scheduling problem represented by this instrument, and the result has been adopted and utilized by the WBD schedulers for nearly a year. This paper describes the WBD scheduling problem, its representation in MUSE, and some of the visualization elements that provide insight into objective value tradeoffs.

  1. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. PMID:24922282

  2. The Human Endocrine Pancreas: New Insights on Replacement and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Klein, Dagmar; Álvarez-Cubela, Silvia; Pastori, Ricardo L

    2016-03-01

    Islet transplantation is an effective cell therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) but its clinical application is limited due to shortage of donors. After a decade-long period of exploration of potential alternative cell sources, the field has only recently zeroed in on two of them as the most likely to replace islets. These are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) (through directed differentiation) and pancreatic non-endocrine cells (through directed differentiation or reprogramming). Here we review progress in both areas, including the initiation of Phase I/II clinical trials using human embryonic stem cell (hESc)-derived progenitors, advances in hESc differentiation in vitro, novel insights on the developmental plasticity of the pancreas, and groundbreaking new approaches to induce β cell conversion from the non-endocrine compartment without genetic manipulation. PMID:26774512

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  4. The Media in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John

    1980-01-01

    Provides a brief history of television and radio in China and describes the use of television, radio, and film there, noting the number of television sets, radios, public loudspeakers, and cinemas. Article is comprised of extracts from the author's 193-page publication "China Media Industry Report 1980." (JD)

  5. Building Bridges to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  6. China targets the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    China has already launched two spacecraft to the Moon and wants to send rovers and astronauts there as well - and to eventually build its own lunar base. Ziuyan Ouyang, chief scientist of China's lunarprogramme, talks about the country's ambitious Moon plans.

  7. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  8. China's Innovation Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  9. Personal Experiences of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    2010-01-01

    This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

  10. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  11. Sports Medicine in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  12. Outsourcing to China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model. PMID:16225277

  13. China Briefing, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B., Ed.; Bush, Richard C., Ed.

    Eight essays on Chinese affairs comprise this document. Compiled in response to the China Council's objective of making available to the public materials which meet the steadily rising demand for information about contemporary China, the document focuses on Chinese art, literature, politics, foreign policy, literature, society, and economic…

  14. China's Youth Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, K. P.

    As a central feature of China's current domestic policy, rural resettlement is considered a vital strategy for combating revisionism, consolidating the proletariat dictatorship, restricting bourgeois rights, narrowing differences, strengthening the countryside, and promoting agricultural development. Since rural China has suffered from excessive…

  15. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  16. Sport in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others

    Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of physical…

  17. Educational Technology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  18. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  19. Area Studies: China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    The guide outlines a course of study for elementary students on the history, geography, language, and general culture of China. Course objectives are to identify the major mountains, the major cities, and the types of climate affecting each region of China; locate and record on a time line the important events in the development of Chinese…

  20. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  1. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  2. Education in Mainland China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Deanna T.; Eppley, Felicia C.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study tour of China and argues that, although China has bright, highly motivated students, the country has serious problems. Discusses the impact of the Cultural Revolution and presents four case studies exemplifying issues in Chinese education. Includes two teaching activities based on the report. (CFR)

  3. Outsourcing to China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  4. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  5. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  6. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  7. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.

  8. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*

    PubMed

    Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change. PMID:24288434

  9. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*

    PubMed

    Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change.

  10. Learning from Moshe, Hu Hu Zhu and Khokha: Insights into the Global Application of the Formative Research Component of the Sesame Workshop Model. Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charlotte, Frances

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from six studies to illustrate how the formative research element of the Sesame Workshop production model has been used to create effective educational media in the United States, South Africa, Egypt, and China. Shows how lessons learned from formative studies provide insights into the development of new research methodologies…

  11. Novel insights into amylin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen; Govender, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Amylin is a peptide that aggregates into species that are toxic to pancreatic beta cells, leading to type II diabetes. This study has for the first time quantified amylin association and dissociation kinetics (association constant (ka) = 28.7 ± 5.1 L mol−1 s−1 and dissociation constant (kd) = 2.8 ± 0.6 ×10−4 s−1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus far, techniques used for the sizing of amylin aggregates do not cater for the real-time monitoring of unconstrained amylin in solution. In this regard we evaluated recently innovated nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In addition, both SPR and NTA were used to study the effect of previously synthesized amylin derivatives on amylin aggregation and to evaluate their potential as a cell-free system for screening potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results obtained from NTA highlighted a predominance of 100–300 nm amylin aggregates and correlation to previously published cytotoxicity results suggests the toxic species of amylin to be 200–300 nm in size. The results seem to indicate that NTA has potential as a new technique to monitor the aggregation potential of amyloid peptides in solution and also to screen potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26019498

  12. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  13. The One-Child-Per-Family Movement in China: An Analysis of Situational Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Pamela Wineburner

    Examining the one-child-per-family movement (OCFM) in China using Lloyd Bitzer's "Functional Communication: A Situational Perspective," this essay provides insight into how rhetoric has functioned and is functioning in this difficult situation. A brief geographic review provides a basis for understanding the complex set of problems surrounding the…

  14. The Jehol Biota (Lower Cretaceous, China): new discoveries and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Paul M; Hilton, Jason M

    2006-03-01

    Continuing work on the paleontology and sedimentology of the Jehol Group (Lower Cretaceous, China) is yielding numerous new insights into the evolution of many Mesozoic plant and animal clades. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered regarding Jehol paleoenvironments, paleobiology and paleobiogeography. All of this information will be crucial in providing a detailed reconstruction of this extinct ecosystem. PMID:21395985

  15. Insight Is Not in the Problem: Investigating Insight in Problem Solving across Task Types

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Margaret E.; Little, Daniel R.; Cropper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions. PMID:27725805

  16. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  17. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  18. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may provide insight into new treatment options that target elevated impulsivity and psychopathologies such as addictions. PMID:25431750

  19. Networking with China

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China.

  20. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia.

  1. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:25467703

  2. Families, strangers, and those most alone: insights from cultures, including our own.

    PubMed

    Howe, Edmund G

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction to this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics (JCE), I will discuss the legacy of our recently departed friend and colleague, Edmund D. Pellegrino, MD. In this light, I will discuss three articles in this issue of the journal that provide insight into the cultures of China, Mexico, and the U.S., and propose alternative approaches for careproviders in the U.S. to include in their practice as they work with patients and family members at the end of life.

  3. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  4. Insights into quasar UV spectra using unsupervised clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammour, A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Daley, M.; Richards, G. T.

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning techniques can provide powerful tools to detect patterns in multidimensional parameter space. We use K-means - a simple yet powerful unsupervised clustering algorithm which picks out structure in unlabelled data - to study a sample of quasar UV spectra from the Quasar Catalog of the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) of Paris et al. Detecting patterns in large data sets helps us gain insights into the physical conditions and processes giving rise to the observed properties of quasars. We use K-means to find clusters in the parameter space of the equivalent width (EW), the blue- and red-half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of the Mg II 2800 Å line, the C IV 1549 Å line, and the C III] 1908 Å blend in samples of broad absorption line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars at redshift 1.6-2.1. Using this method, we successfully recover correlations well-known in the UV regime such as the anti-correlation between the EW and blueshift of the C IV emission line and the shape of the ionizing spectra energy distribution (SED) probed by the strength of He II and the Si III]/C III] ratio. We find this to be particularly evident when the properties of C III] are used to find the clusters, while those of Mg II proved to be less strongly correlated with the properties of the other lines in the spectra such as the width of C IV or the Si III]/C III] ratio. We conclude that unsupervised clustering methods (such as K-means) are powerful methods for finding `natural' binning boundaries in multidimensional data sets and discuss caveats and future work.

