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Sample records for china local capital

  1. Sense of community, neighboring, and social capital as predictors of local political participation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Perkins, Douglas D; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the state of sense of community, neighboring behavior, and social capital in the People's Republic of China, and explores their ability to predict local political participation, in the form of voting in elections for Urban Resident/Rural Villager Committees. Using a nationally representative survey, rural, older and married residents and those with a primary or high school education and higher perceived socio-economic status are more likely to participate. In rural areas, men are more likely than women to vote. For urban residents, knowing one's neighbors is more important whereas in rural areas, neighboring behavior is more important, but both predict voting. Social capital does not generally predict Chinese people's local political participation. Western definitions of social capital derived from theories about networking, bonding and bridging ties may be too culturally individualistic for China, whose collectivist society and agrarian kinship networks predate Communism. Simply knowing and helping one's neighbors, rather than more abstract notions of trust, reciprocity or membership, may lead to the development of local democracy.

  2. Social capital, neighbourhood characteristics and utilisation of local public health services among domestic migrants in China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Senlin; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-08-18

    We examined the association between structural social capital and public health services use, and explored the modifiable effect of neighbourhood factors on this association among domestic migrants in China. Data were from a 2014 nationally representative cross-sectional sample of domestic migrants aged 15-59 years in China. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between structural social capital, measured by participation in social organisations and social activities, and use of public health services. Interaction terms between neighbourhood urban status, neighbourhood composition and social capital were further assessed in the models. Migrants who participated in social organisations were more likely to establish health records (OR 1.467, 95% CI 1.201 to 1.793) and receive health education information (OR 1.729, 95% CI 1.484 to 2.016) than those who did not. Participation in social activities was positively associated with establishing health records only in urban communities (OR 1.853, 95% CI 1.060 to 3.239), and it was positively linked to receiving health education information among those living with a higher percentage of local neighbours (OR 1.451, 95% CI 1.044 to 2.017). Structural social capital was related to an increased utilisation of local public health services among migrants. The findings of this study provided new evidence for the differential influences of social capital by neighbourhood characteristics in China, which suggested the importance to enhance social capital in rural/suburban communities and communities where the majority of the residents were migrants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  4. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  5. Representation of critical natural capital in China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Whitham, Charlotte; Liu, Shuguang; Wu, Bingfang

    2017-08-01

    Traditional means of assessing representativeness of conservation value in protected areas depend on measures of structural biodiversity. The effectiveness of priority conservation areas at representing critical natural capital (CNC) (i.e., an essential and renewable subset of natural capital) remains largely unknown. We analyzed the representativeness of CNC-conservation priority areas in national nature reserves (i.e., nature reserves under jurisdiction of the central government with large spatial distribution across the provinces) in China with a new biophysical-based composite indicator approach. With this approach, we integrated the net primary production of vegetation, topography, soil, and climate variables to map and rank terrestrial ecosystems capacities to generate CNC. National nature reserves accounted for 6.7% of CNC-conservation priority areas across China. Considerable gaps (35.2%) existed between overall (or potential) CNC representativeness nationally and CNC representation in national reserves, and there was significant spatial heterogeneity of representativeness in CNC-conservation priority areas at the regional and provincial levels. For example, the best and worst representations were, respectively, 13.0% and 1.6% regionally and 28.9% and 0.0% provincially. Policy in China is transitioning toward the goal of an ecologically sustainable civilization. We identified CNC-conservation priority areas and conservation gaps and thus contribute to the policy goals of optimization of the national nature reserve network and the demarcation of areas critical to improving the representativeness and conservation of highly functioning areas of natural capital. Moreover, our method for assessing representation of CNC can be easily adapted to other large-scale networks of conservation areas because few data are needed, and our model is relatively simple. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  7. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  8. Local community playgroup participation and associations with social capital.

    PubMed

    Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexander; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Issue addressed: The study aim was to investigate the relationships between social capital measures and playgroup participation in a local residential area for parents with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) compared with non-participation and participation in a playgroup outside the local residential area. Research indicates playgroup participation has benefits for families, however, less is known about the potential local community social capital for parents who participate in playgroups.Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from March 2013 to January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a group of parents (n=405) who had at least one child aged between 1 and 4 years were analysed using multivariable regression. Reported playgroup participation (local, outside the area or non-participation) in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with three measures (Neighbourhood Cohesion Index, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey and local reciprocity) that capture attributes of social capital.Results: Participation in playgroup locally was generally associated with higher levels of social capital than both participation in playgroup outside the local area and non-participation. Mothers with two or more children fared better for social capital measures than mothers with one child.Conclusions: Participation in a locally placed playgroup may provide an important opportunity for families with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) to build social capital in their local community.So what?: Playgroups in a family's local area have the potential to foster locally placed social capital through community interaction, social networks and cohesion, which are important for mental health promotion in communities.

  9. Locally Sourced Capital for Small Businesses in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampien, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Lack of adequate access to capital is a major barrier for rural entrepreneurs. Washington State University Extension and the Association of Washington Cities partnered to explore and test an innovative local investment approach that provides access to capital and engages the community in the success of individual businesses. The approach offers…

  10. Locally Sourced Capital for Small Businesses in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampien, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Lack of adequate access to capital is a major barrier for rural entrepreneurs. Washington State University Extension and the Association of Washington Cities partnered to explore and test an innovative local investment approach that provides access to capital and engages the community in the success of individual businesses. The approach offers…

  11. Social capital and depression: evidence from urban elderly in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weiming; Li, Lu; Zhou, Xudong; Zhou, Chi

    2015-01-01

    To study the relationship between social capital and depression among older adults from urban China and the mediating effect of social support on the influence of social capital on depression. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews targeting older adults (N = 928, response rate = 68.1%) aged over 60 years residing in Hangzhou, China, in 2013. Indicators of social capital included both cognitive (trust and reciprocity) and structural (social network and social participation) aspects. The dependent variable depression was measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale, social support was measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and sociodemographic variables (age, education, and household income) and physical function were controlled for analysis. The data were analyzed by factor analysis and a hierarchical regression model. Trust, reciprocity, and social network were significantly associated with geriatric depression after controlling. Social participation was not correlated with geriatric depression. Social support partially mediated the relationships between social capital and geriatric depression. This study provides new evidence that social capital effectively mediates geriatric depression directly and indirectly. The intervention of social capital on depression should therefore consider the two pathways. Future longitudinal studies should help further understand the mechanisms linking social capital and depression.

  12. What could cognitive capital mean for China's children?

    PubMed

    Noble, Douglas J; Martin, Kathryn; Qin, Lisa; Britto, Pia; O'sullivan, Margo; Popkins, Jillian; Pouwels, Ron; Scherpbier, Robert W; Flowers, Rana

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive capital is an emerging paradigm that captures the criticality of investing in children whilst neural proliferation and development of brain architecture are at their peak. Distinct from financial capital, cognitive capital represents investment in future human potential from interventions in nutrition, health, education, child protection, and social welfare systems that optimize brain development. The return on investment is significant given the plasticity of the developing brain in response to positive stimuli. Investment in brain development results in improved health and well-being, educational outcomes, skills, employment, and quality of life. The inverse is also true. Negative stimuli lead to depreciating cognitive capital, poorer mental and physical health and educational outcomes, and decreased life chances. Cognitive capital could be an organizing framework for China's next phase of development to ensure the building of a prosperous society. Through significant commitment from the government, China has seen remarkable improvements in under-five mortality, literacy rates, access to basic education, life expectancy, and gross domestic product in the past few decades as the result of an expansion of publicly funded social services. Yet, inequities remain within and across communities and regions. In 2015, China had a country ranking of 97 for gross national income per capita, highlighting remaining challenges across the whole population. Cognitive capital relies on a package of forward-looking policies that lead to equitable, efficient, and effective use of existing and future resources. This is consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Investments in interventions that maximize optimal brain development in children, realize children's rights, and contribute to future economic growth, defined as "cognitive capital," represent a significant opportunity for improving children's lives, nation-building, and future

  13. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  14. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  15. Accumulating Human Capital While Increasing Educational Inequality: A Study on Higher Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…

  16. Accumulating Human Capital While Increasing Educational Inequality: A Study on Higher Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…

  17. Measurement and multifractal properties of short-term international capital flows in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Yang, Zhenyu; Geng, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks. The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks.

  18. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  19. Social Capital and Quality of Life Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Gui-Lian; Yuan, Zhao-Kang; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D; Cook, Angelie; Yuan, Ling-Ling; Xu, Qun-Ying; Jiang, Hong-Ying; Zheng, Hui-Lie; Wang, Li; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 261 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Southeast China. A social capital questionnaire was used to measure social capital dimensions (trust, social connection, and social participation). A Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was used to assess Quality of Life (QoL); Physical Health Summary Scores (PHS) and Mental Health Summary Scores (MHS) were calculated. Multiple regression assessed whether social capital and its dimensions were associated with PHS and MHS. After controlling for sociodemographics and HIV-related factors, lower PHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .01) and low trust (P < .001). Lower MHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .001), low trust (P < .001) and low social connection (P < .01). Our findings identify potential intervention targets to improve QoL among PLWH in Southeast China, including the promotion of social capital. © 2016 APJPH.

  20. Effects of Living Alone on Social Capital and Health Among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Green Space Changes and Planning in the Capital Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuegong; Duan, Xiaofeng; Sun, Haiqing; Sun, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Green space plays an important role in complex urban ecosystems and provides significant ecosystem services with environmental, aesthetic, recreational and economic benefits. Beijing is the capital city of China and has a large population of about 15.81 million. Construction of green spaces is an important part of sustainable development in Beijing. To attain the sustainable development of Beijing as a capital city, an international city, a historical cultural city, and a living amenity city, this article attempts to develop a comprehensive plan of green space development both at the municipal and regional levels. At the municipal level of Beijing, based on the study of green space changes, and taking physical geographic conditions and historical context into account, we propose to establish green barriers in the mountainous area, and plan a comprehensive green space pattern composed of one city, two rings, three networks, eight water areas, nine fields, and several patches in the plain area. At the regional level of the Capital Circle Region, integrating the characteristics and causes of main environmental issues, we design a macroscopic pattern—"barriers by mountains in the northwest," "seaward open spaces in the southeast," "grassland-forest-field-coast zones," and "green-blue symphony"—for ecological restoration and green space construction. Finally, we discuss the principles necessary to implement green space planning considering adaptation to local conditions, composite function exploitation, interregional equity and integrated planning.

  2. Taj Mahals of Decaying Shacks: Patterns in Local School Capital Stock and Unmet Capital Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsen, David; Davis, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the condition of school facilities as a dimension of school finance adequacy, reliable measures of capital stock for large samples of schools are hard to come by. In this article, we offer new methods for (a) measuring the existing capital stock of public schools, (b) defining adequacy in school facilities, and (c)…

  3. Capital punishment views in China and the United States: a preliminary study among college students.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric G; Wang, Jin

    2007-02-01

    There is a lack of research on attitudes toward capital punishment in China, and there is even less research on cross-national comparisons of capital punishment views. Using data recently collected from college students in the United States and China, this study finds that U.S. and Chinese students have differences in their views on the death penalty and its functions of deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation. This study also reveals that the respondents' perspectives of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation all affect their attitudes toward the death penalty in the United States, whereas only the first three views affect attitudes toward capital punishment in China. Furthermore, retribution is the strongest predictor in the United States, whereas deterrence is the strongest predictor in China.

  4. Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital on Quality of Life among AIDS Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823

  5. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  6. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  7. Topological properties and community detection of venture capital network: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. Based on the data from Chinese GEM and SME board, we establish a venture capital (VC) network to study the statistical properties, topological properties and community structure of the Chinese venture capital network. The result shows that there are no dominant venture capital firms in China which act as hubs in the VC network, and multi-company syndication is not popular in China, meaning that the relationships among venture capital companies are weak. The network is robust under either random or intentional attack, and possesses small world property. We also find from its community structure that, venture capital companies are more concentrated in developed districts but the links within the same district are scarce as compared to the links between different developed districts, indicating that venture capital companies are more willing to syndicate with companies in other developed districts. Furthermore, venture capital companies which invest in the same industry have closer relations within their communities than those which do not invest in the same industry.

  8. Action Research Localization in China: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yimin

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of the action research into China in the 1980s, especially since the start of the twenty-first century, Chinese education researchers have been trying to localize it in relation to the backdrop of the national curriculum reform in basic education. This article presents three cases in which educators aimed for a conscious…

  9. Social Capital and School Performance: A Local-Level Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…

  10. Mobilizing and Managing Social Capital: On Roles and Responsibilities of Local Facilitators in Territorial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Markus; Kirchengast, Christoph; Petit, Sandrine; Magnani, Natalia; Mieville-Ott, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the difficulties and challenges in mobilizing and managing social capital in concrete local and territorial directed rural development project activities. The main focus is put on the roles of local facilitators working with farmers and other local stakeholders during project implementation. The EU 5th framework project IMALP…

  11. Organ donation by capital prisoners in China: reflections in Confucian ethics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxu; Wang, Xueliang

    2010-04-01

    This article discusses the practice and development of organ donation by capital prisoners in China. It analyzes the issue of informed consent regarding organ donation from capital prisoners in light of Confucian ethics and expounds the point that under the influence of Confucianism, China is a country that attaches great importance to the role of the family in practicing informed consent in various areas, the area of organ donation from capital prisoners included. It argues that a proper form of organ donation from capital prisoners can be justified within the Confucian moral context in which the proper interests of capital prisoners and their families, the benefit of organ receptors, and a rightful order of society should all be appropriately considered. From the Confucian perspective, the act of donating organs from a capital prisoner must be decided by both the prisoner and his/her family (i.e., each side should hold a veto power), whereas such donation, in the proper circumstance protected by a rightful procedure, should be appreciated as a morally praiseworthy act of the prisoner who is willing to make the final effort to repent and correct his/her evil conduct and to leave something good to the world.

  12. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  13. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  14. Effects of a randomized intervention to improve workplace social capital in community health centers in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Kun; Li, Wen; Oksanen, Tuula; Shi, Lizheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether workplace social capital improved after implementing a workplace social capital intervention in community health centers in China. This study was conducted in 20 community health centers of similar size in Jinan of China during 2012-2013. Using the stratified site randomization, 10 centers were randomized into the intervention group; one center was excluded due to leadership change in final analyses. The baseline survey including 447 staff (response rate: 93.1%) was conducted in 2012, and followed by a six-month workplace social capital intervention, including team building courses for directors of community health centers, voluntarily public services, group psychological consultation, and outdoor training. The follow-up survey in July 2013 was responded to by 390 staff members (response rate: 86.9%). Workplace social capital was assessed with the translated and culturally adapted scale, divided into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The facility-level intervention effects were based on all baseline (n = 427) and follow-up (n = 377) respondents, except for Weibei respondents. We conducted a bivariate Difference-in-Difference analysis to estimate the facility-level intervention effects. No statistically significant intervention effects were observed at the center level; the intervention increased the facility-level workplace social capital, and its horizontal and vertical dimensions by 1.0 (p = 0.24), 0.4 (p = 0.46) and 0.8 (p = 0.16), respectively. The comprehensive intervention seemed to slightly improve workplace social capital in community health centers of urban China at the center level. High attrition rate limits any causal interpretation of the results. Further studies are warranted to test these findings.

  15. Effects of a Randomized Intervention to Improve Workplace Social Capital in Community Health Centers in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Kun; Li, Wen; Oksanen, Tuula; Shi, Lizheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether workplace social capital improved after implementing a workplace social capital intervention in community health centers in China. Methods This study was conducted in 20 community health centers of similar size in Jinan of China during 2012–2013. Using the stratified site randomization, 10 centers were randomized into the intervention group; one center was excluded due to leadership change in final analyses. The baseline survey including 447 staff (response rate: 93.1%) was conducted in 2012, and followed by a six-month workplace social capital intervention, including team building courses for directors of community health centers, voluntarily public services, group psychological consultation, and outdoor training. The follow-up survey in July 2013 was responded to by 390 staff members (response rate: 86.9%). Workplace social capital was assessed with the translated and culturally adapted scale, divided into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The facility-level intervention effects were based on all baseline (n = 427) and follow-up (n = 377) respondents, except for Weibei respondents. We conducted a bivariate Difference-in-Difference analysis to estimate the facility-level intervention effects. Results No statistically significant intervention effects were observed at the center level; the intervention increased the facility-level workplace social capital, and its horizontal and vertical dimensions by 1.0 (p = 0.24), 0.4 (p = 0.46) and 0.8 (p = 0.16), respectively. Conclusions The comprehensive intervention seemed to slightly improve workplace social capital in community health centers of urban China at the center level. High attrition rate limits any causal interpretation of the results. Further studies are warranted to test these findings. PMID:25503627

  16. Recovering disrupted social capital: insights from Lao DPR rural villagers' perceptions of local leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Ji-Hye; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Kang, Minah

    2016-11-25

    Social capital is often believed to be one of the key prerequisites for successful implementation of community-based health programs. In less-developed countries, local leaders are positioned as major players in broad community health strategies and interventions, and their capacities and roles are expected to increase in prominence in future community-health-care promotions. In this study, we examined how local leaders' capacities could be related to social capital in rural villages in Lao PDR, and thus to villagers' willingness to participate in community-based health efforts. We adopted a qualitative approach, conducting semi-structured interviews for both individuals and focus groups. In 2012, 103 people from six villages in the Khoun and Phoukoud districts participated in the interviews. For the individual interviews, we interviewed 22 mothers who had given birth in the past 5 years. For the focus groups, we interviewed 30 women (six groups), 30 men (six groups), and 21 senior villagers (five groups). First, we noted large variations in the levels of community social capital across villages: four out of six study villages showed a high level of social capital, while two villages suffered greatly from a low level of social capital. In search of the reasons for the disrupted social capital in the latter two villages, interviews revealed that failed leadership, especially in regard to local resource allocations-lack of transparency and corrupt practices-were commonly cited reasons for disrupted social capital. The data also showed that the villagers' mistrust of these failed local leaders critically reduced their willingness to participate in community-based health efforts, and especially in those that involved resource mobilization and risk-sharing for healthcare. Finally, we found that good communication skills and participatory decision-making styles were attributes that rural villagers in Lao PDR expected of their local leaders. This study suggests that

  17. Community-Based Study of the Relationship Between Social Capital and Cognitive Function in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhu, Jie; Cai, Yi; Cui, Dan; Wang, Quan; Mao, Zongfu

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to detect the association between social capital and cognitive function in elderly residents with/without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Wuhan, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted for data collection in 2014. A sample of 1156 participants entered the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chinese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A modified instrument scale was used to measure bonding and bridging social capital. The results indicated that participants without MCI had higher social capital scores (45.2 ± 8.3) than those with MCI (37.0 ± 6.3; P < .001). With adjustments for relevant confounders, the multiple logistic regression model showed that participants with a bonding social capital score that ranged from 17 to 24 had an odds ratio (OR) for MCI of 0.38 (95% CI = 0.04-0.79); those with a score that ranged from 25 to 32 had an OR for MCI of 0.36 (95% CI = 0.04-0.70); and those with scores ≥33 had an OR for MCI of 0.25 (95% CI = 0.03-0.53). In conclusion, we found a statistically significant inverse association between bonding social capital and MCI, which suggests that shortage of social resource from homogeneous social networks might be associated with cognitive decline. © 2016 APJPH.

  18. Schools, Choice and Reputation: Local School Markets and the Distribution of Symbolic Capital in Segregated Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad; Ambrose, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An exploration is presented of how urban spaces, polarized by class and ethnicity, structure the basic conditions of emerging local school markets. The authors investigate how the distribution of symbolic capital, or "hot knowledge" of the market, affects schools, the market, and the urban spaces themselves. The study is guided by…

  19. Schools, Choice and Reputation: Local School Markets and the Distribution of Symbolic Capital in Segregated Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad; Ambrose, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An exploration is presented of how urban spaces, polarized by class and ethnicity, structure the basic conditions of emerging local school markets. The authors investigate how the distribution of symbolic capital, or "hot knowledge" of the market, affects schools, the market, and the urban spaces themselves. The study is guided by…

  20. Increasing social capital via local networks: analysis in the context of a surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anjani; Yang, Isaac; Lee, Michael Y; Goel, Arpan; Ashok, Ashwin; Fonkalsrud, Eric W

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between social capital (support, trust, patient awareness, and increased practice revenue) and local networks (university hospital) in communities has received little attention. The development of computer-based communication networks (social networks) has added a new dimension to the argument, posing the question of whether local networks can (re-)create social capital in local communities. This relationship is examined through a review of the literature on local networks and social capital and a surgeon's practice management from 1990 to 2001 with respect to repair of pectus chest deformities. With respect to pectus repair there was a consistent but small number of new referrals (15-20 new patients/year), lack of patient awareness (eight to 12 self-referred patients/year), and modest practice revenue. Since the inception of an Internet website (social network) dedicated to pectus repair in 1996 there has been increased social participation (n = 630 hits/year to the website); facilitation of spread of information through E-mail messages (n = 430 messages/year); and a greater participation of groups such as women, minorities, adults, and those with disability (n = 120 patients/year). The dissemination of information via the local network has also allowed an "outward movement" with increased participation by interconnecting communities (n = 698,300 global Internet participants based on statistical ratios). We conclude that local networks have enhanced social networks providing new grounds for the development of relationships based on choice and shared interest.

  1. Crossing the Frontier to Inland China: Family Social Capital for Minority Uighur Students in Chinese Boarding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yangbin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines family influences on Uighur (a Muslim ethnic minority in northwestern China) students' experiences in Xinjiang classes in an inland China boarding school. Supported by the concept of family social capital, the paper argues that, although family structure becomes deficient for Uighur students away from home, their families can…

  2. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China.

  3. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  4. Reflection on Prosperity: Localization of Pedagogy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Daishu

    2009-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has seen an influx of foreign pedagogies that emphasize Western concepts such as dualistic opposition and linear development. As educational studies have become localized to China's environment, there has been a tendency to substitute transplanted ideas for methods based on local research. As such Chinese educational…

  5. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions.

  6. The effect of migration on social capital and depression among older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuju; Zhou, Xudong; Ma, Sha; Jiang, Minmin; Li, Lu

    2017-09-15

    An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire. Social capital measurements included cognitive (generalized trust and reciprocity) and structure (support from individual and social contact) aspects. Depression was measured by Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS-30). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were used for analysis. A total of 1248 migrant elderly and 1322 urban elderly were eligible for analysis. After adjusting for a range of confounder factors, binary logistic regression models revealed that migrant elderly reported significantly lower levels of generalized trust [OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.10-1.64)], reciprocity [OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.29-1.87)], support from individual [OR = 1.96, 95% CI (1.61-2.38)] and social contact [OR = 3.27, 95% CI (2.70-3.97)]. In the full adjusted model, migrant elderly were more likely to be mentally unhealthy [OR = 1.85, 95% CI (1.44-2.36)] compared with urban elderly. Migrant elderly suffered from a lower mental health status and social capital than their urban counterparts in the emigrating city. Attention should focus on improving the social capital and mental health of this growing population.

  7. Indicators of Social Capital: Social Capital as the Product of Local Interactive Learning Processes. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian; Harrison, Lesley

    A case study in a rural Australian township attempted to determine indicators verifying the existence of social capital. Social capital is provisionally defined as the networks, norms, and trust that constitute the capacity of individuals, workplaces, groups, organizations, and communities to strive for sustainable futures in a changing…

  8. Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the associations of sociocultural adaptation with individualism and collectivism and the moderating roles of discrimination and social capital in the associations among rural-to-urban migrants (N = 641) in Beijing, China. Results indicated that individualism was associated with poorer adaptation for migrants reporting low perceived discrimination or low social capital. However, migrants reporting high perceived discrimination showed poorer adaptation, regardless of individualism; and migrants reporting high social capital showed better adaptation, regardless of individualism. Collectivism was not related to adaptation. Findings suggest that individualism may be detrimental to migrants' adjustment to a collectivistic society.

  9. Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural-to-urban migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of sociocultural adaptation with individualism and collectivism and the moderating roles of discrimination and social capital in the associations among rural-to-urban migrants (N = 641) in Beijing, China. Results indicated that individualism was associated with poorer adaptation for migrants reporting low perceived discrimination or low social capital. However, migrants reporting high perceived discrimination showed poorer adaptation, regardless of individualism; and migrants reporting high social capital showed better adaptation, regardless of individualism. Collectivism was not related to adaptation. Findings suggest that individualism may be detrimental to migrants’ adjustment to a collectivistic society. PMID:25937806

  10. Human capital accumulation and its effect on agribusiness performance: the case of China.

    PubMed

    Udimal, Thomas Bilaliib; Jincai, Zhuang; Ayamba, Emmanuel Caesar; Sarpong, Patrick Boateng

    2017-08-08

    This study investigates the effect of accumulated human capital on the performance of agribusinesses in China. Four hundred fifty agribusiness owners were interviewed for the study. Growth in sales over the last 5 years was used as a measure of performance. The following variables were reviewed and captured as those constituting human capital: education, raised in the area, parents being entrepreneurs, attending business seminars/trade fairs, managerial experience, similar work experience, cooperative membership, and training. Logit regression model and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The logit regression model was used to analyze the effect of accumulated human capital on growth in sales. The inferential statistics on the other hand was used to measure the association between age, education, sex, provinces, and the categories of growth. Our study found that parents who are entrepreneurs and attend business seminars/trade fairs, as well as have managerial experience, similar work experience, education, and training, display a statistically significant positive effect on the growth in sales.

  11. Relationship between air quality and economic development in the provincial capital cities of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution in China has become increasingly severe with rapid economic growth in recent years. We analyzed the relationship between the gross regional product (GRP) per capita and the Integrated Air Pollution Index (IAPI) in all the provincial capital cities in China from 2003 to 2014 and clustered them into six urban development patterns. These patterns are as follows: inverse U-shaped, N-1-shaped, N-2-shaped, U-shaped, linear decline, and stable. The majority of the provincial capitals are N-1, N-2, and U types, suggesting that the air quality is deteriorating currently or will deteriorate in the future. Meteorological conditions and industrial structure are taken into consideration when testing the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis between the economy and air pollutant concentration. Results show that there exists no direct relationship between three main pollutants and GRP per capita, while an inverse U-shaped relationship with the secondary industry and a U-shaped relationship with the tertiary industry. These results will be a meaningful reference for policy makers to develop policies that coordinate the environmental protection and economic development.

  12. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  13. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  14. Agentic personality as mediator of social capital on developmental outcomes in the transition to adulthood: Evidence from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rui; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 1153 young people in Shanghai, China, this study investigates how agentic personality mediates between social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (family, friendship, association, and linking connection) and developmental outcomes during the transition to adulthood. The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provide a good fit for the sample as a whole. The overall findings support the hypotheses that a higher level of agentic personality, including resilience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, is associated with higher levels of developmental outcomes. Agentic personality also mediates the effects of family, friendship, associational, and linking social capital on developmental outcomes. Family social capital is predictive of university students' identity achievement and academic achievement, but not of their mental health. Linking social capital is only predictive of identity achievement. Unexpectedly, friendship social capital and associational social capital are predictive of a lower level of academic achievement and mental health, respectively, despite their positive influences on all three developmental outcomes through their significant effects on agentic personality. The study provides empirical support for the importance of social capital in promoting young people's transition to adulthood. Implications for theory, practice, and policy are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-04-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.

