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Sample records for china local capital

  1. Sense of community, neighboring, and social capital as predictors of local political participation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Perkins, Douglas D; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the state of sense of community, neighboring behavior, and social capital in the People's Republic of China, and explores their ability to predict local political participation, in the form of voting in elections for Urban Resident/Rural Villager Committees. Using a nationally representative survey, rural, older and married residents and those with a primary or high school education and higher perceived socio-economic status are more likely to participate. In rural areas, men are more likely than women to vote. For urban residents, knowing one's neighbors is more important whereas in rural areas, neighboring behavior is more important, but both predict voting. Social capital does not generally predict Chinese people's local political participation. Western definitions of social capital derived from theories about networking, bonding and bridging ties may be too culturally individualistic for China, whose collectivist society and agrarian kinship networks predate Communism. Simply knowing and helping one's neighbors, rather than more abstract notions of trust, reciprocity or membership, may lead to the development of local democracy.

  2. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  3. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  4. Representation of critical natural capital in China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Whitham, Charlotte; Liu, Shuguang; Wu, Bingfang

    2017-02-20

    Traditional means of assessing representativeness of conservation value in protected areas depend on measures of structural biodiversity. The effectiveness of priority conservation areas at representing critical natural capital (CNC) (i.e., an essential and renewable subset of natural capital) remains largely unknown. We analyzed the representativeness of CNC-conservation priority areas in national nature reserves (i.e., nature reserves under jurisdiction of the central government with large spatial distribution across the provinces) in China with a new biophysical-based composite indicator approach. With this approach, we integrated the net primary production of vegetation, topography, soil, and climate variables to map and rank terrestrial ecosystems capacities to generate CNC. National nature reserves accounted for 6.7% of CNC-conservation priority areas across China. Considerable gaps (35.2%) existed between overall (or potential) CNC representativeness nationally and CNC representation in national reserves, and there was significant spatial heterogeneity of representativeness in CNC-conservation priority areas at the regional and provincial levels. For example, the best and worst representations were, respectively, 13.0% and 1.6% regionally and 28.9% and 0.0% provincially. Policy in China is transitioning toward the goal of an ecologically sustainable civilization. We identified CNC-conservation priority areas and conservation gaps and thus contribute to the policy goals of optimization of the national nature reserve network and the demarcation of areas critical to improving the representativeness and conservation of highly functioning areas of natural capital. Moreover, our method for assessing representation of CNC can be easily adapted to other large-scale networks of conservation areas because few data are needed, and our model is relatively simple.

  5. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  6. Local community playgroup participation and associations with social capital.

    PubMed

    Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexander; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Issue addressed: The study aim was to investigate the relationships between social capital measures and playgroup participation in a local residential area for parents with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) compared with non-participation and participation in a playgroup outside the local residential area. Research indicates playgroup participation has benefits for families, however, less is known about the potential local community social capital for parents who participate in playgroups.Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from March 2013 to January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a group of parents (n=405) who had at least one child aged between 1 and 4 years were analysed using multivariable regression. Reported playgroup participation (local, outside the area or non-participation) in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with three measures (Neighbourhood Cohesion Index, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey and local reciprocity) that capture attributes of social capital.Results: Participation in playgroup locally was generally associated with higher levels of social capital than both participation in playgroup outside the local area and non-participation. Mothers with two or more children fared better for social capital measures than mothers with one child.Conclusions: Participation in a locally placed playgroup may provide an important opportunity for families with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) to build social capital in their local community.So what?: Playgroups in a family's local area have the potential to foster locally placed social capital through community interaction, social networks and cohesion, which are important for mental health promotion in communities.

  7. Locally Sourced Capital for Small Businesses in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampien, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Lack of adequate access to capital is a major barrier for rural entrepreneurs. Washington State University Extension and the Association of Washington Cities partnered to explore and test an innovative local investment approach that provides access to capital and engages the community in the success of individual businesses. The approach offers…

  8. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  9. Measurement and multifractal properties of short-term international capital flows in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Yang, Zhenyu; Geng, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks. The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks.

  10. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  11. Effects of Living Alone on Social Capital and Health Among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical.

  12. Social Capital and Quality of Life Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Gui-Lian; Yuan, Zhao-Kang; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D; Cook, Angelie; Yuan, Ling-Ling; Xu, Qun-Ying; Jiang, Hong-Ying; Zheng, Hui-Lie; Wang, Li; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 261 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Southeast China. A social capital questionnaire was used to measure social capital dimensions (trust, social connection, and social participation). A Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was used to assess Quality of Life (QoL); Physical Health Summary Scores (PHS) and Mental Health Summary Scores (MHS) were calculated. Multiple regression assessed whether social capital and its dimensions were associated with PHS and MHS. After controlling for sociodemographics and HIV-related factors, lower PHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .01) and low trust (P < .001). Lower MHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .001), low trust (P < .001) and low social connection (P < .01). Our findings identify potential intervention targets to improve QoL among PLWH in Southeast China, including the promotion of social capital.

  13. Green Space Changes and Planning in the Capital Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuegong; Duan, Xiaofeng; Sun, Haiqing; Sun, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Green space plays an important role in complex urban ecosystems and provides significant ecosystem services with environmental, aesthetic, recreational and economic benefits. Beijing is the capital city of China and has a large population of about 15.81 million. Construction of green spaces is an important part of sustainable development in Beijing. To attain the sustainable development of Beijing as a capital city, an international city, a historical cultural city, and a living amenity city, this article attempts to develop a comprehensive plan of green space development both at the municipal and regional levels. At the municipal level of Beijing, based on the study of green space changes, and taking physical geographic conditions and historical context into account, we propose to establish green barriers in the mountainous area, and plan a comprehensive green space pattern composed of one city, two rings, three networks, eight water areas, nine fields, and several patches in the plain area. At the regional level of the Capital Circle Region, integrating the characteristics and causes of main environmental issues, we design a macroscopic pattern—"barriers by mountains in the northwest," "seaward open spaces in the southeast," "grassland-forest-field-coast zones," and "green-blue symphony"—for ecological restoration and green space construction. Finally, we discuss the principles necessary to implement green space planning considering adaptation to local conditions, composite function exploitation, interregional equity and integrated planning.

  14. Capital punishment views in China and the United States: a preliminary study among college students.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric G; Wang, Jin

    2007-02-01

    There is a lack of research on attitudes toward capital punishment in China, and there is even less research on cross-national comparisons of capital punishment views. Using data recently collected from college students in the United States and China, this study finds that U.S. and Chinese students have differences in their views on the death penalty and its functions of deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation. This study also reveals that the respondents' perspectives of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation all affect their attitudes toward the death penalty in the United States, whereas only the first three views affect attitudes toward capital punishment in China. Furthermore, retribution is the strongest predictor in the United States, whereas deterrence is the strongest predictor in China.

  15. Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital on Quality of Life among AIDS Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823

  16. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  17. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  18. Mobilizing and Managing Social Capital: On Roles and Responsibilities of Local Facilitators in Territorial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Markus; Kirchengast, Christoph; Petit, Sandrine; Magnani, Natalia; Mieville-Ott, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the difficulties and challenges in mobilizing and managing social capital in concrete local and territorial directed rural development project activities. The main focus is put on the roles of local facilitators working with farmers and other local stakeholders during project implementation. The EU 5th framework project IMALP…

  19. Topological properties and community detection of venture capital network: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. Based on the data from Chinese GEM and SME board, we establish a venture capital (VC) network to study the statistical properties, topological properties and community structure of the Chinese venture capital network. The result shows that there are no dominant venture capital firms in China which act as hubs in the VC network, and multi-company syndication is not popular in China, meaning that the relationships among venture capital companies are weak. The network is robust under either random or intentional attack, and possesses small world property. We also find from its community structure that, venture capital companies are more concentrated in developed districts but the links within the same district are scarce as compared to the links between different developed districts, indicating that venture capital companies are more willing to syndicate with companies in other developed districts. Furthermore, venture capital companies which invest in the same industry have closer relations within their communities than those which do not invest in the same industry.

  20. Action Research Localization in China: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yimin

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of the action research into China in the 1980s, especially since the start of the twenty-first century, Chinese education researchers have been trying to localize it in relation to the backdrop of the national curriculum reform in basic education. This article presents three cases in which educators aimed for a conscious…

  1. Organ donation by capital prisoners in China: reflections in Confucian ethics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxu; Wang, Xueliang

    2010-04-01

    This article discusses the practice and development of organ donation by capital prisoners in China. It analyzes the issue of informed consent regarding organ donation from capital prisoners in light of Confucian ethics and expounds the point that under the influence of Confucianism, China is a country that attaches great importance to the role of the family in practicing informed consent in various areas, the area of organ donation from capital prisoners included. It argues that a proper form of organ donation from capital prisoners can be justified within the Confucian moral context in which the proper interests of capital prisoners and their families, the benefit of organ receptors, and a rightful order of society should all be appropriately considered. From the Confucian perspective, the act of donating organs from a capital prisoner must be decided by both the prisoner and his/her family (i.e., each side should hold a veto power), whereas such donation, in the proper circumstance protected by a rightful procedure, should be appreciated as a morally praiseworthy act of the prisoner who is willing to make the final effort to repent and correct his/her evil conduct and to leave something good to the world.

  2. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  3. Schools, Choice and Reputation: Local School Markets and the Distribution of Symbolic Capital in Segregated Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad; Ambrose, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An exploration is presented of how urban spaces, polarized by class and ethnicity, structure the basic conditions of emerging local school markets. The authors investigate how the distribution of symbolic capital, or "hot knowledge" of the market, affects schools, the market, and the urban spaces themselves. The study is guided by…

  4. Increasing social capital via local networks: analysis in the context of a surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anjani; Yang, Isaac; Lee, Michael Y; Goel, Arpan; Ashok, Ashwin; Fonkalsrud, Eric W

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between social capital (support, trust, patient awareness, and increased practice revenue) and local networks (university hospital) in communities has received little attention. The development of computer-based communication networks (social networks) has added a new dimension to the argument, posing the question of whether local networks can (re-)create social capital in local communities. This relationship is examined through a review of the literature on local networks and social capital and a surgeon's practice management from 1990 to 2001 with respect to repair of pectus chest deformities. With respect to pectus repair there was a consistent but small number of new referrals (15-20 new patients/year), lack of patient awareness (eight to 12 self-referred patients/year), and modest practice revenue. Since the inception of an Internet website (social network) dedicated to pectus repair in 1996 there has been increased social participation (n = 630 hits/year to the website); facilitation of spread of information through E-mail messages (n = 430 messages/year); and a greater participation of groups such as women, minorities, adults, and those with disability (n = 120 patients/year). The dissemination of information via the local network has also allowed an "outward movement" with increased participation by interconnecting communities (n = 698,300 global Internet participants based on statistical ratios). We conclude that local networks have enhanced social networks providing new grounds for the development of relationships based on choice and shared interest.

  5. Community-Based Study of the Relationship Between Social Capital and Cognitive Function in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhu, Jie; Cai, Yi; Cui, Dan; Wang, Quan; Mao, Zongfu

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to detect the association between social capital and cognitive function in elderly residents with/without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Wuhan, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted for data collection in 2014. A sample of 1156 participants entered the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chinese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A modified instrument scale was used to measure bonding and bridging social capital. The results indicated that participants without MCI had higher social capital scores (45.2 ± 8.3) than those with MCI (37.0 ± 6.3; P < .001). With adjustments for relevant confounders, the multiple logistic regression model showed that participants with a bonding social capital score that ranged from 17 to 24 had an odds ratio (OR) for MCI of 0.38 (95% CI = 0.04-0.79); those with a score that ranged from 25 to 32 had an OR for MCI of 0.36 (95% CI = 0.04-0.70); and those with scores ≥33 had an OR for MCI of 0.25 (95% CI = 0.03-0.53). In conclusion, we found a statistically significant inverse association between bonding social capital and MCI, which suggests that shortage of social resource from homogeneous social networks might be associated with cognitive decline.