  5. Interdecadal and Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.

    2013-12-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features over Southeast China involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over western Pacific. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization of wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (ii) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that the precipitation increase in Southeast is attributed circulation anomalies over mid-to-high latitudes which are related to AO. (iii) The abnormal moisture flux along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan (and its anomalous south-easterlies) is modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over Western Pacific; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) the warm and moist air flow, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China. This demonstrates the collaborative effect of AO and SST anomalies in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China. For interannual time scales the dominating spatial pattern also represents monopole patterns. Composite analysis (with resampling test) of the associated circulation anomalies reveals the following results: (i) The wet (dry) winter is a result of the strengthened (weakened) northward warm moist air over east coast of

  6. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  7. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  8. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  9. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  10. Splicing of Nascent RNA Coincides with Intron Exit from RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Oesterreich, Fernando; Herzel, Lydia; Straube, Korinna; Hujer, Katja; Howard, Jonathon; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-04-01

    Protein-coding genes in eukaryotes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and introns are removed from pre-mRNA by the spliceosome. Understanding the time lag between Pol II progression and splicing could provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of gene expression. Here, we present two single-molecule nascent RNA sequencing methods that directly determine the progress of splicing catalysis as a function of Pol II position. Endogenous genes were analyzed on a global scale in budding yeast. We show that splicing is 50% complete when Pol II is only 45 nt downstream of introns, with the first spliced products observed as introns emerge from Pol II. Perturbations that slow the rate of spliceosome assembly or speed up the rate of transcription caused splicing delays, showing that regulation of both processes determines in vivo splicing profiles. We propose that matched rates streamline the gene expression pathway, while allowing regulation through kinetic competition.

  11. Extreme optical Fe II emission in luminous IRAS active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Terlevich, Roberto; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a program of studies and observations of strong optical Fe II emission in luminous and ultraluminous IRAS AGN are presented. New spectroscopic observations and studies of three known ultraluminous IRAS AGN with extreme optical Fe II emission, the discovery that PHL 1092 is a new ultraluminous IRAS AGN, and the detection of two new AGN with strongly variable flux in the optical Fe II emission lines are reported. These results are used to test the correlations between the Fe II emission and properties at other wavelengths such as the L(IR) and the radio emission. IR AGN with extreme Fe II emission are found to belong to a very important group of AGN, whose properties provide insight into the origin of the extreme Fe II emission and into the relation between the starburst and AGN phenomena.

  12. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue. PMID:19539423

  13. Forensic medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Pounder, D J

    1998-12-01

    Although China has a long history of forensic medicine, with the first standard text published in 1247, modern practices appeared only in the 1930s under Professor Lin Ji. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, there was a period of rapid development, which was later interrupted by the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976. Today, China has about 10,000 experts in forensic medicine organized within the separate agencies of police, prosecutor's offices, courts, universities, and the Justice Ministry. Eight medical colleges, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice in Shanghai which publishes the Journal of Forensic Medicine, and the Forensic Medicine Association of China which publishes the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine are key organizations. PMID:9885933

  14. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  15. The Eutelsat II programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Claude; Dumesnil, Jean-Jacques

    Eutelsat II is designed to provide Europe with Ku-band communication and TV services with 16 active channels of 50 W power output. In-orbit reconfigurable antenna feed networks permit customized transmission offering either medium-gain over the whole of Europe or high-gain over tailored geographic areas, allowing TV reception on dishes as small as 60 cm. The payload design makes use of only two antennas, each comprising a dual dish reflector and two reconfigurable primary feed arrays. This paper gives an overview of the Eutelsat II mission, and presents a technical description of the satellite, the program schedule, and future prospects.

  16. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  17. New Found Hope for Antibiotic Discovery: Lipid II Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vivian; Chan, Weng C

    2016-08-26

    Research into antibacterial agents has recently gathered pace in light of the disturbing crisis of antimicrobial resistance. The development of modern tools offers the opportunity of reviving the fallen era of antibacterial discovery through uncovering novel lead compounds that target vital bacterial cell components, such as lipid II. This paper provides a summary of the role of lipid II as well as an overview and insight into the structural features of macrocyclic peptides that inhibit this bacterial cell wall component. The recent discovery of teixobactin, a new class of lipid II inhibitor has generated substantial research interests. As such, the significant progress that has been achieved towards its development as a promising antibacterial agent is discussed. PMID:27388768

  18. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  19. Biofuels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  20. Severe dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhao, Hui; Li, Li-Hua; Jiang, Tao; Hong, Wen-Xin; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Ling-Zhai; Yang, Hui-Qin; Ma, De-Hong; Bai, Chun-Hai; Shan, Xi-Yun; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, the impact of dengue has increased both geographically and in intensity, and this disease is now a threat to approximately half of the world's population. An unexpected large outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, in 2013. This was the first autochthonous outbreak with a significant proportion of severe dengue cases in mainland China in a decade. According to the 2009 World Health Organization guidelines, half of the 136 laboratory confirmed cases during the epidemic were severe dengue. The clinical presentation included severe haemorrhage (such as massive vaginal and gastrointestinal bleeding), severe plasma leakage (such as pleural effusion, ascites, or hypoproteinaemia), and organ involvement (such as myocarditis and lung impairment); 21 cases eventually deteriorated to shock. During this outbreak, all severe cases occurred in adults, among whom about 43% had co-morbid conditions. Nucleic acid detection and virus isolation confirmed dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) to be the pathogenic agent of this outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of envelope gene sequences showed that these DENV-3 isolates belonged to genotype II. This finding is of great importance to understand the circulation of DENV and predict the risk of severe disease in mainland China. Here, we provide a brief report of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and aetiology of this dengue fever outbreak, and characterize DENV strains isolated from clinical specimens.

  1. Occurrence and removal of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater and rural domestic sewage treatment systems in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants and pose a threat to public health. In this study, four tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetO, tetQ and tetW) and two sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI and sulII) were evaluated in 4 municipal wastewater and 8 rural domestic sewage treatment systems with different wastewater handling abilities and treatment processes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the influents, the relative abundance of different ARGs showed significant variations among the sampling sites. In addition, significant correlations (tetQ: R(2)=0.712, P<0.05; tetO: R(2)=0.394, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers and wastewater-receiving capacity were observed. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation (R(2)=0.756, P<0.05) between the gene copy numbers of sulI and intI1, whereas the gene numbers of tetM and sulI were strongly correlated with 16S rDNA. Significant reductions (1-3 orders of magnitude) in ARGs were observed in municipal wastewater treatment systems, but a smaller reduction was found in the rural domestic sewage treatment systems. These results provide insights into the occurrence and removal of ARGs in wastewater treatment systems in both rural and urban areas in eastern China.

  2. Bioethics in China.

    PubMed

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  3. Structural Optimization of Zn(II)-Activated MR Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Matosziuk, Lauren M.; Leibowitz, Jonathan H.; Heffern, Marie C.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Ratner, Mark A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the structural optimization and mechanistic investigation of a series of bio-activated MRI contrast agents that transform from low relaxivity to high relaxivity in the presence of Zn(II). The change in relaxivity results from a structural transformation of the complex that alters the coordination environment about the Gd(III) center. Here, we have performed a series of systematic modifications to determine the structure which provides the optimal change in relaxivity in response to the presence of Zn(II). Relaxivity measurements in the presence and absence of Zn(II) were used in conjunction with regarding water access (namely number of water molecules bound) to the Gd(III) center and temperature-dependent 13C NMR spectroscopy to determine how the coordination environment about the Gd(III) center is affected by: the distance between the Zn(II)-binding domain and the Gd(III)-chelate, the number of functional groups on the Zn(II)-binding domain, and the presence of Zn(II). The results of this study provide valuable insight into the elucidation of design principles for future bio-activated MR probes. PMID:23777423

  4. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes.

  5. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes. PMID:24037457

  6. Roles of Various El Nino Events in Southern China Rainfall and Typhoon Landfall Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    El Nino events have been separated into canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki because of different locations of maximum sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and climate impacts. Based on the opposite influence on rainfall in southern China during boreal fall, this paper classifies El Nino Modoki into two groups: El Nino Modoki I and II which show different origins and patterns of SST anomalies. The warm SST anomalies originate in the equatorial central Pacific and subtropical northeastern Pacific for El Nino Modoki I and II, respectively. Thus, El Nino Modoki I shows a symmetric SST anomaly distribution about the equator with the maximum warming in the equatorial central Pacific, whereas El Nino Modoki II displays an asymmetric distribution with the warm SST anomalies extending from the northeastern Pacific to equatorial central Pacific. Additionally, the warm SST anomalies in the equatorial central Pacific extend further westward for El Nino Modoki II than El Nino Modoki I. Similar to canonical El Niño, El Nino Modoki I is associated with an anomalous anticyclone in the Philippine Sea which induces southwesterly wind anomalies along the south coast of China and carries the moisture for increasing rainfall in southern China. For El Nino Modoki II, an anomalous cyclone resides east of the Philippines, associated with northerly wind anomalies and a decrease in rainfall in southern China. Canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I are associated with a westward extension of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), whereas El Nino Modoki II shifts the WNPSH eastward. Differing from canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I, El Nino Modoki II corresponds to northwesterly anomalies of the typhoon steering flow which are unfavorable for typhoons to make landfall in China.