  16. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  17. Capitation combined with pay-for-performance improves antibiotic prescribing practices in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Chen, Wen; Hu, Min; Fe, Eduardo; Hu, Mu; Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hsiao, William C

    2014-03-01

    Pay-for-performance in health care holds promise as a policy lever to improve the quality and efficiency of care. Although the approach has become increasingly popular in developing countries in recent years, most policy designs do not permit the rigorous evaluation of its impact. Thus, evidence of its effect is limited. In collaboration with the government of Ningxia Province, a predominantly rural area in northwest China, we conducted a matched-pair cluster-randomized experiment between 2009 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of capitation with pay-for-performance on primary care providers' antibiotic prescribing practices, health spending, outpatient visit volume, and patient satisfaction. We found that the intervention led to a reduction of approximately 15 percent in antibiotic prescriptions and a small reduction in total spending per visit to village posts-essentially, community health clinics. We found no effect on other outcomes. Our results suggest that capitation with pay-for-performance can improve drug prescribing practices by reducing overprescribing and inappropriate prescribing. Our study also shows that rigorous evaluations of health system interventions are feasible when conducted in close collaboration with the government.

  18. Building Community: Exploring the Role of Social Capital and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potapchuk, William R.; Crocker, Jarle P.; Boogaard, Dina; Schechter, William H.

    Social capital is the glue that holds a community together. It is the network of relationships among persons that can be used to get things done. Social capital is a necessary, but not sufficient, ingredient of community building. A community must mobilize its social capital and the mechanisms of its infrastructure to face and resolve collective…

  19. OMI-measured SO2 in a large-scale national energy industrial base and its effect on the capital city of Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Mo, Jingyue; Li, Jixiang; Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable efforts have been made to improve air quality in Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China and one of the ten cities with worst air quality in China, this city is still experiencing heavy air pollution during the wintertime. The satellite remote sensing of air quality using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measured data discerned an increasing trend of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Midong national petrochemical and coal chemical industry base from 2005 to 2016, located in the northeast of Urumqi. The increasing trend of OMI columnar SO2 in this area is in contrast to the widespread decreases in SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China. This is mainly induced by rapid development in the energy industry in this region over the past decade under the national strategy for energy industry expansion and relocation to northwestern China. We observed a significant correlation of OMI columnar SO2 between this energy industrial base and Urumqi city in winter (R = 0.504, p < 0.005), suggesting that SO2 emitted from heavily contaminated energy industrial base exacerbated the air quality in Urumqi city. The Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) modeling confirms that the occurrence of heavy smog in this capital city during the wintertime was attributed primarily to strong emissions of air contaminants from the energy industrial base under favorable winds. A numerical case study with and without taking the Midong Industry Base into consideration revealed that this industry base contributed 38% to the SO2 level in Urumqi city, offsetting the considerable efforts made by the local government to improve air quality in this city.

  20. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  1. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060

  2. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  3. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  4. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  5. Geographical Range and Local Abundance of Tree Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20–25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >105 km2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species’ abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges. PMID:24130772

  6. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2), and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5) km(2). There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  7. Classical convergence versus Zipf rank approach: Evidence from China's local-level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Baaquie, Belal E.; Podobnik, Boris

    2016-02-01

    This paper applies Zipf rank approach to measure how long it will take for the individual economy to reach the final state of equilibrium by using local-level data of China's urban areas. The indicators, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the market capitalization (MCAP) per capita of 150 major cities in China are used for analyzing their convergence. Besides, the power law relationship is examined for GDP and MCAP. Our findings show that, compared to the classical approaches: β-convergence and σ-convergence, the Zipf ranking predicts that, in approximately 16 years, all the major cities in China will reach comparable values of GDP per capita. However, the MCAP per capita tends to follow the periodic fluctuation of the economic cycle, while the mean-log derivation (MLD) confirms the results of our study. Moreover, GDP per capita and MCAP per capita follow a power law with an average value of α = 0.41 which is higher than α = 0.38 obtained based on a large number of countries around the world.

  8. A Capital-Financing Plan for School Systems and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Penny

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are best equipped to lead in funding operating and capital needs because they understand the need for a methodical means of funding ongoing costs over time and the benefits of planning for future financial needs rather than letting emergencies dictate spending priorities. A capital-financing plan makes it possible to…

  9. A Capital-Financing Plan for School Systems and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Penny

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are best equipped to lead in funding operating and capital needs because they understand the need for a methodical means of funding ongoing costs over time and the benefits of planning for future financial needs rather than letting emergencies dictate spending priorities. A capital-financing plan makes it possible to…

  10. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  11. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants’ perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  12. Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  13. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  14. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  15. Changes and Challenges in the Flow of International Human Capital: China's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the changes in the directions of the international flow of Chinese human capital between the 1870s and 2000s. Although many studies on international academic flow adopt the pull-and-push approach, this article argues that the direction of human capital flow is not determined solely by an individual's choice when faced with a…

  16. Changes and Challenges in the Flow of International Human Capital: China's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the changes in the directions of the international flow of Chinese human capital between the 1870s and 2000s. Although many studies on international academic flow adopt the pull-and-push approach, this article argues that the direction of human capital flow is not determined solely by an individual's choice when faced with a…

  17. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  18. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  19. Social capital and the mental health of children in rural China with different experiences of parental migration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiaobing; Lu, Deping; Kang, Mi

    2015-05-01

    Children migrating to urban cities with their parents and children left behind in rural counties by their migrant parents are two vulnerable populations resulting from the rural-urban migration in mainland China. Some of these children even have mixed experiences of being left-behind and being migrants at different times. This study aimed to investigate how the various experiences of being left-behind, migrant, or both, might influence the mental health of children in the context of rural China. Moreover, it investigated how these effects might be mediated by the stock of social capital in their family and neighborhood. Data used in this study came from a questionnaire survey with a school-based multi-stage random sample of 701 children (aged 8-17 years) living in the rural counties of Guizhou province in 2013. The structural equation modeling results suggested that, compared to those rural children who lived with both parents and have never experienced migration or being left-behind, children who are currently left-behind, either with or without previous experience of being a migrant, appeared to exhibit higher levels of depression. However, children who had previously been left-behind, but lived with both parents at the time of study, tended to experience fewer depressive symptoms. Parental migration also influenced children's mental health through the mediating effects of family and community social capital. These research findings imply developing intervention and prevention programs tailored to different groups of children in rural China with a focus on fostering the growth of social capital using various strategies.

  20. The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoli; Li, Rui; Cubasch, Ulrich; Cao, Wenting

    2017-04-01

    The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years were comprehensively evaluated using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indicators. The PET and UTCI values were highly correlated with each other and presented similar thermal comfort pattern, although their sensitivities might differ slightly. The results showed that these cities covered, respectively, 4-8 and 6-8 thermal comfort classes of the PET and UTCI scale. On the whole, the annual cumulative number of pleasant days was more than 160 days/year. In terms of seasonal variations in thermal comfort conditions, the 31 provincial capital cities in mainland China can be classified into 5 types, which are, respectively, characterized by pleasant summer and severe cold winter (type-I); pleasant spring, autumn, winter, and severe hot summer (type-II); pleasant spring and autumn, slightly pleasant summer, and cold winter (type-III); pleasant spring and autumn, hot stress summer, and slightly cold winter (type-IV); and pleasant spring, summer, autumn, and cool winter (type-V). Type-II cities are rare winter resorts, while type-I cities are natural summer resorts. Type-V cities are the year round pleasant resorts. In the past three decades, the cities in mainland China had experienced increasing pleasant duration in late winter and early spring and intensifying heat stress in summer. The reduction in annual cumulative number of cold stress days in higher latitude/altitude cities outweighed the increase in duration of heat stress in subtropical cities. These may provide some references for urban planning and administration in mainland China.

  1. The importance of addressing social determinants of health at the local level: the case for social capital.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Bradley D; Neiger, Brad; West, Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Social determinants are gaining momentum in public health practice. Many proposed solutions for tackling social determinants are outside the scope of local public health professionals. This article reviews the literature to find possible moderating variables which may buffer the effects of the social determinants of health at the local level, and allow social determinants to be addressed within the purview of local health departments. The systematic approach employed for this article entailed searches of electronic academic databases (PubMed, EBSCO and Medline) and additional searches using Internet search engines and relevant websites for articles published between 1,975 and May 2010. The search revealed 2,554 articles, and 36 were determined appropriate for inclusion. The purpose of the search was to identify published articles relating to social determinants of health, social capital and effective approaches for addressing both at the level of the local health department. The search was then expanded to include unpublished material, to include the perspectives of local health departments. This process resulted in the inclusion of content from five sources. In this article, the case is made for focusing on social capital interventions to mitigate health problems associated with social determinants. Examples of successful interventions are provided to aid public health professionals in developing locale-specific solutions for addressing social determinants. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  3. The association between social capital and quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Anhui province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyong; Niu, Li; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    To investigate the association between social capital and quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Anhui province, China. In a cross-sectional study, 436 adults with type 2 diabetes were interviewed. The two domains of Quality of life, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), were measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). A modified instrument scale was used to measure cognitive and structural social capital. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between social capital and quality of life, adjusting for social economic status and risk factors for health. 24.3 % of participants (106) were in poor PCS and 25.0 % (109) in poor MCS. The proportions of participants who had low cognitive and structural social capital were 47.0 % (205) and 64.4 % (281), respectively. Results of logistic regression models showed that cognitive social capital was positively associated with PCS (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI: 1.12, 3.02) and MCS (OR = 1.65; 95 % CI: 1.03, 2.66). However, the associations between structural social capital and PCS (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI: 0.48, 1.34) and MCS (OR = 0.62; 95 % CI: 0.38, 1.01) were not statistically significant. It is the first study in China to investigate associations between quality of life and social capital in type 2 diabetes. Findings document that cognitive social capital is associated with the quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients. Our study suggests that the social capital theory may provide a new approach to increase physical resources in diabetes prevention and control, especially in Low and Middle Income countries (LMICs).

  4. Stress Status and Related Characteristics among Urban Residents: A Six-Province Capital Cities Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R. H.; Lv, Qiaohong; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate current prevalence levels of stress, and to identify related characteristics among urban residents in China. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Selected through multi-stage quota-sampling, survey participants were 4,735 urban residents aged 15 years and older who resided in one of six selected Chinese capital cities. Data were collected on stress levels and sociodemographic characteristics. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). A multilevel variance component model was employed to analyze associations between sociodemographic variables and stress. Results The mean stress score for urban residents was 22.34 (SD: 3.22), and 36.8% of those surveyed (95% CI: 33.5–40.2%) were severely stressed (>25). Multilevel regression analysis indicated that residents aged 55 years and older were less stressed than residents under age 25. The most educated and higher income earners had lower stress levels than the least educated and poorest. High levels of stress were apparent among all other occupational groups, relative to managers and clerks, except retirees and operational workers. Residents in the north of China exhibited higher stress levels than counterparts in the south. Conclusions This study suggests that higher stress levels are positively associated with social class in China. Our findings could inform health policy, guide prevention strategies, and justify the design and implementation of targeted interventions. PMID:22276209

  5. Education Abroad, Human Capital Development, and National Competitiveness: China's Brain Gain Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This is a documentary study of education abroad policy in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between 1978 and 2009. By examining the dynamics underpinning the PRC state's efforts to shape the flow of Chinese students and scholars from and into China, this article reveals the major strategies that have enabled education abroad to become a source…

  6. Education Abroad, Human Capital Development, and National Competitiveness: China's Brain Gain Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This is a documentary study of education abroad policy in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between 1978 and 2009. By examining the dynamics underpinning the PRC state's efforts to shape the flow of Chinese students and scholars from and into China, this article reveals the major strategies that have enabled education abroad to become a source…

  7. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  8. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  9. Local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Yang, Biao; Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People's attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People's negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people's attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region.

  10. Globalization, localization and food culture: perceived roles of social and cultural capitals in healthy child feeding practices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.

  11. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation.

  12. Goals of China's Campuses Range from 'Open' Marxism at People's U. to Shenzhen's 'Socialistic Capitalism.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Higher education in the People's Republic of China is discussed based on a tour of 15 universities that included formal interviews and informal discussions with Chinese-government officials, university administrators, faculty members, other educators, students, and journalists. (MLW)

  13. Capitalizing on multi-element interactions through balanced nutrition--a pathway to improve nitrogen use efficiency in China, India and North America.

    PubMed

    Fixen, Paul E; Jin, Jiyun; Tiwari, K N; Stauffer, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    A viable option for increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency and mitigation of negative impacts of N on the environment is to capitalize on multi-element interactions through implementation of nutrient management programs that provide balanced nutrition. Numerous studies have demonstrated the immediate efficacy of this approach in the developing regions like China and India as well as developed countries in North America. Based on 241 site-years of experiments in these countries, the first-year N recovery efficiency (RE) for the conventional or check treatments averaged 21% while the balanced treatments averaged 54% RE, for an average increase of 33% in RE due to balanced nutrition. Effective policies to promote adoption are most likely those that enable site-specific approaches to nutrient management decisions rather than sweeping, nation-wide incentives supporting one nutrient over another. Local farmers, advisers and officials need to be empowered with tools and information to help them define necessary changes in practices to create more balanced nutrient management.

  14. Capitalizing on multi-element interactions through balanced nutrition--a pathway to improve nitrogen use efficiency in China, India and North America.

    PubMed

    Fixen, Paul E; Jiyun, Jin; Tiwari, K N; Stauffer, Mark D

    2005-09-01

    A viable option for increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency and mitigation of negative impacts of N on the environment is to capitalize on multi-element interactions through implementation of nutrient management programs that provide balanced nutrition. Numerous studies have demonstrated the immediate efficacy of this approach in the developing regions like China and India as well as developed countries in North America. Based on 241 site-years of experiments in these countries, the first-year N recovery efficiency (RE) for the conventional or check treatments averaged 21% while the balanced treatments averaged 54% RE, for an average increase of 33% in RE due to balanced nutrition. Effective policies to promote adoption are most likely those that enable site-specific approaches to nutrient management decisions rather than sweeping, nation-wide incentives supporting one nutrient over another. Local farmers, advisers and officials need to be empowered with tools and information to help them define necessary changes in practices to create more balanced nutrient management.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of six criteria air pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities in China during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Ying, Qi; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    Long-term air pollution data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to support the research of physical and chemical processes that affect the air quality, and the corresponding health risks. However, such datasets were not available in China until recently. For the first time, this study examines the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and 8 h O3 in 31 capital cities in China between March 2013 and February 2014 using hourly data released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS), Grade I standards (15 and 40 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) for all cities, and only Haikou, Fuzhou and Lasa met the CAAQS Grade II standards (35 and 70 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). Observed PM2.5, PM10, CO and SO2 concentrations were higher in cities located in the North region than those in the West and the South-East regions. The number of non-attainment days was highest in the winter, but high pollution days were also frequently observed in the South-East region during the fall and in the West region during the spring. PM2.5 was the largest contributor to the air pollution in China based on the number of non-attainment days, followed by PM10, and O3. Strong correlation was found between different pollutants except for O3. These results suggest great impacts of coal combustion and biomass burning in the winter, long range transport of windblown dust in the spring, and secondary aerosol formation throughout the year. Current air pollution in China is caused by multiple pollutants, with great variations among different regions and different seasons. Future studies should focus on improving the understanding of the associations between air quality and meteorological conditions, variations of emissions in different regions, and transport and transformation of pollutants in both intra- and inter

  16. General and Specific Human Capital: Policy Implications of Private Sector Training on China's Unemployment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zeyu

    Lifelong learning and skill flexibility are especially important for workers in China, where structural economic adjustment has generated 22 million layoffs from state-owned enterprises since 1997. Skills that were in huge demand in previous years, such as accounting, international trade, and language translation, are now facing serious oversupply…

  17. Cultural Capital, Family Background and Education: Choosing University Subjects in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This article employs Bourdieu's conceptual tools to unpack family influences on students' subject and university choices in China. This empirical study employed mixed research approaches, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, to examine students' choices of subjects and universities in a sample of secondary school students from the age…

  18. Communication, Social Structural Change, and Capital Formation in People's Republic of China. Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Godwin C.

    Focusing on economic development in the People's Republic of China beginning at the eve of the communist takeover, this monograph analyzes the ways and patterns in which mass media and interpersonal communication were used to change economically relevant social structures in the interclass confrontation and the part these patterns played in the…

  19. When Socialism Meets Market Capitalism: Challenges for Privatizing and Marketizing Education in China and Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    China and Vietnam have experienced drastic social, economic and political changes, especially when these two socialist regimes have started economic reforms in the last few decades. In order to create more opportunities for higher education with limited national resources, both Chinese and Vietnamese governments have adopted strategies along the…

  20. When Socialism Meets Market Capitalism: Challenges for Privatizing and Marketizing Education in China and Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    China and Vietnam have experienced drastic social, economic and political changes, especially when these two socialist regimes have started economic reforms in the last few decades. In order to create more opportunities for higher education with limited national resources, both Chinese and Vietnamese governments have adopted strategies along the…

  1. Learning Craft Skills in China: Apprenticeship and Social Capital in an Artisan Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlland, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some of the consequences of collectivization and subsequent privatization of handicraft in China in the second half of the 20th century on ways of learning and modes of apprenticeship. It argues that, after the privatization of the ceramics workshops of Dingshu, Jiangsu province, an ethos of sharing previously introduced by…

  2. The Accumulation of Human Capital over Time and Its Impact on Salary Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zeyun; Xiao, Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the growth in salaries across three spatial regions in China during the period 1993-1998, when economic reforms were implemented nationwide. Our study compares the impact of three forms of education and training on salary growth, namely pre-job formal schooling, on-the-job-training provided by employers, and adult education…

  3. Learning Craft Skills in China: Apprenticeship and Social Capital in an Artisan Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlland, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some of the consequences of collectivization and subsequent privatization of handicraft in China in the second half of the 20th century on ways of learning and modes of apprenticeship. It argues that, after the privatization of the ceramics workshops of Dingshu, Jiangsu province, an ethos of sharing previously introduced by…

  4. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  5. InSAR time-series investigation of long-term ground displacement at Beijing Capital International Airport, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingliang; Gong, Huili; Chen, Beibei; Zhou, Chaofan; Chen, Wenfeng; Liang, Yue; Shi, Min; Si, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analysis provides high spatial resolution and continuous temporal coverage for investigations of long-term ground displacement. Beijing, the capital city of China, has suffered from land subsidence since the 1950s, and extreme groundwater extraction has led to subsidence rates of > 100 mm/year. In this study, InSAR time-series analysis is performed on different data subsets to investigate the ground displacement at Capital International Airport, Beijing, between June 2003 and November 2013. The results show that the ground surface in the airport has deformed at different rates ranging from - 66.2 mm/year (sinking) to 8.2 mm/year (uplift) relative to the reference point. The projected vertical displacement rates agreed with measurements estimated from ground-leveling surveys, and the correlation coefficient of the fitting result is 0.96, with a standard deviation of 0.9 mm/year and a mean different of 2.0 mm/year. The runways and terminals have been affected by land subsidence to various degrees. Previous studies has indicated that long-term intense groundwater extraction is the main reason leading to land subsidence in this area. Other triggering factors, such as active faults, the quaternary compressible layers and urbanization, also have different degrees of contribution or impact on land subsidence in Beijing Plain. Furthermore, some interesting behaviors from groundwater (such as inter- and semi-annual variations) and subsidence, the relationship between them are also found in this study.

  6. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study. PMID:20461124

  7. Spatio-temporal distribution of localized aerosol loading in China: A satellite view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Xiaoling

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, haze pollution and high concentrations of particulate matter frequently occur in many mega cities of China, which has seriously impacted the regional air quality, and further caused harm to human health. Although satellite observation provides a convenient way to evaluate air quality in space and time, satellite measurements do not separate between natural and anthropogenic aerosols. To discriminate anthropogenic aerosol contribution from satellite observations, we proposed the concept of Local Aerosol Optical Depth (LAOD) to describe the localized aerosol loading. A comparative analysis was performed between seasonal/monthly Mean AOD (MAOD), LAOD and ground measured PM2.5/PM10. The comparison results show that LAOD has better linear relationship with PM2.5/PM10 than MAOD in central and eastern China with persistent localized aerosol emissions. Based on the MODIS Deep Blue AOD dataset from 2001 to 2015, we analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution of LAOD over China. Spatially, high LAODs are mainly distributed in Sichuan basin, North China Plain, and central China; temporally, LAOD over China presents an upward trend (+0.003 year-1) during 2001-2007 and a weak downward (-0.002 year-1) trend from 2008 to 2015. LAOD was also found to be highly correlated with haze frequency over most areas of central and eastern China, especially in North China Plain with a correlation coefficient of 0.87 (P < 0.01). It demonstrates the significant impact of local anthropogenic aerosol emission on regional haze pollution in China.

  8. Rising Capital: The Impact Of China’s Economic Growth On U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-23

    rapid economic development to even distribution of wealth. 80 China‟s Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) emphasized stabilization, energy security...its policies are governed by the economic five-year plans . In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan , China set a target to decrease energy consumption per GDP...Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary,” 2010, 5. 33 Cindy C. Fan, “China‟s Eleventh Five Year Plan (2006-2010): From „Getting Rich First‟ to

  9. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  10. Capitals and Commitment: The Case of a Local Learning and Employment Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Annelies

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on research undertaken with a Local Learning and Employment Network (LLEN) in the state of Victoria, Australia. LLEN are networks that were implemented by the state government in 2001 to undertake community capacity building through which the outcomes of young people aged 15-19 in education, training and employment would be…

  11. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  12. Globalisation, New Managerialism, Academic Capitalism and Entrepreneurialism in Universities: Is the Local Dimension Still Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deem, Rosemary

    2001-01-01

    Draws on recent comparative case studies of universities in Europe and North America to examine global and local factors in changing university management practices. Discusses effects of economic globalization, internationalization of ideas and educational practices, the ideology of new managerialism, and entrepreneurial fund raising. Criticizes…

  13. The Re-Socialisation of Migrants in a Local Community in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the…

  14. The Re-Socialisation of Migrants in a Local Community in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the…

  15. China's rural population statistics at the local level.

    PubMed

    Lavely, W R

    1982-01-01

    Written for those who use Chinese population data and want a better understanding of their provenance and reliability and those who may directly utilize local level materials in studies of Chinese population and social structure, this report describes the statistical system of 1 rural county, Shifang Xian in the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province. It is based on interviews with local government officials, on examinations of population records and reports at different levels of administration, and on a sample survey of households conducted in the winter and spring of 1981. Until the mid 1970s, the primary source of China's rural population data was the household and vital events registers established in the 1950s. Following the formation of the Birth Planning Office in 1971, a separate reporting system of population statistics began to develop alongside the household registration system. The birth planning system uses the reports of team, brigade, and commune level cadres concerned with health work and women's affairs to provide a richer and more current set of vital events and birth planning data than the household registration system could provide. Discrepancies in data emerging from the 3 sources are bound to occur because of error and because of the different methods used in the compilation of data. Currently, there are 2 basic sources for population data in Shifang Xian: the monthly reports of the brigade level birth planning workers and the year end reports of the team accountants. The household and vital events registers, once central to population statistics, retain their legal role but have diminished importance for statistical purposes. There continues to be important questions about the operation of the statistical system. With increasing reliance on the newly developed birth planning statistical system for information on vital rates, Shifang has apparently moved from statistics based on date of registration derived from a de jure system of vital events

  16. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2013-09-01

    Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China.

  18. Changing patterns and determinants of natural capital in the Yangtze River Delta of China 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan

    2014-01-01

    Natural capital (NC) is crucial to human existence and human well-being. Evaluating ecosystem services on a regional scale has presented tremendous theoretical, methodological and policy challenges. This study addresses the challenges by developing an interdisciplinary methodology, based on expert knowledge, and by focusing on the Yangtze River Delta of China. It evaluates the stock of NC, analyzes the characteristics of, and identifies the key drivers for, spatial and temporal change in NC in the deltaic region from 2000 to 2010. A main contribution is the novel incorporation of remote sensing data that explains the dynamics of the spatio-temporal change in land use and a set of ecosystem service indicators derived from it. The study focuses on key indicators for key ecosystem services related to carbon sequestration, grain production and water supply. The indictors reflect the spatial heterogeneity of NC across diverse ecosystems in the region. Each indicator builds on land use configuration and land use composition information derived from 250 m 16-day MODIS and Landsat TM remote sensing data for 2000 and 2010, with adjustment parameters being constructed. The regional evaluation shows an overall degradation of ecosystem services, reducing total NC by 10.4% (or 8.44 billion yuan) in 2000-2010. The spatial distribution of NC exhibits a declining pattern from the south to the north of the delta. At the city level, 15 out of 16 major cities in the region have experienced dramatic loss of NC, and this pattern is significantly correlated with rapid urbanization, population growth and industrialization. Land use/land cover change and deteriorating water quality are dominant factors causing NC depletion, while increased grain productivity and environmental policies help offset the NC losses. Outcomes of this research are useful to policy makers to mitigate the declines in NC through balancing the growth between economy and population.

  19. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  20. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  1. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-08-12

    This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  2. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models. PMID:27529267

  3. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z X; Myneni, Ranga B; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-25

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects.

  4. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects. PMID:24516135

  5. Urbanization and health in China, thinking at the national, local and individual levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhu; Song, Jinchao; Lin, Tao; Dixon, Jane; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Hong

    2016-03-08

    China has the biggest population in the world, and has been experiencing the largest migration in history, and its rapid urbanization has profound and lasting impacts on local and national public health. Under these conditions, a systems understanding on the correlation among urbanization, environmental change and public health and to devise solutions at national, local and individual levels are in urgent need. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent studies which have examined the relationship between urbanization, urban environmental changes and human health in China. Based on the review, coupled with a systems understanding, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for promoting the health and wellbeing of the whole nation at national, local, and individual levels. Urbanization and urban expansion result in urban environmental changes, as well as residents' lifestyle change, which can lead independently and synergistically to human health problems. China has undergone an epidemiological transition, shifting from infectious to chronic diseases in a much shorter time frame than many other countries. Environmental risk factors, particularly air and water pollution, are a major contributing source of morbidity and mortality in China. Furthermore, aging population, food support system, and disparity of public service between the migrant worker and local residents are important contributions to China's urban health. At the national level, the central government could improve current environmental policies, food safety laws, and make adjustments to the health care system and to demographic policy. At the local level, local government could incorporate healthy life considerations in urban planning procedures, make improvements to the local food supply, and enforce environmental monitoring and management. At the individual level, urban residents can be exposed to education regarding health behaviour choices while being encouraged to take

  6. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  7. Local waste management constraints and waste administrators in China.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2008-01-01

    Local level waste authorities and their officials directly interact and serve the people on behalf of higher governments. Given the influential positions they have on the quality of life of the citizens, these local waste authorities deserve more attention from researchers. This study throws light on the factors related to local waste management and administrators that have caused waste management failures in three mainland Chinese cities. Based on a survey conducted in 2002-2003, it was found that waste administrators in these cities are not professionally competent in their jobs and they are also not confident in using economic instruments to address waste management issues in their cities. These local waste authorities are generally under-funded, and funding politics has to some extent eroded the incentives to carry out the instructions of higher waste authorities. The community at large also does not respect local waste management work. The residents frequently litter, are unobservant of waste collection times and are unwilling to pay for waste collection service. All of these are handicapping environmentally sound waste management.