  6. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  7. Indicators of Social Capital: Social Capital as the Product of Local Interactive Learning Processes. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian; Harrison, Lesley

    A case study in a rural Australian township attempted to determine indicators verifying the existence of social capital. Social capital is provisionally defined as the networks, norms, and trust that constitute the capacity of individuals, workplaces, groups, organizations, and communities to strive for sustainable futures in a changing…

  8. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions.

  9. Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the associations of sociocultural adaptation with individualism and collectivism and the moderating roles of discrimination and social capital in the associations among rural-to-urban migrants (N = 641) in Beijing, China. Results indicated that individualism was associated with poorer adaptation for migrants reporting low perceived discrimination or low social capital. However, migrants reporting high perceived discrimination showed poorer adaptation, regardless of individualism; and migrants reporting high social capital showed better adaptation, regardless of individualism. Collectivism was not related to adaptation. Findings suggest that individualism may be detrimental to migrants' adjustment to a collectivistic society.

  10. Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural-to-urban migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of sociocultural adaptation with individualism and collectivism and the moderating roles of discrimination and social capital in the associations among rural-to-urban migrants (N = 641) in Beijing, China. Results indicated that individualism was associated with poorer adaptation for migrants reporting low perceived discrimination or low social capital. However, migrants reporting high perceived discrimination showed poorer adaptation, regardless of individualism; and migrants reporting high social capital showed better adaptation, regardless of individualism. Collectivism was not related to adaptation. Findings suggest that individualism may be detrimental to migrants’ adjustment to a collectivistic society. PMID:25937806

  11. Relationship between air quality and economic development in the provincial capital cities of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution in China has become increasingly severe with rapid economic growth in recent years. We analyzed the relationship between the gross regional product (GRP) per capita and the Integrated Air Pollution Index (IAPI) in all the provincial capital cities in China from 2003 to 2014 and clustered them into six urban development patterns. These patterns are as follows: inverse U-shaped, N-1-shaped, N-2-shaped, U-shaped, linear decline, and stable. The majority of the provincial capitals are N-1, N-2, and U types, suggesting that the air quality is deteriorating currently or will deteriorate in the future. Meteorological conditions and industrial structure are taken into consideration when testing the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis between the economy and air pollutant concentration. Results show that there exists no direct relationship between three main pollutants and GRP per capita, while an inverse U-shaped relationship with the secondary industry and a U-shaped relationship with the tertiary industry. These results will be a meaningful reference for policy makers to develop policies that coordinate the environmental protection and economic development.

  12. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  13. Agentic personality as mediator of social capital on developmental outcomes in the transition to adulthood: Evidence from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rui; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 1153 young people in Shanghai, China, this study investigates how agentic personality mediates between social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (family, friendship, association, and linking connection) and developmental outcomes during the transition to adulthood. The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provide a good fit for the sample as a whole. The overall findings support the hypotheses that a higher level of agentic personality, including resilience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, is associated with higher levels of developmental outcomes. Agentic personality also mediates the effects of family, friendship, associational, and linking social capital on developmental outcomes. Family social capital is predictive of university students' identity achievement and academic achievement, but not of their mental health. Linking social capital is only predictive of identity achievement. Unexpectedly, friendship social capital and associational social capital are predictive of a lower level of academic achievement and mental health, respectively, despite their positive influences on all three developmental outcomes through their significant effects on agentic personality. The study provides empirical support for the importance of social capital in promoting young people's transition to adulthood. Implications for theory, practice, and policy are also discussed.

  14. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-04-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.

  15. Capitation combined with pay-for-performance improves antibiotic prescribing practices in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Chen, Wen; Hu, Min; Fe, Eduardo; Hu, Mu; Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hsiao, William C

    2014-03-01

    Pay-for-performance in health care holds promise as a policy lever to improve the quality and efficiency of care. Although the approach has become increasingly popular in developing countries in recent years, most policy designs do not permit the rigorous evaluation of its impact. Thus, evidence of its effect is limited. In collaboration with the government of Ningxia Province, a predominantly rural area in northwest China, we conducted a matched-pair cluster-randomized experiment between 2009 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of capitation with pay-for-performance on primary care providers' antibiotic prescribing practices, health spending, outpatient visit volume, and patient satisfaction. We found that the intervention led to a reduction of approximately 15 percent in antibiotic prescriptions and a small reduction in total spending per visit to village posts-essentially, community health clinics. We found no effect on other outcomes. Our results suggest that capitation with pay-for-performance can improve drug prescribing practices by reducing overprescribing and inappropriate prescribing. Our study also shows that rigorous evaluations of health system interventions are feasible when conducted in close collaboration with the government.

  16. Building Community: Exploring the Role of Social Capital and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potapchuk, William R.; Crocker, Jarle P.; Boogaard, Dina; Schechter, William H.

    Social capital is the glue that holds a community together. It is the network of relationships among persons that can be used to get things done. Social capital is a necessary, but not sufficient, ingredient of community building. A community must mobilize its social capital and the mechanisms of its infrastructure to face and resolve collective…

  17. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060

  18. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  19. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  20. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  1. A Capital-Financing Plan for School Systems and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Penny

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are best equipped to lead in funding operating and capital needs because they understand the need for a methodical means of funding ongoing costs over time and the benefits of planning for future financial needs rather than letting emergencies dictate spending priorities. A capital-financing plan makes it possible to…

  2. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  3. Geographical Range and Local Abundance of Tree Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20–25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >105 km2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species’ abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges. PMID:24130772

  4. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2), and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5) km(2). There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  5. Classical convergence versus Zipf rank approach: Evidence from China's local-level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Baaquie, Belal E.; Podobnik, Boris

    2016-02-01

    This paper applies Zipf rank approach to measure how long it will take for the individual economy to reach the final state of equilibrium by using local-level data of China's urban areas. The indicators, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the market capitalization (MCAP) per capita of 150 major cities in China are used for analyzing their convergence. Besides, the power law relationship is examined for GDP and MCAP. Our findings show that, compared to the classical approaches: β-convergence and σ-convergence, the Zipf ranking predicts that, in approximately 16 years, all the major cities in China will reach comparable values of GDP per capita. However, the MCAP per capita tends to follow the periodic fluctuation of the economic cycle, while the mean-log derivation (MLD) confirms the results of our study. Moreover, GDP per capita and MCAP per capita follow a power law with an average value of α = 0.41 which is higher than α = 0.38 obtained based on a large number of countries around the world.

  6. Changes and Challenges in the Flow of International Human Capital: China's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the changes in the directions of the international flow of Chinese human capital between the 1870s and 2000s. Although many studies on international academic flow adopt the pull-and-push approach, this article argues that the direction of human capital flow is not determined solely by an individual's choice when faced with a…

  7. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  8. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  9. Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  10. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants’ perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  11. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  12. Social capital and the mental health of children in rural China with different experiences of parental migration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiaobing; Lu, Deping; Kang, Mi

    2015-05-01

    Children migrating to urban cities with their parents and children left behind in rural counties by their migrant parents are two vulnerable populations resulting from the rural-urban migration in mainland China. Some of these children even have mixed experiences of being left-behind and being migrants at different times. This study aimed to investigate how the various experiences of being left-behind, migrant, or both, might influence the mental health of children in the context of rural China. Moreover, it investigated how these effects might be mediated by the stock of social capital in their family and neighborhood. Data used in this study came from a questionnaire survey with a school-based multi-stage random sample of 701 children (aged 8-17 years) living in the rural counties of Guizhou province in 2013. The structural equation modeling results suggested that, compared to those rural children who lived with both parents and have never experienced migration or being left-behind, children who are currently left-behind, either with or without previous experience of being a migrant, appeared to exhibit higher levels of depression. However, children who had previously been left-behind, but lived with both parents at the time of study, tended to experience fewer depressive symptoms. Parental migration also influenced children's mental health through the mediating effects of family and community social capital. These research findings imply developing intervention and prevention programs tailored to different groups of children in rural China with a focus on fostering the growth of social capital using various strategies.

  13. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  14. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  15. Stress Status and Related Characteristics among Urban Residents: A Six-Province Capital Cities Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R. H.; Lv, Qiaohong; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate current prevalence levels of stress, and to identify related characteristics among urban residents in China. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Selected through multi-stage quota-sampling, survey participants were 4,735 urban residents aged 15 years and older who resided in one of six selected Chinese capital cities. Data were collected on stress levels and sociodemographic characteristics. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). A multilevel variance component model was employed to analyze associations between sociodemographic variables and stress. Results The mean stress score for urban residents was 22.34 (SD: 3.22), and 36.8% of those surveyed (95% CI: 33.5–40.2%) were severely stressed (>25). Multilevel regression analysis indicated that residents aged 55 years and older were less stressed than residents under age 25. The most educated and higher income earners had lower stress levels than the least educated and poorest. High levels of stress were apparent among all other occupational groups, relative to managers and clerks, except retirees and operational workers. Residents in the north of China exhibited higher stress levels than counterparts in the south. Conclusions This study suggests that higher stress levels are positively associated with social class in China. Our findings could inform health policy, guide prevention strategies, and justify the design and implementation of targeted interventions. PMID:22276209

  16. Education Abroad, Human Capital Development, and National Competitiveness: China's Brain Gain Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This is a documentary study of education abroad policy in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between 1978 and 2009. By examining the dynamics underpinning the PRC state's efforts to shape the flow of Chinese students and scholars from and into China, this article reveals the major strategies that have enabled education abroad to become a source…

  17. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  18. Local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Yang, Biao; Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People's attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People's negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people's attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region.

  19. Goals of China's Campuses Range from 'Open' Marxism at People's U. to Shenzhen's 'Socialistic Capitalism.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Higher education in the People's Republic of China is discussed based on a tour of 15 universities that included formal interviews and informal discussions with Chinese-government officials, university administrators, faculty members, other educators, students, and journalists. (MLW)

  20. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  1. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study. PMID:20461124

  2. Capitalizing on multi-element interactions through balanced nutrition--a pathway to improve nitrogen use efficiency in China, India and North America.

    PubMed

    Fixen, Paul E; Jin, Jiyun; Tiwari, K N; Stauffer, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    A viable option for increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency and mitigation of negative impacts of N on the environment is to capitalize on multi-element interactions through implementation of nutrient management programs that provide balanced nutrition. Numerous studies have demonstrated the immediate efficacy of this approach in the developing regions like China and India as well as developed countries in North America. Based on 241 site-years of experiments in these countries, the first-year N recovery efficiency (RE) for the conventional or check treatments averaged 21% while the balanced treatments averaged 54% RE, for an average increase of 33% in RE due to balanced nutrition. Effective policies to promote adoption are most likely those that enable site-specific approaches to nutrient management decisions rather than sweeping, nation-wide incentives supporting one nutrient over another. Local farmers, advisers and officials need to be empowered with tools and information to help them define necessary changes in practices to create more balanced nutrient management.

  3. Capitalizing on multi-element interactions through balanced nutrition--a pathway to improve nitrogen use efficiency in China, India and North America.