  7. College Algebra II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Carl; And Others

    Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra II. Topics covered include: differencing and complements; real numbers; factoring; fractions; linear equations; exponents and radicals; complex numbers,…

  8. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  9. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  10. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  11. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  12. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Willis, Jason

    The NASA Discovery Program’s next mission, Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSIght), consists of a single spacecraft that will be launched aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Space Launch Complex 3E) during the March 2016 timeframe. The overarching mission goal is to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system consists of a heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and Lander from the 2008 Phoenix mission. Included in the lander payload are various cameras, a seismometer, an auxiliary sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure, and a mole to penetrate the regolith (<5 meters) and assess the subsurface geothermal gradient of Mars. Being a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, InSight has been designated a PP Category Iva mission. As such, planetary protection bioburden requirements apply which require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reporting. The InSight project is current with required PP documentation, having completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, and a PP Implementation Plan. The InSight mission’s early planetary protection campaign has commenced, coinciding with the fabrication and assembly of payload and flight system hardware and the baseline analysis of existing flight spares. A report on the status of InSight PP activities will be provided.

  13. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  14. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  15. Immobilization of Mn(II) via Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, N.; Jeong, H. Y.; Park, M.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, S.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the immobilization of Mn(II) via homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation by air. A series of kinetic experiments were performed with stirred batch reactors equipped with air spargers. The reactions were initiated by adding Mn(II) stock solutions to pH-buffered solutions amended with dissolved Fe(II), Fe oxyhydroxides, or Mn oxides. Under experimental conditions, the homogeneous oxidation of Mn(II) itself was minimal over pH 6.5-8.5. However, when dissolved Fe(II) was present, the immobilization of Mn occurred, with the extent becoming greater at higher pH. By Mn-K edge XAS analysis, the Mn removal at pH 6.5 was due to the oxidation of labile Mn(II) into insoluble Mn(III) solids, which was catalyzed by the homogeneous oxidation of Fe(II). On the other hand, Mn(II) at pH 7.0-8.5 remained largely unoxidized; instead, it was immobilized by forming co-precipitates with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. Goethite, HFO, Mn2O3, and MnO2 were added to mediate the heterogeneous oxidation of Mn(II). In the presence of goethite and HFO, dissolved Mn was initially quickly decreased, and later gradually decreased. In both batches, the initial removal was due to the surface complexation of Mn(II) with Fe oxyhydroxides. On the other hand, the later removal in goethite-amend batches resulted from the formation of co-precipitates with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, whereas the later removal in HFO-amended batches was due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Mn(II) into Mn(III) solids. When Mn2O3 and MnO2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts, XAS analysis did not provide mechanistic insight into Mn removal. Nonetheless, Mn2O3 was found to immobilize Mn(II) under oxic conditions. Notably, MnO2 was far more effectively immobilize Mn(II) under both oxic and anoxic conditions, pointing to its superior oxidative capability. Acknowledgement: Financial support was provided by "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003).

  16. David Triggle: Research collaborations and scientific exchanges with the China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, De-Zai

    2015-11-15

    Over the period 1995-2012, David Triggle was a frequent visitor to the China Pharmaceutical University in Nanjing, China making many important contributions that enhanced the activities of the Research Division of Pharmacology at the University. In addition to providing collegial advice and facilitating interactions with the international pharmacological community, Professor Triggle's international reputation as a thought leader in the field of ion channel research and drug discovery provided important insights into the potential pathophysiological and therapeutic effects of targeting ion channels. This included the L-type calcium channel and the outward delayed rectified potassium currents of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components in the myocardium. The Nanjing research team had been particularly interested in ion channel dysfunction in the context of cardiac arrhythmias, remodeling and drug discovery. With Professor Triggle's assistance, the relationship between an increase in ICa.L and other biological events including an enhancement of IKr and IKr currents, NADPH oxidase and endothelin receptor activation, down regulation of calcium modulating protein FKBP12.6, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPse (SERCA2A) and calsequens 2 (CASQ2), calcium leak at the diastole and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were evaluated and are discussed. Additionally, the organization of several international symposia was greatly enhanced by input from Professor Triggle as were the published research manuscripts in international pharmacology journals. During his association with the China Pharmaceutical University, Professor Triggle aided in enhancing the scientific standing of the Pharmacology department and was a highly effective ambassador for international research cooperation.

  17. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  18. Renewable Energy Policy in China: Overview; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for developing renewable energy, policy objectives, subsidies, tax incentives, custom duties, and contact information.

  19. Transference, Insight, and the Course of Time-Limited Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelso, Charles J.; Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Wine, Bruce; Jones, Alissa; Friedman, Suzanne C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the interactive role of therapist-rated transference and insight in predicting both the outcome of time-limited therapy and the course of therapist-rated transference and insight. Results indicate that neither transference nor insight alone predicted outcome; the interaction of transference and emotional insight influenced client- and…

  20. [Population programme of China].

    PubMed

    Lui, Z

    1982-01-29

    Results of population programs started in China during the last decade have attracted worldwide attention. The Chinese population issues are important due to the following characteristics: 1) China is the most populated country in the world, with over 1 billion people (22% of world population), by the end of 1980; 2) its population is 80% rural; 3) despite improved living conditions that have helped lower the mortality rate from over 20/1000 before Liberation to 10/1000 in the 1960s and finally 6-8/1000 during the last decade, the Chinese population has increased from 540 million soon after Liberation to the current 1 billion, with an average yearly growth rate of 2%; 4) China has a young population, with 36.8% under 14 years old and less than 5% over 65, hence education and employment are big issues; and 5) due to longterm backward economy resulting from feudal and colonial influence before Liberation, efforts in developing a strong Chinese economy have met with many obstacles. The above 5 features of the Chinese population have important bearing on solving China's population problems and in building its economy, developing its society, and realizing its 4 modernizations. Although China is self-sufficient despite its large population, it faces many problems and challenges especially in the areas of educating its young population and subsequent employment. To achieve a strong economy and to improve the welfare of its people, China has put efforts into controlling the size and improving the quality of its population during the past decade. Programs in population control will continue to take priority in China. PMID:12338284

  1. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  2. Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions.

    PubMed

    Sax, Dov F; Stachowicz, John J; Brown, James H; Bruno, John F; Dawson, Michael N; Gaines, Steven D; Grosberg, Richard K; Hastings, Alan; Holt, Robert D; Mayfield, Margaret M; O'Connor, Mary I; Rice, William R

    2007-09-01

    Species invasions provide numerous unplanned and frequently, but imperfectly, replicated experiments that can be used to better understand the natural world. Classic studies by Darwin, Grinnell, Elton and others on these species-invasion experiments provided invaluable insights for ecology and evolutionary biology. Recent studies of invasions have resulted in additional insights, six of which we discuss here; these insights highlight the utility of using exotic species as 'model organisms'. We also discuss a nascent hypothesis that might provide a more general, predictive understanding of invasions and community assembly. Finally, we emphasize how the study of invasions can help to inform our understanding of applied problems, such as extinction, ecosystem function and the response of species to climate change.

  3. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  4. On the dynamical state of galaxy clusters: insights from cosmological simulations II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weiguang; Power, Chris; Borgani, Stefano; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Murante, Giuseppe; Poole, Gregory B.

    2016-10-01

    Using a suite of cosmology simulations of a sample of >120 galaxy clusters with log (MDM, vir) ≤ 14.5. We compare clusters that form in purely dark matter run and their counterparts in hydro runs and investigate 4 independent parameters, that are normally used to classify dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio η in hydro-dynamical runs is ˜10 per cent lower than in the DM run, and there is no clear separation between the relaxed and unrelaxed clusters for any parameter. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter ζ, which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion σ and the theoretical prediction σ _t = √{G M_{total}/R}, we find that there is a linear correlation between the virial ratio η and this ζ parameter. We propose to use this ζ parameter, which can be easily derived from observed galaxy clusters, as a substitute of the η parameter to quantify the cluster dynamical state.