  8. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  9. Management of Corporate Culture through Local Managers' Training in Foreign Companies in China: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate culture is a complex phenomenon in foreign companies located in the People's Republic of China. For the management team of an international enterprise, it is a challenging task to manage cultural differences. Education and training provided to local managers might be one of the important solutions. Therefore, this study explores the…

  10. Local social capital and the acceptance of Protected Area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Clark, J R A; Panteli, M; Proikaki, M; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

    2012-04-15

    Managing Protected Areas (PAs) is a challenging task, and globally many instruments have been utilised for this purpose. Existing research demonstrates that the effectiveness of these instruments is highly dependent on their social acceptability among local communities resident within PAs. Consequently, investigating local attitudes and perceptions of Protected Area (PA) policies has been emphasised in recent studies. Drawing on empirical work conducted in two National Parks including river delta ecosystems designated as Ramsar wetlands in northern Greece, this paper examines local residents' perceptions of three hypothesized policy options (regulatory, market-based and participatory) for Park management. The influence of social capital elements (social trust, institutional trust and social networks) on residents' perceptions is explored. The findings reveal a high degree of importance attached by resident communities to Park designation in both PAs, though residents' perceptions of the proposed management options varied. The regulatory option was regarded as the least restrictive, while the most restrictive was perceived to be the market-based option. However, greater benefits were identified by residents from the market-based option, while the fewest benefits were considered to arise from the proposed regulatory option. Furthermore, local residents' perceptions were significantly shaped by the proposed management and decision-making structure offered under each policy option. The influence of different social capital elements on residents' perceptions also varied in the study sample, with social trust and institutional trust positively correlated with the benefits that were perceived to arise from the different policy options. Moreover, when social capital was measured as an aggregate indicator at the level of the individual, it was positively correlated with perceived environmental benefits.

  11. Cultural Capital and Gender Differences in Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling and Higher Education Choice in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…

  12. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  13. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  14. Cultural Capital and Gender Differences in Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling and Higher Education Choice in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…

  15. Health of the Elderly Migration Population in China: Benefit from Individual and Local Socioeconomic Status?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    The study aims to estimate the relationship between the individual/local socioeconomic status and the health of internal elderly migrants in China. A multilevel logistic model was used to estimate this association. The estimations were undertaken for 11,111 migrants aged over 60 years, using nationally representative data: the 2015 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey (MDMS), which was carried out in China. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Both the household income per capita and the area-level average wage were positively associated with migrants' self-reported health; however, public service supply was not significantly related to their health. In addition, given the household income, migrants living in communities with a higher average wage were more likely to report poor health. Migrants' health benefited from individual socioeconomic status, but not from the local socioeconomic status, which the migrants cannot enjoy. This study highlights the importance of multilevel and non-discriminatory policies between migrants and local residents.

  16. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  17. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China.

  18. Local Knowledge, Science, and Institutional Change: The Case of Desertification Control in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  19. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  20. [Dust storms trend in the Capital Circle of China over the past 50 years and its correlation with temperature, precipitation and wind].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-fu; Tang, Hai-ping

    2005-01-01

    The trends of number of dust storm days of the selected 11 meteorological stations from their established year to 2000 as well as their correlations with temperature, precipitation and wind are revealed. The number of dust storm days of the Capital Circle of China is distinctly variable in space and time. The numbers of dust storm days of the western area are far more than those of the eastern area. The interannual variability of number of dust storm days is remarkable. The number of dust storm days of the following 7 stations, Erlianhaote, Abaga, Xilinhaote, Fengning, Zhangjiakou, Huailai and Beijing, declined along the past decades, but those of the other four stations had no significant upward or downward trends. There is a marked seasonality of the number of dust storm days, and the maximum was in April. The correlation between number of dust storm days and number of days of mean wind velocity > 5 m/s, which is critical wind velocity to entrain sand into the air, was strongest among the three climatic factor. There were significant positive correlations between the number of dust storm days and number of days of mean wind velocity > 5 m/s in 6 stations. The second strongest climatic factor correlated with the number of dust storm days is temperature. There are significant negative correlations between the number of dust storm days and mean annual temperature, mean winter temperature, mean spring temperature in 3 or 4 stations. The correlation between the number of dust storm days and precipitation is weakest. Only one station, Zhurihe, showes significant negative correlation between the number of dust storm days and spring rainfall. There are 4 stations whose number of dust storm days don't significantly correlate with the climate. In the end, the spatial-temporal variability of dust storms and its relation with climate in the Capital Circle of China were discussed thoroughly.

  1. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  2. Diversity, population structure, and evolution of local peach cultivars in China identified by simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z J; Ma, R J; Cai, Z X; Yu, M L; Zhang, Z

    2015-01-15

    The fruit peach originated in China and has a history of domestication of more than 4000 years. Numerous local cultivars were selected during the long course of cultivation, and a great morphological diversity exists. To study the diversity and genetic background of local peach cultivars in China, a set of 158 accessions from different ecological regions, together with 27 modern varieties and 10 wild accessions, were evaluated using 49 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the peach genome. Broad diversity was also observed in local cultivars at the SSR level. A total of 648 alleles were amplified with an average of 13.22 observed alleles per locus. The number of genotypes detected ranged from 9 (UDP96015) to 58 (BPPCT008) with an average of 27.00 genotypes per marker. Eight subpopulations divided by STRUCTURE basically coincided with the dendrogram of genetic relationships and could be explained by the traditional groups. The 8 subpopulations were juicy honey peach, southwestern peach I, wild peach, Buddha peach + southwestern peach II, northern peach, southern crisp peach, ornamental peach, and Prunus davidiana + P. kansuensis. Most modern varieties carried the genetic backgrounds of juicy honey peach and southwestern peach I, while others carried diverse genetic backgrounds, indicating that local cultivars were partly used in modern breeding programs. Based on the traditional evolution pathway, a modified pathway for the development of local peach cultivars in China was proposed using the genetic background of subpopulations that were identified by SSRs. Current status and prospects of utilization of Chinese local peach cultivars were also discussed according to the SSR information.

  3. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p < 0.001), whereas psychological capital was positively associated with job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) from a specific province in China. Psychological capital is a mediator between the association of job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort

  4. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chang-Yue Shang; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p < 0.001), whereas psychological capital was positively associated with job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) from a specific province in China. Psychological capital is a mediator between the association of job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort

  5. The palaeoenvironment of the middle Miocene pliopithecid locality in Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Sukselainen, Leena; Kaakinen, Anu; Eronen, Jussi T; Passey, Benjamin H; Harrison, Terry; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    Damiao, Inner Mongolia, has three main fossil horizons representing the early, middle, and late Miocene. The middle Miocene locality DM01 is the only primate locality from the region and also represents the latest occurrence of pliopithecoids in northern China. The presence of pliopithecoid primates in central Asia after the middle Miocene climatic optimum seems to contradict the general trend of strengthening climatic zonality and increasing aridity. To investigate this enigma, we employ faunal similarity, ecometrics, and stable isotope analysis. Our results support previous inferences concerning the presence of locally humid environments within the increasingly arid surroundings that characterized central Asia. Hypsodonty, estimated mean annual precipitation (MAP), local sedimentology, and large mammal fossils suggest more humid and possibly more forested and wooded environments for the DM01 locality. We compared our results with the adjacent fossil-rich middle Miocene Tunggur localities. However, the small mammal fauna and isotope data are consistent with a mosaic of forest and grassland environment for all Damiao localities. Based on our results, Tunggur may have been too seasonal or not sufficiently humid for pliopithecids. This is supported by the higher mean hypsodonty and lower estimated MAP estimates, as well as slightly higher δ(13)C values. We suggest that DM01, the driest known Asian pliopithecid locality, may have been a more humid refugium within a generally drier regional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Riding over Socialism and Global Capitalism: Changing Education Governance and Social Policy Paradigms in Post-Mao China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2005-01-01

    In coping with the challenges of globalization, various reform measures, in the field of social policy, have been initiated in post-Mao China. Strategies such as privatization, marketization, commodification and societalization have been adopted to redefine the relationship between the state, the market and other non-state sectors involved in…

  7. Determinants of FDI Localization in China: A County-Level Analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-08-30

    Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms' localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation.

  8. Occupational segregation and earnings inequality: Rural migrants and local workers in urban China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuoni; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the central role of occupation as the "reward packages" in creating earnings disparities between rural migrants and local workers in urban China's labor markets. Analyses of data from the population mini-census of China in 2005 show that, rural migrants' earnings disadvantages are largely attributable to occupational segregation (between-occupation variation) by workers' household registration status (hukou) rather than unequal pay within the same occupations, but surprisingly they enjoy a slight earnings advantage in lower-status occupations (within-occupation variation). Even after controlling for education and other characteristics, occupational segregation by hukou status continues to exist. The occupational segregation is the most severe in government agencies/state institutions and the least severe in the private sector, leading to earnings disparities between rural migrants and urban local workers in different work unit sectors. Our findings shed new light on how government discriminatory policies could affect occupational segregation and thereby create inequality among social groups in urban China.

  9. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  10. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Peigang; Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one's own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships.

  11. Guarding against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs): Practical evidence from China's local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shukui; Wang, Siliang

    2017-04-01

    China is faced with serious challenges brought by large-scale social protests in the period of rapid urbanization and profound social transition. In rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China's local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive three-dimensional theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed data and/or cases, break various local practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce the probabilities of conflicts through regulating land expropriation behavior and safeguarding economic interests and participation rights of affected peasants, and the specific local practices which point to the innovative local government behaviors with heterogeneity, in general, the tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments' paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.

  12. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  13. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  14. Intellectual Capital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    were continuously refined, most notably by Dublin and Lotka, life - insurance executives in the 1930s, who used a complex formula to determine how much... life insurance a man should carry (Wykstra, 1971). The leap from the valuation of human capital to the management of intellectual capital is more...December 2004 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Intellectual Capital 6. AUTHOR( S ) Clint B Fondo

  15. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  16. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  17. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  18. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  19. Inverse Estimation of SO2 Emissions over China with Local Air Mass Factor Applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has significant impacts on human health as it forms sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. Widespread uncertainty in the magnitude of SO2 emissions hinders efforts to address this issue. In this work we use Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) slant column SO2 observations as constraints to conduct inversion of SO2 emissions over China for April 2008. Local air mass factors are formulated as the integral of the relative vertical distribution of SO2 simulated from GEOS-Chem, weighted by scattering weights computed from VLIDORT. They are applied to convert slant column to vertical column GEOS-Chem SO2. After data assimilation SO2 emissions decrease in Sichuan Basin, South China, and most areas of North China. The posterior SO2 emissions are evaluated with in situ SO2 observation. Besides, we apply the posterior SO2 emissions of April 2008 to April 2009, and it leads to improved agreement of modeled SO2 to the OMI observations. This offers potential to update SO2 emissions in real time.

  20. U-series dating of Locality 15 at Zhoukoudian, China, and implications for hominid evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guanjun J.; Gao, Xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2004-09-01

    This paper reports U-series dates on speleothem samples from Locality 15 at Zhoukoudian, one of the richest Paleolithic sites in northern China. The age of the lower part of Layer 2 is securely bracketed between 155,000 and 284,000 yr. The underlying Layer 3 dates back at least 284,000 yr. Layer 4, further below, should be older still, possibly by a cycle on the SPECMAP time scale before 284,000 yr ago. These ages, much greater than the previous estimates of 110,000-140,000 yr from U-series and electron spin resonance dating of fossil teeth, suggest that Locality 15 was broadly contemporaneous with Locality 4 (New Cave) and with the uppermost strata of Locality 1 (Peking Man site). The physical evolution and cultural development evidenced by the timing of the Zhoukoudian localities are in line with the opinion of Chinese anthropologists for a regional transition from Homo erectus to archaic Homo sapiens.

  1. Mapping the mean annual precipitation of China using local interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Zhu, Yunqiang; Huang, Shengli; Guo, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Spatially explicit precipitation data are required in the research of hydrology, agriculture, ecology, and environmental sciences. In this study, two established techniques of local ordinary linear regression (OLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) and two new local hybrid interpolation techniques of local regression-kriging (LRK) and geographically weighted regression kriging (GWRK) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation of China. Precipitation data from 684 meteorological stations were used in the analysis, and a stepwise regression analysis was used to select six covariates, including longitude, latitude, elevation, slope, surface roughness, and river density. The four spatial prediction methods (OLR, GWR, LRK, and GWRK) were implemented with local regression techniques with different number of neighbors (50, 100, 150, and 200). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with the root mean squared deviation, mean estimation error, and R-square values. The results showed that LRK outperforms OLR and GWRK outperforms GWR, indicating that adding the kriging of regression residuals can help improve the prediction performance. GWRK gives the best prediction but the accuracy of estimation varies with the number of neighborhood points used for modeling. Although LRK is outperformed by GWRK, LRK is still recommended as a powerful and practical interpolation method given its computation efficiency. However, if LRK and GWRK are used to extrapolate prediction values, post-processing in the areal interpolation will be needed.

  2. Capital Outlay Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    The Vermont State Board of Education adopted a capital outlay program in February 1974, that requires local school districts to file short- and long-range facility needs plans based on Department of Education models. This document, excerpted from State Board of Education minutes, describes the minimum requirements for receiving state aid for…

  3. SST Variability over the Southern South China Sea: Local effects and Remote forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.

    2012-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest semi-enclosed marginal seas in the world ocean. The SCS is connected to the East China Sea through the Taiwan Strait to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean in the east through the Luzon Strait, laying between the Luzon and Taiwan Islands. To the south, SCS is connected to the Indonesian Sea (IS) through the Karimata and Gaspar Straits, and to the Indian Ocean though the Malacca Strait. The large-scale circulation and SST over the SCS is dominantly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoon winds. Beyond the seasonal time scale, the circulation and temperature variability over the SCS demonstrate strong relationship with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean. The present study addresses the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the southern South China Sea with special emphasis on the ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events during the period 1993 to 2009. Due to its geographical location, the dynamics and thermodynamics of the southern SCS is largely influenced by the anomalous events occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A high resolution, three-dimensional sigma co-ordinate, regional ocean general circulation model (ROMS) configured for the South China Sea and Bay of Bengal region is used for the analysis. The model has been forced by 12-hourly varying surface wind, air temperature, relative humidity, surface downward solar and longwave radiation and precipitation fields obtained from the ERA-interim re-analysis data set as well as space- and time-dependent lateral fluxes of temperature, salinity, currents and sea level. Detailed analysis has been done to identify the roles of the surface heat fluxes, and the water mass advection from the Java Sea and northern South China Sea in driving the SST variability over the region. The surface heat flux data set (NOC v2.0) developed by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, is also used to

  4. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  5. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  6. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  7. A 60-year review on the changing epidemiology of measles in capital Beijing, China, 1951-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background China pledged to join the global effort to eliminate measles by 2012. To improve measles control strategy, the epidemic trend and population immunity of measles were investigated in 1951–2011 in Beijing. Methods The changing trend of measles since 1951 was described based on measles surveillance data from Beijing Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The measles vaccination coverage and antibody level were assessed by routinely reported measles vaccination data and twenty-one sero-epidemiological surveys. Results The incidence of measles has decreased significantly from 593.5/100,000 in 1951 (peaked at 2721.0/100,000 in 1955), to 0.5/100,000 in 2011 due to increasing vaccination coverage of 95%-99%. Incidence rebounded from 6.6/100,000 to 24.5/100,000 since 2005 and decreased after measles vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in 2010. Measles antibody positive rate was 85%-95% in most of years since 1981. High-risk districts were spotted in Chaoyang, Fengtai and Changping districts in recent 15 years. Age-specific incidence and proportion of measles varied over time. The most affected population were younger children of 1–4 years before 1978, older children of 5–14 years in 1978–1996, infant of <1 years and adults of ≥15 years in period of aim to measles elimination. Conclusion Strategies at different stages had a prevailing effect on the epidemic dynamics of measles in recent 60 years in Beijing. It will be essential to validate reported vaccination coverage, improve vaccination coverage in adults and strengthen measles surveillance in the anticipated elimination campaign for measles. PMID:24143899

  8. Impact on aerosol emissions in China and India on local and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Thomas; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Henriksson, Svante V.; Bergman, Tommi; Laakso, Anton; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Laaksonen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    Existing surface temperature records show warming in the beginning of last century, followed by cooling starting from 1940 and again strong heating from 1975 until recent years. This behaviour has been attributed to increase in the greenhouse gas and aerosol emission as well as to natural variability of climate. Making a difference between these is crucial as climate predictions and international policy related to emission reductions are based on the models that are mainly evaluated against the historical temperature records. While in Europe and North America the aerosol emissions have decreased since the late 1970s, the emissions in China and India have started to increase dramatically at about the same time and have only recently started to stagnate due to new regulations in China. Here we use emission scenarios from the years 1996 through 2010 to assess the effect that these emissions have on local aerosol properties and climate as well as on the global climate. We use the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM [Roeckner2003, Roeckner2004] to simulate the local aerosol properties in China and India in the years 1996 through 2010, and their impact on local as well as global climate. For anthropogenic aerosol greenhouse gas emissions we use the ACCMIP-MACCity Aerocom emissions (Aerocom 2) [Lamarque2010] in combination with the emissions for China and India after Lu et. al [Lu2011] for the mentioned period of time. To assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on earth's climate is assessed using the ECHAM-HAM model coupled to a mixed layer ocean on a T42L19 grid. The model is run with fixed yearly emissions for several emission scenarios (e.g. for the years 1996 and 2010), with data derived from 100-year averages. Additionally we run a number of transient simulations (i.e. with varying yearly emissions) from 1996 to 2010 in the attempt to extract a climate trend for the given period. References [Roeckner2003] Roeckner, E., Bäuml, R., Bonaventura, L., Brokopf

  9. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  10. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  11. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  12. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  13. Regional and local new particle formation events observed in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Wang, Honglei; Zhou, Luyu; An, Junlin; Tang, Lili; Lu, Chunsong; Yan, Wenlian; Liu, Ruiyang; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Mindong; Lee, Shanhu; Yu, Huan

    2017-02-01

    To study the spatial inhomogeneity of new particle formation (NPF) in the polluted atmosphere of China, we conducted simultaneous measurements at an urban site near a petrochemical industrial area and a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta region from September to November 2015. At the urban site we observed a type of local NPF event (number of events: n = 5), in which nucleation was limited to a small area but persisted for 6.8 h on average during the daytime. Formation rates of 5 nm particles (J5) were found to be correlated positively with the H2SO4 proxy (log J5 versus log[H2SO4] slope near 1) in both local and regional events. Furthermore, J5 was enhanced by the anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC) plumes from nearby industrial area in the local events compared to the regional events. Size-dependent aerosol dynamics calculation showed that in comparison with the observed regional events, the local events were featured with high nucleation rate (J1.3 > 1000 cm-3 s-1), high growth rate of sub-3 nm particles (GRsub-3 > 20 nm h-1), and high number concentration of nucleation mode particles (mean peak N5-20: 6 × 104 cm-3). Considering these features, the local NPF events of anthropogenic origin may also be an important contributor to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in urban and regional scales. In addition, the comparison of simultaneous regional NPF events between the two sites (number of events: n = 7) suggested that regional NPF intensity may be underestimated by the single-point measurement at an urban site, due to the heterogeneity of air masses.

  14. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  15. The re-socialisation of migrants in a local community in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.

  16. Observational evidence for impacts of vegetation change on local surface climate over northern China using the Granger causality test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    three-north region in China (northeastern, northwestern, and northern China) is one of the most environmentally vulnerable regions in the country. To improve the local natural environment, the Chinese government launched the Three-North Shelter Forest Program, one of the largest afforestation/reforestation programs in the world. This program has led to significant changes in vegetation. Although many studies have evaluated the impacts of vegetation changes on local climate in this region, their results are highly inconsistent. In this study, evidence for local monthly climate impacts of vegetation change was investigated using remotely sensed data and ground meteorological measurements during the growing season (May to September) from 1982 to 2011 using the bivariate Granger causality test. The results showed that the local near-surface climate is sensitive mostly to vegetation changes characterized by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in arid and semiarid regions and that vegetation plays a more important role in influencing hydroclimate in the arid/semiarid zones than in other zones, which has great implications for water resources in this dry region. Moreover, NDVI changes in northeastern China have a significantly negative influence on air tembut no other climatic variables, whereas the test results in northern China is not as objective as the other zones due to the rapid urbanization. All these results suggest that the local climate is very sensitive to the variations in vegetation in arid and semiarid regions, so extra caution should be taken when planting trees in this area.

  17. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  18. On the Training Model of China's Local Normal University Students during the Transitional Period from the Perspective of Happiness Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiwei, Huang

    2016-01-01

    As a theory based on the hypothesis of "happy man" about human nature, happiness management plays a significant guiding role in the optimization of the training model of local Chinese normal university students during the transitional period. Under the guidance of this theory, China should adhere to the people-oriented principle,…

  19. Congenital Heart Disease in Local and Migrant Elementary Schoolchildren in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guanyang; Xiao, Jianmin; Wang, Jieying; Chen, Jiuhao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yitong; Liu, Qingchun; Wang, Zhiming; Xia, Jinxi; Huang, Jianzhong; Cheng, Ling; Chen, Yuqiang; Chen, Qiaozhu; Yang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and treated status of congenital heart disease (CHD) in elementary schoolchildren and facilitate the long-term planning of health care, resource allocation, and development of targeted primary prevention strategies. From November 2011 to November 2012, 540,574 schoolchildren from 449 elementary schools were screened for CHD by trained doctors in Dongguan City. The schoolchildren who were suspected to have CHD were referred to a pediatric cardiologist and/or an echocardiographist for complete evaluation. Of them, 214,634 (39.7%) were local children and 325,940 (60.3%) were migrant children. The total prevalence of CHD was 2.14‰, and there was a significant difference (p <0.05) of the CHD prevalence between local (1.97‰) and migrant children (2.26‰). The treatment rates of CHD in local children and in migrant children were 63.51% and 47.21%, respectively (p <0.01). The commonest CHD was ventricular septal defect (43.13%), followed by atrial septal defect (25.84%) and patent ductus arteriosus (12.79%). With respect to gender, CHD was equally distributed between men and women. In conclusion, social, economic, and environmental risk factors that affect health of migrant children with CHD call for more attention from health policy makers and researchers in contemporary China. Efforts should be made to increase public health investment, establish health care manage system for children from migrant families, and increase the parents' awareness of preventing the CHD.

  20. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  1. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  2. China.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China.

  3. Numerical study of urbanization influence on local and regional climate of Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.

    2016-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta is one of the most urbanized area in China, which has been experienced a very quick urbanization processes in the recent decades. Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model is used to investigated the influence of urbanization in different scales, from a single city to regional area. The results show that the near-surface temperature increases in both near urbanized area and old city core. Urban heat island (UHI) circulation enhances the local lake breeze circulation in the daytime and weakens it at night. Horizontal convection rolls may occur in the downwind area of cities. The background south-east wind in summer may cause an `upwind UHI impact' in this area. The downwind city experienced a stronger UHI than the windward city, because the warm air is transported from the windward city to the downwind one. This may increases the downwind UHI intensity by 20% at night, while it increases the atmospheric boundary layer stability over the downwind city in the daytime. Two numerical simulation experiment sets of a five-January simulations and a five-July simulations are designed and the results show that the urbanization processes in this area not only impact local urban climate but also have influence on regional climate in Yangtze River Delta. The urbanization process increases the near-surface temperature, UHI intensity, decreases the diurnal temperature variation range, near-surface wind speed and humidity. The influences on UHI and near-surface temperature are greater in summer than in winter due to the background climate characteristics.

  4. Local environment and social factors in primary school children's afterschool commute in China.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, John; Zhen, Bai; Han, Xili; Huang, Yunshi

    2017-09-01

    The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces. Property values are used as a proxy for income. Twenty-four school districts are selected using intersection density and motorway length as criteria. All children's exit behaviors were film-recorded on October weekdays and extracted as four choices-alone, in a group of children, on foot with a parent or guardian, on e-bike driven by an adult. A multinomial logistic regression reveals that gated communities, higher priced housing, motorways and bus stops are associated with children accompanied by adults. The presence of pedestrian streets is associated with children travelling alone and in groups. Greater travel distance is also associated with parents accompanying children on foot or on e-bike. The amount of play space is associated with children leaving school in groups. Overall, social and environmental factors are influential in the independent travel of primary school children after the school day ends in south China.

  5. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from local dairy farms in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Xiaoye; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important opportunistic foodborne pathogen. In the present work, a total of 306 milk and environmental samples were collected from 10 local dairy farms in Beijing, China. Of the 92 B. cereus-like isolates, 88 and 4 belonged to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The prevalence of B. cereus isolates in bedding, feces, feed, liquid manure and raw milk was 93.3%, 78.9%, 41.2%, 100.0% and 9.8%, respectively. Three main toxin genes nhe, hbl and ces were detected with rates of 100.0%, 78.3% and 1.1%, but no strain harbored cytK1 The production of Nhe, Hbl and cereulide could be confirmed by specific monoclonal antibodies-based enzyme immunoassays in 94.6%, 70.7% and 1.1% of all isolates, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests were used to further corroborate the results of genetic and protein-based assays; 91.3% of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to Vero cells. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 17 antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to lincomycin, retapamulin, tiamulin and valnemulin, while two strains were susceptible to ampicillin and ceftiofur. A total of 16 isolated strains were resistant to tetracycline. Since spores of B. cereus are not inactivated during manufacturing of most milk products, contamination of milk with B. cereus on the farm level may represent a potential hazard, particularly with respect to emetic toxin-producing strains.

  6. Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jianzhong

    2000-11-01

    This paper explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. The paper addresses the subject on two levels. First, it examines the process of learning by solving problems on the shop floor. Second, it deals with certain managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture and discusses whether these concepts help or impede collective learning. The article concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.

  7. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  8. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  9. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qingke; Zhou, Changjun; Shu, Xiang; He, Qiang; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment. PMID:28788648

  10. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qingke; Zhou, Changjun; Shu, Xiang; He, Qiang; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-05-13

    Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  11. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.

  12. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  13. HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM: a cross-sectional comparison study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Internal migration plays a significant role in China’s HIV epidemic. However, few studies have directly compared migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) with local MSM with regard to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risks. Methods. We conducted a study in Guangzhou, China, with the aim of understanding the differences in HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 migrant MSM and 249 local MSM in Guangzhou, China. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV/syphilis were collected and compared between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between HIV/STIs risks and migratory status. Results. Migrant MSM, compared to local MSM, have higher odds of reporting unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (OR = 1.4; 95% CI [0.9–2.0]) and having multiple homosexual partners (OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.8–1.8]). A lower rate of condom use at homosexual debut was reported in migrant MSM than in local MSM (OR = 0.7; 95% CI [0.5–0.9]). Migrant MSM have less odds of reporting HIV/STIs testing in the previous 6 months relative to local MSM (OR = 0.5; 95% CI [0.4–0.8]). In addition, migrant MSM demonstrated a lower level of HIV knowledge than local MSM (OR = 0.4; 95% CI [0.2–0.8]). Conclusion. Migrant MSM are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors, report a lower level of HIV knowledge and have less access to HIV/STIs testing. Further comprehensive interventions targeting migrant MSM are urged. PMID:27478695

  14. Impacts of wind forcing on sea level variations in the East China Sea: Local and remote effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Zuo, Juncheng; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Meixiang

    2016-02-01

    The regional sea level variation in the East China Sea (ECS) was influenced not only by local factors but also by remote wind from adjoining ocean with the oceanic connectivity influenced by upper-ocean circulation. The satellite altimeter observations showed that from 1993 to 2008, the inter-annual sea level variation in the ECS was negatively related to the strength of Kuroshio. To investigate the relative role of local and remote wind, two sensitive experiments were carried out using the POP model. Model experiments revealed that wind-induced redistributions of water played a significant role in the sea level variation of the ECS. The seasonal variations were induced by both local winds and remote Pacific wind stress with approximately equal contribution. However, on the inter-annual sea level variations, the remote wind forcing over the North Pacific could contribute substantially more than that of local wind which modulated sea level immediately. Remote wind influenced the China Sea in forms of changing of wind stress curl and ocean currents, which influenced the intensity of the Kuroshio, especially during El Nino episodes.

  15. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  16. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    PubMed

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  17. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  18. Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: the case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-05-01

    By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants.