    PubMed

    Fixen, Paul E; Jiyun, Jin; Tiwari, K N; Stauffer, Mark D

    2005-09-01

    A viable option for increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency and mitigation of negative impacts of N on the environment is to capitalize on multi-element interactions through implementation of nutrient management programs that provide balanced nutrition. Numerous studies have demonstrated the immediate efficacy of this approach in the developing regions like China and India as well as developed countries in North America. Based on 241 site-years of experiments in these countries, the first-year N recovery efficiency (RE) for the conventional or check treatments averaged 21% while the balanced treatments averaged 54% RE, for an average increase of 33% in RE due to balanced nutrition. Effective policies to promote adoption are most likely those that enable site-specific approaches to nutrient management decisions rather than sweeping, nation-wide incentives supporting one nutrient over another. Local farmers, advisers and officials need to be empowered with tools and information to help them define necessary changes in practices to create more balanced nutrient management.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of six criteria air pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities in China during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Ying, Qi; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    Long-term air pollution data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to support the research of physical and chemical processes that affect the air quality, and the corresponding health risks. However, such datasets were not available in China until recently. For the first time, this study examines the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and 8 h O3 in 31 capital cities in China between March 2013 and February 2014 using hourly data released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS), Grade I standards (15 and 40 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) for all cities, and only Haikou, Fuzhou and Lasa met the CAAQS Grade II standards (35 and 70 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). Observed PM2.5, PM10, CO and SO2 concentrations were higher in cities located in the North region than those in the West and the South-East regions. The number of non-attainment days was highest in the winter, but high pollution days were also frequently observed in the South-East region during the fall and in the West region during the spring. PM2.5 was the largest contributor to the air pollution in China based on the number of non-attainment days, followed by PM10, and O3. Strong correlation was found between different pollutants except for O3. These results suggest great impacts of coal combustion and biomass burning in the winter, long range transport of windblown dust in the spring, and secondary aerosol formation throughout the year. Current air pollution in China is caused by multiple pollutants, with great variations among different regions and different seasons. Future studies should focus on improving the understanding of the associations between air quality and meteorological conditions, variations of emissions in different regions, and transport and transformation of pollutants in both intra- and inter

  5. Communication, Social Structural Change, and Capital Formation in People's Republic of China. Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Godwin C.

    Focusing on economic development in the People's Republic of China beginning at the eve of the communist takeover, this monograph analyzes the ways and patterns in which mass media and interpersonal communication were used to change economically relevant social structures in the interclass confrontation and the part these patterns played in the…

  6. Learning Craft Skills in China: Apprenticeship and Social Capital in an Artisan Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlland, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some of the consequences of collectivization and subsequent privatization of handicraft in China in the second half of the 20th century on ways of learning and modes of apprenticeship. It argues that, after the privatization of the ceramics workshops of Dingshu, Jiangsu province, an ethos of sharing previously introduced by…

  7. When Socialism Meets Market Capitalism: Challenges for Privatizing and Marketizing Education in China and Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    China and Vietnam have experienced drastic social, economic and political changes, especially when these two socialist regimes have started economic reforms in the last few decades. In order to create more opportunities for higher education with limited national resources, both Chinese and Vietnamese governments have adopted strategies along the…

  8. The Accumulation of Human Capital over Time and Its Impact on Salary Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zeyun; Xiao, Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the growth in salaries across three spatial regions in China during the period 1993-1998, when economic reforms were implemented nationwide. Our study compares the impact of three forms of education and training on salary growth, namely pre-job formal schooling, on-the-job-training provided by employers, and adult education…

  9. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  10. InSAR time-series investigation of long-term ground displacement at Beijing Capital International Airport, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingliang; Gong, Huili; Chen, Beibei; Zhou, Chaofan; Chen, Wenfeng; Liang, Yue; Shi, Min; Si, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analysis provides high spatial resolution and continuous temporal coverage for investigations of long-term ground displacement. Beijing, the capital city of China, has suffered from land subsidence since the 1950s, and extreme groundwater extraction has led to subsidence rates of > 100 mm/year. In this study, InSAR time-series analysis is performed on different data subsets to investigate the ground displacement at Capital International Airport, Beijing, between June 2003 and November 2013. The results show that the ground surface in the airport has deformed at different rates ranging from - 66.2 mm/year (sinking) to 8.2 mm/year (uplift) relative to the reference point. The projected vertical displacement rates agreed with measurements estimated from ground-leveling surveys, and the correlation coefficient of the fitting result is 0.96, with a standard deviation of 0.9 mm/year and a mean different of 2.0 mm/year. The runways and terminals have been affected by land subsidence to various degrees. Previous studies has indicated that long-term intense groundwater extraction is the main reason leading to land subsidence in this area. Other triggering factors, such as active faults, the quaternary compressible layers and urbanization, also have different degrees of contribution or impact on land subsidence in Beijing Plain. Furthermore, some interesting behaviors from groundwater (such as inter- and semi-annual variations) and subsidence, the relationship between them are also found in this study.

  11. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users.

  12. China's rural population statistics at the local level.

    PubMed

    Lavely, W R

    1982-01-01

    Written for those who use Chinese population data and want a better understanding of their provenance and reliability and those who may directly utilize local level materials in studies of Chinese population and social structure, this report describes the statistical system of 1 rural county, Shifang Xian in the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province. It is based on interviews with local government officials, on examinations of population records and reports at different levels of administration, and on a sample survey of households conducted in the winter and spring of 1981. Until the mid 1970s, the primary source of China's rural population data was the household and vital events registers established in the 1950s. Following the formation of the Birth Planning Office in 1971, a separate reporting system of population statistics began to develop alongside the household registration system. The birth planning system uses the reports of team, brigade, and commune level cadres concerned with health work and women's affairs to provide a richer and more current set of vital events and birth planning data than the household registration system could provide. Discrepancies in data emerging from the 3 sources are bound to occur because of error and because of the different methods used in the compilation of data. Currently, there are 2 basic sources for population data in Shifang Xian: the monthly reports of the brigade level birth planning workers and the year end reports of the team accountants. The household and vital events registers, once central to population statistics, retain their legal role but have diminished importance for statistical purposes. There continues to be important questions about the operation of the statistical system. With increasing reliance on the newly developed birth planning statistical system for information on vital rates, Shifang has apparently moved from statistics based on date of registration derived from a de jure system of vital events

  13. The Re-Socialisation of Migrants in a Local Community in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the…

  14. Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2013-09-01

    Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China.

  15. Changing patterns and determinants of natural capital in the Yangtze River Delta of China 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan

    2014-01-01

    Natural capital (NC) is crucial to human existence and human well-being. Evaluating ecosystem services on a regional scale has presented tremendous theoretical, methodological and policy challenges. This study addresses the challenges by developing an interdisciplinary methodology, based on expert knowledge, and by focusing on the Yangtze River Delta of China. It evaluates the stock of NC, analyzes the characteristics of, and identifies the key drivers for, spatial and temporal change in NC in the deltaic region from 2000 to 2010. A main contribution is the novel incorporation of remote sensing data that explains the dynamics of the spatio-temporal change in land use and a set of ecosystem service indicators derived from it. The study focuses on key indicators for key ecosystem services related to carbon sequestration, grain production and water supply. The indictors reflect the spatial heterogeneity of NC across diverse ecosystems in the region. Each indicator builds on land use configuration and land use composition information derived from 250 m 16-day MODIS and Landsat TM remote sensing data for 2000 and 2010, with adjustment parameters being constructed. The regional evaluation shows an overall degradation of ecosystem services, reducing total NC by 10.4% (or 8.44 billion yuan) in 2000-2010. The spatial distribution of NC exhibits a declining pattern from the south to the north of the delta. At the city level, 15 out of 16 major cities in the region have experienced dramatic loss of NC, and this pattern is significantly correlated with rapid urbanization, population growth and industrialization. Land use/land cover change and deteriorating water quality are dominant factors causing NC depletion, while increased grain productivity and environmental policies help offset the NC losses. Outcomes of this research are useful to policy makers to mitigate the declines in NC through balancing the growth between economy and population.

  16. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  17. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models. PMID:27529267

  18. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z X; Myneni, Ranga B; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-25

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects.

  19. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects. PMID:24516135

  20. Local social capital and the acceptance of Protected Area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Clark, J R A; Panteli, M; Proikaki, M; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

    2012-04-15

    Managing Protected Areas (PAs) is a challenging task, and globally many instruments have been utilised for this purpose. Existing research demonstrates that the effectiveness of these instruments is highly dependent on their social acceptability among local communities resident within PAs. Consequently, investigating local attitudes and perceptions of Protected Area (PA) policies has been emphasised in recent studies. Drawing on empirical work conducted in two National Parks including river delta ecosystems designated as Ramsar wetlands in northern Greece, this paper examines local residents' perceptions of three hypothesized policy options (regulatory, market-based and participatory) for Park management. The influence of social capital elements (social trust, institutional trust and social networks) on residents' perceptions is explored. The findings reveal a high degree of importance attached by resident communities to Park designation in both PAs, though residents' perceptions of the proposed management options varied. The regulatory option was regarded as the least restrictive, while the most restrictive was perceived to be the market-based option. However, greater benefits were identified by residents from the market-based option, while the fewest benefits were considered to arise from the proposed regulatory option. Furthermore, local residents' perceptions were significantly shaped by the proposed management and decision-making structure offered under each policy option. The influence of different social capital elements on residents' perceptions also varied in the study sample, with social trust and institutional trust positively correlated with the benefits that were perceived to arise from the different policy options. Moreover, when social capital was measured as an aggregate indicator at the level of the individual, it was positively correlated with perceived environmental benefits.

  1. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  2. Management of Corporate Culture through Local Managers' Training in Foreign Companies in China: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate culture is a complex phenomenon in foreign companies located in the People's Republic of China. For the management team of an international enterprise, it is a challenging task to manage cultural differences. Education and training provided to local managers might be one of the important solutions. Therefore, this study explores the…

  3. Cultural Capital and Gender Differences in Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling and Higher Education Choice in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…

  4. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  5. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  6. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  7. Local Knowledge, Science, and Institutional Change: The Case of Desertification Control in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  8. [Dust storms trend in the Capital Circle of China over the past 50 years and its correlation with temperature, precipitation and wind].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-fu; Tang, Hai-ping

    2005-01-01

    The trends of number of dust storm days of the selected 11 meteorological stations from their established year to 2000 as well as their correlations with temperature, precipitation and wind are revealed. The number of dust storm days of the Capital Circle of China is distinctly variable in space and time. The numbers of dust storm days of the western area are far more than those of the eastern area. The interannual variability of number of dust storm days is remarkable. The number of dust storm days of the following 7 stations, Erlianhaote, Abaga, Xilinhaote, Fengning, Zhangjiakou, Huailai and Beijing, declined along the past decades, but those of the other four stations had no significant upward or downward trends. There is a marked seasonality of the number of dust storm days, and the maximum was in April. The correlation between number of dust storm days and number of days of mean wind velocity > 5 m/s, which is critical wind velocity to entrain sand into the air, was strongest among the three climatic factor. There were significant positive correlations between the number of dust storm days and number of days of mean wind velocity > 5 m/s in 6 stations. The second strongest climatic factor correlated with the number of dust storm days is temperature. There are significant negative correlations between the number of dust storm days and mean annual temperature, mean winter temperature, mean spring temperature in 3 or 4 stations. The correlation between the number of dust storm days and precipitation is weakest. Only one station, Zhurihe, showes significant negative correlation between the number of dust storm days and spring rainfall. There are 4 stations whose number of dust storm days don't significantly correlate with the climate. In the end, the spatial-temporal variability of dust storms and its relation with climate in the Capital Circle of China were discussed thoroughly.

  9. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  10. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  11. Riding over Socialism and Global Capitalism: Changing Education Governance and Social Policy Paradigms in Post-Mao China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2005-01-01

    In coping with the challenges of globalization, various reform measures, in the field of social policy, have been initiated in post-Mao China. Strategies such as privatization, marketization, commodification and societalization have been adopted to redefine the relationship between the state, the market and other non-state sectors involved in…

  12. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  13. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  14. Occupational segregation and earnings inequality: Rural migrants and local workers in urban China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuoni; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the central role of occupation as the "reward packages" in creating earnings disparities between rural migrants and local workers in urban China's labor markets. Analyses of data from the population mini-census of China in 2005 show that, rural migrants' earnings disadvantages are largely attributable to occupational segregation (between-occupation variation) by workers' household registration status (hukou) rather than unequal pay within the same occupations, but surprisingly they enjoy a slight earnings advantage in lower-status occupations (within-occupation variation). Even after controlling for education and other characteristics, occupational segregation by hukou status continues to exist. The occupational segregation is the most severe in government agencies/state institutions and the least severe in the private sector, leading to earnings disparities between rural migrants and urban local workers in different work unit sectors. Our findings shed new light on how government discriminatory policies could affect occupational segregation and thereby create inequality among social groups in urban China.