  5. Decontamination effects of low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge. Part II: new insights.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, V; Julák, J; Kríha, V; Mosinger, J; Kopecká, S

    2007-01-01

    The second part of our paper presents the results of experiments with the decontamination of surfaces by low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. A simple device is described and the effects of the corona discharge on model microorganisms, viz. the yeast Candida albicans, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria sicca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Gram-positive bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and vegetative and spore forms of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are discussed. A similar microbicidal effect after about one-minute exposure was observed in all vegetative forms of the microorganisms. Measurement in growth inhibition zones on a semisolid medium was used to determine the dependence of the microbicidal effect on exposure time and the distance between electrodes. Counting of colonies served to assess the microbicidal effect of the discharge on contaminated inert surfaces observable after more than 1 min exposure. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were found to have several times lower susceptibility to the action of the discharge and the microbicidal effect was observed only after an 8 min exposure. Reaction with the iodide reagent did not unambiguously demonstrate the difference between ozone and singlet oxygen as presumed active components of the corona. The area distribution of reactive oxygen species was determined; it was found to differ from the Wartburg law depending on exposure time. Qualitative evidence was obtained on the penetration of the reactive oxygen species into the semisolid medium. PMID:18225640

  6. Insights into Planet Formation from Debris Disks - II. Giant Impacts in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark C.; Jackson, Alan P.

    2016-03-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10 Myr post-impact, but model uncertainties could reduce detectability to a few 100 yr window. Nevertheless the 3 % of young stars with debris at levels expected during terrestrial planet formation provide valuable constraints on formation models; implications for super-Earth formation are also discussed. Variability recently observed in some bright disks promises to illuminate the evolution during the earliest phases when vapour condensates may be optically thick and acutely affected by the collision-point geometry. The outer reaches of planetary systems may also exhibit signatures of giant impacts, such as the clumpy debris structures seen around some stars.

  7. Matter from Outside Our Solar System -- New Insights, Part II. Experimental Measurements and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wefel, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The second of two parts (part 1 in v20 n4, p222, Apr 1982) focuses on experimental techniques used to study cosmic-ray isotopic composition, experimental results, and comparison between cosmic-ray source matter and solar-system material. Several models for nucleosynthesis and evolution of cosmic-source matter are also discussed. (Author/JN)

  8. Structure of the Mn complex in photosystem II: Insights from x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2002-04-02

    We have used Mn K-edge absorption and Kb emission spectroscopies to determine the oxidation states of the Mn complex in the various S-states. We have started exploring the new technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (RIXS); this technique can be characterized as a Raman process that uses K-edge energies (1s to 4p, {approx}6550 eV) to obtain L-edge-like spectra (2p to 3d, {approx}650 eV). The relevance of these data to the oxidation states and structure of the Mn complex is presented. We have obtained EXAFS data from the S0 and S3 states and observed heterogeneity in the Mn-Mn distances, leading us to conclude that there may be three rather than two di-(mu)-oxo bridged units present per tetranuclear Mn cluster. In addition, we have obtained data using Ca/Sr X-ray spectroscopy that provide evidence for a heteronuclear Mn/Ca cluster. The possibility of three di-(mu)-oxo-bridged Mn Mn moieties and the proximity of Ca is incorporated into developing structural models for the Mn cluster. The involvement of bridging and terminal O ligands of Mn in the mechanism of oxygen evolution is discussed in the context of our X-ray spectroscopy results.

  9. A Numerical Simulation of Cosmic Ray Modulation Near the Heliopause. II. Some Physical Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Potgieter, Marius S.; Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Feng, Xueshang; du Toit Strauss, R.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) transport near the heliopause (HP) is studied using a hybrid transport model, with the parameters constrained by observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We simulate the CR radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is no well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and the interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analyzing the radial flux curve along the direction of Voyager 2, together with its trajectory information, the crossing time of the HP by Voyager 2 is predicted to be in 2017.14. We simulate the CR radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1. We find that there is only a modest modulation region of about 10 au wide beyond the HP, so that Voyager 1 observing the Local Interstellar Spectra is justified in numerical modeling. We analyze the heliospheric exit information of pseudo-particles in our stochastic numerical (time-backward) method, conjecturing that they represent the behavior of CR particles, and we find that pseudo-particles that have been traced from the nose region exit in the tail region. This implies that many CR particles diffuse directly from the heliospheric tail region to the nose region near the HP. In addition, when pseudo-particles were traced from the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it is found that their exit location (entrance for real particles) from the simulation domain is along the prescribed Interstellar Magnetic Field direction. This indicates that parallel diffusion dominates CR particle transport in the LISM.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. PMID:26853478

  11. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments.

  12. REDUCTION OF NITROSOBENZENES AND N-HYDROXYLANILINES BY FE (II) SPECIES: ELUCIDATION OF REACTION MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a substantial effort toward understanding the reduction of nitroaromatics in Fe(II)-treated ferric oxide systems, little has been done to gain insight into the factors controlling the transformation of their reaction intermediates, nitrosobenzenes and N-hydroxylani...

  13. Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

  14. Gestures and insight in advanced mathematical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-10-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding - in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities. One participant uses gestures to clarify the relationships between a function, its derivative and its antiderivative. We show how these gestures help create a virtual mathematical construct, which in turn leads to a new problem-solving strategy. These results suggest that gestures are a productive, but potentially undertapped resource for generating new insights in advanced levels of mathematics.

  15. Genomic characterization provides new insight into Salmonella phage diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen that causes tens of millions of salmonellosis cases globally every year. While the genomic diversity of Salmonella is increasingly well studied, our knowledge of Salmonella phage genomic diversity is still rather limited, despite the contributions of both lysogenic and lytic phages to Salmonella virulence, diversity and ecology (e.g., through horizontal gene transfer and Salmonella lysis). To gain a better understanding of phage diversity in a specific ecological niche, we sequenced 22 Salmonella phages isolated from a number of dairy farms from New York State (United States) and analyzed them using a comparative genomics approach. Results Classification of the 22 phages according to the presence/absence of orthologous genes allowed for classification into 8 well supported clusters. In addition to two phage clusters that represent novel virulent Salmonella phages, we also identified four phage clusters that each contained previously characterized phages from multiple continents. Our analyses also identified two clusters of phages that carry putative virulence (e.g., adhesins) and antimicrobial resistance (tellurite and bicyclomycin) genes as well as virulent and temperate transducing phages. Insights into phage evolution from our analyses include (i) identification of DNA metabolism genes that may facilitate nucleotide synthesis in phages with a G+C % distinct from Salmonella, and (ii) evidence of Salmonella phage tailspike and fiber diversity due to both single nucleotide polymorphisms and major re-arrangements, which may affect the host specificity of Salmonella phages. Conclusions Genomics-based characterization of 22 Salmonella phages isolated from dairy farms allowed for identification of a number of novel Salmonella phages. While the comparative genomics analyses of these phages provide a number of new insights in the evolution and diversity of Salmonella phages, they only represent a first

  16. Appropriate technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinsky, R.

    1981-12-01

    The technology of China (based on a visit to China in 1980) is described. The human labor intensity, particularly in the rural areas, is emphasized. Most tasks are accomplished using simple tools. Plowing, using water buffalo or single-piston diesel tractors, is discussed as well as the methods of nutrient recycling. All organic wastes are considered precious resources to be recycled (including human wastes). Biogas digesters, producing fuel (methane) and fertilizer, are described briefly. Livestock (pigs, geese, ducks, chickens), gardens, and ponds in rural China are discussed as well as the transportation system, which is primarily the bicycle. Primary energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectric power) are used in the urban areas and by industry. The considerable interest in renewable energy sources is discussed with particular emphasis on the biogas digesters in the rural areas. Interest in applications of solar energy is high. The goals of China are to speed development and mechanization of their agriculture, industry, science, technology and defense. It is concluded that there is much to learn from China, as it has much to learn and perhaps the ideal would be a middle ground. (MJJ)

  17. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  18. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  19. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000.