  19. Predicting Local Dengue Transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the Influence of Imported Cases, Mosquito Density and Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shaowei; Yin, Wenwu; Bi, Peng; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue’s control and prevention purpose. Methodology and Principal Findings Three traditional suburbs and one district with an international airport in Guangzhou city were selected as the study areas. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis to identify possible risk factors, with relevant lagged effects, associated with local dengue cases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract principal components and PCA score was used to represent the original variables to reduce multi-collinearity. Combining the univariate analysis and prior knowledge, time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to quantify the relationship between weather variables, Breteau Index, imported DF cases and the local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by pseudo-R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual test. There were a total of 707 notified local DF cases from March 2006 to December 2012, with a seasonal distribution from August to November. There were a total of 65 notified imported DF cases from 20 countries, with forty-six cases (70.8%) imported from Southeast Asia. The model showed that local DF cases were positively associated with mosquito density, imported cases, temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure and minimum relative humidity, whilst being negatively associated with air pressure, with different time

  20. Predicting local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the influence of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shaowei; Yin, Wenwu; Bi, Peng; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue's control and prevention purpose. Three traditional suburbs and one district with an international airport in Guangzhou city were selected as the study areas. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis to identify possible risk factors, with relevant lagged effects, associated with local dengue cases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract principal components and PCA score was used to represent the original variables to reduce multi-collinearity. Combining the univariate analysis and prior knowledge, time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to quantify the relationship between weather variables, Breteau Index, imported DF cases and the local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by pseudo-R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual test. There were a total of 707 notified local DF cases from March 2006 to December 2012, with a seasonal distribution from August to November. There were a total of 65 notified imported DF cases from 20 countries, with forty-six cases (70.8%) imported from Southeast Asia. The model showed that local DF cases were positively associated with mosquito density, imported cases, temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure and minimum relative humidity, whilst being negatively associated with air pressure, with different time lags. Imported DF cases and mosquito density play a

  1. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization grants...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization grants...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization grants...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization grants...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization grants...

  6. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  7. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  8. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  9. Between Local Community and Central State: Financing Basic Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Litao

    2009-01-01

    From the early 1980s, China underwent perhaps the world's largest and most comprehensive experiment of decentralization in education. There has been a shift from decentralization to some degree of recentralization, however, since the mid-1990s, particularly since the early 2000s. The purpose of this shift was to establish a stable and regularized…

  10. Scenarios of local tsunamis in the China Seas by Boussinesq model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xi; Liu, Hua; Wang, Ben-long

    2014-06-01

    The Okinawa Trench in the East China Sea and the Manila Trench in the South China Sea are considered to be the regions with high risk of potential tsunamis induced by submarine earthquakes. Tsunami waves will impact the southeast coast of China if tsunamis occur in these areas. In this paper, the horizontal two-dimensional Boussinesq model is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation, and runup in a domain with complex geometrical boundaries. The temporary varying bottom boundary condition is adopted to describe the initial tsunami waves motivated by the submarine faults. The Indian Ocean tsunami is simulated by the numerical model as a validation case. The time series of water elevation and runup on the beach are compared with the measured data from field survey. The agreements indicate that the Boussinesq model can be used to simulate tsunamis and predict the waveform and runup. Then, the hypothetical tsunamis in the Okinawa Trench and the Manila Trench are simulated by the numerical model. The arrival time and maximum wave height near coastal cities are predicted by the model. It turns out that the leading depression N-wave occurs when the tsunami propagates in the continental shelf from the Okinawa Trench. The scenarios of the tsunami in the Manila Trench demonstrate significant effects on the coastal area around the South China Sea.

  11. Assessing Student Engagement in China: Responding to Local and Global Discourse on Raising Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Heidi; Cen, Yuhao; Zhou, Zejun

    2011-01-01

    China's heated education policy climate in 2010 indicated an increasing national concern for improving educational quality and educational quality assessment. Despite glowing portraits of Chinese education painted by international observers, the Chinese public has expressed consistent dissatisfaction with educational quality. The inter-related…

  12. Educational Reform in China: Tensions in National Policy and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujin; Dunne, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    In the post-Mao era, the Chinese government carried out a series of education reforms to modernise education provision. This paper explores two related aspects of these reforms through comparative case study research in three different school locations within the same region in China. The first focus is upon system reform initiated through…

  13. Emigration from China in Comparative Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David

    Comparative research on international migration has increasingly focused on immigrant integration rather than the process of emigration. By investigating the different streams of Chinese migration to the United States and Europe, as well as the different stages of Chinese migration to the U.S., this study examines the way in which both receiving and sending contexts combine to shape the process of emigration. Using data from a 2002-2003 survey of emigration from China's Fujian Province, we demonstrate that under restrictive exit and entry policies and high barriers to migration (i.e., clandestine migration from Fuzhou to the U.S.), resources such as migrant social capital, political capital (cadre resources), and human capital all play a crucial role in the emigration process. However, the roles of these resources in the migration process are limited when migration barriers are sufficiently low and when local governments adopt proactive policies promoting emigration (i.e., legal migration from Mingxi to Europe). Comparisons over time suggest that the importance of migrant social capital, political capital, and human capital has strongly persisted for Fuzhou-US emigration, as a result of tightening exit and entry policies. Despite these marked differences between Fuzhou and Mingxi emigration, the results also point to two general processes that are highly consistent across settings and over time-the cumulative causation of migration and the advantage conferred by traditional positional power (cadre status).

  14. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  15. Returning ex-patriot Chinese to Guangdong, China, increase the risk for local transmission of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Zhong, Haojie; Guan, Dawei; Zhang, Huan; Tan, Qiqi; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Meng; Ning, Dan; Zhang, Baohuan; Ke, Changwen; Song, Tie; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghui; Koopmans, Marion; Gao, George F

    2017-10-01

    Fast expansion and linkage to microcephaly and Guillain Barre syndrome have made Zika virus (ZIKV) track attention of global health authority concerns. The epidemiology, virological characteristics and genetic evolution of introduced ZIKV to Guangdong, China, were investigated. Analyses of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates were performed. A total of twenty-eight confirmed ZIKV infection cases were imported into China in 2016, of which 19 were imported into Guangdong, China from Venezuela (16), the Samoa Islands (1), Suriname (1) and Guatemala (1). Serial sampling studies of the cases indicated longer shedding times of ZIKV particles from urine and saliva samples than from serum and conjunctiva swab samples. Seven ZIKV strains were successfully isolated from serum, urine and conjunctiva swab samples using cell culture and neonatal mouse injection methods. Genomic analysis indicated that all viruses belonged to the Asian lineage but had different evolutionary transmission routes with different geographic origins. The molecular clock phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV genomes indicated independent local transmission that appeared to have been previously established in Venezuela and Samoa. Additionally, we found 7 unique non-synonymous mutations in the genomes of ZIKV that were imported to China. The mutations may indicate that ZIKV has undergone independent evolutionary history not caused by sudden adaptation to Chinese hosts. The increasing number of ex-patriot Chinese returning from ZIKV hyper-endemic areas to Guangdong combined with the presence of a variety of Aedes species indicate the potential for autochthonous transmission of ZIKV in Guangdong. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of a new insurance benefit with capitated provider payment on healthcare utilization, expenditure and quality of medication prescribing in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Zou; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2016-02-01

    To assess a new Chinese insurance benefit with capitated provider payment for common diseases in outpatients. Longitudinal health insurance claims data, health administrative data and primary care facility data were used to assess trajectories in outpatient visits, inpatient admissions, expenditure per common disease outpatient (CD/OP) visit and prescribing indicators over time. We conducted segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series data to measure changes in level and trend overtime, and cross-sectional comparisons against external standards. The number of total outpatient visits at 46 primary care facilities (on the CD/OP benefit as of July 2012) increased by 46 895 visits/month (P = 0.004, 95% CI: 15 795-77 994); the average number of CD/OP visits reached 1.84/year/enrollee in 2012; monthly inpatient admissions dropped from 6.4 (2009) to 4.3 (2012) per 1000 enrollees; the median total expenditure per CD/OP visit dropped by CNY 15.40 (P = 0.16, 95% CI: -36.95~6.15); injectable use dropped by 7.38% (P = 0.03, 95% CI: -14.08%~-0.68%); antibiotic use was not improved. Zhuhai's new CD/OP benefit with capitated provider payment has expanded access to primary care, which may have led to a reduction in expensive specialist inpatient services for CD/OP benefit enrollees. Cost awareness was likely raised, and rapidly growing expenditures were contained. Although having been partially improved, inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics and injectables was still prevalent. More explicit incentives and specific quality of care targets must be incorporated into the capitated provider payment to promote scientifically sound and cost-effective care and treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  18. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  19. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM10 and PM2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m(2) for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture <15%), respectively. The EFs of PM from field tillage and planting operations were negatively affected by topsoil moisture. The magnitude of PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from these three activities were estimated to be 35.1 and 9.8 kilotons/yr in northeastern China, respectively, of which Heilongjiang Province accounted for approximately 45%. Spatiotemporal distribution showed that most PM10 emission occurred in April, May and October and were concentrated in the central regions of the northeastern plain, which is dominated by dryland crops. Further work is needed to estimate the contribution of agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-03-05

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004-2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax.

  1. Social Occupational Classes and Higher-Education Opportunities in Contemporary China: A Study on the Distribution of a Scarce Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Baojun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the several surveys conducted since the 1990s onward, this paper aims to demonstrate that in terms of the access to higher education, social class differentiation is far starker than that of urban/rural income in contemporary China. According to the investigation that focused on students enrolled in 37 universities, the chance of farmers…

  2. Residential Mobility within Guangzhou City, China, 1990–2010: Local Residents Versus Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Si-Ming; Zhu, Yushu

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on residential history data from two household surveys conducted in Guangzhou in 2005 and 2010, this paper compares the pattern of intra-city residential moves of local residents and that of migrants. The findings show different trajectories of residential moves for the two groups. While migrants showed increasing mobility over time, residential moves of locals first rose until the early 2000s, then declined steadily afterward. Moreover, the determinants of residential moves of migrants differ from those of the local population. Also, whereas residential moves for the local population are subject to changing factors over time, drivers of relocation for migrants remain more or less stable. PMID:26985169

  3. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  4. Lhasa, Tibet, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-18

    JPL Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer aboard NASA Terra satellite, shows Lhasa, the traditional seat of the Dalai Lama and capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China.

  5. China Report Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-28

    digesting and absorbing foreign capital and foreign technology. 4) The products produced by our enterprises with capital and technology introduced...Shanghai’s strategic position has decided that it should become an S&T development center; a center for importing, digesting , transplanting, developing and...discard the dross and vigorously build a socialist society in China with four modernizations in keeping with the realities in China. This far-sighted

  6. [Micro-FTIR mapping tracer for the heterogeneity growth of nitrogen impurities in natural diamond from three localities in China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Zhi-li; Lu, Tai-jin; Chen, Hua; Chen, Bing-hui; Peng, Shu-yi; Wei, Ran; Li, Liu-fen

    2012-08-01

    The geographic locality determination of diamonds is of great significance in understanding the mantle evolution, restricting the illegal trade of conflict diamonds, etc. In the present article, the in-situ analysis of micro-FTIR surface scan technique was first applied to analyze 14 IaAB natural diamond specimens from China's three commercial localities. According to the FTIR spectra of diamonds, the nitrogen contents were calculated (1616 data points of FTIR) and used for mapping tracer. Th results showed that the nitrogen contents and its aggregation often varied in the process of diamond growth, and the nitrogen contents in initial nucleation stage could be higher or lower than in other stages. It is not an unidirectional variation for nitroge contents in different growth stages, indicating that the carbon and nitrogen had a complex exchange with mantle fluid during the diamond's crystallization course. It was regionally different between the diamonds from the three localities in the frequency distribution of nitrogen contents and NB%/N(T). Micro-FTIR mapping is more intuitive than the method of selecting discontinuous points, and it can trace the heterogeneous growth of nitrogen impurities in natural diamonds consecutively.

  7. Assessing Local Communities’ Willingness to Pay for River Network Protection: A Contingent Valuation Study of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhaoyi; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China) was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP). The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation. PMID:23202821

  8. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  9. Specialization of China large-scale exchange market based on constrained co-local spatial association rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewu; Du, Yunyan; Su, Fenzhen; Wen, Wei

    2009-10-01

    With quick development of economy, spatial distribution and specialization level of China large scale commodity exchange markets whose turnover are more than 100 million Yuan, have changed greatly. And influencing factors which distribute in the research region have attribute information and spatial information and do not satisfy statistical independence. Commodity exchange market specialization index is brought forward to measure specialization degree, based on the former research and constrained co-local spatial association rule is used to analyze symbiotic pattern between specialization level and influencing factors. Constrained predicate templates and association rule templates can improve mining efficiency greatly. As the result shown, large scale commodity exchange market specialization level on country-region spatial scale went down from 2000 to 2005 and rose at 2006. The interesting association rules extracted based on defined minimum support and confident can provide officers of region governments with rational advices on large scale commodity exchange markets planning and construction.

  10. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  11. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus).

  13. Effect of windblown dust from local and regional sources on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Wenxing; Bai, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhongliang; Sun, Fengjuan; Hou, Lujian; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Mengshuang; Miao, Yunge

    2017-03-01

    Windblown dust is a major source of PM10 in Jinan, China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of windblown dust on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, which has high population density. In this study, PM10 emissions from the suburbs of Jinan (local source) were estimated using the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model; and the PM10 emissions from Shandong province, excluding Jinan (regional source), were estimated based on an empirical formula. In this study, the heating period includes January, February, November, and December; the non-heating period includes June, July and August; and the sand period includes March, April, May, September, and October. The WEPS-simulated annual PM10 emission was 9.90 × 104 tons (3.22 × 104 tons during the heating period, 5.53 × 104 tons during the sand period, and 1.16 × 104 tons during the non-heating period) in suburban Jinan in 2012. The PM10 emission was 9.17 × 105 tons in Shandong province, excluding Jinan, in 2012. Good correlations between the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust simulated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust from local and regional sources were shown in this study. R2 were equal to 0.95, 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, for the entire year, the heating, non-heating and sand period. For the entire year, the contributions of windblown dust from the local sources, regional sources, and long-range dust transport sources to PM10 were 73.0%, 12.8%, 14.2%, respectively. The windblown dust was mainly from local area. The contribution of the regional source was the greatest in the sand period, and the contribution of long-range dust transport was greatest in the heating period.

  14. Local involvement in measuring and governing carbon stocks in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos

    Treesearch

    Michael Køie. Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    An important element of MRV is to ensure accurate measurements of carbon stocks. Measuring trees on the ground may be needed for ground truthing of remote sensing results. It can also provide more accurate carbon stock monitoring than remote sensing alone. Local involvement in measuring trees for monitoring of carbon stocks may be advantageous in several ways....

  15. Domestic Migration, Benefit Spillovers, and Local Education Spending: Evidence from China 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The idea that educational externalities affect local governments' incentive to provide such service was proposed over a century ago. Several studies have tested the relationship in the US, with mixed results. However, the theory has rarely been tested systematically outside of the US context. Paradoxically the unique household registration system…

  16. Local Area Network Standards and Guidelines for the Republic of China Navy (ROCN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    There is a major difference between a commmunications path established using a LAN and a connection made through a public data network. With a LAN...Local Area Networks, " Computer. June 1985. - 57 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST No. Copies 1. Defense Technical Information Center 2 Cameron Station

  17. Domestic Migration, Benefit Spillovers, and Local Education Spending: Evidence from China 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The idea that educational externalities affect local governments' incentive to provide such service was proposed over a century ago. Several studies have tested the relationship in the US, with mixed results. However, the theory has rarely been tested systematically outside of the US context. Paradoxically the unique household registration system…

  18. Frictions That Activate Change: Dynamics of Global to Local Non-Governmental Organizations for Female Education and Empowerment in China, India, and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Vilma; Baily, Supriya; Khan, Asima; Ross, Heidi; Wang, Yimin; Shah, Payal; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how non-governmental organizations create resources and spaces for girls and women's education and empowerment in China, India and Pakistan--in the context of global expectations and local state relations as well as cultural norms. We examine the dynamics that foster female empowerment associated with educational attainment.…

  19. Impact of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Local Meteorology and Air Quality - A Case Study of National Capital Region (NCR) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Mohan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent trend analysis of PM10 (Particulate Matter with size ≤ 10 micron) concentrations shows exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) since 2001 in Delhi. Capital city of India, and surrounding regions.Even though O3 levels are generally below NAAQS, regular monitoring has revealed that they too have increased consistently by 6 µg m-3 from 2009 (35.3 µg m-3) to 2012 (41.5 µg m-3) which is a cause of alarm. This O3 build up is increasing the public health risk. In summer 2015, exceedance of O3 levels ranged from 92% - 97%. In order to implement air pollution control strategies it is important to understand the impact of meteorology on atmospheric pollutants and vice-versa. The regional air quality model WRF-Chem is ideally suited to study the feedback between air pollution and meteorology (Luo and Yu, 2011; Forkel et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2014). Feedback effects can be specifically important during air pollution episodes that occur as a result of stagnation events, which are characterized by weak synoptic forcing of winds, which leads up to the buildup of pollutant concentrations close to emissions sources (Zhang et al., 2014). In present study, WRF-Chem model is implemented to understand the impact of meteorology on atmospheric chemistry of gaseous pollutants and aerosols and vice-versa for NCR for the month of June 2010 representing summer season. The study is performed by considering four scenarios (i) no feedback is considered (ii) only cumulus radiation feedback (iii) only aerosol-radiation feedback (i.e. the direct effect) and (iv) aerosol-radiation feedback along with cloud interactions (i.e direct effect + indirect effect) are taken into account. Significant changes in meteological and air quality fields have been observed with inclusion feedback mechanisms. Temperature difference of about -0.5 to -0.1 degrees was observed on inclusion of feedback interactions. Similarly a difference of 100 to 150 W m-2 was noted in Shortwave

  20. Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Noel T; Ciochon, Russell L; Xu, Qinqi; Liu, Jinyi

    2004-05-01

    From a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, we constructed a digitized three-dimensional, stratigraphically-controlled excavation grid of Zhoukoudian Locality 1 in order to assess the spatial relationships of the excavated materials. All 15 fossil Homo erectus loci were mapped on the grid. Meter cubes were used in excavation starting in 1934, and Loci H through O, established between 1934 and 1937, were mapped to within 1 m(3)vertical and horizontal provenience. Loci A through G, established between 1921 and 1933, were excavated in the northernmost part of Locality 1 by unmapped quarrying, but their stratigraphic levels were recorded. We could localize Loci A through G on the grid system by utilizing locations of remaining walls, stratigraphic sections, excavation reports, excavation maps, and photographs. Loci contained skeletal elements of Homo erectus individuals scattered over areas of the cave floor of up to 9 m in diameter. Scoring of taphonomic damage on the Homo erectus sample, as observed on casts and originals, demonstrates that 67% of the hominid sample shows bite marks or other modifications ascribed to large mammalian carnivores, particularly the large Pleistocene cave hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris. Virtually all of the remaining Homo erectus skeletal assemblage shows breakage consistent with this taphonomic pattern of fragmentation. Bioturbation by digging carnivores is the most likely explanation for a fragment of Homo erectus Skull XI discovered 1 m below its other conjoined portions in Locus L. Carbon on all the Homo erectus fossils from Locus G, a circumscribed area of 1-meter diameter, earlier taken to indicate burning, cooking, and cannibalism, is here interpreted as detrital carbon deposited under water, perhaps the result of hyaenid caching behavior. Locus G records the close stratigraphic and horizontal association of stone artifacts with Homo erectus and other vertebrate skeletal elements, an association that is seen at

  1. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Lin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study is to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, and compare medicinal traditions in the study area with Li medicines (LM) and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). Ethnobotanical data were collected by 3 means: semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided field trips. There were 27 informants from 9 towns and 14 villages who were visited. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC, Use Value - UV, and Fidelity Level - FL) were calculated. In the present study, 264 species from 92 families and 233 genera were recorded, with Compositae (20 species), Leguminosae (19 species), Rubiaceae (12 species) and Gramineae (11 species) as predominate families. Leaves were the most frequently used parts in the preparation of local medicines. The most common preparation method was decoction (452 mentions). The plant with the highest values was Eclipta prostrata (0.46). The 6 plant species with the maximum FL (100%) were Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv., Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth., Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Microcos paniculata L., and Psidium guajava L. In addition, 120 investigated human ailments were grouped into 10 categories, within which symptoms and signs (184 mentions), diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (139 mentions) and diseases of the digestive system (94 mentions) were the most mentioned in our investigation. The informant consensus about using medicinal plants ranged from 0.27 to 0.48, which showed a high level of agreement among the informants on symptoms and signs (0.48) and certain infectious and parasitic diseases (0.43). In comparison with TCM and LM, the results reflected a closer connection between local medicine and TCM. The information reported by Hoklos people is of great value to ethnic medicinal culture. However, this precious medicinal knowledge is at risk of being lost due to rapid

  2. Assessment of the ripple effects and spatial heterogeneity of total losses in the capital of China after a great catastrophic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Li, Ning; Xie, Wei; Liu, Yu; Feng, Jieling; Chen, Xi; Liu, Li

    2017-03-01

    The total losses caused by natural disasters have spatial heterogeneity due to the different economic development levels inside the disaster-hit areas. This paper uses scenarios of direct economic loss to introduce the sectors' losses caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (2008 WCE) in Beijing, utilizing the Adaptive Regional Input-Output (ARIO) model and the Inter-regional ripple effect (IRRE) model. The purpose is to assess the ripple effects of indirect economic loss and spatial heterogeneity of both direct and indirect economic loss at the scale of the smallest administrative divisions of China (streets, villages, and towns). The results indicate that the district of Beijing with the most severe indirect economic loss is the Chaoyang District; the finance and insurance industry (15, see Table 1) of Chaowai Street suffers the most in the Chaoyang District, which is 1.46 times that of its direct economic loss. During 2008-2014, the average annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate of Beijing was decreased 3.63 % by the catastrophe. Compared with the 8 % of GDP growth rate target, the decreasing GDP growth rate is a significant and noticeable economic impact, and it can be efficiently mitigated by increasing rescue effort and by supporting the industries which are located in the seriously damaged regions.

  3. Bayesian gravimetric inversion for local crustal model refinement in the Guangdong province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sampietro, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the Earth crustal structure is a fundamental subject for many geophysical applications. As a first approximation, the crust composition can be subdivided into sediments and crystalline crust; the latter, in the case of the continental crust, can be further subdivided into upper, middle and lower crust, as it is done for example in the CRUST1.0 global model. Gravimetric inversion methods, in order to guarantee the uniqueness of the solution of the inverse problem, are generally used to infer only one boundary between two layers, e.g. the crustal thickness (i.e. the Moho depth). Here a method based on a Bayesian approach is proposed to refine an already existing crustal model by combining gravimetric observations and some a priori conditions on the crustal structure. Basically the method consists in subdividing the crustal volume under investigation into voxels and in estimating a label and a mass density for each voxel in such a way that the resulting gravimetric signal is consistent with the observed one and the a priori conditions are satisfied. The label characterizes the material type of each voxel, e.g. sediments, oceanic crust, upper crust, etc. The estimation procedure is based on a simulated annealing driven by a Gibbs sampler at each iterative step. Moreover, the proposed solution allows to easily integrate seismic profiles available in the study area to further constrain the result of the gravimetric inversion. In this work the method is applied to refine the crustal model beneath the Guangdong province in the Southern China. This region has been selected for its complex geological structure (e.g. both continental and oceanic crust are present) and for the plan of building here a massive detector of neutrino and geo-neutrino flux. For the latter experiment, an accurate knowledge of the underlying crustal structure is required. The gravity signal to be inverted, at a ground level and at a medium-high spatial resolution, comes from a recent

  4. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0–5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0–80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40–80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered. PMID:27857187

  5. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-18

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0-5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0-80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40-80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such "stable species" should be considered.

  6. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0-5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0-80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40-80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered.

  7. Effect of a large and very shallow lake on local summer precipitation over the Lake Taihu basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Ma, Zhuguo; Li, Mingxing

    2016-08-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is situated in the Middle and lower Yangtze River delta. It is characterized by its shallowness (~1.9 m), large area (~2338 km2), and high turbidity in recent years. The lake's effect on local summer precipitation is first studied in this paper through the use of an atmosphere-lake coupled model. By enlarging the light extinction coefficient, modifying the radiation scheme, and setting the roughness length to constants, the coupled model after adjustment realistically reproduces the thermal stratification and magnitude of diurnal variation over Lake Taihu, with mean biases of 0.7°C for lake surface temperature and 0.4°C for near-surface air temperature, respectively. Based on this calibrated coupled model, two high-resolution numerical simulations with and without the lake (lake grid cells replaced by cropland) were conducted to identify the lake effects. The results show that an overall effect of Lake Taihu on local summer precipitation is negative during daytime and positive during nighttime and the precipitation pattern may be modified to some extent. The lake effect varies between areas and with time of day and occurs primarily on the downwind shore. A composite analysis for a representative decreased precipitation region reveals that during daytime in the summer, the combination of decreased air temperature and latent heat flux, along with intensified divergence and downdraft, acts together to stabilize the lower atmosphere and suppress thermal convective activities, ultimately resulting in less precipitation over this region.

  8. Local adaptation to temperature and precipitation in naturally fragmented populations of Cephalotaxus oliveri, an endangered conifer endemic to China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Xia, Fan; Su, Yingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Cephalotaxus oliveri is an endangered tertiary relict conifer endemic to China. The species survives in a wide range from west to east with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are main restrictive factors for distribution of C. oliveri. In order to comprehend the mechanism of adaptive evolution to climate variation, we employed ISSR markers to detect adaptive evolution loci, to identify the association between variation in temperature and precipitation and adaptive loci, and to investigate the genetic structure for 22 C. oliveri natural populations. In total, 14 outlier loci were identified, of which five were associated with temperature and precipitation. Among outlier loci, linkage disequilibrium (LD) was high (42.86%), which also provided strong evidence for selection. In addition, C. oliveri possessed high genetic variation (93.31%) and population differentiation, which may provide raw material to evolution and accelerate local adaptation, respectively. Ecological niche modeling showed that global warming will cause a shift for populations of C. oliveri from south to north with a shrinkage of southern areas. Our results contribute to understand the potential response of conifers to climatic changes, and provide new insights for conifer resource management and conservation strategies. PMID:27113970

  9. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Methods: Preston’s lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Results: In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Conclusions: Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations. PMID:27308277

  10. Dengue Baidu Search Index data can improve the prediction of local dengue epidemic: A case study in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Peng, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Xie, Runsheng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) in Guangzhou, Guangdong province in China is an important public health issue. The problem was highlighted in 2014 by a large, unprecedented outbreak. In order to respond in a more timely manner and hence better control such potential outbreaks in the future, this study develops an early warning model that integrates internet-based query data into traditional surveillance data. Methodology and principal findings A Dengue Baidu Search Index (DBSI) was collected from the Baidu website for developing a predictive model of dengue fever in combination with meteorological and demographic factors. Generalized additive models (GAM) with or without DBSI were established. The generalized cross validation (GCV) score and deviance explained indexes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and root mean squared error (RMSE), were respectively applied to measure the fitness and the prediction capability of the models. Our results show that the DBSI with one-week lag has a positive linear relationship with the local DF occurrence, and the model with DBSI (ICC:0.94 and RMSE:59.86) has a better prediction capability than the model without DBSI (ICC:0.72 and RMSE:203.29). Conclusions Our study suggests that a DSBI combined with traditional disease surveillance and meteorological data can improve the dengue early warning system in Guangzhou. PMID:28263988

  11. Dengue Baidu Search Index data can improve the prediction of local dengue epidemic: A case study in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Peng, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Xie, Runsheng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    Dengue fever (DF) in Guangzhou, Guangdong province in China is an important public health issue. The problem was highlighted in 2014 by a large, unprecedented outbreak. In order to respond in a more timely manner and hence better control such potential outbreaks in the future, this study develops an early warning model that integrates internet-based query data into traditional surveillance data. A Dengue Baidu Search Index (DBSI) was collected from the Baidu website for developing a predictive model of dengue fever in combination with meteorological and demographic factors. Generalized additive models (GAM) with or without DBSI were established. The generalized cross validation (GCV) score and deviance explained indexes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and root mean squared error (RMSE), were respectively applied to measure the fitness and the prediction capability of the models. Our results show that the DBSI with one-week lag has a positive linear relationship with the local DF occurrence, and the model with DBSI (ICC:0.94 and RMSE:59.86) has a better prediction capability than the model without DBSI (ICC:0.72 and RMSE:203.29). Our study suggests that a DSBI combined with traditional disease surveillance and meteorological data can improve the dengue early warning system in Guangzhou.