  15. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  16. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  17. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  18. Inverse Estimation of SO2 Emissions over China with Local Air Mass Factor Applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has significant impacts on human health as it forms sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. Widespread uncertainty in the magnitude of SO2 emissions hinders efforts to address this issue. In this work we use Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) slant column SO2 observations as constraints to conduct inversion of SO2 emissions over China for April 2008. Local air mass factors are formulated as the integral of the relative vertical distribution of SO2 simulated from GEOS-Chem, weighted by scattering weights computed from VLIDORT. They are applied to convert slant column to vertical column GEOS-Chem SO2. After data assimilation SO2 emissions decrease in Sichuan Basin, South China, and most areas of North China. The posterior SO2 emissions are evaluated with in situ SO2 observation. Besides, we apply the posterior SO2 emissions of April 2008 to April 2009, and it leads to improved agreement of modeled SO2 to the OMI observations. This offers potential to update SO2 emissions in real time.

  19. U-series dating of Locality 15 at Zhoukoudian, China, and implications for hominid evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guanjun J.; Gao, Xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2004-09-01

    This paper reports U-series dates on speleothem samples from Locality 15 at Zhoukoudian, one of the richest Paleolithic sites in northern China. The age of the lower part of Layer 2 is securely bracketed between 155,000 and 284,000 yr. The underlying Layer 3 dates back at least 284,000 yr. Layer 4, further below, should be older still, possibly by a cycle on the SPECMAP time scale before 284,000 yr ago. These ages, much greater than the previous estimates of 110,000-140,000 yr from U-series and electron spin resonance dating of fossil teeth, suggest that Locality 15 was broadly contemporaneous with Locality 4 (New Cave) and with the uppermost strata of Locality 1 (Peking Man site). The physical evolution and cultural development evidenced by the timing of the Zhoukoudian localities are in line with the opinion of Chinese anthropologists for a regional transition from Homo erectus to archaic Homo sapiens.

  20. Capital Outlay Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    The Vermont State Board of Education adopted a capital outlay program in February 1974, that requires local school districts to file short- and long-range facility needs plans based on Department of Education models. This document, excerpted from State Board of Education minutes, describes the minimum requirements for receiving state aid for…

  1. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  2. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  3. Mapping the mean annual precipitation of China using local interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Zhu, Yunqiang; Huang, Shengli; Guo, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Spatially explicit precipitation data are required in the research of hydrology, agriculture, ecology, and environmental sciences. In this study, two established techniques of local ordinary linear regression (OLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) and two new local hybrid interpolation techniques of local regression-kriging (LRK) and geographically weighted regression kriging (GWRK) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation of China. Precipitation data from 684 meteorological stations were used in the analysis, and a stepwise regression analysis was used to select six covariates, including longitude, latitude, elevation, slope, surface roughness, and river density. The four spatial prediction methods (OLR, GWR, LRK, and GWRK) were implemented with local regression techniques with different number of neighbors (50, 100, 150, and 200). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with the root mean squared deviation, mean estimation error, and R-square values. The results showed that LRK outperforms OLR and GWRK outperforms GWR, indicating that adding the kriging of regression residuals can help improve the prediction performance. GWRK gives the best prediction but the accuracy of estimation varies with the number of neighborhood points used for modeling. Although LRK is outperformed by GWRK, LRK is still recommended as a powerful and practical interpolation method given its computation efficiency. However, if LRK and GWRK are used to extrapolate prediction values, post-processing in the areal interpolation will be needed.

  4. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  5. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  6. Impact on aerosol emissions in China and India on local and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Thomas; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Henriksson, Svante V.; Bergman, Tommi; Laakso, Anton; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Laaksonen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    Existing surface temperature records show warming in the beginning of last century, followed by cooling starting from 1940 and again strong heating from 1975 until recent years. This behaviour has been attributed to increase in the greenhouse gas and aerosol emission as well as to natural variability of climate. Making a difference between these is crucial as climate predictions and international policy related to emission reductions are based on the models that are mainly evaluated against the historical temperature records. While in Europe and North America the aerosol emissions have decreased since the late 1970s, the emissions in China and India have started to increase dramatically at about the same time and have only recently started to stagnate due to new regulations in China. Here we use emission scenarios from the years 1996 through 2010 to assess the effect that these emissions have on local aerosol properties and climate as well as on the global climate. We use the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM [Roeckner2003, Roeckner2004] to simulate the local aerosol properties in China and India in the years 1996 through 2010, and their impact on local as well as global climate. For anthropogenic aerosol greenhouse gas emissions we use the ACCMIP-MACCity Aerocom emissions (Aerocom 2) [Lamarque2010] in combination with the emissions for China and India after Lu et. al [Lu2011] for the mentioned period of time. To assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on earth's climate is assessed using the ECHAM-HAM model coupled to a mixed layer ocean on a T42L19 grid. The model is run with fixed yearly emissions for several emission scenarios (e.g. for the years 1996 and 2010), with data derived from 100-year averages. Additionally we run a number of transient simulations (i.e. with varying yearly emissions) from 1996 to 2010 in the attempt to extract a climate trend for the given period. References [Roeckner2003] Roeckner, E., Bäuml, R., Bonaventura, L., Brokopf

  7. Regional and local new particle formation events observed in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Wang, Honglei; Zhou, Luyu; An, Junlin; Tang, Lili; Lu, Chunsong; Yan, Wenlian; Liu, Ruiyang; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Mindong; Lee, Shanhu; Yu, Huan

    2017-02-01

    To study the spatial inhomogeneity of new particle formation (NPF) in the polluted atmosphere of China, we conducted simultaneous measurements at an urban site near a petrochemical industrial area and a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta region from September to November 2015. At the urban site we observed a type of local NPF event (number of events: n = 5), in which nucleation was limited to a small area but persisted for 6.8 h on average during the daytime. Formation rates of 5 nm particles (J5) were found to be correlated positively with the H2SO4 proxy (log J5 versus log[H2SO4] slope near 1) in both local and regional events. Furthermore, J5 was enhanced by the anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC) plumes from nearby industrial area in the local events compared to the regional events. Size-dependent aerosol dynamics calculation showed that in comparison with the observed regional events, the local events were featured with high nucleation rate (J1.3 > 1000 cm-3 s-1), high growth rate of sub-3 nm particles (GRsub-3 > 20 nm h-1), and high number concentration of nucleation mode particles (mean peak N5-20: 6 × 104 cm-3). Considering these features, the local NPF events of anthropogenic origin may also be an important contributor to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in urban and regional scales. In addition, the comparison of simultaneous regional NPF events between the two sites (number of events: n = 7) suggested that regional NPF intensity may be underestimated by the single-point measurement at an urban site, due to the heterogeneity of air masses.

  8. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  9. The re-socialisation of migrants in a local community in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.

  10. Observational evidence for impacts of vegetation change on local surface climate over northern China using the Granger causality test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    three-north region in China (northeastern, northwestern, and northern China) is one of the most environmentally vulnerable regions in the country. To improve the local natural environment, the Chinese government launched the Three-North Shelter Forest Program, one of the largest afforestation/reforestation programs in the world. This program has led to significant changes in vegetation. Although many studies have evaluated the impacts of vegetation changes on local climate in this region, their results are highly inconsistent. In this study, evidence for local monthly climate impacts of vegetation change was investigated using remotely sensed data and ground meteorological measurements during the growing season (May to September) from 1982 to 2011 using the bivariate Granger causality test. The results showed that the local near-surface climate is sensitive mostly to vegetation changes characterized by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in arid and semiarid regions and that vegetation plays a more important role in influencing hydroclimate in the arid/semiarid zones than in other zones, which has great implications for water resources in this dry region. Moreover, NDVI changes in northeastern China have a significantly negative influence on air tembut no other climatic variables, whereas the test results in northern China is not as objective as the other zones due to the rapid urbanization. All these results suggest that the local climate is very sensitive to the variations in vegetation in arid and semiarid regions, so extra caution should be taken when planting trees in this area.

  11. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  12. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  13. On the Training Model of China's Local Normal University Students during the Transitional Period from the Perspective of Happiness Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiwei, Huang

    2016-01-01

    As a theory based on the hypothesis of "happy man" about human nature, happiness management plays a significant guiding role in the optimization of the training model of local Chinese normal university students during the transitional period. Under the guidance of this theory, China should adhere to the people-oriented principle,…

  14. Congenital Heart Disease in Local and Migrant Elementary Schoolchildren in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guanyang; Xiao, Jianmin; Wang, Jieying; Chen, Jiuhao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yitong; Liu, Qingchun; Wang, Zhiming; Xia, Jinxi; Huang, Jianzhong; Cheng, Ling; Chen, Yuqiang; Chen, Qiaozhu; Yang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and treated status of congenital heart disease (CHD) in elementary schoolchildren and facilitate the long-term planning of health care, resource allocation, and development of targeted primary prevention strategies. From November 2011 to November 2012, 540,574 schoolchildren from 449 elementary schools were screened for CHD by trained doctors in Dongguan City. The schoolchildren who were suspected to have CHD were referred to a pediatric cardiologist and/or an echocardiographist for complete evaluation. Of them, 214,634 (39.7%) were local children and 325,940 (60.3%) were migrant children. The total prevalence of CHD was 2.14‰, and there was a significant difference (p <0.05) of the CHD prevalence between local (1.97‰) and migrant children (2.26‰). The treatment rates of CHD in local children and in migrant children were 63.51% and 47.21%, respectively (p <0.01). The commonest CHD was ventricular septal defect (43.13%), followed by atrial septal defect (25.84%) and patent ductus arteriosus (12.79%). With respect to gender, CHD was equally distributed between men and women. In conclusion, social, economic, and environmental risk factors that affect health of migrant children with CHD call for more attention from health policy makers and researchers in contemporary China. Efforts should be made to increase public health investment, establish health care manage system for children from migrant families, and increase the parents' awareness of preventing the CHD.

  15. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from local dairy farms in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Xiaoye; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important opportunistic foodborne pathogen. In the present work, a total of 306 milk and environmental samples were collected from 10 local dairy farms in Beijing, China. Of the 92 B. cereus-like isolates, 88 and 4 belonged to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The prevalence of B. cereus isolates in bedding, feces, feed, liquid manure and raw milk was 93.3%, 78.9%, 41.2%, 100.0% and 9.8%, respectively. Three main toxin genes nhe, hbl and ces were detected with rates of 100.0%, 78.3% and 1.1%, but no strain harbored cytK1 The production of Nhe, Hbl and cereulide could be confirmed by specific monoclonal antibodies-based enzyme immunoassays in 94.6%, 70.7% and 1.1% of all isolates, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests were used to further corroborate the results of genetic and protein-based assays; 91.3% of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to Vero cells. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 17 antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to lincomycin, retapamulin, tiamulin and valnemulin, while two strains were susceptible to ampicillin and ceftiofur. A total of 16 isolated strains were resistant to tetracycline. Since spores of B. cereus are not inactivated during manufacturing of most milk products, contamination of milk with B. cereus on the farm level may represent a potential hazard, particularly with respect to emetic toxin-producing strains.

  16. China.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China.

  17. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  18. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.