  20. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  1. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.-S.; Zhu, Z.-L.; Lu, H.; Xu, D.; Liu, A.-X.; Peng, S.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns. ?? 2008 Northeast Forestry University.

  2. Advancing universal coverage of healthcare in China: translating political will into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenglan; Brixi, Hana; Bekedam, Henk

    2014-01-01

    China launched its new health system reform plan in 2009 to advance its universal coverage of healthcare, after more than 4 years' consultations and discussions with various stakeholders including the public. This paper aims to introduce and discuss the context and process of China's current health system reform and analyse how political will in China has been translated into policy practice over the past decade. The paper also shares the insights of World Health Organization's contribution to China's health system reform, as the authors advised the Chinese government on the reform options and process. Furthermore, the paper describes and discusses key challenges in the implementation of the reform plan over the past 3 years and draws lessons for other countries.

  3. Introducing CAML II

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom; Boyes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Channel Access Markup Language (CAML) is a XML based markup language and implementation for displaying EPICS channel access controls within a web browser. The CAML II project expanded upon the work of CAML I adding more features and greater integration with other web technologies. The most dramatic new feature introduced in CAML II is the introduction of a namespace so CAML controls can be embedded within XHTML documents. A repetition template with macro substitution allows for rapid coding of arbitrary XHTML repetitions. Enhancements have been made to several controls including more powerful plotting options. Advanced formatting options were introduced for text controls. Virtual process variables allow for custom calculations. An EDL to CAML translator eases the transition from EDM screens to CAML pages.

  4. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  5. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  6. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  7. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  8. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  9. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  10. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  11. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  12. China's Vocational Universities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Anning

    This ERIC Digest describes the development and characteristics of vocational universities (VUs) in China. In response to the demand for increased numbers of trained technical workers in the 1980's, VUs developed and the higher vocational education system in China was reformed. Currently, 101 vocational universities are in existence in China. These…

  13. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  14. Insights on the College, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdle, Michael A.; Silverman, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the 2000-2001 issues of Mt. San Antonio College's (Mt. SAC's) "Insights on the College." The first issue, "Mt. SAC Progress Report on Partnership for Excellence Goals," is a report on the self-assessment of the Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program conducted by Mt. SAC. The PFE program addresses the goal of the community…

  15. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  16. Gaining Algorithmic Insight through Simplifying Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginat, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses algorithmic problem solving in computer science education, particularly algorithmic insight, and focuses on the relevance and effectiveness of the heuristic simplifying constraints which involves simplification of a given problem to a problem in which constraints are imposed on the input data. Presents three examples involving…

  17. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  18. Development and Testing of "Math Insight" Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    Computers running appropriate software hold great promise for teaching and learning mathematics. To this end, SRI International developed an integrated, computer-based problem solving environment called "Math Insight" that included interactive tools, such as a spreadsheet and dynamic geometric sketches, and professionally produced videos used to…

  19. Factorising a Quadratic Expression with Geometric Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for factorising a quadratic expression to facilitate instruction and learning. It appeals to elementary geometry which may provide better insights to some students or teachers. There have been many methods for factorising a quadratic expression described in school text books. However, students often seem to struggle with…

  20. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  1. Restructuring Schools in Kentucky: Insights from Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    This paper presents the insights of superintendents about the school restructuring process in Kentucky and its likely effects. Data were derived from a focus group held with 24 members of the Kentucky Educational Development Corporation (KEDC), and from a survey of 48 superintendents, of which 35 responded. A majority of respondents expressed…

  2. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  3. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  4. Insight into an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some insights on the characteristics of a person with Asperger's syndrome, a condition on the higher-functioning end of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Born in 1955, the author was raised in rural South Auckland. As a baby, she propelled herself around the floor on her stomach, using her limbs as flippers,…

  5. CHILI: China Lijiang IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Wide-field IFU technology on medium-size telescope provides a unique science capability that compliments larger future facilities. Here I introduce a program to employ a VIRUS-like unit on the 2.4 meter telescope in GaoMeiGu Observatory in LiJiang, China. We name the instrument "CHILI (China Lijiang IFU)". It will be an IFU with very large field of view at 1.8'x3.6'. We discuss its science capabilities and its potential benefit to the Chinese astronomical community.

  6. Nursing homes in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Leung-Wing; Chi, Iris

    2008-05-01

    China will face a dramatic transition from a young to an aged society in the coming 30 to 40 years. In 2000, there were 88,110,000 persons aged 65 years and older, which represented 7% of the population. This percentage is projected to increase to 23% in 2050. Regarding health and long-term care for older adults, the current challenge is to build a comprehensive system of care for older adults. Nursing home care is an inevitable care model for frail older adults in China, which is largely sponsored by the government of China with contributions from some nongovernment organizations and private investors. China is a large country. Within the country, long-term care varies greatly between rural and urban areas, and among the different economic developing areas. In urban and better-developed areas, the range of services exists; however, in rural and less-developed areas, the range of services is limited. The "Star Light Program" and "Beloved Care Engineering" were recent government initiatives to improve aged care. They were launched in 2001 and have dramatically increased the number of both senior centers and nursing homes for older adults. While the quantity of nursing homes is still inadequate with an additional mismatch problem between the supply and demand, the quality of care in most nursing homes is suboptimal. At present, most administrative and frontline workers in nursing homes have received little training in elder care. There is a need for good-quality structured training in long-term care for all types of staff. Moreover, quality standard for care, including standard setting, assessment, and monitoring, is an important issue and needs substantial improvement for nursing homes in China. Currently, 1.5% of older people live in nursing homes and apartments for older people. Because of the peculiar 4-2-1 family structure in China, we expect the prevalence of nursing home placement of older adults will increase in the coming years. The government of China has

  7. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  8. Insights into the reactivation of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Smith, Janet L.; Matthews, Rowena G.

    2009-12-10

    Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a modular protein that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. The cobalamin cofactor, which serves as both acceptor and donor of the methyl group, is oxidized once every {approx}2,000 catalytic cycles and must be reactivated by the uptake of an electron from reduced flavodoxin and a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Previous structures of a C-terminal fragment of MetH (MetH{sup CT}) revealed a reactivation conformation that juxtaposes the cobalamin- and AdoMet-binding domains. Here we describe 2 structures of a disulfide stabilized MetH{sup CT} ({sub s-s}MetH{sup CT}) that offer further insight into the reactivation of MetH. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sup CT} with cob(II)alamin and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine represents the enzyme in the reactivation step preceding electron transfer from flavodoxin. The structure supports earlier suggestions that the enzyme acts to lower the reduction potential of the Co(II)/Co(I) couple by elongating the bond between the cobalt and its upper axial water ligand, effectively making the cobalt 4-coordinate, and illuminates the role of Tyr-1139 in the stabilization of this 4-coordinate state. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sub CT} with aquocobalamin may represent a transient state at the end of reactivation as the newly remethylated 5-coordinate methylcobalamin returns to the 6-coordinate state, triggering the rearrangement to a catalytic conformation.

  9. Moving beyond Type I and Type II neuron types.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    In 1948, Hodgkin delineated different classes of axonal firing.  This has been mathematically translated allowing insight and understanding to emerge.  As such, the terminology of 'Type I' and 'Type II' neurons is commonplace in the Neuroscience literature today.  Theoretical insights have helped us realize that, for example, network synchronization depends on whether neurons are Type I or Type II.  Mathematical models are precise with analyses (considering Type I/II aspects), but experimentally, the distinction can be less clear.  On the other hand, experiments are becoming more sophisticated in terms of distinguishing and manipulating particular cell types but are limited in terms of being able to consider network aspects simultaneously.   Although there is much work going on mathematically and experimentally, in my opinion it is becoming common that models are either superficially linked with experiment or not described in enough detail to appreciate the biological context.  Overall, we all suffer in terms of impeding our understanding of brain networks and applying our understanding to neurological disease.  I suggest that more modelers become familiar with experimental details and that more experimentalists appreciate modeling assumptions. In other words, we need to move beyond our comfort zones.