  12. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-06-01

    The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Preston's lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations.

  13. P- and S-velocity structure beneath the Three Gorges region (central China) from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic experiment provides new insights on the crustal structure of the head area of the Three Gorges Reservoir in central China. The region is characterized by a relatively high rate of reservoir-induced seismicity that is often triggered within those areas associated with the ascending water level. Our 3-D velocity model of the Three Gorges region shows that the Huangling anticline (HLA) is characterized by a high-velocity crust, and the Zigui Basin (ZGB) has lower crustal velocities. The 3-D tomographic inversions are conducted using 11 901 P-wave and 12 032 S-wave arrival times from 1342 events recorded by the local network of seismic stations from early 2001 to late 2006. Initial models with varying velocity gradients are extracted to constrain a data-driven optimum 1-D model for 3-D iterative inversion scheme. Checkerboard tests are applied to assess model reliability, indicating a reasonable level of lateral and vertical resolutions. The P- and S-tomographic models reveal a local high-velocity anomaly from 5 to 10 km beneath SW portion of the HLA and a strong, large low-velocity anomaly between about 5-10 km depths at the south margin of the ZGB. Moreover, the southwest border of HLA underthrust the ZGB with slightly bigger angle. Also, a prominent high-velocity anomaly is located below 5 km beneath Shazhenxi, and to the west, the velocity anomaly turns out to be negative. There is no record help explaining the dramatic feature since incorporating local tectonic and topography, it suggests sharp gap in velocity near surface is primarily due to several secondary fracture zones. The surface responses of velocity discontinuity are generally aligned parallel to the trending of fault. Relatively good agreement between regional features and the velocity perturbations promotes further interpretation. Earthquake swarm activities from source relocation occur on the outer portions of high-velocity anomaly with nearly perpendicular dip angle. Thus, the seismicity

  14. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  15. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  16. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  17. Capital Outlay and Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a generic overview of the major tasks associated with financing a school district's large capital programs. The chapter opens with a brief historical review of the limited provisions made for capital outlay prior to the 1960s and of the trends in financing in recent decades. The…

  18. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  19. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  20. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  1. CAPIT Toy Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Davene

    This catalog, a product of the CAPIT program (Children and Parents Involved Together), is designed to familiarize parents with durable, aesthetically appealing toys, games, tools, and materials which are readily available and have potential educational value. Home visitors in the CAPIT program use the catalog during their visits to help families…

  2. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  3. Imagining "Alternativas" to Global, Corporate, New Economy Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma; Ordorika, Imanol; Velazquez, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail the conditions and patterns of academic capitalism and the new economy in US higher education. Subsequently, a conceptual model is offered for considering the international reach and national and local patterns of academic capitalism. Further, a distinctive Mexican case of entrepreneurialism is offered. The…

  4. Imagining "Alternativas" to Global, Corporate, New Economy Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma; Ordorika, Imanol; Velazquez, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail the conditions and patterns of academic capitalism and the new economy in US higher education. Subsequently, a conceptual model is offered for considering the international reach and national and local patterns of academic capitalism. Further, a distinctive Mexican case of entrepreneurialism is offered. The…

  5. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  6. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  7. Evaluation of arsenate content of rice and rice bran purchased from local markets in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shouhui; Yang, Hui; Mao, Xuefei; Qiu, Jing; Liu, Quanji; Wang, Fuhua; Wang, Min

    2014-04-01

    In previous studies, inorganic arsenic and total arsenic concentrations in rice bran have been much higher than those in polished rice obtained from the same whole paddy rice. However, the arsenic species distribution between rice and bran is still unknown, especially for arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV). To characterize the arsenic species in rice and bran and explain the elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic and total arsenic, four arsenic species, AsIII, AsV, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid, were evaluated. Rice and bran samples (n = 108) purchased from local markets in the People's Republic of China were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry and then microwave extraction. As expected, most of the arsenic was found in bran, with bran/rice ratios of 6.8 for total arsenic species and 6.4 for inorganic arsenic. Among four arsenic species, the maximum bran/rice ratio was 104.7 (335/3.2 μg kg(-1)) for AsV followed by 1.2 (69.2/56.1) for AsIII, 1.3 (6.7/5.2) for dimethylarsinic acid, and 4.0 (0.8/0.2) for monomethylarsonic acid. Thus, the large difference in arsenic concentration between rice and bran was mostly due to the difference in the AsV concentration, which account for 96 and 95 % of the difference for total arsenic species and inorganic arsenic, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of AsV contamination in rice bran and its by-products needs more study. This study is the first in which concentrations of AsIII and AsV in rice and bran have been documented, revealing that a higher percentage of AsV occurs in bran than in rice.

  8. Local Responses to Inundation and De-Farming in the Reservoir Region of the Three Gorges Project (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Yang, Felix Y.

    2006-10-01

    Large-scale infrastructural developments in rural areas often impose significant direct and indirect impacts on environment and people. The Three Gorges Project to dam the Yangtze River in China will create a huge reservoir, inundate farmlands and villages, and incur large-scale resettlement. The concurrent de-farming program to reforest marginal farmlands on steep slopes imposes additional stresses on local people. This study evaluates the ecological and economic adjustments in rural areas affected by both projects, and explores villagers’ knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and expectations vis-à-vis the drastic changes. Eleven villages in Yunyang County in Sichuan Province, stratified into three zones based on topography and agriculture, were assessed by field studies, questionnaire surveys, maps, satellite imagery, and census and government reports. Multiple regressions identified predictors for 17 dependent variables. Spatial variations in the difficult terrain imposed zone-differentiated agricultural constraints, ecological impacts, and human responses. The dominant farming population—mainly young adults working as migrant laborers in cities—has adopted some nonagricultural work to supplement incomes. Expected per-capita standardized farmland (SF) exceeded threshold SF, which surpasses existing SF. Motivations to reclaim more farmlands, de-farm marginal lands, and become migrant laborers were explained by different multiple-regression predictors. Reduction in farmland stock by inundation and de-farming, aggravated by unwillingness towards nonlocal resettlement, would impose ecological pressures and stimulate demands for nonfarming incomes. Common anticipation of better future income and occupation has been subdued by unfavorable feedbacks from early relocatees. Future environmental and landscape changes are hinged upon changing human responses. Government policies could be informed by research findings to match economic, ecological, and social realities.

  9. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  10. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  11. Declining frequency of summertime local-scale precipitation over eastern China from 1970 to 2010 and its potential link to aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Su, Tianning; Li, Zhanqing; Miao, Yucong; Li, Jing; Liu, Huan; Xu, Hui; Cribb, Maureen; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-06-01