  19. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  20. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  1. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  2. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  7. HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM: a cross-sectional comparison study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Internal migration plays a significant role in China’s HIV epidemic. However, few studies have directly compared migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) with local MSM with regard to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risks. Methods. We conducted a study in Guangzhou, China, with the aim of understanding the differences in HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 migrant MSM and 249 local MSM in Guangzhou, China. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV/syphilis were collected and compared between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between HIV/STIs risks and migratory status. Results. Migrant MSM, compared to local MSM, have higher odds of reporting unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (OR = 1.4; 95% CI [0.9–2.0]) and having multiple homosexual partners (OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.8–1.8]). A lower rate of condom use at homosexual debut was reported in migrant MSM than in local MSM (OR = 0.7; 95% CI [0.5–0.9]). Migrant MSM have less odds of reporting HIV/STIs testing in the previous 6 months relative to local MSM (OR = 0.5; 95% CI [0.4–0.8]). In addition, migrant MSM demonstrated a lower level of HIV knowledge than local MSM (OR = 0.4; 95% CI [0.2–0.8]). Conclusion. Migrant MSM are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors, report a lower level of HIV knowledge and have less access to HIV/STIs testing. Further comprehensive interventions targeting migrant MSM are urged. PMID:27478695

  8. Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: the case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-05-01

    By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants.

  9. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  10. Severe Particulate Pollution in Lanzhou China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    supported jointly by Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and carried out from 1999 to 2001. In this study, detail analyses are conducted on...Ding et al., 2001]. As one of the major cities in northwest China, and the capital of Gansu Province, Lanzhou suffers greatly from the dust storms...jointly sponsored by the local government of Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Science. 14

  11. Predicting Local Dengue Transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the Influence of Imported Cases, Mosquito Density and Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shaowei; Yin, Wenwu; Bi, Peng; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue’s control and prevention purpose. Methodology and Principal Findings Three traditional suburbs and one district with an international airport in Guangzhou city were selected as the study areas. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis to identify possible risk factors, with relevant lagged effects, associated with local dengue cases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract principal components and PCA score was used to represent the original variables to reduce multi-collinearity. Combining the univariate analysis and prior knowledge, time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to quantify the relationship between weather variables, Breteau Index, imported DF cases and the local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by pseudo-R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual test. There were a total of 707 notified local DF cases from March 2006 to December 2012, with a seasonal distribution from August to November. There were a total of 65 notified imported DF cases from 20 countries, with forty-six cases (70.8%) imported from Southeast Asia. The model showed that local DF cases were positively associated with mosquito density, imported cases, temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure and minimum relative humidity, whilst being negatively associated with air pressure, with different time

  12. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  13. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  14. Scenarios of local tsunamis in the China Seas by Boussinesq model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xi; Liu, Hua; Wang, Ben-long

    2014-06-01

    The Okinawa Trench in the East China Sea and the Manila Trench in the South China Sea are considered to be the regions with high risk of potential tsunamis induced by submarine earthquakes. Tsunami waves will impact the southeast coast of China if tsunamis occur in these areas. In this paper, the horizontal two-dimensional Boussinesq model is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation, and runup in a domain with complex geometrical boundaries. The temporary varying bottom boundary condition is adopted to describe the initial tsunami waves motivated by the submarine faults. The Indian Ocean tsunami is simulated by the numerical model as a validation case. The time series of water elevation and runup on the beach are compared with the measured data from field survey. The agreements indicate that the Boussinesq model can be used to simulate tsunamis and predict the waveform and runup. Then, the hypothetical tsunamis in the Okinawa Trench and the Manila Trench are simulated by the numerical model. The arrival time and maximum wave height near coastal cities are predicted by the model. It turns out that the leading depression N-wave occurs when the tsunami propagates in the continental shelf from the Okinawa Trench. The scenarios of the tsunami in the Manila Trench demonstrate significant effects on the coastal area around the South China Sea.

  15. Between Local Community and Central State: Financing Basic Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Litao

    2009-01-01

    From the early 1980s, China underwent perhaps the world's largest and most comprehensive experiment of decentralization in education. There has been a shift from decentralization to some degree of recentralization, however, since the mid-1990s, particularly since the early 2000s. The purpose of this shift was to establish a stable and regularized…

  16. Assessing Student Engagement in China: Responding to Local and Global Discourse on Raising Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Heidi; Cen, Yuhao; Zhou, Zejun

    2011-01-01

    China's heated education policy climate in 2010 indicated an increasing national concern for improving educational quality and educational quality assessment. Despite glowing portraits of Chinese education painted by international observers, the Chinese public has expressed consistent dissatisfaction with educational quality. The inter-related…

  17. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  18. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  19. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  20. The Plasmodium vivax in China: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Xiao, Huihui; Zhang, Li; Yan, He; Feng, Xinyu; Fang, Wen; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-03-05

    Currently the local P. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in China. Despite Southeast Asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of Africa become serious, especially for west and central Africa. Herein we have clarified the trend of P. vivax in China from 2004-2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. There are significantly different of P. vivax between Southeast Asia and Africa, also the difference was observed for different regions in Africa. Additionally, we have explored the possibility for the difference of the P. vivax between migrant workers back from west and central Africa and the prevalence of local population. This reminds us that surveillance and training should be strengthened by medical staffs on the imported P. vivax cases reported especially from west and central Africa, in order to reduce the risk of malaria reintroduction and, specific tools should be developed, as well as the epidemiological study to avoid the misdiagnosis such as P. ovale and P. vivax.

  1. Residential Mobility within Guangzhou City, China, 1990–2010: Local Residents Versus Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Si-Ming; Zhu, Yushu

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on residential history data from two household surveys conducted in Guangzhou in 2005 and 2010, this paper compares the pattern of intra-city residential moves of local residents and that of migrants. The findings show different trajectories of residential moves for the two groups. While migrants showed increasing mobility over time, residential moves of locals first rose until the early 2000s, then declined steadily afterward. Moreover, the determinants of residential moves of migrants differ from those of the local population. Also, whereas residential moves for the local population are subject to changing factors over time, drivers of relocation for migrants remain more or less stable. PMID:26985169

  2. Social Occupational Classes and Higher-Education Opportunities in Contemporary China: A Study on the Distribution of a Scarce Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Baojun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the several surveys conducted since the 1990s onward, this paper aims to demonstrate that in terms of the access to higher education, social class differentiation is far starker than that of urban/rural income in contemporary China. According to the investigation that focused on students enrolled in 37 universities, the chance of farmers…

  3. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  4. Assessing Local Communities’ Willingness to Pay for River Network Protection: A Contingent Valuation Study of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhaoyi; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China) was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP). The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation. PMID:23202821

  5. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  6. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  7. Domestic Migration, Benefit Spillovers, and Local Education Spending: Evidence from China 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The idea that educational externalities affect local governments' incentive to provide such service was proposed over a century ago. Several studies have tested the relationship in the US, with mixed results. However, the theory has rarely been tested systematically outside of the US context. Paradoxically the unique household registration system…

  8. Effect of windblown dust from local and regional sources on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Wenxing; Bai, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhongliang; Sun, Fengjuan; Hou, Lujian; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Mengshuang; Miao, Yunge

    2017-03-01

    Windblown dust is a major source of PM10 in Jinan, China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of windblown dust on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, which has high population density. In this study, PM10 emissions from the suburbs of Jinan (local source) were estimated using the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model; and the PM10 emissions from Shandong province, excluding Jinan (regional source), were estimated based on an empirical formula. In this study, the heating period includes January, February, November, and December; the non-heating period includes June, July and August; and the sand period includes March, April, May, September, and October. The WEPS-simulated annual PM10 emission was 9.90 × 104 tons (3.22 × 104 tons during the heating period, 5.53 × 104 tons during the sand period, and 1.16 × 104 tons during the non-heating period) in suburban Jinan in 2012. The PM10 emission was 9.17 × 105 tons in Shandong province, excluding Jinan, in 2012. Good correlations between the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust simulated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust from local and regional sources were shown in this study. R2 were equal to 0.95, 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, for the entire year, the heating, non-heating and sand period. For the entire year, the contributions of windblown dust from the local sources, regional sources, and long-range dust transport sources to PM10 were 73.0%, 12.8%, 14.2%, respectively. The windblown dust was mainly from local area. The contribution of the regional source was the greatest in the sand period, and the contribution of long-range dust transport was greatest in the heating period.

  9. Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Noel T; Ciochon, Russell L; Xu, Qinqi; Liu, Jinyi

    2004-05-01

    From a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, we constructed a digitized three-dimensional, stratigraphically-controlled excavation grid of Zhoukoudian Locality 1 in order to assess the spatial relationships of the excavated materials. All 15 fossil Homo erectus loci were mapped on the grid. Meter cubes were used in excavation starting in 1934, and Loci H through O, established between 1934 and 1937, were mapped to within 1 m(3)vertical and horizontal provenience. Loci A through G, established between 1921 and 1933, were excavated in the northernmost part of Locality 1 by unmapped quarrying, but their stratigraphic levels were recorded. We could localize Loci A through G on the grid system by utilizing locations of remaining walls, stratigraphic sections, excavation reports, excavation maps, and photographs. Loci contained skeletal elements of Homo erectus individuals scattered over areas of the cave floor of up to 9 m in diameter. Scoring of taphonomic damage on the Homo erectus sample, as observed on casts and originals, demonstrates that 67% of the hominid sample shows bite marks or other modifications ascribed to large mammalian carnivores, particularly the large Pleistocene cave hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris. Virtually all of the remaining Homo erectus skeletal assemblage shows breakage consistent with this taphonomic pattern of fragmentation. Bioturbation by digging carnivores is the most likely explanation for a fragment of Homo erectus Skull XI discovered 1 m below its other conjoined portions in Locus L. Carbon on all the Homo erectus fossils from Locus G, a circumscribed area of 1-meter diameter, earlier taken to indicate burning, cooking, and cannibalism, is here interpreted as detrital carbon deposited under water, perhaps the result of hyaenid caching behavior. Locus G records the close stratigraphic and horizontal association of stone artifacts with Homo erectus and other vertebrate skeletal elements, an association that is seen at

  10. Assessment of the ripple effects and spatial heterogeneity of total losses in the capital of China after a great catastrophic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Li, Ning; Xie, Wei; Liu, Yu; Feng, Jieling; Chen, Xi; Liu, Li

    2017-03-01

    The total losses caused by natural disasters have spatial heterogeneity due to the different economic development levels inside the disaster-hit areas. This paper uses scenarios of direct economic loss to introduce the sectors' losses caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (2008 WCE) in Beijing, utilizing the Adaptive Regional Input-Output (ARIO) model and the Inter-regional ripple effect (IRRE) model. The purpose is to assess the ripple effects of indirect economic loss and spatial heterogeneity of both direct and indirect economic loss at the scale of the smallest administrative divisions of China (streets, villages, and towns). The results indicate that the district of Beijing with the most severe indirect economic loss is the Chaoyang District; the finance and insurance industry (15, see Table 1) of Chaowai Street suffers the most in the Chaoyang District, which is 1.46 times that of its direct economic loss. During 2008-2014, the average annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate of Beijing was decreased 3.63 % by the catastrophe. Compared with the 8 % of GDP growth rate target, the decreasing GDP growth rate is a significant and noticeable economic impact, and it can be efficiently mitigated by increasing rescue effort and by supporting the industries which are located in the seriously damaged regions.

  11. Bayesian gravimetric inversion for local crustal model refinement in the Guangdong province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sampietro, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the Earth crustal structure is a fundamental subject for many geophysical applications. As a first approximation, the crust composition can be subdivided into sediments and crystalline crust; the latter, in the case of the continental crust, can be further subdivided into upper, middle and lower crust, as it is done for example in the CRUST1.0 global model. Gravimetric inversion methods, in order to guarantee the uniqueness of the solution of the inverse problem, are generally used to infer only one boundary between two layers, e.g. the crustal thickness (i.e. the Moho depth). Here a method based on a Bayesian approach is proposed to refine an already existing crustal model by combining gravimetric observations and some a priori conditions on the crustal structure. Basically the method consists in subdividing the crustal volume under investigation into voxels and in estimating a label and a mass density for each voxel in such a way that the resulting gravimetric signal is consistent with the observed one and the a priori conditions are satisfied. The label characterizes the material type of each voxel, e.g. sediments, oceanic crust, upper crust, etc. The estimation procedure is based on a simulated annealing driven by a Gibbs sampler at each iterative step. Moreover, the proposed solution allows to easily integrate seismic profiles available in the study area to further constrain the result of the gravimetric inversion. In this work the method is applied to refine the crustal model beneath the Guangdong province in the Southern China. This region has been selected for its complex geological structure (e.g. both continental and oceanic crust are present) and for the plan of building here a massive detector of neutrino and geo-neutrino flux. For the latter experiment, an accurate knowledge of the underlying crustal structure is required. The gravity signal to be inverted, at a ground level and at a medium-high spatial resolution, comes from a recent

  12. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0–5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0–80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40–80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered. PMID:27857187

  13. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-01

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0–5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0–80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40–80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such “stable species” should be considered.