  10. Newer insights to the neurological diseases among biblical characters of old testament.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen K; Pandian, Jeyaraj D

    2010-07-01

    Many people over the years have studied the Bible from a medical point of view offering diagnoses for the symptoms and signs that appear to have afflicted numerous individuals in the Bible. We review the biblical characters in the Old Testament and offer newer insights to their neurological diseases. We first look at the battle between Goliath and David. Interestingly, Goliath probably suffered from acromegaly. We propose autism as a diagnosis for Samson which would precede the first known case of autism by centuries. Isaac was a diabetic, and he probably had autonomic neuropathy. Few verses from the books of I Samuel, Psalms, and Ezekiel reveal symptoms suggestive of stroke. Jacob suffered from sciatica, and the child of the Shunnamite woman in II Kings had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. These instances among others found in the Old Testament of the Bible offer newer insights on the history of current neurological diseases.

  11. Newer insights to the neurological diseases among biblical characters of old testament

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Stephen K.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.

    2010-01-01

    Many people over the years have studied the Bible from a medical point of view offering diagnoses for the symptoms and signs that appear to have afflicted numerous individuals in the Bible. We review the biblical characters in the Old Testament and offer newer insights to their neurological diseases. We first look at the battle between Goliath and David. Interestingly, Goliath probably suffered from acromegaly. We propose autism as a diagnosis for Samson which would precede the first known case of autism by centuries. Isaac was a diabetic, and he probably had autonomic neuropathy. Few verses from the books of I Samuel, Psalms, and Ezekiel reveal symptoms suggestive of stroke. Jacob suffered from sciatica, and the child of the Shunnamite woman in II Kings had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. These instances among others found in the Old Testament of the Bible offer newer insights on the history of current neurological diseases. PMID:21085524

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the synthetic peptide scolopendrasin ii from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Jeong, Mihye; Kang, Dong-Chul; Lee, In Hee; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2013-10-28

    The centipede Scolopendra subpinipes mutilans is a medicinally important arthropod species. However, its transcriptome is not currently available and transcriptome analysis would be useful in providing insight into a molecular level approach. Hence, we performed de novo RNA sequencing of S. subpinipes mutilans using next-generation sequencing. We generated a novel peptide (scolopendrasin II) based on a SVM algorithm, and biochemically evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of scolopendrasin II against various microbes. Scolopendrasin II showed antibacterial activities against gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains, including the yeast Candida albicans and antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria, as determined by a radial diffusion assay and colony count assay without hemolytic activity. In addition, we confirmed that scolopendrasin II bound to the surface of bacteria through a specific interaction with lipoteichoic acid and a lipopolysaccharide, which was one of the bacterial cell-wall components. In conclusion, our results suggest that scolopendrasin II may be useful for developing peptide antibiotics.

  14. Observations of atmospheric mercury in China: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Yu, B.; Wang, X.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.

    2015-08-01

    China presently contributes the largest amount of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission into the atmosphere in the world. Over the past decade, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the concentration and forms of atmospheric Hg in China, which provide insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric Hg through ground-based measurements at widely diverse geographical locations and during cruise and flight campaigns. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the state of understanding in atmospheric Hg in China. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) measured at the remote sites in China are substantially elevated compared to the background values in the Northern Hemisphere. In Chinese urban areas, the highly elevated GEM, PBM and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) were mainly derived from local anthropogenic Hg emissions, whereas regional anthropogenic emissions and long-range transport from domestic source regions are the primary causes of the elevated GEM and PBM concentrations at remote sites. Using 7-9 years of continuous observations at a remote site and an urban site, a slight increase in atmospheric GEM (2.4-2.5 % yr-1) was identified (paired samples test: p < 0.01), which is in agreement with the increasing domestic anthropogenic emissions. Anthropogenic GEM emission quantity in China estimated through the observed GEM / CO concentration ratios ranged from 632 to 1138 t annually over the past decade, 2-3 times larger than published values using emission activity data. Modeling results and filed measurements show dry deposition is the predominant process for removing Hg from the atmosphere, 2.5-9.0 times larger than wet deposition, due to the elevated atmospheric GEM and PBM concentrations that facilitate dry deposition to terrestrial landscapes. Further studies to reconcile the observed and simulated Hg concentrations, to understand the impact of domestic emission reduction on Hg

  15. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight.

  16. Tectonic activity and structural features of active intracontinental normal faults in the Weihe Graben, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gang; Lin, Aiming; Yan, Bing; Jia, Dong; Wu, Xiaojun

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the tectonic activity and structural features of active normal faults in the Weihe Graben, central China. The Weihe Graben is an area with a high level of historic seismicity, and it is one of the intracontinental systems that developed since Tertiary in the extensional environment around the Ordos Block. Analysis of high-resolution remote-sensing imagery data, field observations, and radiocarbon dating results reveal the following: i) active normal faults are mainly developed within a zone < 500 m wide along the southern border of the eastern part of the Weihe Graben; ii) the active faults that have been identified are characterized by stepwise fault scarps dipping into the graben at angles of 40°-71°; iii) there are numerous discontinuous individual fault traces, ranging in length from a few tens of meters to 450 m (generally < 200 m); iv) fault zone structures, topographic features, and fault striations on the main fault planes indicate almost pure normal-slip; and v) late Pleistocene-Holocene terrace risers, loess, and alluvial deposits have been vertically offset by up to ~ 80 m, with a non-uniform dip-slip rate (throw-rates) ranging from ~ 2.1 to 5.7 mm/yr, mostly 2-3 mm/yr. Our results reveal that active normal faults have been developing in the Weihe Graben under an ongoing extensional environment, probably associated with the pre-existing graben and spreading of the continental crust, and this is in contrast with the Ordos Block and neighboring orogenic regions. These results provide new insights into the nature of extensional tectonic deformation in intracontinental graben systems.

  17. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the lower cretaceous of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Qingyu; Xing, Lida; Sullivan, Corwin; Hu, Dongyu; Cheng, Shuqing; Wang, Shuo

    2012-04-04

    Numerous feathered dinosaur specimens have recently been recovered from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China, but most of them represent small animals. Here we report the discovery of a gigantic new basal tyrannosauroid, Yutyrannus huali gen. et sp. nov., based on three nearly complete skeletons representing two distinct ontogenetic stages from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Y. huali shares some features, particularly of the cranium, with derived tyrannosauroids, but is similar to other basal tyrannosauroids in possessing a three-fingered manus and a typical theropod pes. Morphometric analysis suggests that Y. huali differed from tyrannosaurids in its growth strategy. Most significantly, Y. huali bears long filamentous feathers, thus providing direct evidence for the presence of extensively feathered gigantic dinosaurs and offering new insights into early feather evolution.

  18. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  19. The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Rabies in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinning; Li, Hao; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Han, Na; Guo, Zhenyang; Liu, Haizhou; Adams, James; Fang, Wei; Tao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shumei; Liang, Guodong

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of rabies cases in China and an expansion in the geographic distribution of the virus. In spite of the seriousness of the outbreak and increasing number of fatalities, little is known about the phylogeography of the disease in China. In this study, we report an analysis of a set of Nucleocapsid sequences consisting of samples collected through the trial Chinese National Surveillance System as well as publicly available sequences. This sequence set represents the most comprehensive dataset from China to date, comprising 210 sequences (including 57 new samples) from 15 provinces and covering all epidemic regions. Using this dataset we investigated genetic diversity, patterns of distribution, and evolutionary history. Results Our analysis indicates that the rabies virus in China is primarily defined by two clades that exhibit distinct population subdivision and translocation patterns and that contributed to the epidemic in different ways. The younger clade originated around 1992 and has properties that closely match the observed spread of the recent epidemic. The older clade originated around 1960 and has a dispersion pattern that suggests it represents a strain associated with a previous outbreak that remained at low levels throughout the country and reemerged in the current epidemic. Conclusions Our findings provide new insight into factors associated with the recent epidemic and are relevant to determining an effective policy for controlling the virus. PMID:22563518

  20. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area.