    Summer precipitation plays critical roles in the energy balance and the availability of fresh water over eastern China. However, little is known regarding the trend in local-scale precipitation (LSP). Here we developed a novel method to determine LSP events in the summer afternoon throughout eastern China from 1970 to 2010 based on hourly gauge measurements. The LSP occurrence hours decrease at an annual rate of 0.25%, which varies considerably by region, ranging from 0.14% over the Yangtze River Delta to 0.56% over the Pearl River Delta. This declining frequency of LSP is generally accompanied by an increase in rain rate of LSP but a decrease in visibility, whose linkage to LSP events was investigated. In particular, more LSP events tended to form when the atmosphere was slightly polluted. Afterward, LSP was suppressed. These findings have important implications for improving our understanding of the climatology of daytime precipitation at local scales.Plain Language SummarySummer precipitation plays critical roles in the energy balance and the availability of fresh water over eastern <span class="hlt">China</span>. However, the knowledge remains poorly understood regarding the trend of <span class="hlt">local</span>-scale precipitation (LSP). Long-term hourly gauge data in the summer afternoon throughout eastern <span class="hlt">China</span> for 1970 to 2010 reveal that LSP occurrence hours decrease at an annual rate of 0.25%, which differs greatly by region, ranging from 0.14% over the Yangtze River Delta to 0.56% over the Pearl River Delta. In contrast, large-scale precipitation events do not show significant increasing/decreasing trends over most regions. Further, concurrent visibility observations exhibit a decreasing trend, whose linkage to declining LSP is investigated. In particular, more LSP events tend to form as the atmosphere is slightly polluted. Afterward, LSP is suppressed. The findings provide deep insight into how precipitation changes over long term from a perspective of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA334437','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA334437"><span>JPRS Report, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>ration. Its business will include deposits in renminbi and reserves and self-financed <span class="hlt">capital</span> for productive and foreign currencies, trade and nontrade...international banks and other financial institutions, report its plans to the government departments con- trust and agency business , credit approval...foreign exchange. Plus, it may use its own foreign has agreed to let <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Steel establish the "<span class="hlt">China</span> exchange to send personnel abroad on business</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+migration+AND+effects&pg=3&id=EJ648306','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+migration+AND+effects&pg=3&id=EJ648306"><span>Language as Both Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Ethnicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pendakur, Krishna; Pendakur, Ravi</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Estimates earning differentials for knowledge of 13 minority languages in three Canadian cities. Conditional on knowledge of a majority language, knowledge of a minority language relates to lower earnings, though the negative differential diminishes for languages with large <span class="hlt">local</span> populations. This suggests a positive human <span class="hlt">capital</span> effect that is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+satisfaction+AND+importance&pg=2&id=EJ801491','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+satisfaction+AND+importance&pg=2&id=EJ801491"><span>Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wan, Hooi Lan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by <span class="hlt">locally</span> owned MNCs.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+industry&pg=5&id=EJ801491','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+industry&pg=5&id=EJ801491"><span>Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wan, Hooi Lan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by <span class="hlt">locally</span> owned MNCs.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3545.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3545.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3545 - <span class="hlt">Capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 <span class="hlt">Capitalization</span> grant... primary drinking water regulation or variance, the process it will use to ensure that the systems return...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3545.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3545.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3545 - <span class="hlt">Capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 <span class="hlt">Capitalization</span> grant... primary drinking water regulation or variance, the process it will use to ensure that the systems return...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=6&id=EJ1131780','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=6&id=EJ1131780"><span>Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western <span class="hlt">China</span>, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and human <span class="hlt">capital</span> were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-10/pdf/2013-20536.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-10/pdf/2013-20536.pdf"><span>78 FR 55339 - Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Implementation of Basel III, <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Adequacy...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-10</p> <p>... leverage <span class="hlt">capital</span> requirements and on methodologies for calculating risk-weighted assets under the... ``Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets; Market Discipline and Disclosure...-weighted assets in the agencies' general risk-based <span class="hlt">capital</span> rules \\7\\ (the general risk-based <span class="hlt">capital</span> rules...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+influence&pg=2&id=EJ972912','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+influence&pg=2&id=EJ972912"><span>Parental Influence on Chinese Students' Achievement: A Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wei, Dan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how social <span class="hlt">capital</span> formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in <span class="hlt">China</span> were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=7&id=EJ972912','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=7&id=EJ972912"><span>Parental Influence on Chinese Students' Achievement: A Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wei, Dan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how social <span class="hlt">capital</span> formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in <span class="hlt">China</span> were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557899"><span>Usefulness of Sau-PCR for molecular epidemiology of nosocomial outbreaks due to Burkholderia cepacia which occurred in a <span class="hlt">local</span> hospital in Guangzhou, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Alam, M J; Li, Lin; Yang, Liansheng; Yamasaki, Shinji</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to determine the source of nosocomial outbreak due to Burkholderia cepacia by molecular techniques. A total of 11 B. cepacia strains were isolated; nine from blood and one from sputum of patients without cystic fibrosis, and one from reverse osmosis water at a <span class="hlt">local</span> hospital in Guangzhou, <span class="hlt">China</span>. Analyses of 11 strains by the Sau-PCR assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that nine strains obtained from the blood of outpatients in a hemodialysis unit and one strain from reverse osmosis water had identical DNA profiles, indicating that the reverse osmosis water supply could be a source of infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol7-sec1777-20.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol7-sec1777-20.pdf"><span>12 CFR 1777.20 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... notice of proposed <span class="hlt">capital</span> classification, holds core <span class="hlt">capital</span> equaling or exceeding the minimum <span class="hlt">capital</span>... classification, holds core <span class="hlt">capital</span> equaling or exceeding the minimum <span class="hlt">capital</span> level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed <span class="hlt">capital</span> classification, holds core <span class="hlt">capital</span> less than...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475994"><span>Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural <span class="hlt">capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural <span class="hlt">capital</span> and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned <span class="hlt">local</span> to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26082542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26082542"><span>Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural <span class="hlt">capital</span> and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned <span class="hlt">local</span> to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987SPIE..786...28D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987SPIE..786...28D"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> Expert System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "<span class="hlt">capital</span> investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "<span class="hlt">Capital</span> Package." A <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352562"><span>Re-examination of the dates of large blade technology in <span class="hlt">China</span>: a comparison of Shuidonggou <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 1 and <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Feng; Kuhn, Steven L; Gao, Xing; Chen, Fu-You</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The presence and age of large blade technology at the Shuidonggou site is a pivotal issue in discussions of the spread of blade technology in East Eurasia. Madsen and colleagues' influential work uses the dates (24,000-29,000 rcy BP [radiocarbon years before present]) they obtained from Shuidonggou <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 2 to estimate the age of blade technology in this region, and suggested a very late arrival of Levallois-like blade technology from the north. This paper re-examines the evidence for the age of blade technology at Shuidonggou by comparing the lithic assemblages from the new excavations at <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 2 with those from <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 1. Several important points are demonstrated: (1) the lithic industry of cultural layers 1 through 4 at <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 2 is not based on large blades, so reported dates from these layers cannot be an indicator of the age of large blade technology; (2) comparing <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 1 and 2, the age of large blade technology appears to be around 34,000-38,000 calendar years BP (before present) in this region, suggesting a relatively rapid technology dispersal from the west and/or north; (3) the so-called 'Shuidonggou lower cultural layer' at <span class="hlt">Locality</span> 1 includes both large blade and simple flake industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1101211.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1101211.pdf"><span>On Reflective Teaching of EFL Teachers in <span class="hlt">Local</span> Universities of <span class="hlt">China</span>--A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Zou; Ye, Zhou</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Presently, <span class="hlt">China</span> plays a vital role in the world. Therefore, Chinese passion for English has reached an unprecedented level. Nevertheless, various problems occur in EFL teaching. Thus, EFL teachers must make the teaching qualities better by reflective teaching, an effective way to improving EFL teaching. The paper is to study the definitions,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10167296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10167296"><span>Thinking strategically about <span class="hlt">capitation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boland, P</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although <span class="hlt">capitation</span> is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For <span class="hlt">capitation</span> to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The <span class="hlt">capitation</span> structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029863"><span>Influences of <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi</p> <p>2016-03-18</p> <p>Low-head dam impoundments modify <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, <span class="hlt">China</span>, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4848416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4848416"><span>Influences of <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Low-head dam impoundments modify <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, <span class="hlt">China</span>, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying <span class="hlt">local</span> habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313045"><span>Improvements in ecosystem services from investments in natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Xiao, Yi; Polasky, Stephen; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Yang; Rao, Enming; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Yang, Guangbin; Gong, Shihan; Wu, Bingfang; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Wu; Daily, Gretchen C</p> <p>2016-06-17</p> <p>In response to ecosystem degradation from rapid economic development, <span class="hlt">China</span> began investing heavily in protecting and restoring natural <span class="hlt">capital</span> starting in 2000. We report on <span class="hlt">China</span>'s first national ecosystem assessment (2000-2010), designed to quantify and help manage change in ecosystem services, including food production, carbon sequestration, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, water retention, flood mitigation, and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Overall, ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2010, apart from habitat provision. <span class="hlt">China</span>'s national conservation policies contributed significantly to the increases in those ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10123135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10123135"><span>Hospital <span class="hlt">capital</span> funding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hebert, M</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>It is critical that hospitals have a long-range plan in place to ensure that buildings and equipment are replaced when necessary. A study undertaken in British Columbia contrasted the Greater Vancouver Regional Hospital District's <span class="hlt">capital</span> plan (past and future) to a proposed <span class="hlt">capital</span> replacement model. The model, developed using accepted industry standards and criteria, provided an asset value that was used for comparison purposes. Building and equipment expenditures of the Surrey Memorial Hospital were also compared against the model. Findings from both studies are presented in this article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCoAM.224..628B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCoAM.224..628B"><span>Fuzzy <span class="hlt">capital</span> rationing model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bas, E.; Kahraman, C.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we study the fuzzification of Weingartner's pure <span class="hlt">capital</span> rationing model and its analysis. We develop a primal-dual pair based on t-norm/t-conorm relation for the constraints and objective function for a fully fuzzified pure <span class="hlt">capital</span> rationing problem except project selection variables. We define the [alpha]-interval under which the weak duality is proved. We perform sensitivity analysis for a change in a budget level or in a cash flow level of a non-basic as well as a basic variable. We analyze the problem based on duality and complementary slackness results. We illustrate the proposed model by computational analysis, and interpret the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21189.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21189.html"><span>Kashgar, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-12-12</p> <p>In far western <span class="hlt">China</span> is Xinjiang Prefecture, with its <span class="hlt">capital</span> of Kashgar (bottom right on image). The area has a rich history of over 2,000 years; Kashgar has served as a trading post and important city on the Silk Road. The folded sedimentary rocks outline valleys that contain oases, cultivated for thousands of years. The image was acquired 23 July 2014, covers an area of 37.3 by 46.3 kilometers, and is located at 39.8 degrees north, 75.8 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bourdieu+AND+capital+AND+global&id=EJ1057800','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bourdieu+AND+capital+AND+global&id=EJ1057800"><span>Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in <span class="hlt">China</span>, focusing on the "symbolic <span class="hlt">capital</span>" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic <span class="hlt">capital</span> and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to <span class="hlt">China</span> and argue that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communicative+AND+approach&pg=4&id=EJ1057800','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communicative+AND+approach&pg=4&id=EJ1057800"><span>Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in <span class="hlt">China</span>, focusing on the "symbolic <span class="hlt">capital</span>" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic <span class="hlt">capital</span> and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to <span class="hlt">China</span> and argue that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672361','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672361"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in <span class="hlt">China</span> and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in <span class="hlt">Local</span> Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pan, En chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin fei; Chen, Xiao dong; Xu, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in <span class="hlt">China</span> and study their associations with high cancer incidence in <span class="hlt">local</span> population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in <span class="hlt">China</span>. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10−4 in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in <span class="hlt">local</span> drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences. PMID:26688818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26688818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26688818"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in <span class="hlt">China</span> and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in <span class="hlt">Local</span> Population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in <span class="hlt">China</span> and study their associations with high cancer incidence in <span class="hlt">local</span> population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in <span class="hlt">China</span>. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in <span class="hlt">local</span> drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-08/pdf/2010-2677.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-08/pdf/2010-2677.pdf"><span>75 FR 6151 - Minimum <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-08</p> <p>... finance market conditions; (7) Level of reserves or retained earnings; (8) Initiatives, operations... for a periodic review of core <span class="hlt">capital</span> maintained by an Enterprise, the amount of <span class="hlt">capital</span> retained by...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22616509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22616509"><span>Understanding your <span class="hlt">capital</span> options.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Payne, Christopher T</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>When planning <span class="hlt">capital</span> expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+capital&pg=4&id=EJ923470','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+capital&pg=4&id=EJ923470"><span>Manage "Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span>" Strategically</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Odden, Allan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To strategically manage human <span class="hlt">capital</span> in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=depreciation&pg=2&id=EJ577723','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=depreciation&pg=2&id=EJ577723"><span>Planning for <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Reinvestment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for <span class="hlt">capital</span> reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Strategy+AND+Human+AND+Resource+AND+Management&pg=2&id=EJ923470','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Strategy+AND+Human+AND+Resource+AND+Management&pg=2&id=EJ923470"><span>Manage "Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span>" Strategically</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Odden, Allan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To strategically manage human <span class="hlt">capital</span> in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&id=EJ979823','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&id=EJ979823"><span>Towards Transnational Academic <span class="hlt">Capitalism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kauppinen, Ilkka</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=brainstorm&id=EJ948504','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=brainstorm&id=EJ948504"><span><span class="hlt">Capitalizing</span> on Happenstance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krumboltz, John D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Unplanned events occur every day and have a deep impact on individuals' lives. The happenstance learning theory (Krumboltz, 2009; Krumboltz & Levin, 2010), briefly summarized in this article, provides guidance for employment counselors assisting clients to clarify goals and brainstorm actions to <span class="hlt">capitalize</span> on chance events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&id=EJ979823','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&id=EJ979823"><span>Towards Transnational Academic <span class="hlt">Capitalism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kauppinen, Ilkka</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Edmonton&pg=4&id=EJ626334','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Edmonton&pg=4&id=EJ626334"><span>Creating Schools without <span class="hlt">Capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kolke, Mark</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A shortage of <span class="hlt">capital</span> and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leasing&pg=2&id=EJ626334','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=leasing&pg=2&id=EJ626334"><span>Creating Schools without <span class="hlt">Capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kolke, Mark</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A shortage of <span class="hlt">capital</span> and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505033.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505033.pdf"><span>Reggio Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stejzygier, Aneta</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents the social <span class="hlt">capital</span> as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-30/pdf/2012-16761.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-30/pdf/2012-16761.pdf"><span>77 FR 52977 - Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule; Market Risk <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-30</p> <p>... Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule; Market Risk <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule; Market Risk... the agencies' current <span class="hlt">capital</span> rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311607"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and health--implications for health promotion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eriksson, Malin</p> <p>2011-02-08</p> <p>This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036711','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036711"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and health – implications for health promotion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eriksson, Malin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969039"><span>Are There Differences in Antibiotic Use Between the Recent-Immigrants from Mainland <span class="hlt">China</span> and the <span class="hlt">Local</span>-Born in Hong Kong?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wun, Yuk Tsan; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Ho, Pak Leung; Yung, Wai Hung Raymond</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Immigrants, especially the first-generation, were thought to have different knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) with antibiotics. Doctors often perceived extra pressure from them to prescribe antibiotics. To test these perceptions, we studied the difference in KAP with antibiotics between the recent-immigrants from mainland <span class="hlt">China</span> and the <span class="hlt">local</span>-born of Hong Kong-places with significantly different healthcare and socio-economic systems. Focus groups (including one specific group of recent-immigrants) with 56 participants and territory-wide telephone questionnaire survey with 2,471 randomly selected respondents. Recent-immigrants shared similar KAP with the <span class="hlt">local</span>-born. After adjustment for age, sex and education, the main significant difference was the new-immigrants' behaviour of acquiring antibiotics without prescription and keeping the leftover. They, like the <span class="hlt">local</span>-born, preferred doctors who prescribed antibiotics cautiously. Immigration status could be the surrogate for age, sex and education in the KAP with antibiotics. For antibiotic use, health education and patient care could be similar between the recent-immigrants and the <span class="hlt">local</span>-born.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22intellectual+capital%22&pg=4&id=EJ633024','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22intellectual+capital%22&pg=4&id=EJ633024"><span>Intellectual <span class="hlt">Capital</span>: Comparison and Contrast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Madsen, Susan R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span> (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span>, human <span class="hlt">capital</span>, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251669"><span>Cultural <span class="hlt">Capital</span>: A Concept Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be <span class="hlt">capital</span> in a community. Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span>" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span>" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span>'s identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span>'s consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> is defined as <span class="hlt">capital</span> characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934061"><span><span class="hlt">Local</span> farmers' perceptions of climate change and <span class="hlt">local</span> adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. <span class="hlt">Local</span> farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EnMan..52..894L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EnMan..52..894L"><span><span class="hlt">Local</span> Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. <span class="hlt">Local</span> farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for <span class="hlt">local</span> farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7815W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7815W"><span>Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, <span class="hlt">China</span>: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a <span class="hlt">Local</span> Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of <span class="hlt">Chinas</span> area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on <span class="hlt">local</span> and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for <span class="hlt">China</span> due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, <span class="hlt">China</span> is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between <span class="hlt">China</span> and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between <span class="hlt">China</span> and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626731M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626731M"><span>Tracing the <span class="hlt">locality</span> of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of <span class="hlt">China</span> (259-210 BC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of <span class="hlt">China</span>, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in <span class="hlt">China</span>, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the <span class="hlt">local</span> workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (‑8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (‑15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern <span class="hlt">China</span>, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890548','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890548"><span>Tracing the <span class="hlt">locality</span> of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of <span class="hlt">China</span> (259-210 BC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of <span class="hlt">China</span>, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in <span class="hlt">China</span>, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the <span class="hlt">local</span> workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern <span class="hlt">China</span>, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28161230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28161230"><span>[Slipped <span class="hlt">capital</span> femoral epiphysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, C; Haraux, E; Leroux, J; Gouron, R</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Slipped <span class="hlt">capital</span> femoral epiphysis (SFCE) is a disorder of the hip, characterized by a displacement of the <span class="hlt">capital</span> femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral growth plate. The epiphysis slips posteriorly and inferiorly. SCFE occurs during puberty and metabolic and epidemiologic risk factors, such as obesity are frequently found. Most chronic slips are diagnosed late. Sagittal hip X-rays show epiphysis slip. In case of untreated SCFE, a slip progression arises with an acute slip risk. Treatment is indicated to prevent slip worsening. The clinical and radiological classification is useful to guide treatment and it is predictive of the prognosis. In situ fixation of stable and moderately displaced SCFE with cannulated screws gives excellent results. Major complications are chondrolysis and osteonecrosis and the major sequelae are femoroacetabular impingement and early arthritis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12899904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12899904"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and trust in providers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social <span class="hlt">capital</span> indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve <span class="hlt">local</span> health care control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030282"><span>Invasive Chloroplast Population Genetics of Mikania micrantha in <span class="hlt">China</span>: No <span class="hlt">Local</span> Adaptation and Negative Correlation between Diversity and Geographic Distance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Guopei; Wang, Chunbo; Su, Yingjuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Two fundamental questions on how invasive species are able to rapidly colonize novel habitat have emerged. One asks whether a negative correlation exists between the genetic diversity of invasive populations and their geographic distance from the origin of introduction. The other is whether selection on the chloroplast genome is important driver of adaptation to novel soil environments. Here, we addressed these questions in a study of the noxious invasive weed, Mikania micrantha, which has rapidly expanded in to southern <span class="hlt">China</span> after being introduced to Hong Kong in 1884. Seven chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were used to investigate population genetics in 28 populations of M. micrantha, which produced 39 loci. The soil compositions for these populations, including Mg abundance, were measured. The results showed that M. micrantha possessed relatively high cpSSR variation and differentiation among populations. Multiple diversity indices were quantified, and none was significantly correlated with distance from the origin of introduction. No evidence for “isolation by distance,” significant spatial structure, bottlenecks, nor linkage disequilibrium was detected. We also were unable to identify loci on the chloroplast genome that exhibited patterns of differentiation that would suggest adaptive evolution in response to soil attributes. Soil Mg had only a genome-wide effect instead of being a selective factor, which highlighted the association between Mg and the successful invasion. This study characterizes the role of the chloroplast genome of M. micrantha during its recent invasion of southern <span class="hlt">China</span>. PMID:27708663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120220"><span>Molecular epidemiology demonstrates that imported and <span class="hlt">local</span> strains circulated during the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Geng; Pan, Pan; He, Qiuyan; Kong, Xiujuan; Wu, Kailang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yuntao; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Zhongde; Wu, De; Lai, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaohong; Wu, Jianguo</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The dengue virus (DENV) is a vital global public health issue. The 2014 dengue epidemic in Guangzhou, <span class="hlt">China</span>, caused approximately 40,000 cases of infection and five deaths. We carried out a comprehensive investigation aimed at identifying the transmission sources in this dengue epidemic. To analyze the phylogenetics of the 2014 dengue strains, the envelope (E) gene sequences from 17 viral strains isolated from 168 dengue patient serum samples were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. All 17 strains were serotype I strains, including 8 genotype I and 9 genotype V strains. Additionally, 6 genotype I strains that were probably introduced to <span class="hlt">China</span> from Thailand before 2009 were widely transmitted in the 2013 and 2014 epidemics, and they continued to circulate until 2015, with one affinis strain being found in Singapore. The other 2 genotype I strains were introduced from the Malaya Peninsula in 2014. The transmission source of the 9 genotype V strains was from Malaysia in 2014. DENVs of different serotypes and genotypes co-circulated in the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangzhou. Moreover, not only had DENV been imported to Guangzhou, but it had also been gradually exported, as the viruses exhibited an enzootic transmission cycle in Guangzhou.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708663"><span>Invasive Chloroplast Population Genetics of Mikania micrantha in <span class="hlt">China</span>: No <span class="hlt">Local</span> Adaptation and Negative Correlation between Diversity and Geographic Distance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Guopei; Wang, Chunbo; Su, Yingjuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Two fundamental questions on how invasive species are able to rapidly colonize novel habitat have emerged. One asks whether a negative correlation exists between the genetic diversity of invasive populations and their geographic distance from the origin of introduction. The other is whether selection on the chloroplast genome is important driver of adaptation to novel soil environments. Here, we addressed these questions in a study of the noxious invasive weed, Mikania micrantha, which has rapidly expanded in to southern <span class="hlt">China</span> after being introduced to Hong Kong in 1884. Seven chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were used to investigate population genetics in 28 populations of M. micrantha, which produced 39 loci. The soil compositions for these populations, including Mg abundance, were measured. The results showed that M. micrantha possessed relatively high cpSSR variation and differentiation among populations. Multiple diversity indices were quantified, and none was significantly correlated with distance from the origin of introduction. No evidence for "isolation by distance," significant spatial structure, bottlenecks, nor linkage disequilibrium was detected. We also were unable to identify loci on the chloroplast genome that exhibited patterns of differentiation that would suggest adaptive evolution in response to soil attributes. Soil Mg had only a genome-wide effect instead of being a selective factor, which highlighted the association between Mg and the successful invasion. This study characterizes the role of the chloroplast genome of M. micrantha during its recent invasion of southern <span class="hlt">China</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237086"><span>The impacts of community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> on the life satisfaction of older adults in Hong Kong: the moderator role of intergenerational family <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Nan; Lum, Terry Y S; Lou, Vivian W Q</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study examined the moderator role of intergenerational family <span class="hlt">capital</span> on the relationship between community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and life satisfaction of older Chinese adults. The data were derived from a quota sampling of 372 older adults aged 60 and above, who were interviewed at four districts in Hong Kong in 2011. Multiple group analysis was employed to examine the proposed model. For the low family <span class="hlt">capital</span> group, community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> was found to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction, even when the well-known covariates were controlled. However, the association between community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and life satisfaction was statistically non-significant among the high family <span class="hlt">capital</span> group. The findings highlighted the interplay between community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and intergenerational family <span class="hlt">capital</span>, which supported community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> replacement theory in understanding the mechanism linking social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to life satisfaction in older age in a Chinese context. Community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can play a compensatory role in maintaining the mental health of older people. It is particularly important for older adults who lack family support and/or suffer from social isolation and loneliness in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992108"><span><span class="hlt">Local</span> temperature and El Niño Southern Oscillation influence migration phenology of East Asian migratory waterbirds wintering in Poyang, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Fei; Liu, Guanhua; Si, Yali</p> <p>2016-12-19</p> <p>Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. This study investigates how <span class="hlt">local</span> temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of nine waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, <span class="hlt">China</span> from 2002 to 2013, using linear regression models. Birds mainly arrive at Poyang in October and depart for their breeding sites in March. Six out of nine species show a strong negative relationship between departure time and overwintering temperature in Poyang. Departure dates also show a negative association with overwintering ENSO and March ENSO for two species. Both <span class="hlt">local</span> and large-scale climate indices show no influence on the arrival timing of waterbirds. We suggest that birds react to the annual variation of overwintering temperature: an earlier departure of waterbirds is facilitated by a warmer overwintering period and vice versa. The long-term accumulated temperature effect is more pronounced than ENSO and the short-term <span class="hlt">local</span> temperature effect. Our findings could help quantify the potential impact of global warming on waterbirds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41B0428M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41B0428M"><span><span class="hlt">Local</span> Alterations to the Nitrogen Cycle as Indicated by Tree Ring and Foliage Stable Isotopes, Xi'an <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michelsen-Correa, S.; Qian, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">China</span> is currently experiencing some of the worst pollution problems on Earth. The increase in nitrogen deposition from industrial pollution sources over the past 30 years, has been substantial enough to increase foliar N uptake in plants growing in unfertilized fields and forests throughout <span class="hlt">China</span>. The δ15N signature of foliage and soil have been used to infer changes in the biogeochemical cycling of N in the surrounding ecosystem. The current understanding of global trends in foliar δ15N however, is limited for the East Asia and Pacific region. Most of the research to date has been conducted in temperate and boreal forests of North America and Europe. In this study, two forested sites were sampled on the Loess Plateau, approximately 80km east of the city of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, <span class="hlt">China</span>. The study sites are 1 and 4km down wind of an industrial center including a large nitrogen fertilizer plant. Ecosystem components sampled include soil, forest floor, bole wood, and foliage. We use a combination of δ15N and δ13C of the tree rings, foliage, and soil as indicators of a changing nitrogen cycle and the physiological response of Chinese parasol trees (Firmiana simplex) over time. CN ratios at the study sites suggest that both forested stands are saturated with respect to N. A positive correlation between soil N and foliar δ15N is attributed to the leaching of N depleted in 15N with increasing N availability. Despite this positive correlation within the study area, overall foliar δ15N with a mean of -8.2‰ is low relative to foliage sampled in regions with lower atmospheric N inputs. Foliage and bole wood samples closest to the industrial center have higher δ13C, which is consistent with greater exposure to NOx emissions. While difference in δ15N of ecosystem components between sites is consistent with global trends, the absolute values for the whole study area are relatively low and attributed to N inputs from industrial sources depleted in 15N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17120105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17120105"><span>Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, <span class="hlt">China</span> and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with <span class="hlt">local</span> polluted rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of <span class="hlt">China</span>, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from <span class="hlt">local</span> area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the <span class="hlt">local</span> ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of <span class="hlt">China</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5435160','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5435160"><span>Differences in perceived causes of childhood obesity between migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> communities in <span class="hlt">China</span>: A qualitative study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Bai; Lin, Rong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Weijia; Cheng, KarKeung; Pallan, Miranda; Adab, Peymane; Jones, Laura</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In developing countries, obesity traditionally affectsmore affluent children, butis spreading to a wider social group. Understanding the perceivedcontributors can provide valuable insights to plan preventive interventions. We exploreddifferences in the perceived causes of childhood obesity between <span class="hlt">local</span> and migrant communities in a major Chinese city. We conducted 20 focus groups (137 parents, grandparents, school teachers) and 11semi-structured interviews with school Principals from migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> communities in Guangzhou. Data were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. We found that Lack of influence from grandparents, who were perceived to promote obesogenic behaviorin <span class="hlt">local</span> children, fewer opportunities for unhealthy snacking and less pressure for academic attainment leading to moreactive play were interpreted as potential “protective” factors among migrant children. Nevertheless, two perceived causes of obesity were more pronounced in migrant than <span class="hlt">local</span> children: lack of parental monitoring after-school andunsafe neighborhoods limiting physical-activity. Two barriers that restricted child physical activity were only found in the migrant community: limited home space, and cultural differences, inhabitinginteractive play with <span class="hlt">local</span> children. Future interventions should consider uniquedeterminants of obesity in children from different social backgrounds, with tailored strategies to prevent further rise of the epidemic. PMID:28545110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28545110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28545110"><span>Differences in perceived causes of childhood obesity between migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> communities in <span class="hlt">China</span>: A qualitative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Bai; Lin, Rong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Weijia; Cheng, KarKeung; Pallan, Miranda; Adab, Peymane; Jones, Laura</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In developing countries, obesity traditionally affectsmore affluent children, butis spreading to a wider social group. Understanding the perceivedcontributors can provide valuable insights to plan preventive interventions. We exploreddifferences in the perceived causes of childhood obesity between <span class="hlt">local</span> and migrant communities in a major Chinese city. We conducted 20 focus groups (137 parents, grandparents, school teachers) and 11semi-structured interviews with school Principals from migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> communities in Guangzhou. Data were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. We found that Lack of influence from grandparents, who were perceived to promote obesogenic behaviorin <span class="hlt">local</span> children, fewer opportunities for unhealthy snacking and less pressure for academic attainment leading to moreactive play were interpreted as potential "protective" factors among migrant children. Nevertheless, two perceived causes of obesity were more pronounced in migrant than <span class="hlt">local</span> children: lack of parental monitoring after-school andunsafe neighborhoods limiting physical-activity. Two barriers that restricted child physical activity were only found in the migrant community: limited home space, and cultural differences, inhabitinginteractive play with <span class="hlt">local</span> children. Future interventions should consider uniquedeterminants of obesity in children from different social backgrounds, with tailored strategies to prevent further rise of the epidemic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PIAHS.373...37N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PIAHS.373...37N"><span><span class="hlt">Local</span> irrigation systems, regional hydrological problems and the demand for overarching solutions at the example of an irrigation system in the P.R. of <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nijssen, David; Schumann, Andreas H.; Monninkhoff, Bertram</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The utilization of groundwater for irrigation purposes becomes problematic if groundwater recharge decreases through climate variability. Nevertheless, the degree of groundwater utilization for irrigation increases significantly in dry periods, when the amount of green water is strongly limited. With an increasing gap between water demand and supply, new water management activities are started, which are mostly directed to increase the supply, often by overuse of <span class="hlt">local</span> resources. In many cases such <span class="hlt">local</span> activities results in their summarization in side-effects, which worsen the hydrological conditions throughout a region. Step by step the spatial scale of water management measures has to be extended in such cases by implementation of water transfer systems. In this contribution this general scale problem of water management is discussed at the example of an agricultural region in the Province of Shandong (P.R. of <span class="hlt">China</span>). The <span class="hlt">local</span> irrigation systems and the options to increase the water supply at the <span class="hlt">local</span> scale (e.g. by waste water reuse) are discussed as well as regional measures e.g. reservoirs or barrages in rivers to increase the groundwater recharge. For this purpose, several socio-economic and hydrological models were combined. It is shown how a change of water policy towards a demand management requires a new approach to spatial aspects. Here the question arises, how hydrological most effective measures can be allocated within a region. In the case study, a reduction of agricultural irrigation and a change of the crop structure would be essential to improve the groundwater conditions, which are impaired by ongoing sea-water intrusions. A model hierarchy, which is needed to answer such problems not only from the hydrological point of view, but also considering their socio-economic feasibility, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Guangzhou&pg=3&id=EJ843398','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Guangzhou&pg=3&id=EJ843398"><span>Has Teachers' Participation in Decision Making Increased in <span class="hlt">China</span>? <span class="hlt">Local</span> Responses to the Implementation of Education Decentralization in Guangdong Province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wong, Jocelyn L. N.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>For teachers engaged in the process of policy change, the way that they interpret policy and translate it into their daily practices will influence the implementation and the effects of a policy shift. Thus, it is important and necessary to examine educational decentralization policies from the <span class="hlt">local</span> perspective, for the ways in which teachers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268990"><span>Surviving the crisis: Adaptive wisdom, coping mechanisms and <span class="hlt">local</span> responses to avian influenza threats in Haining, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Letian; Pan, Tianshu</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines <span class="hlt">local</span> responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from <span class="hlt">local</span> medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the <span class="hlt">local</span> communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu. Our field research suggests that collective survival consciousness was translated into a spirit of voluntarism during the crisis. One important practical lesson we have learned from this study is that the adaptive wisdom embedded in <span class="hlt">local</span> memories demonstrated its operational worth as a resourceful knowledge base for ordinary farmers to deal with food shortage, famine, plague and future pandemics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021655"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and psychological distress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Lijun</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> as a distinct social determinant of health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750935','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750935"><span>The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South <span class="hlt">China</span> by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More <span class="hlt">Locally</span> Adapted to Salt Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Gang; Gao, Yang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Ming-Yue; Peng, Shao-Lin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Local</span> adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant’s photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal) of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution) to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE) generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE). However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the <span class="hlt">local</span> adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South <span class="hlt">China</span>, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future. PMID:26867222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166040','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166040"><span>Schistosomiasis Research in the Dongting Lake Region and Its Impact on <span class="hlt">Local</span> and National Treatment and Control in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McManus, Donald P.; Gray, Darren J.; Ross, Allen G.; Williams, Gail M.; He, Hong-Bin; Li, Yue-Sheng</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of <span class="hlt">China</span> (PRC), where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50–60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised. PMID:21912706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907632"><span>Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) from a <span class="hlt">localized</span> area in southwest <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge; Men, Xing-Yuan; Qian, Ti-Jun; Wu, Dian; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen-Yu</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) in Dali prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest <span class="hlt">China</span>, were studied between 2003 and 2004. In total, 34,389 individuals of 86 species of ectoparasitic insects (seven species of fleas and five species of sucking lice) and mites (23 species of gamasid mites and 51 species of chigger mites) were collected from 916 individual hosts. The diversity of ectoparasites on this single rodent species in such a small area was much higher than in previous reports, which concerned more host species and greater geographical areas. The majority of the ectoparasites were chigger mites, which accounted for 59.3% of the parasite species and 87.4% of the individual parasites. Most voles harbored parasites with an overall prevalence (P) of 82.5% and mean abundance (MA) of 37.5 parasites per host. The dispersion coefficient (C) and patchiness index (m*/m) were used to study the spatial patterns of the seven dominant parasite species, and all seven had aggregated distributions. The species abundance distribution of the ectoparasites on the vole was fitted by Preston's lognormal distribution (R (2) = 0.82), and the total expected parasite species was estimated from this plot as 167 species. Yunnan red-backed voles harbor many ectoparasites as revealed by examination of a large host population. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23473389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23473389"><span>Reactive oxygen species alteration of immune cells in <span class="hlt">local</span> residents at an electronic waste recycling site in northern <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ran; Yang, Qiaoyun; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Keqiu; Li, Guang; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Tong</p> <p>2013-04-02</p> <p>The health effects of exposure to pollutants from electronic waste (e-waste) pose an important issue. In this study, we explored the association between oxidative stress and blood levels of e-waste-related pollutants. Blood samples were collected from individuals living in the proximity of an e-waste recycling site located in northern <span class="hlt">China</span>, and pollutants, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), were measured in comparison to a reference population. The geometric mean concentrations of PCBs, dechlorane plus, and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl in plasma from the exposure group were 60.4, 9.0, and 0.55 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, which were 2.2, 3.2, and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding measurement in the reference group. Correspondingly, ROS levels in white blood cells, including in neutrophil granulocytes, from the exposure group were significantly higher than in those from the reference group, suggesting potential ROS related health effects for residents at the e-waste site. In contrast, fewer ROS were generated in the respiratory burst of neutrophil granulocytes for the exposure group, indicating a depressed innate immune function for the individuals living at the e-waste site. These findings suggest a potential linkage between exposure to pollutants from e-waste recycling and both elevated oxidative stress and altered immune function.