  14. To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hai; Guo, Qinfeng; Shu, Junwu; Liu, Nan

    2016-11-18

    Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0-5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0-80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40-80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such "stable species" should be considered.

  15. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  16. Capital Outlay and Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a generic overview of the major tasks associated with financing a school district's large capital programs. The chapter opens with a brief historical review of the limited provisions made for capital outlay prior to the 1960s and of the trends in financing in recent decades. The…

  17. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  18. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  19. Effect of a large and very shallow lake on local summer precipitation over the Lake Taihu basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Ma, Zhuguo; Li, Mingxing

    2016-08-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is situated in the Middle and lower Yangtze River delta. It is characterized by its shallowness (~1.9 m), large area (~2338 km2), and high turbidity in recent years. The lake's effect on local summer precipitation is first studied in this paper through the use of an atmosphere-lake coupled model. By enlarging the light extinction coefficient, modifying the radiation scheme, and setting the roughness length to constants, the coupled model after adjustment realistically reproduces the thermal stratification and magnitude of diurnal variation over Lake Taihu, with mean biases of 0.7°C for lake surface temperature and 0.4°C for near-surface air temperature, respectively. Based on this calibrated coupled model, two high-resolution numerical simulations with and without the lake (lake grid cells replaced by cropland) were conducted to identify the lake effects. The results show that an overall effect of Lake Taihu on local summer precipitation is negative during daytime and positive during nighttime and the precipitation pattern may be modified to some extent. The lake effect varies between areas and with time of day and occurs primarily on the downwind shore. A composite analysis for a representative decreased precipitation region reveals that during daytime in the summer, the combination of decreased air temperature and latent heat flux, along with intensified divergence and downdraft, acts together to stabilize the lower atmosphere and suppress thermal convective activities, ultimately resulting in less precipitation over this region.

  20. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  1. Dengue Baidu Search Index data can improve the prediction of local dengue epidemic: A case study in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Peng, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Xie, Runsheng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) in Guangzhou, Guangdong province in China is an important public health issue. The problem was highlighted in 2014 by a large, unprecedented outbreak. In order to respond in a more timely manner and hence better control such potential outbreaks in the future, this study develops an early warning model that integrates internet-based query data into traditional surveillance data. Methodology and principal findings A Dengue Baidu Search Index (DBSI) was collected from the Baidu website for developing a predictive model of dengue fever in combination with meteorological and demographic factors. Generalized additive models (GAM) with or without DBSI were established. The generalized cross validation (GCV) score and deviance explained indexes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and root mean squared error (RMSE), were respectively applied to measure the fitness and the prediction capability of the models. Our results show that the DBSI with one-week lag has a positive linear relationship with the local DF occurrence, and the model with DBSI (ICC:0.94 and RMSE:59.86) has a better prediction capability than the model without DBSI (ICC:0.72 and RMSE:203.29). Conclusions Our study suggests that a DSBI combined with traditional disease surveillance and meteorological data can improve the dengue early warning system in Guangzhou. PMID:28263988

  2. Local adaptation to temperature and precipitation in naturally fragmented populations of Cephalotaxus oliveri, an endangered conifer endemic to China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Xia, Fan; Su, Yingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Cephalotaxus oliveri is an endangered tertiary relict conifer endemic to China. The species survives in a wide range from west to east with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are main restrictive factors for distribution of C. oliveri. In order to comprehend the mechanism of adaptive evolution to climate variation, we employed ISSR markers to detect adaptive evolution loci, to identify the association between variation in temperature and precipitation and adaptive loci, and to investigate the genetic structure for 22 C. oliveri natural populations. In total, 14 outlier loci were identified, of which five were associated with temperature and precipitation. Among outlier loci, linkage disequilibrium (LD) was high (42.86%), which also provided strong evidence for selection. In addition, C. oliveri possessed high genetic variation (93.31%) and population differentiation, which may provide raw material to evolution and accelerate local adaptation, respectively. Ecological niche modeling showed that global warming will cause a shift for populations of C. oliveri from south to north with a shrinkage of southern areas. Our results contribute to understand the potential response of conifers to climatic changes, and provide new insights for conifer resource management and conservation strategies. PMID:27113970

  3. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Methods: Preston’s lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Results: In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Conclusions: Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations. PMID:27308277

  4. P- and S-velocity structure beneath the Three Gorges region (central China) from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic experiment provides new insights on the crustal structure of the head area of the Three Gorges Reservoir in central China. The region is characterized by a relatively high rate of reservoir-induced seismicity that is often triggered within those areas associated with the ascending water level. Our 3-D velocity model of the Three Gorges region shows that the Huangling anticline (HLA) is characterized by a high-velocity crust, and the Zigui Basin (ZGB) has lower crustal velocities. The 3-D tomographic inversions are conducted using 11 901 P-wave and 12 032 S-wave arrival times from 1342 events recorded by the local network of seismic stations from early 2001 to late 2006. Initial models with varying velocity gradients are extracted to constrain a data-driven optimum 1-D model for 3-D iterative inversion scheme. Checkerboard tests are applied to assess model reliability, indicating a reasonable level of lateral and vertical resolutions. The P- and S-tomographic models reveal a local high-velocity anomaly from 5 to 10 km beneath SW portion of the HLA and a strong, large low-velocity anomaly between about 5-10 km depths at the south margin of the ZGB. Moreover, the southwest border of HLA underthrust the ZGB with slightly bigger angle. Also, a prominent high-velocity anomaly is located below 5 km beneath Shazhenxi, and to the west, the velocity anomaly turns out to be negative. There is no record help explaining the dramatic feature since incorporating local tectonic and topography, it suggests sharp gap in velocity near surface is primarily due to several secondary fracture zones. The surface responses of velocity discontinuity are generally aligned parallel to the trending of fault. Relatively good agreement between regional features and the velocity perturbations promotes further interpretation. Earthquake swarm activities from source relocation occur on the outer portions of high-velocity anomaly with nearly perpendicular dip angle. Thus, the seismicity

  5. Imagining "Alternativas" to Global, Corporate, New Economy Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma; Ordorika, Imanol; Velazquez, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail the conditions and patterns of academic capitalism and the new economy in US higher education. Subsequently, a conceptual model is offered for considering the international reach and national and local patterns of academic capitalism. Further, a distinctive Mexican case of entrepreneurialism is offered. The…

  6. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  7. Language as Both Human Capital and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendakur, Krishna; Pendakur, Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Estimates earning differentials for knowledge of 13 minority languages in three Canadian cities. Conditional on knowledge of a majority language, knowledge of a minority language relates to lower earnings, though the negative differential diminishes for languages with large local populations. This suggests a positive human capital effect that is…

  8. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  9. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  10. Local Responses to Inundation and De-Farming in the Reservoir Region of the Three Gorges Project (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Yang, Felix Y.

    2006-10-01

    Large-scale infrastructural developments in rural areas often impose significant direct and indirect impacts on environment and people. The Three Gorges Project to dam the Yangtze River in China will create a huge reservoir, inundate farmlands and villages, and incur large-scale resettlement. The concurrent de-farming program to reforest marginal farmlands on steep slopes imposes additional stresses on local people. This study evaluates the ecological and economic adjustments in rural areas affected by both projects, and explores villagers’ knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and expectations vis-à-vis the drastic changes. Eleven villages in Yunyang County in Sichuan Province, stratified into three zones based on topography and agriculture, were assessed by field studies, questionnaire surveys, maps, satellite imagery, and census and government reports. Multiple regressions identified predictors for 17 dependent variables. Spatial variations in the difficult terrain imposed zone-differentiated agricultural constraints, ecological impacts, and human responses. The dominant farming population—mainly young adults working as migrant laborers in cities—has adopted some nonagricultural work to supplement incomes. Expected per-capita standardized farmland (SF) exceeded threshold SF, which surpasses existing SF. Motivations to reclaim more farmlands, de-farm marginal lands, and become migrant laborers were explained by different multiple-regression predictors. Reduction in farmland stock by inundation and de-farming, aggravated by unwillingness towards nonlocal resettlement, would impose ecological pressures and stimulate demands for nonfarming incomes. Common anticipation of better future income and occupation has been subdued by unfavorable feedbacks from early relocatees. Future environmental and landscape changes are hinged upon changing human responses. Government policies could be informed by research findings to match economic, ecological, and social realities.

  11. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  12. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  13. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... primary drinking water regulation or variance, the process it will use to ensure that the systems...

  14. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  15. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ration. Its business will include deposits in renminbi and reserves and self-financed capital for productive and foreign currencies, trade and nontrade...international banks and other financial institutions, report its plans to the government departments con- trust and agency business , credit approval...foreign exchange. Plus, it may use its own foreign has agreed to let Capital Steel establish the "China exchange to send personnel abroad on business

  16. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  17. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  18. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  19. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    PubMed

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  20. Parental Influence on Chinese Students' Achievement: A Social Capital Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…

  1. Fuzzy capital rationing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, E.; Kahraman, C.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we study the fuzzification of Weingartner's pure capital rationing model and its analysis. We develop a primal-dual pair based on t-norm/t-conorm relation for the constraints and objective function for a fully fuzzified pure capital rationing problem except project selection variables. We define the [alpha]-interval under which the weak duality is proved. We perform sensitivity analysis for a change in a budget level or in a cash flow level of a non-basic as well as a basic variable. We analyze the problem based on duality and complementary slackness results. We illustrate the proposed model by computational analysis, and interpret the results.

  2. Re-examination of the dates of large blade technology in China: a comparison of Shuidonggou Locality 1 and Locality 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Kuhn, Steven L; Gao, Xing; Chen, Fu-You

    2013-02-01

    The presence and age of large blade technology at the Shuidonggou site is a pivotal issue in discussions of the spread of blade technology in East Eurasia. Madsen and colleagues' influential work uses the dates (24,000-29,000 rcy BP [radiocarbon years before present]) they obtained from Shuidonggou Locality 2 to estimate the age of blade technology in this region, and suggested a very late arrival of Levallois-like blade technology from the north. This paper re-examines the evidence for the age of blade technology at Shuidonggou by comparing the lithic assemblages from the new excavations at Locality 2 with those from Locality 1. Several important points are demonstrated: (1) the lithic industry of cultural layers 1 through 4 at Locality 2 is not based on large blades, so reported dates from these layers cannot be an indicator of the age of large blade technology; (2) comparing Locality 1 and 2, the age of large blade technology appears to be around 34,000-38,000 calendar years BP (before present) in this region, suggesting a relatively rapid technology dispersal from the west and/or north; (3) the so-called 'Shuidonggou lower cultural layer' at Locality 1 includes both large blade and simple flake industries.

  3. Usefulness of Sau-PCR for molecular epidemiology of nosocomial outbreaks due to Burkholderia cepacia which occurred in a local hospital in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Alam, M J; Li, Lin; Yang, Liansheng; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the source of nosocomial outbreak due to Burkholderia cepacia by molecular techniques. A total of 11 B. cepacia strains were isolated; nine from blood and one from sputum of patients without cystic fibrosis, and one from reverse osmosis water at a local hospital in Guangzhou, China. Analyses of 11 strains by the Sau-PCR assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that nine strains obtained from the blood of outpatients in a hemodialysis unit and one strain from reverse osmosis water had identical DNA profiles, indicating that the reverse osmosis water supply could be a source of infection.