  1. Microsatellite analysis of genetic relationships between wild and cultivated melons in Northwest and Central China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianbin; Wang, Panqiao; Li, Qiong; Su, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The genetic relationships between the wild and cultivated melon accessions from Northwest and Central China were dissected using 22 microsatellite markers. A total of 153 alleles, a high level of expected heterozygosity (0.669), and a low observed heterozygosity (0.156) were detected in the total panel. Differences on the allelic composition and heterozygosity levels were found between the two accession types and the wild accessions revealed a higher level of genetic diversity. The UPGMA analysis of the total panel showed that (a) most wild accessions from Northwest China were clustered independently from the cultivated accessions, and (b) the wild and cultivated accessions from Central China presented a high genetic closeness and showed a divergence from those of Northwest China. Similar positioning of the most accessions was observed with the principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis. Pairwise FST and Nei's genetic distance quantified the genetic differentiation among the different accession types and further verified our findings. We concluded that the wild melons from Northwest China have a distinctive genetic background and could be the true wild forms, while the wild melons from Central China showed a close relationship to the local cultivars and could be a return from the cultivated melons in the same region. Our results offer an insight into the genetic resources of the main melon producing regions in China, which is essential for maximizing utilization of the traits of interest in wild melons.

  2. An overview of veterinary medical education in China: current status, deficiencies, and strategy for improvement.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie-chao; Li, Guang-xing; Ren, Xiao-feng

    2006-01-01

    Especially in developing countries, the profession of veterinary medicine is closely tied with agriculture and government economic development, the national structure of education, and national public health. Currently, the Chinese veterinary medical educational system and accreditation standards are distinctly different from those of some more developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, or the countries of the European Union. Chinese veterinary education is still closely based on traditional Chinese education approaches and standards, which has led to some deficiencies in the Chinese system. With the development of a stronger economy in China and the growing trend toward globalization, and particularly since China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), some important questions about China's system of veterinary education are being raised: How can veterinary science develop more rapidly in China? How can it meet the needs of the growing Chinese society? How can China bring its veterinary medical practice more in line with that of other, more advanced countries? This article describes some of the realities of veterinary medical education in China, discusses several existing problems, and puts forward some ideas for possible reforms. It is hoped that by this means those outside China may gain insight into our veterinary education program and that this, in turn, will lead to helpful input from international educators and other professionals to help improve our programs.

  3. Detecting the origins of moisture over southeast China: Seasonal variation and heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Yongqin David

    2016-03-01

    To examine the ability of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to detect the origins and paths of moisture supplied to Southeast China, trajectories of air particles released over Southeast China were traced backward during 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013 and three typical regional persistent heavy rainfall events. The HYSPLIT model provides more insightful information than water vapor flux. Analysis of the specific humidity along the trajectories revealed the origins of moisture and their contributions to the moisture supply in Southeast China. In the boreal summer half year, four key moisture transport paths from the eastern Indian Ocean, central Indian Ocean, South China Sea (SCS), and western North Pacific (WNP) contribute 10%, 20%, 31%, and 16% of the moisture to Southeast China, respectively. In the winter half year, the contributions of the paths from the WNP and North China double. Examination of heavy rainfall events showed that under tropical storm conditions, all moisture transport routines are rotated cyclonically before reaching Southeast China. The invasion of cold air can trigger heavy rainfall in both the summer and winter half years but plays different roles: it does not contribute to the moisture supply but plays a key role in converging and uplifting the moisture in the summer half year, while it supplies a great amount of moisture in the winter half year as it absorbs abundant moisture in crossing the WNP.

  4. Institutions of Higher Education as Public Diplomacy Tools: China-Based University Programs for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzgar, Emily T.

    2016-01-01

    Two flagship Chinese universities are home to newly established English-language graduate programs intended to arm international cohorts of future leaders with the skills, knowledge, and insights necessary to thrive in a world in which China will play a leading role. Employing the literature of international education and public diplomacy, this…

  5. Challenges in Retraining Workers Laid-Off by State-Owned Enterprises in China: Findings from a Field Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bingxin; Lewis, Ramon; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses one of the many sensitive and challenging problems generated by China's era of reform and economic growth: the need to retrain or educate laid-off (displaced) workers from state owned enterprises (SOEs). It does so to provide valuable insight for those responsible for the changes associated with the move to the current…

  6. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  7. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    PubMed

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia.

  8. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    PubMed

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27069064

  9. My Classroom: China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  10. China: A Teaching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyser, Catherine H., Ed.; Martin, Roberta, Ed.

    This workbook is divided into 17 topical sections containing student readings and classroom activities designed to supplement standard textbook presentations and to bring China "alive" for students. The organization of the materials and the background notes for teachers stress central themes that are distinctive and recurrent in Chinese history…

  11. Reading the World: China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffa, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Presents picture books, fiction, nonfiction, biographies, folklore, and poetry for young students (kindergarten-grade 8) studying China. Suggests activities based on the books using art, physical education, language arts, research skills, math, science, geography, and drama. Highlights books and collections of folk tales with stories about…

  12. The China Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Juefei, Wang

    1991-01-01

    Nearly half of all Vermont school districts have participated in the China Project since its inception in 1986. During the program's first two years, participants examined Chinese history, politics, economy, geography, philosophy, arts, ancient inventions, foreign policy, social life, women's social status, the Chinese language, and the Beijing…

  13. China: The Television Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivenburgh, Nancy K.

    What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…

  14. Child Care in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Describes the experiences of American educators on a tour of "kindergarten" (preschool) programs in China, and highlights the major characteristics of child care and preschool in that country. Addresses funding, staff training, enrollment, child-staff ratios, health and immunization, parent involvement, politicization, materials and equipment, and…

  15. Biomaterials research in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingdong; Cui, Fuzhai

    2012-01-01

    It is a great honour that Interface Focus will publish a special issue to introduce the progress and achievements of biomaterials research in China. We feel it is a good opportunity to present the progress in Chinese biomaterials research to the international biomaterials community, and to promote the collaboration between international and Chinese biomaterials scientists.

  16. China's Demographic Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, H. Yuan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    China's herculean efforts to slow the increase of its giant population appear to have worked: the annual birth rate fell from about 35 births per 1,000 in the 1950s to 20 per 1,000 in the 1990s. This bulletin examines the development and consequences of the strict population planning control measures introduced in the 1970s, and strengthened in…

  17. Selected bibliography of China

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 276 records related to the geology of the China. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; lithology; paleontology; stratigraphy; tectonics; drilling; earthquakes; exploration; geophysics; mineral resources; and seismology. The subject index provides listings of records related to each of the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (10) are themselves bibliographies.

  18. Acting Decisively: China's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Gerald W.; Harvey, James J.

    2009-01-01

    During a 10-day visit to China last year, 25 American superintendents observed a global giant in pursuit of educational excellence. In this article, two of the travelers reflect on what they learned from their experience and what it could mean for Americans. They saw a profound respect for education and pride in learning. They also found support…

  19. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  20. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  1. Intellectuals in China: Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This annotated bibliography of 72 books, journal articles, government reports, and newspaper feature stories focuses on the changing role of intellectuals in China, primarily since the 1949 Chinese Revolution. Particular attention is given to the Hundred Flowers Movement of 1957 and the Cultural Revolution. Most of the cited works are in English,…

  2. Something about China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Sonia; And Others

    The major objective of this instructional program on the People's Republic of China is to help elementary grade students develop an understanding and tolerance of cultural relativism. The development of intellectual, affective, and psychomotor skills through the utilization of subject matter is also an important objective of the program. The…

  3. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  4. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  5. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  6. China: Education Since the Cultural Revolution. A Selected, Partially Annotated Bibliography of English Translations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Peter B., Comp.; Krenkel, Noele, Comp.