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958432"><span>Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Japanese Agricultural Communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social <span class="hlt">capital</span>-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social <span class="hlt">capital</span> (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642575"><span>Roles of extension officers to promote social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in Japanese agricultural communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social <span class="hlt">capital</span>-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social <span class="hlt">capital</span> (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in <span class="hlt">local</span> communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5519066','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5519066"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">local</span> government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of <span class="hlt">local</span> government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on <span class="hlt">local</span> areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year’s carbon emissions impact the following year’s carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories—strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak—based on the degree of <span class="hlt">local</span> governments’ regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of <span class="hlt">China</span> but not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727783"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">local</span> government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of <span class="hlt">local</span> government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on <span class="hlt">local</span> areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year's carbon emissions impact the following year's carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories-strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak-based on the degree of <span class="hlt">local</span> governments' regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of <span class="hlt">China</span> but not in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28934709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28934709"><span>Toxicity of ammonia, cadmium, and nitrobenzene to four <span class="hlt">local</span> fishes in the Liao River, <span class="hlt">China</span> and the derivation of site-specific water quality criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhihong; Li, Xiaojun; Tai, Peidong; Sun, Lizong; Yuan, Honghong; Yang, Xiaonan</p> <p>2017-09-18</p> <p>Water quality criteria (WQC) are considered to be an effective management tool for protecting aquatic environments. To derive site-specific WQC for an area, <span class="hlt">local</span> data based on <span class="hlt">local</span> species are essential to improve the applicability of WQC derived. Due to the paucity of <span class="hlt">local</span> fish data available for the development of site-specific WQC for the Liao River, <span class="hlt">China</span>, four <span class="hlt">local</span> and widespread fishes (Pseudorasbora parva, Abbottina liaoningensis, Ctenogobius giurinus, and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were chosen to test their sensitivities to ammonia, cadmium and nitrobenzene. These compounds are common and regularly-measured pollutants in Chinese rivers. In addition to the published data for species resident in the Liao River, site-specific WQC for the three chemicals were derived using both a log-logistic species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and the method recommended by the USEPA, in line with current best practice, which were then compared with Chinese national WQC. It was found that A. liaoningensis was the most sensitive, followed, in order, by P. parva, C. giurinus and M. anguillicaudatus was the least sensitive, and this trend was the same to all three chemicals tested. When comparing the SSD derived solely from previously-published data with that including our data on <span class="hlt">local</span> fish, there were significant differences identified among parameters describing the SSD curves for ammonia and nitrobenzene and significant differences were detected for site-specific WQC derived for all of the three chemicals. Based on the dataset with <span class="hlt">local</span> fish data taxa, site-specific WQC of Liao River for ammonia, cadmium, and nitrobenzene were derived to be 20.53mg/L (at a pH of 7.0 and temperature of 20°C), 3.76μg/L (at a hardness of 100mg/L CaCO3), and 0.49mg/L, respectively. Using the same deriving method for each chemical, the national Chinese WQC were higher than site-specific WQC derived in this study for ammonia (national WQC of 25.16mg/L) and nitrobenzene (national WQC of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf"><span>47 CFR 65.304 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. The proportion of each cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> component in the <span class="hlt">capital</span> structure is equal to: Proportion in the <span class="hlt">capital</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf"><span>47 CFR 65.304 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. The proportion of each cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> component in the <span class="hlt">capital</span> structure is equal to: Proportion in the <span class="hlt">capital</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf"><span>47 CFR 65.304 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. The proportion of each cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> component in the <span class="hlt">capital</span> structure is equal to: Proportion in the <span class="hlt">capital</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec65-304.pdf"><span>47 CFR 65.304 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> structure. The proportion of each cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> component in the <span class="hlt">capital</span> structure is equal to: Proportion in the <span class="hlt">capital</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=post+AND+production&pg=5&id=EJ656188','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=post+AND+production&pg=5&id=EJ656188"><span>Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Value, and Measure: Antonio Negri's Challenge to <span class="hlt">Capitalism</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Day, Ronald E.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, focusing on the problem of measure and value in <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728368"><span>Regional anesthesia and lipid resuscitation for <span class="hlt">local</span> anesthetic systemic toxicity in <span class="hlt">China</span>: results of a survey by the orthopedic anesthesia group of the Chinese Society Of Anesthesiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Mao; Jin, Shanliang; Li, Zhengqian; Xu, Xuzhong; Wang, Xiuli; Zhang, Lan; Feng, Zeguo; Yu, Buwei; Liu, Jin; Guo, Xiangyang</p> <p>2016-01-04</p> <p>Intravenous lipid emulsions have been introduced for the management of patients with <span class="hlt">Local</span> Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST). These emulsions have been stated as a first-line treatment in the guidelines of several international anesthesia organizations. Nevertheless, the adoption of lipid rescue therapy by Chinese practitioners remains unknown. We, therefore, evaluated the current approaches to treat LAST and the use of lipid rescue therapy among anesthesiologists in <span class="hlt">China</span>. In September 2013, a 23-question survey on regional anesthesia practice and availability of lipid emulsions was sent by e-mail to directors or designated individuals at 41 academic anesthesiology departments listed by the orthopedic anesthesia group of the Chinese Society of Anesthesiology. Responses were received from 36 of the 41 (88 %) anesthesiology departments. To simplify the analysis, responses were divided into two groups according to the annual percentage of patients who received regional anesthesia (RA) for orthopedic anesthesia: 14 departments (39%) with high-utilization (≥ 50%) and 22 departments (61%) low-utilization (<50%) of RA. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine were the common drugs used for RA, which were independent of RA utilization. Interestingly, ultrasound-guided techniques were much more frequently used in low-utilization institutions than in high-utilization institutions (P = 0.025). Lipid emulsion was readily available in 8 of the 36 (22%) responding institutions, with 7 of the other 28 (25%) institutions planning to stock lipid emulsion. No differences in lipid availability and storage plans were observed between high- and low-utilization institutions. Lipid resuscitation was performed in five of the eight departments that had lipid emulsion. Eleven patients were successfully resuscitated and one was not. Lipid emulsion is not widely available in <span class="hlt">China</span> to treat LAST resulted from RA for orthopedic patients. Efforts are required to promote lipid rescue therapy nationwide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3305514','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3305514"><span>The effects of social connections on self-rated physical and mental health among internal migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> adolescents in Shanghai, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">China</span> is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> adolescents in <span class="hlt">China</span>, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES) factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth. PMID:22299776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-22/pdf/2013-24532.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-22/pdf/2013-24532.pdf"><span>78 FR 62417 - Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Implementation of Basel III, <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Adequacy...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-22</p> <p>... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rule, and..., Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872705"><span>Numerical study of the effects of <span class="hlt">local</span> atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the <span class="hlt">local</span> atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the <span class="hlt">local</span> pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the <span class="hlt">local</span> atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985780"><span>Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient <span class="hlt">China</span> to single-cell accurate <span class="hlt">localization</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong</p> <p>2014-08-05</p> <p>With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-<span class="hlt">localization</span> ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Expansion&pg=2&id=EJ928183','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Expansion&pg=2&id=EJ928183"><span><span class="hlt">China</span>'s Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in <span class="hlt">China</span> and its effects on <span class="hlt">China</span>'s economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on <span class="hlt">China</span>'s economy, and the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=radical+AND+theory+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ928183','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=radical+AND+theory+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ928183"><span><span class="hlt">China</span>'s Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in <span class="hlt">China</span> and its effects on <span class="hlt">China</span>'s economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on <span class="hlt">China</span>'s economy, and the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10137118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10137118"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> planning: investing in excellence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slater, G; Del Bravo, K</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Graham Slater and Kate Del Bravo describe the priorities considered and work undertaken by SETRHA to develop its <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment strategy. Although the underlying concepts are straightforward, it represents a significant development beyond traditional NHS approaches to planning, embraces the NHS market reforms, and has reduced <span class="hlt">capital</span> aspirations for the same service objectives by some 300m pounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2040T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2040T"><span>Cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> as a measurand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taymanov, R.; Sapozhnikova, K.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The necessity for developing metrology due to extension of its application sphere is noted. The efficiency of the metrological approach to measurement of multidimensional quantities in the field of humanities is shown using the development of cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> interpreted by L. Harrison. The cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span> is defined as a measure of the society structure complexity and adaptive capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ797565.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ797565.pdf"><span>Transformative Pedagogy for Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Willis, Peter</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. I consider the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22corporate+finance%22&pg=2&id=ED347863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22corporate+finance%22&pg=2&id=ED347863"><span>Rethinking Higher Education <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Finance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>King, George A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Capital</span> finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance <span class="hlt">capital</span> projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Working+AND+Capital&pg=2&id=EJ1027069','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Working+AND+Capital&pg=2&id=EJ1027069"><span>Schools, Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the significance of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=financial+AND+institutions+AND+markets%2c+AND+money&pg=5&id=ED347863','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=financial+AND+institutions+AND+markets%2c+AND+money&pg=5&id=ED347863"><span>Rethinking Higher Education <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Finance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>King, George A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Capital</span> finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance <span class="hlt">capital</span> projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+process&id=EJ849725','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+process&id=EJ849725"><span>San Diego's <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Planning Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lytton, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article describes San Diego's <span class="hlt">capital</span> planning process. As part of its <span class="hlt">capital</span> planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Asylum&pg=4&id=EJ1027069','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Asylum&pg=4&id=EJ1027069"><span>Schools, Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the significance of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA500576','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA500576"><span>Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Stability Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-03-26</p> <p>lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness.49...addition to skills and knowledge , human <span class="hlt">capital</span> also includes people’s ability to associate with each other. He defined social <span class="hlt">capital</span> as the ability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=maintenance+AND+laboratory+AND+buildings&pg=5&id=EJ268457','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=maintenance+AND+laboratory+AND+buildings&pg=5&id=EJ268457"><span>Taking <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Requirements into Account.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jenny, Hans; And Others</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive <span class="hlt">capital</span> charge policy is recommended as an integral part of college budgeting and reporting. It includes three components: a <span class="hlt">capital</span> renewal and replacement charge, a new equipment and library and laboratory acquisitions budget, and a debt repayment schedule using internal borrowing. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7697C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7697C"><span>Changes in discharge dynamics under the constraints of <span class="hlt">local</span> and global changes in the Chao Lake basin (<span class="hlt">China</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chu, Y.; Salles, C.; Rodier, C.; Crès, F.-N.; Huang, L.; Tournoud, M.-G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Located on the Yangtze basin, the Chao Lake is the fifth largest freshwater lake in <span class="hlt">China</span> and of great importance in terms of water resources and aquaculture. Its catchment (9130 km2) includes the city of Hefei and large extends of agricultural and rural areas. Fast changes are expected in land uses and agricultural practices for the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. The consequences of these changes on the sustainability of the water inflows into the lake are a major issue for the economical development of the Chao Lake area even though they are little-known. Our study aims to give tools for estimating such consequences, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and model parameters. The dynamics of rivers flowing into the Chao Lake is not very well-known, except for the Fengle River. The Fengle catchment (1480 km2) is mainly rural. River discharges are recorded at Taoxi station, upstream its outlet into the lake. 20-year records of daily discharges are available. Nine rain gauges, with daily data, daily temperature and evapotranspiration data are also available. The current dynamics of the Fengle River is characterized in terms of flood frequencies on discharge-duration-frequency curves. The ATHYS freely available hydrological tool (www.athys-soft.org) is used to calibrate and validate a distributed model of the Fengle catchment. Four calibration runs are done on four independent 5-year discharge records. Four different sets of model parameters are discussed. The model is then run for validation. The uncertainties in model predictions are evaluated in terms of errors in the simulated discharges during the validation period, with regards to the 5-year period used for calibration. The model is then applied on scenarios of changes in land uses and climate. Uncertainties in scenarios of changes are estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124869"><span>Human <span class="hlt">capital</span> strategy: talent management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagra, Michael</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Management. In the near future, the Army's human <span class="hlt">capital</span> will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human <span class="hlt">capital</span> goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27793546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27793546"><span>Measuring social <span class="hlt">capital</span>: further insights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi</p> <p></p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social <span class="hlt">capital</span> measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190572"><span>Prioritising <span class="hlt">local</span> action for water quality improvement using citizen science; a study across three major metropolitan areas of <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thornhill, Ian; Ho, Jonathan G; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Huashou; Ho, Kin Chung; Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; Loiselle, Steven A</p> <p>2017-04-15</p> <p>Streams in urban areas are prone to degradation. While urbanization-induced poor water quality is a widely observed and well documented phenomenon, the mechanism to pinpoint <span class="hlt">local</span> drivers of urban stream degradation, and their relative influence on water quality, is still lacking. Utilizing data from the citizen science project FreshWater Watch, we use a machine learning approach to identify key indicators, potential drivers, and potential controls to water quality across the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Partial dependencies were examined to establish the direction of relationships between predictors and water quality. A random forest classification model indicated that predictors of stream water colour (drivers related to artificial land coverage and agricultural land use coverage) and potential controls related to the presence of bankside vegetation were found to be important in identifying basins with degraded water quality conditions, based on individual measurements of turbidity and nutrient (N-NO3 and P-PO4) concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28057338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28057338"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">local</span> factors and climate on permafrost conditions and distribution in Beiluhe basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yin, Guoan; Niu, Fujun; Lin, Zhanju; Luo, Jing; Liu, Minghao</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Beiluhe basin is underlain by warm and ice-rich permafrost, and covered by vegetation and soils characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A field monitoring network was established to investigate permafrost conditions and to assess potential impacts of <span class="hlt">local</span> factors and climate change. This paper describes the spatial variations in permafrost conditions from instrumented boreholes, controlling environmental factors, and recent thermal evolution of permafrost in the basin. The study area was divided into 10 ecotypes using satellite imagery based classification. The field investigations and cluster analysis of ground temperatures indicated that permafrost underlies most of the ground in swamp meadow, undisturbed alpine meadow, degrading alpine meadow, and desert alpine grassland, but is absent in other cover types. Permafrost-ecotope relations examined over a 2-year (2014-2016) period indicated that: (i) ground surface temperatures varied largely among ecotopes; (ii) annual mean ground temperatures ranged from -1.5 to 0°C in permafrost, indicating sensitive permafrost conditions; (iii) active-layer thicknesses ranged from 1.4m to 3.4m; (iv) ground ice content at the top of permafrost is high, but the active-layer soil is relatively dry. Long-term climate warming has driven thermal changes to permafrost, but ground surface characteristics and soil moisture content strongly influence the ground thermal state. These factors control <span class="hlt">local</span>-scale spatial variations in permafrost conditions. The warm permafrost in the basin is commonly in thermal disequilibrium, and is sensitive to future climate change. Active-layer thicknesses have increased by at least 42cm and the mean annual ground temperatures have increased by up to 0.2°C in the past 10years over the basin. A permafrost distribution map was produced based on ecotypes, suggesting that permafrost underlies 64% of the study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC22B..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC22B..05D"><span>Enhancing Natural <span class="hlt">Capital</span> across the Biosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daily, G.; Tallis, H.; Goldstein, J.; Nelson, E.; Polasky, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. Yet, in promising a return (of services) on investments in natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, we have developed a suite of models for integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST). Based on future scenarios of resource use, climate, and human population, InVEST projects the future provision of services in biophysical and economic terms. The outputs of InVEST provide decision-makers with maps and other spatially explicit information about costs, benefits, tradeoffs, and synergies of alternative investments in natural <span class="hlt">capital</span> and ecosystem service provision. InVEST is now being used in major resource decisions in Bolivia, Brazil, <span class="hlt">China</span>, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Tanzania, and the United States (California, Hawai'i, Oregon, and Washington). To meet increasing demand for this tool and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-11/pdf/2013-21653.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-11/pdf/2013-21653.pdf"><span>78 FR 62017 - Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Implementation of Basel III, <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Adequacy...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-11</p> <p>... 1 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> a. Goodwill and Other Intangibles (Other Than Mortgage Servicing Assets) b. Gain-on-sale... Margin Period of Risk 3. Internal Models Methodology a. Recognition of Wrong-Way Risk b. Increased Asset... calculating the three risk-based <span class="hlt">capital</span> ratios using total risk-weighted assets under the standardized...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-20/pdf/2013-29883.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-20/pdf/2013-29883.pdf"><span>78 FR 76973 - Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Implementation of Basel III, <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Adequacy...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-20</p> <p>..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Rules: Regulatory <span class="hlt">Capital</span>... System. ACTION: Correction, final rule. SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System..., 2013. Robert deV. Frierson, Secretary of the Board. BILLING CODE 6210-01-P...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314224.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314224.pdf"><span>Achievement of Equity in <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Outlay Financing: A Policy Analysis for the States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, David C.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This monograph examines four plans for state funding of educational facilities: total control; 50-50 flat grants; full state funding; and equalization. The trend in many states is to become increasingly more involved in helping <span class="hlt">local</span> school districts with <span class="hlt">capital</span> outlay for facility requirements. Recent litigation suggests that <span class="hlt">capital</span> outlay is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517583.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517583.pdf"><span>Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span>? Staff Report No. 401</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human <span class="hlt">capital</span> present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with <span class="hlt">local</span> stocks of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.147(b)-1 - Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. 1.147(b)-1 Section 1.147(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Bonds § 1.147(b)-1 Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Section 147(b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.147(b)-1 - Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. 1.147(b)-1 Section 1.147(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Bonds § 1.147(b)-1 Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Section 147(b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.147(b)-1 - Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. 1.147(b)-1 Section 1.147(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Bonds § 1.147(b)-1 Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Section 147(b...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.147(b)-1 - Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. 1.147(b)-1 Section 1.147(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Bonds § 1.147(b)-1 Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Section 147(b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol2-sec1-147b-1.pdf"><span>26 CFR 1.147(b)-1 - Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. 1.147(b)-1 Section 1.147(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and <span class="hlt">Local</span> Bonds § 1.147(b)-1 Bond maturity limitation-treatment of working <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Section 147(b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed+AND+bank&id=EJ359938','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed+AND+bank&id=EJ359938"><span>Risky Business I. Entering <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Markets for the First Time. Panel I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Appalachia, 1986</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed <span class="hlt">capital</span> by considering venture; <span class="hlt">capital</span>'s role in the financing of business start-ups, using <span class="hlt">local</span> banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=accommodations+AND+facilities&pg=7&id=ED421853','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=accommodations+AND+facilities&pg=7&id=ED421853"><span>A Report on a New School Facilities <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Plan by the School Facilities Task Force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.</p> <p></p> <p>This report reflects the recommendations of the School Facilities Task Force (appointed for Alberta in February 1997) regarding the development of a new school facilities <span class="hlt">capital</span> plan. Guiding principles included the needs of students, <span class="hlt">local</span> decision making, and long-range planning. Nine appendixes include a sample school <span class="hlt">capital</span> funding scenario;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec905-120.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec905-120.pdf"><span>24 CFR 905.120 - Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Fund program assistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">local</span> law; or (iv) Such other factors as HUD determines to be relevant. (2) Extension of obligation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties for slow obligation or... <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Fund § 905.120 Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Fund program assistance....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+supporting+AND+small+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ359938','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+supporting+AND+small+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ359938"><span>Risky Business I. Entering <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Markets for the First Time. Panel I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Appalachia, 1986</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed <span class="hlt">capital</span> by considering venture; <span class="hlt">capital</span>'s role in the financing of business start-ups, using <span class="hlt">local</span> banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3044/pdf/fs2012-3044_rev432012.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3044/pdf/fs2012-3044_rev432012.pdf"><span>Famous building stones of our Nation's <span class="hlt">capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The buildings of our Nation's <span class="hlt">Capital</span> are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used <span class="hlt">local</span> stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24928085"><span>Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the <span class="hlt">local</span> children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Shiyun; Tan, Hui; Peng, Aiping; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Jianmei; Guo, Sufang; Qian, Xu</p> <p>2014-06-14</p> <p>Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in <span class="hlt">China</span> increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of <span class="hlt">local</span> permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of <span class="hlt">China</span>. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and <span class="hlt">local</span> children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in <span class="hlt">China</span>, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, <span class="hlt">China</span>, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 <span class="hlt">locals</span>) aged 6-23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Anemia prevalence among the migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among <span class="hlt">local</span> ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among <span class="hlt">local</span> ones. Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6-11 months. Dislike their <span class="hlt">local</span> counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods. Future strategies to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065606','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065606"><span>Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the <span class="hlt">local</span> children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in <span class="hlt">China</span> increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of <span class="hlt">local</span> permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of <span class="hlt">China</span>. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and <span class="hlt">local</span> children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in <span class="hlt">China</span>, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, <span class="hlt">China</span>, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 <span class="hlt">locals</span>) aged 6–23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Results Anemia prevalence among the migrant and <span class="hlt">local</span> children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among <span class="hlt">local</span> ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among <span class="hlt">local</span> ones. Conclusion Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6–11 months. Dislike their <span class="hlt">local</span> counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcDyn..64..905X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcDyn..64..905X"><span>State analysis using the <span class="hlt">Local</span> Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and the three-layer circulation structure of the Luzon Strait and the South <span class="hlt">China</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Fang-Hua; Oey, Lie-Yauw</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>A new circulation model of the western North Pacific Ocean based on the parallelized version of the Princeton Ocean Model and incorporating the <span class="hlt">Local</span> Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) data assimilation scheme has been developed. The new model assimilates satellite data and is tested for the period January 1 to April 3, 2012 initialized from a 24-year simulation to estimate the ocean state focusing in the South <span class="hlt">China</span> Sea (SCS). Model results are compared against estimates based on the optimum interpolation (OI) assimilation scheme and are validated against independent Argo float and transport data to assess model skills. LETKF provides improved estimates of the western North Pacific Ocean state including transports through various straits in the SCS. In the Luzon Strait, the model confirms, for the first time, the three-layer transport structure previously deduced in the literature from sparse observations: westward in the upper and lower layers and eastward in the middle layer. This structure is shown to be robust, and the related dynamics are analyzed using the results of a long-term (18 years) unassimilated North Pacific Ocean model. Potential vorticity and mass conservations suggest a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in the upper layer of the SCS ( z > -570 m), an anticyclonic circulation in the middle layer (-570 m ≥ z > -2,000 m), and, in the abyssal basin (<-2,000 m), the circulation is cyclonic in the north and anticyclonic in the south. The cyclone-anticyclone abyssal circulation is confirmed and explained using a deep-layer reduced-gravity model as being caused by overflow over the deep sill of the Luzon Strait, coupled with intense, <span class="hlt">localized</span> upwelling west of the strait.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23898662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23898662"><span>[Drought-resistance of <span class="hlt">local</span> wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of <span class="hlt">China</span>: a comprehensive evaluation by using GGE biplot and subordinate function].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jin-wen; Zhu, Jun-gang; Wang, Shu-guang; Sun, Dai-zhen; ShiI, Yu-gang; Chen, Wei-guo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Taking 7 <span class="hlt">local</span> wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of <span class="hlt">China</span> and two other control varieties as test materials, this paper studied their morphological and physiological traits under normal and water stress field conditions. The drought-resistance coefficient of each index of the traits was calculated. On the basis of principal component analysis, the correlations between the drought-resistance indices and their relationships with the drought-resistance of different varieties were analyzed by GGE biplot, and the drought resistance of the wheat varieties was comprehensively evaluated with the combination of subordinate function and drought resistance index analysis. The main morphological and physiological factors affecting the drought-resistance of the wheat varieties were uppermost internode length, plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf POD and SOD activities, and leaf relative water content and relative electric conductivity. There existed different degrees of correlation between these indices, and each index had different effects on the drought resistance of the varieties, being the main cause for the different drought resistance of the wheat varieties. Based on the drought-resistance, the test varieties could be classified into three groups, i. e. , drought-resistance group, intermediate group, and sensitive group. Two highly drought-resistance cultivars, Baiheshangtou and Zhuganqing, whose drought-resistance was similar to that of drought-resistant Jinmai 47, could be used as the parent materials for breeding drought-resistance wheat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236892"><span>Analysis of Current Status and Strategies of Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening during 6 Years in <span class="hlt">Local</span> Regions of <span class="hlt">China</span>: Implication and Caution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Lu; Su, Ming; Ren, Sheng-gang; Hua, Hui-lan; Wang, Jian-cang; Zheng, Wei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. To understand the current status of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in a province of North <span class="hlt">China</span>. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 5651 cases with ROP screening in the Provincial Screening Center of Hebei Province from January 2008 to December 2013. Results. 14.98% of all ROP patients and 1.56% of severe ROP patients required treatment. All the severe ROP patients met the criteria of screening. Severe ROP patients were detected at recommended initial screening time (4–6 weeks after birth). The frequency of other ocular diseases was 8.03%, in which the main disease was fundus hemorrhage. In 2665 more mature and unqualified infants, only 2 retinoblastoma and 2 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy were detected, which indicates the advantage of early diagnosis and treatment based on fundus examination. Conclusions. It is suggested that the standard of GA < 32 weeks and/or BW < 1800 g could be served as the screening criteria in the <span class="hlt">local</span> region for ROP screening. 4 weeks after birth is the most appropriate time for initial screening. PMID:25538849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA336228','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA336228"><span>JPRS Report, <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-12-03</p> <p>Japan, Taiwan large," emphasized Shih Yen- hsiang [2457 7346 4382], must devote every effort to increasing its control over director of the Ministry of...a large hsiang , director of the Ministry of Economics, Science electrical appliances factory said frankly that in techno- and Technology Advisory...megabyte dram chip). Yu- chuan , which was founded in 1990 by a group of seven people who <span class="hlt">China</span> Picture Tube, which was jointly <span class="hlt">capitalized</span> by returned</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........83B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........83B"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in engineering education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Shane</p> <p></p> <p>A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Additionally, the value of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA345429','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA345429"><span>JPRS Report, <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>that the greater the experimentation here, the more likely we are to find a good recipe to help state enterprises enter the market soon. The...<span class="hlt">local</span> budget contracting has prompted <span class="hlt">local</span> gov- ernments not only to scramble to improve <span class="hlt">local</span> living conditions, as has happened in some Western...and Steel disagreed rejecting the old idea of "only wanting to take eggs , but not wanting to raise chickens." <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Iron and Steel wrote a report</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3886971','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3886971"><span>The Impact of Psychological <span class="hlt">Capital</span> on Job Burnout of Chinese Nurses: The Mediator Role of Organizational Commitment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. Objective The present study explores the impact of psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. Methods A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi’an City of <span class="hlt">China</span> were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Results Both psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> and job burnout. Conclusion The final model revealed a significant path from psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> on job burnout. PMID:24416095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24416095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24416095"><span>The impact of psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of <span class="hlt">China</span> were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span> on job burnout.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25453184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25453184"><span>Dollars for lives: the effect of highway <span class="hlt">capital</span> investments on traffic fatalities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yeung, Ryan</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study examines the effect of highway <span class="hlt">capital</span> investments on highway fatalities. We used state-level data from the 48 contiguous states in the United States from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the effects on highway fatalities of <span class="hlt">capital</span> expenditures and highway <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock. We estimated these effects by controlling for a set of control variables together with state and year dummy variables and state-specific linear time trends. We found that <span class="hlt">capital</span> expenditures and <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock had significant and negative effects on highway fatalities. States faced with declines in gas tax revenues have already cut back drastically on spending on roads including on maintenance and <span class="hlt">capital</span> outlay. If this trend continues, it may undermine traffic safety. While states and <span class="hlt">local</span> governments are currently fiscally strained, it is important for them to continue investments in roadways to enhance traffic safety and, more significantly, to save lives. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mena&pg=3&id=EJ631845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mena&pg=3&id=EJ631845"><span>Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Formation in the Gulf and MENA Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Ken E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Recent developments in human <span class="hlt">capital</span> formation theories are particularly relevant to the Gulf and Middle Eastern and North African regions. Discusses recent western reconfigurations of the theory, noting how much <span class="hlt">local</span> work must be done to reshape theory appropriately in the Middle East and explaining how issues relating to employment, education,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3130 - The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130 The...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3130 - The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130 The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3130 - The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130 The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3130 - The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130 The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-3130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3130 - The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130 The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-3135.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific <span class="hlt">capitalization</span> grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND <span class="hlt">LOCAL</span> ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED420986.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED420986.pdf"><span>Construction Management Guidelines for <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Outlay Program Projects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.</p> <p></p> <p>The Georgia State Department of Education recognizes two separate methods for utilizing construction management services by <span class="hlt">local</span> school systems when state <span class="hlt">capital</span> outlay funds are involved. This report details those two methods. The report first describes the Construction Management (CM)-Agency approach, which allows a CM-Agency manager to enter…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-richmond-va','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-richmond-va"><span>Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> - Richmond, VA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Report from the Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-hartford-ct','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-hartford-ct"><span>Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> - Hartford, CT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-frankfort-ky','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-frankfort-ky"><span>Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> - Frankfort, KY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Report on the Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> project to help Frankfort, KY, improve the Second Street corridor to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer, improve water quality, and make the street more attractive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-washington-dc','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/greening-americas-capitals-washington-dc"><span>Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> - Washington, DC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol6-sec725-5.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol6-sec725-5.pdf"><span>12 CFR 725.5 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. (a) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock subscriptions provided for in §§...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol9-sec1777-20.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol9-sec1777-20.pdf"><span>12 CFR 1777.20 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. (a) <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications after the effective...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol9-sec1777-20.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol9-sec1777-20.pdf"><span>12 CFR 1777.20 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. (a) <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications after the effective...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol10-sec1777-20.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol10-sec1777-20.pdf"><span>12 CFR 1777.20 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. (a) <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications after the effective...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf"><span>12 CFR 725.5 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. (a) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock subscriptions provided for in §§...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf"><span>12 CFR 725.5 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. (a) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock subscriptions provided for in §§...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol7-sec725-5.pdf"><span>12 CFR 725.5 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. (a) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock subscriptions provided for in §§...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol6-sec725-5.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol6-sec725-5.pdf"><span>12 CFR 725.5 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> stock. (a) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The <span class="hlt">capital</span> stock subscriptions provided for in §§...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol7-sec1777-20.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol7/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol7-sec1777-20.pdf"><span>12 CFR 1777.20 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications. (a) <span class="hlt">Capital</span> classifications after the effective...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title2-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title2-vol1-sec200-13.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title2-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title2-vol1-sec200-13.pdf"><span>2 CFR 200.13 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> expenditures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> expenditures. 200.13 Section 200.13... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.13 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> expenditures. <span class="hlt">Capital</span> expenditures means expenditures to acquire <span class="hlt">capital</span> assets or expenditures to make additions, improvements...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305460"><span>In search of links between social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, mental health and sociotherapy: a longitudinal study in Rwanda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E; Wind, Tim R; Scholte, Willem F</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and mental health. Evidence that social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental health. However, studies on community interventions and social <span class="hlt">capital</span> have mostly relied on cross-sectional study designs. We present a longitudinal study in Rwanda on the effect on social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and mental health of sociotherapy, a community-based psychosocial group intervention consisting of fifteen weekly group sessions. We hypothesized that the intervention would impact social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and, as a result of that, mental health. We used a quasi-experimental study design with measurement points pre- and post-intervention and at eight months follow-up (2007-2008). Considering sex and living situation, we selected 100 adults for our experimental group. We formed a control group of 100 respondents with similar symptom score distribution, age, and sex from a random community sample in the same region. Mental health was assessed by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire, and social <span class="hlt">capital</span> through a <span class="hlt">locally</span> adapted version of the short Adapted Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Assessment Tool. It measures three elements of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>: cognitive social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, support, and civic participation. Latent growth models were used to examine whether effects of sociotherapy on mental health and social <span class="hlt">capital</span> were related. Civic participation increased with 7% in the intervention group versus 2% in controls; mental health improved with 10% versus 5% (both: p < 0.001). Linear changes over time were not significantly correlated. Support and cognitive social <span class="hlt">capital</span> did not show consistent changes. These findings hint at the possibility to foster social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and simultaneously impact mental health. Further identification of pathways of influence may contribute to the designing of psychosocial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28777767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28777767"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and workplace bullying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span> may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span> with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span> (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46712','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46712"><span>Pine wilt disease in Yunnan, <span class="hlt">China</span>: Evidence of non-<span class="hlt">local</span> pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Coloptera: Cerambycidae) populations revealed by mitochondrial DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Da-Ying Fu; Shao-Ji Hu; Hui Ye; Robert A. Haack; Ping-Yang. Zhou</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Monochamus alternatus (Hope) specimens were collected from nine geographical populations in <span class="hlt">China</span>,where the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) was present. There were seven populations in southwestern <span class="hlt">China</span> in Yunnan Province (Ruili,Wanding, Lianghe, Pu'er, Huaning, Stone Forest and Yongsheng),...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advisor+AND+security&pg=4&id=ED198324','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advisor+AND+security&pg=4&id=ED198324"><span>Minority <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising <span class="hlt">Capital</span> for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.</p> <p></p> <p>This minority <span class="hlt">capital</span> resource handbook consists of a guide to raising <span class="hlt">capital</span> for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such <span class="hlt">capital</span>. The first section deals with the process of raising <span class="hlt">capital</span>. The realities of raising <span class="hlt">capital</span>, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol1-sec3-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol1-sec3-11.pdf"><span>12 CFR 3.11 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY <span class="hlt">CAPITAL</span> ADEQUACY STANDARDS <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.11 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=companies+AND+virginia&pg=6&id=ED198324','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=companies+AND+virginia&pg=6&id=ED198324"><span>Minority <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising <span class="hlt">Capital</span> for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.