  4. Creating Schools without Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolke, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A shortage of capital and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)

  5. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  6. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  7. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…

  8. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  9. Improvements in ecosystem services from investments in natural capital.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Xiao, Yi; Polasky, Stephen; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Yang; Rao, Enming; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Yang, Guangbin; Gong, Shihan; Wu, Bingfang; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Wu; Daily, Gretchen C

    2016-06-17

    In response to ecosystem degradation from rapid economic development, China began investing heavily in protecting and restoring natural capital starting in 2000. We report on China's first national ecosystem assessment (2000-2010), designed to quantify and help manage change in ecosystem services, including food production, carbon sequestration, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, water retention, flood mitigation, and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Overall, ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2010, apart from habitat provision. China's national conservation policies contributed significantly to the increases in those ecosystem services.

  10. On Reflective Teaching of EFL Teachers in Local Universities of China--A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zou; Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Presently, China plays a vital role in the world. Therefore, Chinese passion for English has reached an unprecedented level. Nevertheless, various problems occur in EFL teaching. Thus, EFL teachers must make the teaching qualities better by reflective teaching, an effective way to improving EFL teaching. The paper is to study the definitions,…

  11. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  12. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  13. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  14. 76 FR 35351 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 225 RIN 7100-AD 77 Capital Plans AGENCY: Board of Governors of the... Regulation Y to require large bank holding companies to submit capital plans to the Federal Reserve on an.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II. Scope III. Capital Plans A. Annual...

  15. Social capital and health--implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-02-08

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.

  16. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population.

    PubMed

    Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences.

  18. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  19. Are There Differences in Antibiotic Use Between the Recent-Immigrants from Mainland China and the Local-Born in Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    Wun, Yuk Tsan; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Ho, Pak Leung; Yung, Wai Hung Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Immigrants, especially the first-generation, were thought to have different knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) with antibiotics. Doctors often perceived extra pressure from them to prescribe antibiotics. To test these perceptions, we studied the difference in KAP with antibiotics between the recent-immigrants from mainland China and the local-born of Hong Kong-places with significantly different healthcare and socio-economic systems. Focus groups (including one specific group of recent-immigrants) with 56 participants and territory-wide telephone questionnaire survey with 2,471 randomly selected respondents. Recent-immigrants shared similar KAP with the local-born. After adjustment for age, sex and education, the main significant difference was the new-immigrants' behaviour of acquiring antibiotics without prescription and keeping the leftover. They, like the local-born, preferred doctors who prescribed antibiotics cautiously. Immigration status could be the surrogate for age, sex and education in the KAP with antibiotics. For antibiotic use, health education and patient care could be similar between the recent-immigrants and the local-born.

  20. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis].

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Haraux, E; Leroux, J; Gouron, R

    2017-03-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SFCE) is a disorder of the hip, characterized by a displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral growth plate. The epiphysis slips posteriorly and inferiorly. SCFE occurs during puberty and metabolic and epidemiologic risk factors, such as obesity are frequently found. Most chronic slips are diagnosed late. Sagittal hip X-rays show epiphysis slip. In case of untreated SCFE, a slip progression arises with an acute slip risk. Treatment is indicated to prevent slip worsening. The clinical and radiological classification is useful to guide treatment and it is predictive of the prognosis. In situ fixation of stable and moderately displaced SCFE with cannulated screws gives excellent results. Major complications are chondrolysis and osteonecrosis and the major sequelae are femoroacetabular impingement and early arthritis.

  1. Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in China, focusing on the "symbolic capital" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to China and argue that…

  2. Social capital and trust in providers.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  3. Invasive Chloroplast Population Genetics of Mikania micrantha in China: No Local Adaptation and Negative Correlation between Diversity and Geographic Distance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Guopei; Wang, Chunbo; Su, Yingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Two fundamental questions on how invasive species are able to rapidly colonize novel habitat have emerged. One asks whether a negative correlation exists between the genetic diversity of invasive populations and their geographic distance from the origin of introduction. The other is whether selection on the chloroplast genome is important driver of adaptation to novel soil environments. Here, we addressed these questions in a study of the noxious invasive weed, Mikania micrantha, which has rapidly expanded in to southern China after being introduced to Hong Kong in 1884. Seven chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were used to investigate population genetics in 28 populations of M. micrantha, which produced 39 loci. The soil compositions for these populations, including Mg abundance, were measured. The results showed that M. micrantha possessed relatively high cpSSR variation and differentiation among populations. Multiple diversity indices were quantified, and none was significantly correlated with distance from the origin of introduction. No evidence for “isolation by distance,” significant spatial structure, bottlenecks, nor linkage disequilibrium was detected. We also were unable to identify loci on the chloroplast genome that exhibited patterns of differentiation that would suggest adaptive evolution in response to soil attributes. Soil Mg had only a genome-wide effect instead of being a selective factor, which highlighted the association between Mg and the successful invasion. This study characterizes the role of the chloroplast genome of M. micrantha during its recent invasion of southern China. PMID:27708663

  4. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (‑8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (‑15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups.

  5. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  6. Local temperature and El Niño Southern Oscillation influence migration phenology of East Asian migratory waterbirds wintering in Poyang, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Liu, Guanhua; Si, Yali

    2016-12-19

    Temperature is a critical factor influencing avian phenology, due to its direct impact on food and water availability. Most previous studies have focused on the timing of spring migration and arrival of birds at breeding grounds along the European and American flyways; little is known about migration ecology at the wintering sites along the Asian flyways. This study investigates how local temperature variation and EI Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the arrival and departure timing of nine waterbird species breeding in Mongolia or Siberia and overwintering in Poyang, China from 2002 to 2013, using linear regression models. Birds mainly arrive at Poyang in October and depart for their breeding sites in March. Six out of nine species show a strong negative relationship between departure time and overwintering temperature in Poyang. Departure dates also show a negative association with overwintering ENSO and March ENSO for two species. Both local and large-scale climate indices show no influence on the arrival timing of waterbirds. We suggest that birds react to the annual variation of overwintering temperature: an earlier departure of waterbirds is facilitated by a warmer overwintering period and vice versa. The long-term accumulated temperature effect is more pronounced than ENSO and the short-term local temperature effect. Our findings could help quantify the potential impact of global warming on waterbirds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Social capital and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  8. Local Alterations to the Nitrogen Cycle as Indicated by Tree Ring and Foliage Stable Isotopes, Xi'an China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen-Correa, S.; Qian, H.

    2015-12-01

    China is currently experiencing some of the worst pollution problems on Earth. The increase in nitrogen deposition from industrial pollution sources over the past 30 years, has been substantial enough to increase foliar N uptake in plants growing in unfertilized fields and forests throughout China. The δ15N signature of foliage and soil have been used to infer changes in the biogeochemical cycling of N in the surrounding ecosystem. The current understanding of global trends in foliar δ15N however, is limited for the East Asia and Pacific region. Most of the research to date has been conducted in temperate and boreal forests of North America and Europe. In this study, two forested sites were sampled on the Loess Plateau, approximately 80km east of the city of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China. The study sites are 1 and 4km down wind of an industrial center including a large nitrogen fertilizer plant. Ecosystem components sampled include soil, forest floor, bole wood, and foliage. We use a combination of δ15N and δ13C of the tree rings, foliage, and soil as indicators of a changing nitrogen cycle and the physiological response of Chinese parasol trees (Firmiana simplex) over time. CN ratios at the study sites suggest that both forested stands are saturated with respect to N. A positive correlation between soil N and foliar δ15N is attributed to the leaching of N depleted in 15N with increasing N availability. Despite this positive correlation within the study area, overall foliar δ15N with a mean of -8.2‰ is low relative to foliage sampled in regions with lower atmospheric N inputs. Foliage and bole wood samples closest to the industrial center have higher δ13C, which is consistent with greater exposure to NOx emissions. While difference in δ15N of ecosystem components between sites is consistent with global trends, the absolute values for the whole study area are relatively low and attributed to N inputs from industrial sources depleted in 15N.

  9. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  10. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.

  11. Surviving the crisis: Adaptive wisdom, coping mechanisms and local responses to avian influenza threats in Haining, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Letian; Pan, Tianshu

    2008-04-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines local responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from local medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the local communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu. Our field research suggests that collective survival consciousness was translated into a spirit of voluntarism during the crisis. One important practical lesson we have learned from this study is that the adaptive wisdom embedded in local memories demonstrated its operational worth as a resourceful knowledge base for ordinary farmers to deal with food shortage, famine, plague and future pandemics.

  12. Local irrigation systems, regional hydrological problems and the demand for overarching solutions at the example of an irrigation system in the P.R. of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, David; Schumann, Andreas H.; Monninkhoff, Bertram

    2016-05-01

    The utilization of groundwater for irrigation purposes becomes problematic if groundwater recharge decreases through climate variability. Nevertheless, the degree of groundwater utilization for irrigation increases significantly in dry periods, when the amount of green water is strongly limited. With an increasing gap between water demand and supply, new water management activities are started, which are mostly directed to increase the supply, often by overuse of local resources. In many cases such local activities results in their summarization in side-effects, which worsen the hydrological conditions throughout a region. Step by step the spatial scale of water management measures has to be extended in such cases by implementation of water transfer systems. In this contribution this general scale problem of water management is discussed at the example of an agricultural region in the Province of Shandong (P.R. of China). The local irrigation systems and the options to increase the water supply at the local scale (e.g. by waste water reuse) are discussed as well as regional measures e.g. reservoirs or barrages in rivers to increase the groundwater recharge. For this purpose, several socio-economic and hydrological models were combined. It is shown how a change of water policy towards a demand management requires a new approach to spatial aspects. Here the question arises, how hydrological most effective measures can be allocated within a region. In the case study, a reduction of agricultural irrigation and a change of the crop structure would be essential to improve the groundwater conditions, which are impaired by ongoing sea-water intrusions. A model hierarchy, which is needed to answer such problems not only from the hydrological point of view, but also considering their socio-economic feasibility, are presented.

  13. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and..., Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline...

  14. The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More Locally Adapted to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Gao, Yang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Ming-Yue; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant’s photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal) of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution) to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE) generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE). However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the local adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South China, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future. PMID:26867222

  15. Cultural capital as a measurand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taymanov, R.; Sapozhnikova, K.

    2016-11-01

    The necessity for developing metrology due to extension of its application sphere is noted. The efficiency of the metrological approach to measurement of multidimensional quantities in the field of humanities is shown using the development of cultural capital interpreted by L. Harrison. The cultural capital is defined as a measure of the society structure complexity and adaptive capacity.

  16. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  17. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  18. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  19. Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) from a localized area in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge; Men, Xing-Yuan; Qian, Ti-Jun; Wu, Dian; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen-Yu

    2013-10-01

    Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) in Dali prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China, were studied between 2003 and 2004. In total, 34,389 individuals of 86 species of ectoparasitic insects (seven species of fleas and five species of sucking lice) and mites (23 species of gamasid mites and 51 species of chigger mites) were collected from 916 individual hosts. The diversity of ectoparasites on this single rodent species in such a small area was much higher than in previous reports, which concerned more host species and greater geographical areas. The majority of the ectoparasites were chigger mites, which accounted for 59.3% of the parasite species and 87.4% of the individual parasites. Most voles harbored parasites with an overall prevalence (P) of 82.5% and mean abundance (MA) of 37.5 parasites per host. The dispersion coefficient (C) and patchiness index (m*/m) were used to study the spatial patterns of the seven dominant parasite species, and all seven had aggregated distributions. The species abundance distribution of the ectoparasites on the vole was fitted by Preston's lognormal distribution (R (2) = 0.82), and the total expected parasite species was estimated from this plot as 167 species. Yunnan red-backed voles harbor many ectoparasites as revealed by examination of a large host population. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations.