    This selected partially annotated bibliography of English translated materials on Chinese education since the "Cultural Revolution" is arranged as follows. Section I comprises books and pamphlets. Section II, papers and journal articles, includes "Chinese Education,""Current Scene: Developments in Mainland China,""Daily Report: People's Republic…

  7. Energizing the light harvesting antenna: Insight from CP29.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Papadatos, Sotiris; Daskalakis, Vangelis

    2016-10-01

    How do plants cope with excess light energy? Crop health and stress tolerance are governed by molecular photoprotective mechanisms. Protective exciton quenching in plants is activated by membrane energization, via unclear conformational changes in proteins called antennas. Here we show that pH and salt gradients stimulate the response of such an antenna under low and high energization by all-atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Novel insight establishes that helix-5 (H5) conformation in CP29 from spinach is regulated by chemiosmotic factors. This is selectively correlated with the chl-614 macrocycle deformation and interactions with nearby pigments, that could suggest a role in plant photoprotection. Adding to the significance of our findings, H5 domain is conserved among five antennas (LHCB1-5). These results suggest that light harvesting complexes of Photosystem II, one of the most abundant proteins on earth, can sense chemiosmotic gradients via their H5 domains in an upgraded role from a solar detector to also a chemiosmotic sensor. PMID:27438094

  8. Molecular insights into the terminal energy acceptor in cyanobacterial phycobilisome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wei, Tian-Di; Zhang, Nan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Su, Hai-Nan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-09-01

    The linker protein L(CM) (ApcE) is postulated as the major component of the phycobilisome terminal energy acceptor (TEA) transferring excitation energy from the phycobilisome to photosystem II. L(CM) is the only phycobilin-attached linker protein in the cyanobacterial phycobilisome through auto-chromophorylation. However, the underlying mechanism for the auto-chromophorylation of L(CM) and the detailed molecular architecture of TEA is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the N-terminal phycobiliprotein-like domain of L(CM) (Pfam00502, LP502) can specifically recognize phycocyanobilin (PCB) by itself. Biochemical assays indicated that PCB binds into the same pocket in LP502 as that in the allophycocyanin α-subunit and that Ser152 and Asp155 play a vital role in LP502 auto-chromophorylation. By carefully conducting computational simulations, we arrived at a rational model of the PCB-LP502 complex structure that was supported by extensive mutational studies. In the PCB-LP502 complex, PCB binds into a deep pocket of LP502 with a distorted conformation, and Ser152 and Asp155 form several hydrogen bonds to PCB fixing the PCB Ring A and Ring D. Finally, based on our results, the dipoles and dipole-dipole interactions in TEA are analysed and a molecular structure for TEA is proposed, which gives new insights into the energy transformation mechanism of cyanobacterial phycobilisome. PMID:22758351

  9. New Observational and Theoretical Insights on Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Arnett, D.; Raymond, J. C.; Young, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    I present near-infrared observations and theoretical calculations that provide new insight into the ejecta in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. Our observations of the infrared synchrotron emission in Cas A, supported by spectroscopy of near-infrared [Fe II] lines, show that the reddening to Cas A's expansion center is higher than previous optical observations indicated, though our measurement is consistent with the broad constraints from radio observations. This has implications for the historical observability of the supernova, as well as for the nucleosynthetic yield. Our observations also allow constraints on the mass of iron heated to optical and infrared emitting temperatures with passage through the reverse shock. New radiative transfer calculations inform the interpretation of the recent Spitzer detection of cold gas-phase ejecta interior to the reverse shock. Finally, I present calculations with a new multi-dimensional, multi-species hydrodynamics code coupled with a non-equilibrium ionization solver that allows detailed spectral and morphological modeling of the shocked ejecta in Cas A.

  10. Energizing the light harvesting antenna: Insight from CP29.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Papadatos, Sotiris; Daskalakis, Vangelis

    2016-10-01

    How do plants cope with excess light energy? Crop health and stress tolerance are governed by molecular photoprotective mechanisms. Protective exciton quenching in plants is activated by membrane energization, via unclear conformational changes in proteins called antennas. Here we show that pH and salt gradients stimulate the response of such an antenna under low and high energization by all-atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Novel insight establishes that helix-5 (H5) conformation in CP29 from spinach is regulated by chemiosmotic factors. This is selectively correlated with the chl-614 macrocycle deformation and interactions with nearby pigments, that could suggest a role in plant photoprotection. Adding to the significance of our findings, H5 domain is conserved among five antennas (LHCB1-5). These results suggest that light harvesting complexes of Photosystem II, one of the most abundant proteins on earth, can sense chemiosmotic gradients via their H5 domains in an upgraded role from a solar detector to also a chemiosmotic sensor.

  11. ESEEM Analysis of Multi-Histidine Cu(II)-Coordination in Model Complexes, Peptides, and Amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We validate the use of ESEEM to predict the number of 14N nuclei coupled to a Cu(II) ion by the use of model complexes and two small peptides with well-known Cu(II) coordination. We apply this method to gain new insight into less explored aspects of Cu(II) coordination in amyloid-β (Aβ). Aβ has two coordination modes of Cu(II) at physiological pH. A controversy has existed regarding the number of histidine residues coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in component II, which is dominant at high pH (∼8.7) values. Importantly, with an excess amount of Zn(II) ions, as is the case in brain tissues affected by Alzheimer’s disease, component II becomes the dominant coordination mode, as Zn(II) selectively substitutes component I bound to Cu(II). We confirm that component II only contains single histidine coordination, using ESEEM and set of model complexes. The ESEEM experiments carried out on systematically 15N-labeled peptides reveal that, in component II, His 13 and His 14 are more favored as equatorial ligands compared to His 6. Revealing molecular level details of subcomponents in metal ion coordination is critical in understanding the role of metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease etiology. PMID:25014537

  12. ESEEM analysis of multi-histidine Cu(II)-coordination in model complexes, peptides, and amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Silva, K Ishara; Michael, Brian C; Geib, Steven J; Saxena, Sunil

    2014-07-31

    We validate the use of ESEEM to predict the number of (14)N nuclei coupled to a Cu(II) ion by the use of model complexes and two small peptides with well-known Cu(II) coordination. We apply this method to gain new insight into less explored aspects of Cu(II) coordination in amyloid-β (Aβ). Aβ has two coordination modes of Cu(II) at physiological pH. A controversy has existed regarding the number of histidine residues coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in component II, which is dominant at high pH (∼8.7) values. Importantly, with an excess amount of Zn(II) ions, as is the case in brain tissues affected by Alzheimer's disease, component II becomes the dominant coordination mode, as Zn(II) selectively substitutes component I bound to Cu(II). We confirm that component II only contains single histidine coordination, using ESEEM and set of model complexes. The ESEEM experiments carried out on systematically (15)N-labeled peptides reveal that, in component II, His 13 and His 14 are more favored as equatorial ligands compared to His 6. Revealing molecular level details of subcomponents in metal ion coordination is critical in understanding the role of metal ions in Alzheimer's disease etiology.

  13. Tectonostratigraphic palereconstruction of China

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J. )

    1990-05-01

    In many instances, global paleoreconstruction of the continents has depicted China as one continental plate throughout geologic time. Actually, Paleozoic and Mesozoic China was a mosaic of continental island plates dispersed in Proterozoic and Paleotethys seas. The movement of these island plates was controlled on the major part by the movement of the Siberian craton (Angara shield) and to subduction and accretion of oceanic plates to the east and south near the present-day Tibetan plateau. During the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic many of these island plates moved together toward the east, accreting and thrusting upon each other. Many of these collisions occurred obliquely, causing large suture zones and low-angle thrusts, especially in the area of present-day south China. The Tertiary collision and overthrust of the Indian plate in the region of Tibet was preceded by an accretion of two large oceanic plates over which a southern oceanic plate has overridden the northern accreted plate. Subsequently, this caused the megauplit of the present-day Tibetan plateau by being underridden by both the proto-Indian and Indian plates. There is evidence from age-dating basement rocks in southern onshore and offshore China that most of the grabens, the fold systems, and the coastal foldbelt as proposed on many maps may be interpreted as areas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic low-angle thrusting, together with extensional strike-slip movements, covered with Cenozoic nonmarine (fluvial and lacustrine) sediments. Paleofacies maps of China have been constructed based on a synthesis of basin lithofacies stratigraphies that support this interpretation.

  14. Urologic cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  15. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo, Ningguang; Liu, Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  16. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  17. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  18. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  19. Implementation of Insight Responsibilities in Process Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Deborah M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes an approach for evaluating flight readiness (COFR) and contractor performance evaluation (award fee) as part of the insight role of NASA Process Engineering at Kennedy Space Center. Several evaluation methods are presented, including systems engineering evaluations and use of systems performance data. The transition from an oversight function to the insight function is described. The types of analytical tools appropriate for achieving the flight readiness and contractor performance evaluation goals are described and examples are provided. Special emphasis is placed upon short and small run statistical quality control techniques. Training requirements for system engineers are delineated. The approach described herein would be equally appropriate in other directorates at Kennedy Space Center.

  20. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…