</p> <p></p> <p>This minority <span class="hlt">capital</span> resource handbook consists of a guide to raising <span class="hlt">capital</span> for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such <span class="hlt">capital</span>. The first section deals with the process of raising <span class="hlt">capital</span>. The realities of raising <span class="hlt">capital</span>, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345893"><span>Drive-away policing and situational crime prevention in <span class="hlt">China</span>: an analysis of motorcycle ban (jinmo) policy in Guangzhou.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Jianhua</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Using the example of motorcycle ban policy in Guangzhou, the <span class="hlt">capital</span> of Guangdong province, this article examines how situational crime prevention strategies are used in contemporary urban <span class="hlt">China</span>. The article argues that although a motorcycle ban policy may reduce motorcycle snatch theft (feiche qiangduo) in Guangzhou, it inevitably caused a problem of displacement. However, some types of displacement are desirable for <span class="hlt">local</span> government. An argument about drive-away policing is proposed in this article to understand policing styles in contemporary <span class="hlt">China</span>. In addition, the article argues that motorcycle ban, as a strategy to prevent snatch theft and robbery, is also a strategy to deal with the crisis in police legitimacy. Therefore, crime prevention in <span class="hlt">China</span> has more social and political significance than just reducing crime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8350E..2ES','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8350E..2ES"><span>ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">China</span> firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT <span class="hlt">capital</span> deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human <span class="hlt">capital</span>, innovation and organization change).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=china+AND+labor+AND+cost&id=EJ852208','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=china+AND+labor+AND+cost&id=EJ852208"><span>An Evaluation of Foreign HR Consulting Company Effectiveness in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hickey, Will</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>With vast amounts of foreign <span class="hlt">capital</span> entering <span class="hlt">China</span> yearly, there is a strong need to build its human <span class="hlt">capital</span> to Western accepted levels. A plethora of external vendors offering training and consulting interventions to develop this labor force have quickly followed this investment. An evaluation of what these vendors are actually offering based on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/67758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/67758"><span>Transmission line <span class="hlt">capital</span> costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line <span class="hlt">capital</span> cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28314123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28314123"><span>Which persistent organic pollutants in the rivers of the Bohai Region of <span class="hlt">China</span> represent the greatest risk to the <span class="hlt">local</span> ecosystem?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yueqing; Johnson, Andrew C; Su, Chao; Zhang, Meng; Jürgens, Monika D; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Freshwater aquatic organisms can be exposed to hundreds of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) discharged by natural and anthropogenic activities. Given our limited resources it is necessary to identify, from the existing evidence, which is the greatest threat so that control measures can be targeted wisely. The focus of this study was to rank POPs according to the relative risk they represent for aquatic organisms in rivers in the Bohai Region, <span class="hlt">China</span>. A list of 14 POPs was compiled based on the available data on their presence in these rivers and ecotoxicological data. Those that were widely detected were benzo[a]pyrene, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, endrin, fluoranthene, heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane, hexachlorobenzene, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, naphthalene, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and phenanthrene. Effect concentrations were compiled for Chinese relevant and standard test species and compared with river aqueous concentrations. Only bed-sediment concentrations were available so water levels were calculated based on the known <span class="hlt">local</span> sediment organic carbon concentration and the Koc. The POPs were ranked on the ratio between the median river and median effect concentrations. Of the POPs studied, fluoranthene was ranked as the highest threat, followed by phenanthrene, naphthalene and p,p'-DDE. The risk from p,p'-DDE may be magnified due to being highly bioaccumulative. However, the greatest overlap between river concentrations and effect levels was for lindane. Overall, fish was the most sensitive species group to the risks from POPs. Hotspots with the highest concentrations and hence risk were mainly associated with watercourses draining in Tianjin, the biggest city in the Bohai Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Litho.198..202Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Litho.198..202Z"><span>Ordovician appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block, South <span class="hlt">China</span>: Geochronological and geochemical evidence for intrusion into a <span class="hlt">local</span> extensional zone within an intracontinental regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Yufang; Ma, Changqian; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Jianping; Nong, Junnian; Zhang, Zejun</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Palaeozoic mafic igneous rocks are potentially significant in constraining the tectonic nature and evolution of the Kwangsian Orogeny in the eastern South <span class="hlt">China</span> Block, yet they have received little attention because of their limited outcrop. Geochemistry and geochronology was carried out on newly identified Ordovician ultramafic-mafic appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block. Seven appinite samples yielded 206Pb/238U crystallisation ages ranging from 452 ± 4 Ma to 473 ± 3 Ma. Abundant 480-500 Ma zircon xenocrysts and/or inherited zircons were found in the appinites, possibly indicating an earlier magmatism episode in the early Palaeozoic period. The Wugongshan appinites are ultramafic to mafic in composition, and the ultramafic rocks display features of cumulates (high concentrations of MgO, Fe2O3t, Cr, Ni, and low concentrations of total alkali and total rare earth elements [REE]). The appinite geochemistry displays: relatively flat chondrite normalised REE patterns with slight enrichment in light REE and weak negative Eu anomalies; enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (such as Rb, K), and weak depletion in Nb-Ta in primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns. We suggest that the Wugongshan appinites likely originated from an ancient metasomatised mantle, and that crustal assimilation, fractional crystallisation (AFC), magma mingling and hydration were involved in the petrogenetic process, based on the combination of geochemistry, crust-like bulk Sr, Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εNd (t) = - 8.2 to - 3.2, initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7067-0.7144, zircon εHf (t) values peaking at - 9 to - 3) and regional geological data. Further considering the alignment and chronology of the appinites, we suggest that the appinitic magmas probably were emplaced along the Jiangshan-Shaoxing Fault in a <span class="hlt">local</span> extensional zone in an intracontinental regime in the early Palaeozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+brain&pg=5&id=EJ1042202','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+brain&pg=5&id=EJ1042202"><span>Rethinking International Migration of Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human <span class="hlt">capital</span> and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from <span class="hlt">China</span> provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+stratification&pg=3&id=EJ972399','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+stratification&pg=3&id=EJ972399"><span>The Dynamic Role of Cultural <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in the Competitive School Admission Process: A Chinese Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaoxin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>School choice in <span class="hlt">China</span> is a parent-initiated bottom-up movement characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the desired school, and parents' positional competition through the use of cultural, social and economic <span class="hlt">capital</span>, before and during the school choice process. This study demonstrates that Chinese middle class…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&id=EJ1129436','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&id=EJ1129436"><span>Effects of Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Qiaobing</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, <span class="hlt">China</span>, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social <span class="hlt">capital</span> embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=canadian+AND+journal&pg=7&id=EJ1042202','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=canadian+AND+journal&pg=7&id=EJ1042202"><span>Rethinking International Migration of Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human <span class="hlt">capital</span> and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from <span class="hlt">China</span> provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=correlation+AND+stock&id=EJ921475','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=correlation+AND+stock&id=EJ921475"><span>Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, <span class="hlt">China</span>, this study investigated how the interactions of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&id=EJ1129436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&id=EJ1129436"><span>Effects of Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Qiaobing</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, <span class="hlt">China</span>, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social <span class="hlt">capital</span> embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ921475','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ921475"><span>Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, <span class="hlt">China</span>, this study investigated how the interactions of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=increase+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=3&id=EJ972399','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=increase+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=3&id=EJ972399"><span>The Dynamic Role of Cultural <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in the Competitive School Admission Process: A Chinese Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaoxin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>School choice in <span class="hlt">China</span> is a parent-initiated bottom-up movement characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the desired school, and parents' positional competition through the use of cultural, social and economic <span class="hlt">capital</span>, before and during the school choice process. This study demonstrates that Chinese middle class…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22visible+human+project%22+OR+%22visible+human%22+OR+%22visible+human+data%22+OR+%22visibile+human+male%22+OR+%22visible+human+female%22&id=EJ477448','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22visible+human+project%22+OR+%22visible+human%22+OR+%22visible+human+data%22+OR+%22visibile+human+male%22+OR+%22visible+human+female%22&id=EJ477448"><span>The Economic Importance of Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Modernization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schultz, Theodore W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">capital</span> invests in new forms of physical <span class="hlt">capital</span>, hence, human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>; for example, human <span class="hlt">capital</span> cannot be separated from person who has it, and human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is not visible. Human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22visible+human+project%22+OR+%22visible+human%22+OR+%22visible+human+data%22+OR+%22visibile+human+male%22+OR+%22visible+human+female%22&id=EJ477448','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22visible+human+project%22+OR+%22visible+human%22+OR+%22visible+human+data%22+OR+%22visibile+human+male%22+OR+%22visible+human+female%22&id=EJ477448"><span>The Economic Importance of Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Modernization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schultz, Theodore W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">capital</span> invests in new forms of physical <span class="hlt">capital</span>, hence, human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>; for example, human <span class="hlt">capital</span> cannot be separated from person who has it, and human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is not visible. Human <span class="hlt">capital</span> is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19155112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19155112"><span>Building social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brune, Nancy E; Bossert, Thomas</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Studies of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> have focused on the static relationship between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and health, governance and economic conditions. This study is a first attempt to evaluate interventions designed to improve the levels of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in post-conflict communities in Nicaragua and to relate those increases to health and governance issues. The two-year study involved a baseline household survey of approximately 200 households in three communities in Nicaragua, the implementation of systematic interventions designed to increase social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in two of the <span class="hlt">locales</span> (with one control group), and a second household survey administered two years after the baseline survey. We found that systematic interventions promoting management and leadership development were effective in improving some aspects of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, in particular the cognitive attitudes of trust in the communities. Interventions were also linked to higher levels of civic participation in governance processes. As in other empirical studies, we also found that higher levels of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> were significantly associated with some positive health behaviors. The behavioral/structural components of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> (including participation in groups and social networks) were associated with more desirable individual health behaviors such as the use of modern medicine to treat children's respiratory illnesses. Attitudinal components of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> were positively linked to community health behaviors such as working on community sanitation campaigns. The findings presented here should be of interest to policy makers interested in health policy and social <span class="hlt">capital</span>, as well as those working in conflict-ridden communities in the developing world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10269773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10269773"><span>Efficiency, new equity <span class="hlt">capital</span> enable systems to compete.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, M; McCool, B P</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Because of limited cash, sponsors of some community and religious hospitals have sought to sell or lease their institutions to a not-for-profit (NFP) system or to a for-profit system. A number of national alliances address the <span class="hlt">capital</span> formation problem of NFP institutions. Until now they have been almost exclusively concerned with acquiring less costly debt. Without new equity <span class="hlt">capital</span>, market influence is difficult to obtain. Even well-managed voluntary systems face a serious threat from well-<span class="hlt">capitalized</span> investor-owned systems. Increased competition among hospitals and physicians will force future advantages to those who have <span class="hlt">capital</span>. It will also restrict funding of certain programs and services by voluntary enterprises. In anticipation of this, various forms of partnerships have developed with investor-owned systems. To regain the initiative as the premier sponsors of health care, religious and other voluntary systems must go beyond merely competing in their markets to acquiring weaker institutions. They also must revitalize private giving and excel in efficiency to offset threats from ambulatory, day-care operations and from high-technology hospitals. Structural changes in the industry can be predicted, including the following: The trend toward integration for production, financing, and marketing will continue. Public market equity <span class="hlt">capital</span> will be increasingly used to finance medical practice. Hospitals that sell their equity values will establish service foundations. National alliances will continue, but strictly <span class="hlt">local</span> systems will maintain operation. Investor-owned systems will move increasingly into high-technology tertiary care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11949928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11949928"><span>Access to health care and community social <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hendryx, Michael S; Ahern, Melissa M; Lovrich, Nicholas P; McCurdy, Arthur H</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>To test the hypothesis that variation in reported access to health care is positively related to the level of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> present in a community. The 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 22 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States (n = 19,672). Additional data for the 22 communities are from a 1996 multicity broadcast media marketing database, including key social <span class="hlt">capital</span> indicators, the 1997 National Profile of <span class="hlt">Local</span> Health Departments survey, and Interstudy, American Hospital Association, and American Medical Association sources. The design is cross-sectional. Self-reported access to care problems is the dependent variable. Independent variables include individual sociodemographic variables, community-level health sector variables, and social <span class="hlt">capital</span> variables. Data are merged from the various sources and weighted to be population representative and are analyzed using hierarchical categorical modeling. Persons who live in metropolitan statistical areas featuring higher levels of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> report fewer problems accessing health care. A higher HMO penetration rate in a metropolitan statistical area was also associated with fewer access problems. Other health sector variables were not related to health care access. The results observed for 22 major U.S. cities are consistent with the hypothesis that community social <span class="hlt">capital</span> enables better access to care, perhaps through improving community accountability mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9691550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9691550"><span>Financial <span class="hlt">capital</span> and intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span> in physician practice management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, J C</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous <span class="hlt">capital</span> in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span> of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24147187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24147187"><span>Health, Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, and Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bleakley, Hoyt</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>How much does disease depress development in human <span class="hlt">capital</span> and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human <span class="hlt">capital</span> itself and an input to producing other forms of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3800109','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3800109"><span>Health, Human <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, and Development*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bleakley, Hoyt</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>How much does disease depress development in human <span class="hlt">capital</span> and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human <span class="hlt">capital</span> itself and an input to producing other forms of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25444390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25444390"><span>The measurement of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15983054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15983054"><span>Predicting recidivism in a communitarian society: <span class="hlt">China</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jianhong</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Research on the prediction of recidivism has largely been an enterprise of Western criminology. Therefore, the identification and selection of predictors has tended to follow the individualistic traditions of the West. Important advances in models and methods have not been extended to non-Western societies such as <span class="hlt">China</span>. This article explores the implications of communitarian features of Chinese urban communities for prediction of recidivism. The article applies the perspective of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to the specification of predictors. Available community social-<span class="hlt">capital</span> measures are included in the prediction model to capture the effects of communitarian cultural features. The results indicate that social <span class="hlt">capital</span> variables generally have significant effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10302653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10302653"><span>Cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> to the hospital sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt <span class="hlt">capital</span> to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity <span class="hlt">capital</span>, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt <span class="hlt">capital</span> was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and <span class="hlt">capital</span> paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of <span class="hlt">capital</span> to hospitals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15463974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15463974"><span>Human <span class="hlt">capital</span>, schooling and health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schultz, T Paul</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human <span class="hlt">capital</span>, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human <span class="hlt">capital</span> stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human <span class="hlt">capital</span> and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human <span class="hlt">capital</span>, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human <span class="hlt">capital</span> stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17198112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17198112"><span>Reaping benefits from intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual <span class="hlt">capital</span> involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873026"><span>Agrofuels <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>: a view from political economy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To <span class="hlt">local</span> populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and <span class="hlt">capitalism</span> in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414342"><span>A cross-sectional description of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in an international sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Webel, Allison; Phillips, J Craig; Rose, Carol Dawson; Holzemer, William L; Chen, Wei-Ti; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Brion, John; Eller, Lucille; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Wantland, Dean; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Johnson, Mallory O; Portillo, Carmen; Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Salata, Robert A</p> <p>2012-03-13</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> refers to the resources linked to having a strong social network. This concept plays into health outcomes among People Living with HIV/AIDS because, globally, this is a highly marginalized population. Case studies show that modifying social <span class="hlt">capital</span> can lead to improvements in HIV transmission and management; however, there remains a lack of description or definition of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in international settings. The purpose of our paper was to describe the degree of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in an international sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS. We recruited PLWH at 16 sites from five countries including Canada, <span class="hlt">China</span>, Namibia, Thailand, and the United States. Participants (n = 1,963) completed a cross-sectional survey and data were collected between August, 2009 and December, 2010. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and correlational analysis. Participant's mean age was 45.2 years, most (69%) identified as male, African American/Black (39.9%), and unemployed (69.5%). Total mean social <span class="hlt">capital</span> was 2.68 points, a higher than average total social <span class="hlt">capital</span> score. Moderate correlations were observed between self-reported physical (r = 0.25) and psychological condition (r = 0.36), social support (r = 0.31), and total social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. No relationships between mental health factors, including substance use, and social <span class="hlt">capital</span> were detected. This is the first report to describe levels of total social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in an international sample of PLWH and to describe its relationship to self-reported health in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28858346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28858346"><span>Response of the phytoplankton community to water quality in a <span class="hlt">local</span> alpine glacial lake of Xinjiang Tianchi, <span class="hlt">China</span>: potential drivers and management implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiaotian; Song, Shuai; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Zhaoyang; Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Meng; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Jenkins, Alan</p> <p>2017-08-31</p> <p>Eutrophication has become one of the most serious threats to aquatic ecosystems in the world. With the combined drivers of climate change and human activities, eutrophication has expanded from warm shallow lakes to cold-water lakes in relatively high latitude regions and has raised greater concerns over lake aquatic ecosystem health. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate water quality, phytoplankton characteristics and eutrophication status in a typical alpine glacial lake of Tianchi, a scenic area and an important drinking water source in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of <span class="hlt">China</span>, in 2014 and 2015. Clear seasonal and annual variations of nutrients and organic pollutants were found especially during rainy seasons. For the phytoplankton community, Bacillariophyta held the dominant position in terms of both species and biomass throughout the year, suggesting the dominant characteristics of diatoms in the phytoplankton structure in such a high-altitude cold-water lake. This was quite different from plain and warm lakes troubled with cyanobacterial blooming. Moreover, the dominant abundance of Cyclotella sp. in Tianchi might suggest regional warming caused by climate change, which might have profound effects on the <span class="hlt">local</span> ecosystems and hydrological cycle. Based on water quality parameters, a comprehensive trophic level index TLI (Σ) was calculated to estimate the current status of eutrophication, and the results inferred emerging eutrophication in Tianchi. Results from Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and correlation analysis of phytoplankton genera and physico-chemical variables of water indicated that abiotic factors significantly influenced the phytoplankton community and its succession in Tianchi Lake. These abiotic factors could explain 77.82% of the total variance, and ammonium was identified as the most discriminant variable, which could explain 41% of the total variance followed by TP (29%). An estimation of annual nutrient loadings to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2911783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2911783"><span>‘Face’ and the Embodiment of Stigma in <span class="hlt">China</span>: The Cases of Schizophrenia and AIDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Kleinman, Arthur</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The majority of theoretical models have defined stigma as occurring psychologically and limit its negative effects to individual processes. This paper, via an analysis of how ‘face’ is embodied in <span class="hlt">China</span>, deepens an articulation of how the social aspects of stigma might incorporate the moral standing of both individual and collective actors defined within a <span class="hlt">local</span> context. We illustrate: 1) how one’s moral standing is lodged within a <span class="hlt">local</span> social world; 2) how one’s status as a ‘moral’ community member is contingent upon upholding intrapersonal and social-transactional obligations; and 3) how loss of face and fears of moral contamination might lead to a ‘social death’. We first draw from Chinese ethnographies that describe the process of human cultivation before one can achieve fully ‘moral’ status in society. We integrate findings from empirical studies describing how social exchange networks in <span class="hlt">China</span> are strictly organized based on the reciprocation of favors, moral positioning, and ‘face’. We further ground these Chinese constructs within a theoretical framework of different forms of <span class="hlt">capital</span>, and discuss the severe social consequences that loss of face entails. By utilizing the examples of schizophrenia and AIDS to illustrate how loss of moral standing and stigma are interwoven in <span class="hlt">China</span>, we propose a model highlighting changes in moral status to describe how stigma operates. We suggest that symbolic restoration of moral status for stigmatized groups takes place as <span class="hlt">local</span>-level stigma interventions. By analyzing the moral aspects of ‘face’, we propose that across cultures, stigma is embedded in the moral experience of participants, whereby stigma is conceived as a fundamentally moral issue: stigmatized conditions threaten what matters most for those in a <span class="hlt">local</span> world. We further propose that stigma jeopardizes an actor’s ability to mobilize social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to attain essential social statuses. PMID:18420325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21296607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21296607"><span>"Sense of community belonging" in health surveys: what social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is it measuring?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carpiano, Richard M; Hystad, Perry W</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Canadian national health surveys regularly ask respondents to rate their sense of belonging to their <span class="hlt">local</span> community. Health studies commonly use this question as a social <span class="hlt">capital</span> indicator, but what social <span class="hlt">capital</span> domains community belonging is measuring remains unclear. Analyzing Canadian General Social Survey data, we evaluate the validity of this measure with respect to network-based social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and health. Results indicate that sense of community belonging is associated positively with several network-based social <span class="hlt">capital</span> measures. Neighborhood network-based social <span class="hlt">capital</span> most substantially reduced associations between sense of community belonging and health measures, but results differed by urban and rural settings. These findings indicate the need for public health surveys to include specific measures of respondents' networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19293318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19293318"><span>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and childhood psychiatric disorders: a cross-sectional study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, Laura Jane; Oyebode, Femi</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this research was to determine whether social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is associated with either the type or severity of psychiatric disorders of childhood, specifically, disorders of emotion and behaviour. Ninety parents of children between the ages of 4 and 18 years with an emotional disorder or behavioural disorder participated in the study. They completed two questionnaires: the Child Behaviour Checklist (to assess severity of disorder) and a questionnaire measuring social <span class="hlt">capital</span>. There was no statistically significant association between total social <span class="hlt">capital</span> score and either diagnosis or severity of illness. However, two components of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> showed significant associations: ;perceptions of the <span class="hlt">local</span> area' was significantly associated with severity of illness and ;social networks' with diagnosis. The findings of this study suggest that some components of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> may be more important in relation to mental health than others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/279647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/279647"><span>Cogeneration development and market potential in <span class="hlt">China</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">China`s</span> energy production is largely dependent on coal. <span class="hlt">China</span> currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in <span class="hlt">China</span> have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of <span class="hlt">China`s</span> cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and <span class="hlt">capital</span> can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in <span class="hlt">China</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005easc.book.....U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005easc.book.....U"><span>Economic Analysis of Social Common <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzawa, Hirofumi</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Social common <span class="hlt">capital</span> provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common <span class="hlt">capital</span>' is comprised of three categories: natural <span class="hlt">capital</span>, social infrastructure, and institutional <span class="hlt">capital</span>. Natural <span class="hlt">capital</span> consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional <span class="hlt">capital</span> includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural <span class="hlt">capital</span>. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common <span class="hlt">capital</span>. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/reports-greening-americas-capitals-projects','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/reports-greening-americas-capitals-projects"><span>Reports From Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> Projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reports from projects conducted under the Greening America's <span class="hlt">Capitals</span> Program, which helped <span class="hlt">capital</span> cities explore green infrastructure and sustainable design strategies to revitalize neighborhoods, improve public health, and protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec638-305.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec638-305.pdf"><span>20 CFR 638.305 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> improvements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.305 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> improvements. <span class="hlt">Capital</span> improvement projects and new construction on Job Corps Centers...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28617202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28617202"><span>Hospital <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Investment During the Great Recession.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Sung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Hospital <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=death+AND+penalty&pg=5&id=EJ288858','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=death+AND+penalty&pg=5&id=EJ288858"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> Punishment: An International Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Edy</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished <span class="hlt">capital</span> punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-17/pdf/2011-14831.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-17/pdf/2011-14831.pdf"><span>76 FR 35351 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Plans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-17</p> <p>... Supervisory <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Assessment Program (SCAP), a ``stress test'' of 19 large, domestic bank holding companies... results of stress tests required by the Dodd- Frank Act. \\9\\ Through separate rulemaking or by order, it... of the results of any stress test required by law or regulation, and an explanation of how...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=different+AND+dimensions&pg=3&id=EJ1030624','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=different+AND+dimensions&pg=3&id=EJ1030624"><span>School Cheating and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the relationship between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capital+AND+punishment&pg=3&id=EJ288858','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capital+AND+punishment&pg=3&id=EJ288858"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> Punishment: An International Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Edy</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished <span class="hlt">capital</span> punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=database+AND+preservation&pg=6&id=EJ383918','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=database+AND+preservation&pg=6&id=EJ383918"><span>A <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Assets Preservation Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heiman, Ralph</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>New York State officials have created an efficient <span class="hlt">capital</span> planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669842"><span>Afresh look at <span class="hlt">capital</span> investments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levy, Alexis; Lawrence, Jennifer; Shiple, David</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Hospitals should focus on optimizing performance in five primary areas of <span class="hlt">capital</span> investment: facilities, IT, physician networks, service lines, and clinical equipment/technology. Hospitals require a broad evaluation framework to help identify the key issues and concerns associated with each area. Discipline is critical to this process, so that every area receives its due consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Campaign&pg=4&id=EJ868889','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Campaign&pg=4&id=EJ868889"><span>Presidential Transitions during <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Campaigns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nehls, Kimberly</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the past few decades, <span class="hlt">capital</span> campaigns at institutions of higher education have increased in duration, while collegiate presidential tenures have been doing just the opposite. Turnover in the top post was frequent, even during major fundraising campaigns. Before this study, presidential transitions during campaigns had not been previously…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=collective+AND+consciousness&id=EJ868832','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=collective+AND+consciousness&id=EJ868832"><span>A Radical Redistribution of <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weiston-Serdan, Torie L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">capital</span> in all of its forms has provided key insights into the system of education: its structure, its inequities, its values and its contributions. While the research is a key component to understanding educational opportunity and inequity, it does not advance from research to application. There is a general consensus that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=us+AND+manufacturing+AND+economy&pg=3&id=EJ725304','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=us+AND+manufacturing+AND+economy&pg=3&id=EJ725304"><span>Modeling and Measuring Organization <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Atkeson, Andrew; Kehoe, Patrick J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Manufacturing plants have a clear life cycle: they are born small, grow substantially with age, and eventually die. Economists have long thought that this life cycle is driven by organization <span class="hlt">capital</span>, the accumulation of plant-specific knowledge. The location of plants in the life cycle determines the size of the payments, or organization rents,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+data+AND+sets&pg=6&id=ED553904','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+data+AND+sets&pg=6&id=ED553904"><span>Teachers, Networks and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Healey, Kaleen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22plants+of%22&pg=3&id=EJ725304','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22plants+of%22&pg=3&id=EJ725304"><span>Modeling and Measuring Organization <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Atkeson, Andrew; Kehoe, Patrick J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Manufacturing plants have a clear life cycle: they are born small, grow substantially with age, and eventually die. Economists have long thought that this life cycle is driven by organization <span class="hlt">capital</span>, the accumulation of plant-specific knowledge. The location of plants in the life cycle determines the size of the payments, or organization rents,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ1030624','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ1030624"><span>School Cheating and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the relationship between social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-09/pdf/2012-31540.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-09/pdf/2012-31540.pdf"><span>78 FR 1991 - Major <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Investment Projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-09</p> <p>...This final rule sets a new regulatory framework for FTA's evaluation and rating of major transit <span class="hlt">capital</span> investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs. This final rule is being published concurrently with a Notice of Availability of revised proposed policy guidance that provides additional detail on the new measures and proposed methods for calculating the project justification and <span class="hlt">local</span> financial commitment criteria specified in statute and this final rule. FTA seeks public comment on the revised proposed policy guidance referenced in the Notice of Availability published today. Because of the recent enactment of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), subsequent interim guidance and rulemaking will be forthcoming to address provisions not covered in this final rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484399','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484399"><span>Renewable energy development in <span class="hlt">China</span>: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">China</span>, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. <span class="hlt">China</span> has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and <span class="hlt">capital</span> constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in <span class="hlt">China</span> is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious <span class="hlt">local</span> and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in <span class="hlt">China</span> is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of <span class="hlt">China</span>, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10143672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10143672"><span>Positioning for <span class="hlt">capitation</span> by redesigning internal processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gardner, J R; Maroney, R</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>Now that healthcare reform is no longer at the forefront of President Clinton's agenda, competition among providers, practitioners, and health systems will become more common as they ready themselves for <span class="hlt">capitation</span>. In addition, mergers, consolidations, acquisitions, alliances, and partnerships will continue to reshape the healthcare industry. In order for the parties to be successful in a <span class="hlt">capitated</span> environment, providers, practitioners, and healthcare systems must manage and adapt to consolidation, <span class="hlt">capitation</span>, communication, control, cost, customer, <span class="hlt">capital</span>, and culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-11/pdf/2010-32189.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-11/pdf/2010-32189.pdf"><span>76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Guidelines: Market Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-11</p> <p>... regulatory measurement methodologies; and increase transparency through enhanced disclosures. The proposal.... Plain Language I. Introduction A. Background The first international <span class="hlt">capital</span> framework for banks \\1\\ entitled International Convergence of <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Measurement and <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Standards (1988 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Accord)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-06/pdf/2010-25069.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-06/pdf/2010-25069.pdf"><span>75 FR 61790 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-06</p> <p>... COMMISSION <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application September 29, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicant, <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Southwest Corporation (``<span class="hlt">Capital</span> Southwest''), requests an order to permit it to issue.... Applicant's Representations 1. <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Southwest, a Texas corporation, is an internally managed,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=graduate+AND+employability&id=EJ1100649','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=graduate+AND+employability&id=EJ1100649"><span>Psychological <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span>, career identity, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> on the relationships between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span>, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-08/pdf/2011-17188.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-08/pdf/2011-17188.pdf"><span>76 FR 40407 - Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Funds and Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Management LLC; Notice of Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-08</p> <p>... COMMISSION Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Funds and Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Management LLC; Notice of Application July 1, 2011.... Applicants: Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Funds (the ``Trust'') and Sterling <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Management LLC (``Sterling'' and... with Sterling, an ``Adviser''); (b) uses the multi-manager structure described in the application; and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol5-sec324-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol5-sec324-11.pdf"><span>12 CFR 324.11 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount. 324.11 Section 324.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... Requirements and Buffers § 324.11 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount. (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol2-sec217-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol2-sec217-11.pdf"><span>12 CFR 217.11 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount. 217.11 Section 217.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Requirements and Buffers § 217.11 <span class="hlt">Capital</span> conservation buffer and countercyclical <span class="hlt">capital</span> buffer amount. (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=seek&pg=4&id=EJ1100649','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=seek&pg=4&id=EJ1100649"><span>Psychological <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span>, career identity, social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> on the relationships between psychological <span class="hlt">capital</span>, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193392.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193392.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> Facilities Planning and Debt Administration. Module Number Seven of Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques. Package VI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steiss, Alan Walter</p> <p></p> <p>This packet contains the instructional materials necessary for presentation of the seventh of ten modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. This module focuses on <span class="hlt">capital</span> facilities planning in <span class="hlt">local</span> government finance. <span class="hlt">Capital</span> facilities planning encompasses…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+social+AND+more+AND+important&pg=7&id=EJ907270','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+social+AND+more+AND+important&pg=7&id=EJ907270"><span>School Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> and School Effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tsang, Kwok-Kuen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article argues that school social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to school effectiveness. School social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol3-sec225-8.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol3-sec225-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 225.8 - <span class="hlt">Capital</span> planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>...) Notwithstanding any other requirement in this section, for a given <span class="hlt">capital</span> plan cycle (including the January 5... under paragraph (d)(4) of this section during the <span class="hlt">capital</span> plan cycle), a bank holding company's... on or after the first day of that <span class="hlt">capital</span> plan cycle (October 1) that the bank holding company is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478947.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478947.pdf"><span>Intergenerational Learning and Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span>. ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerka, Sandra</p> <p></p> <p>The concept of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> refers to the resources of networks, norms or shared values, and trust to which individuals have access as community members. A reason to consider intergenerational learning in the context of social <span class="hlt">capital</span> is awareness of unequal access to positive social <span class="hlt">capital</span> and the risk that social exclusion and disadvantage…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spatial+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ885372','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spatial+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ885372"><span>Sociospatial Schooling Practices: A Spatial <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barthon, Catherine; Monfroy, Brigitte</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper highlights the importance today of the spatial dimension within the analysis of parents' education strategies concerning their school choices at the secondary school level. This study is based on the 2 dimensions of the concept of spatial <span class="hlt">capital</span> (Levy, 1994): position <span class="hlt">capital</span> and situation <span class="hlt">capital</span>. It explores sociospatial schooling…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&pg=2&id=ED527956','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism&pg=2&id=ED527956"><span>Cognitive <span class="hlt">Capitalism</span>, Education and Digital Labor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cognitive <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>--sometimes referred to as "third <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>," after mercantilism and industrial <span class="hlt">capitalism</span>--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473987.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473987.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Capital</span> Financing for Independent Private Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River <span class="hlt">Capital</span>, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on <span class="hlt">capital</span> financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the <span class="hlt">capital</span> financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ973586','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+capital&pg=2&id=EJ973586"><span>Measuring Social <span class="hlt">Capital</span> in Hamilton, Ontario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">capital</span> has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social <span class="hlt">capital</span> to health. This paper investigates social <span class="hlt">capital</span> in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Working+AND+Capital&pg=5&id=EJ885372','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Working+AND+Capital&pg=5&id=EJ885372"><span>Sociospatial Schooling Practices: A Spatial <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barthon, Catherine; Monfroy, Brigitte</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper highlights the importance today of the spatial dimension within the analysis of parents' education strategies concerning their school choices at the secondary school level. This study is based on the 2 dimensions of the concept of spatial <span class="hlt">capital</span> (Levy, 1994): position <span class="hlt">capital</span> and situation <span class="hlt">capital</span>. It explores sociospatial schooling…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED398654.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED398654.pdf"><span>Steps for Launching a <span class="hlt">Capital</span> Campaign.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">capital</span> campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a <span class="hlt">capital</span> campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the <span class="hlt">capital</span> campaign.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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