  20. Reactive oxygen species alteration of immune cells in local residents at an electronic waste recycling site in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Yang, Qiaoyun; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Keqiu; Li, Guang; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Tong

    2013-04-02

    The health effects of exposure to pollutants from electronic waste (e-waste) pose an important issue. In this study, we explored the association between oxidative stress and blood levels of e-waste-related pollutants. Blood samples were collected from individuals living in the proximity of an e-waste recycling site located in northern China, and pollutants, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), were measured in comparison to a reference population. The geometric mean concentrations of PCBs, dechlorane plus, and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl in plasma from the exposure group were 60.4, 9.0, and 0.55 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, which were 2.2, 3.2, and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding measurement in the reference group. Correspondingly, ROS levels in white blood cells, including in neutrophil granulocytes, from the exposure group were significantly higher than in those from the reference group, suggesting potential ROS related health effects for residents at the e-waste site. In contrast, fewer ROS were generated in the respiratory burst of neutrophil granulocytes for the exposure group, indicating a depressed innate immune function for the individuals living at the e-waste site. These findings suggest a potential linkage between exposure to pollutants from e-waste recycling and both elevated oxidative stress and altered immune function.

  1. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    PubMed

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  2. Measuring social capital: further insights.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi

    Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones.

  3. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-05

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  5. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... countercyclical capital buffer could be implemented if the agencies and the FDIC determined that credit growth in... increase capital only by accumulating retained earnings. Owing to slow economic growth and relatively low... sustained growth and high employment. Another commenter favored application of the Basel III NPR to...

  6. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital... System. ACTION: Correction, final rule. SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System..., 2013. Robert deV. Frierson, Secretary of the Board. BILLING CODE 6210-01-P...

  7. The effects of social connections on self-rated physical and mental health among internal migrant and local adolescents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background China is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and local adolescents in China, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES) factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth. PMID:22299776

  8. A Report on a New School Facilities Capital Plan by the School Facilities Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This report reflects the recommendations of the School Facilities Task Force (appointed for Alberta in February 1997) regarding the development of a new school facilities capital plan. Guiding principles included the needs of students, local decision making, and long-range planning. Nine appendixes include a sample school capital funding scenario;…

  9. Risky Business I. Entering Capital Markets for the First Time. Panel I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed capital by considering venture; capital's role in the financing of business start-ups, using local banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)

  10. Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital? Staff Report No. 401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…

  11. 24 CFR 905.120 - Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... local law; or (iv) Such other factors as HUD determines to be relevant. (2) Extension of obligation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties for slow obligation or... Capital Fund § 905.120 Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance....

  12. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  13. Enhancing Natural Capital across the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, G.; Tallis, H.; Goldstein, J.; Nelson, E.; Polasky, S.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. Yet, in promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, we have developed a suite of models for integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST). Based on future scenarios of resource use, climate, and human population, InVEST projects the future provision of services in biophysical and economic terms. The outputs of InVEST provide decision-makers with maps and other spatially explicit information about costs, benefits, tradeoffs, and synergies of alternative investments in natural capital and ecosystem service provision. InVEST is now being used in major resource decisions in Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Tanzania, and the United States (California, Hawai'i, Oregon, and Washington). To meet increasing demand for this tool and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  14. Changes in discharge dynamics under the constraints of local and global changes in the Chao Lake basin (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Salles, C.; Rodier, C.; Crès, F.-N.; Huang, L.; Tournoud, M.-G.

    2012-04-01

    Located on the Yangtze basin, the Chao Lake is the fifth largest freshwater lake in China and of great importance in terms of water resources and aquaculture. Its catchment (9130 km2) includes the city of Hefei and large extends of agricultural and rural areas. Fast changes are expected in land uses and agricultural practices for the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. The consequences of these changes on the sustainability of the water inflows into the lake are a major issue for the economical development of the Chao Lake area even though they are little-known. Our study aims to give tools for estimating such consequences, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and model parameters. The dynamics of rivers flowing into the Chao Lake is not very well-known, except for the Fengle River. The Fengle catchment (1480 km2) is mainly rural. River discharges are recorded at Taoxi station, upstream its outlet into the lake. 20-year records of daily discharges are available. Nine rain gauges, with daily data, daily temperature and evapotranspiration data are also available. The current dynamics of the Fengle River is characterized in terms of flood frequencies on discharge-duration-frequency curves. The ATHYS freely available hydrological tool (www.athys-soft.org) is used to calibrate and validate a distributed model of the Fengle catchment. Four calibration runs are done on four independent 5-year discharge records. Four different sets of model parameters are discussed. The model is then run for validation. The uncertainties in model predictions are evaluated in terms of errors in the simulated discharges during the validation period, with regards to the 5-year period used for calibration. The model is then applied on scenarios of changes in land uses and climate. Uncertainties in scenarios of changes are estimated

  15. Prioritising local action for water quality improvement using citizen science; a study across three major metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Ian; Ho, Jonathan G; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Huashou; Ho, Kin Chung; Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; Loiselle, Steven A

    2017-04-15

    Streams in urban areas are prone to degradation. While urbanization-induced poor water quality is a widely observed and well documented phenomenon, the mechanism to pinpoint local drivers of urban stream degradation, and their relative influence on water quality, is still lacking. Utilizing data from the citizen science project FreshWater Watch, we use a machine learning approach to identify key indicators, potential drivers, and potential controls to water quality across the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Partial dependencies were examined to establish the direction of relationships between predictors and water quality. A random forest classification model indicated that predictors of stream water colour (drivers related to artificial land coverage and agricultural land use coverage) and potential controls related to the presence of bankside vegetation were found to be important in identifying basins with degraded water quality conditions, based on individual measurements of turbidity and nutrient (N-NO3 and P-PO4) concentrations.

  16. Effects of local factors and climate on permafrost conditions and distribution in Beiluhe basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoan; Niu, Fujun; Lin, Zhanju; Luo, Jing; Liu, Minghao

    2017-03-01

    Beiluhe basin is underlain by warm and ice-rich permafrost, and covered by vegetation and soils characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A field monitoring network was established to investigate permafrost conditions and to assess potential impacts of local factors and climate change. This paper describes the spatial variations in permafrost conditions from instrumented boreholes, controlling environmental factors, and recent thermal evolution of permafrost in the basin. The study area was divided into 10 ecotypes using satellite imagery based classification. The field investigations and cluster analysis of ground temperatures indicated that permafrost underlies most of the ground in swamp meadow, undisturbed alpine meadow, degrading alpine meadow, and desert alpine grassland, but is absent in other cover types. Permafrost-ecotope relations examined over a 2-year (2014-2016) period indicated that: (i) ground surface temperatures varied largely among ecotopes; (ii) annual mean ground temperatures ranged from -1.5 to 0°C in permafrost, indicating sensitive permafrost conditions; (iii) active-layer thicknesses ranged from 1.4m to 3.4m; (iv) ground ice content at the top of permafrost is high, but the active-layer soil is relatively dry. Long-term climate warming has driven thermal changes to permafrost, but ground surface characteristics and soil moisture content strongly influence the ground thermal state. These factors control local-scale spatial variations in permafrost conditions. The warm permafrost in the basin is commonly in thermal disequilibrium, and is sensitive to future climate change. Active-layer thicknesses have increased by at least 42cm and the mean annual ground temperatures have increased by up to 0.2°C in the past 10years over the basin. A permafrost distribution map was produced based on ecotypes, suggesting that permafrost underlies 64% of the study region.

  17. 40 CFR 35.3130 - The capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The capitalization grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130...

  18. 40 CFR 35.3130 - The capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The capitalization grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130...

  19. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  20. 40 CFR 35.3130 - The capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The capitalization grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130...

  1. 40 CFR 35.3130 - The capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The capitalization grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130...

  2. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  3. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  4. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  5. 40 CFR 35.3130 - The capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The capitalization grant agreement. 35.3130 Section 35.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3130...

  6. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  7. Human Capital Formation in the Gulf and MENA Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ken E.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in human capital formation theories are particularly relevant to the Gulf and Middle Eastern and North African regions. Discusses recent western reconfigurations of the theory, noting how much local work must be done to reshape theory appropriately in the Middle East and explaining how issues relating to employment, education,…

  8. State analysis using the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and the three-layer circulation structure of the Luzon Strait and the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fang-Hua; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2014-06-01

    A new circulation model of the western North Pacific Ocean based on the parallelized version of the Princeton Ocean Model and incorporating the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) data assimilation scheme has been developed. The new model assimilates satellite data and is tested for the period January 1 to April 3, 2012 initialized from a 24-year simulation to estimate the ocean state focusing in the South China Sea (SCS). Model results are compared against estimates based on the optimum interpolation (OI) assimilation scheme and are validated against independent Argo float and transport data to assess model skills. LETKF provides improved estimates of the western North Pacific Ocean state including transports through various straits in the SCS. In the Luzon Strait, the model confirms, for the first time, the three-layer transport structure previously deduced in the literature from sparse observations: westward in the upper and lower layers and eastward in the middle layer. This structure is shown to be robust, and the related dynamics are analyzed using the results of a long-term (18 years) unassimilated North Pacific Ocean model. Potential vorticity and mass conservations suggest a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in the upper layer of the SCS ( z > -570 m), an anticyclonic circulation in the middle layer (-570 m ≥ z > -2,000 m), and, in the abyssal basin (<-2,000 m), the circulation is cyclonic in the north and anticyclonic in the south. The cyclone-anticyclone abyssal circulation is confirmed and explained using a deep-layer reduced-gravity model as being caused by overflow over the deep sill of the Luzon Strait, coupled with intense, localized upwelling west of the strait.

  9. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  10. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6–23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Results Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Conclusion Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6–11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and

  11. Greening America's Capitals - Hartford, CT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.

  12. Greening America's Capitals - Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Greening America's Capitals project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.

  13. Greening America's Capitals - Frankfort, KY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the Greening America's Capitals project to help Frankfort, KY, improve the Second Street corridor to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer, improve water quality, and make the street more attractive.

  14. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  15. [Drought-resistance of local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China: a comprehensive evaluation by using GGE biplot and subordinate function].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-wen; Zhu, Jun-gang; Wang, Shu-guang; Sun, Dai-zhen; ShiI, Yu-gang; Chen, Wei-guo

    2013-04-01

    Taking 7 local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China and two other control varieties as test materials, this paper studied their morphological and physiological traits under normal and water stress field conditions. The drought-resistance coefficient of each index of the traits was calculated. On the basis of principal component analysis, the correlations between the drought-resistance indices and their relationships with the drought-resistance of different varieties were analyzed by GGE biplot, and the drought resistance of the wheat varieties was comprehensively evaluated with the combination of subordinate function and drought resistance index analysis. The main morphological and physiological factors affecting the drought-resistance of the wheat varieties were uppermost internode length, plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf POD and SOD activities, and leaf relative water content and relative electric conductivity. There existed different degrees of correlation between these indices, and each index had different effects on the drought resistance of the varieties, being the main cause for the different drought resistance of the wheat varieties. Based on the drought-resistance, the test varieties could be classified into three groups, i. e. , drought-resistance group, intermediate group, and sensitive group. Two highly drought-resistance cultivars, Baiheshangtou and Zhuganqing, whose drought-resistance was similar to that of drought-resistant Jinmai 47, could be used as the parent materials for breeding drought-resistance wheat.

  16. Analysis of Current Status and Strategies of Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening during 6 Years in Local Regions of China: Implication and Caution

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Su, Ming; Ren, Sheng-gang; Hua, Hui-lan; Wang, Jian-cang; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the current status of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in a province of North China. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 5651 cases with ROP screening in the Provincial Screening Center of Hebei Province from January 2008 to December 2013. Results. 14.98% of all ROP patients and 1.56% of severe ROP patients required treatment. All the severe ROP patients met the criteria of screening. Severe ROP patients were detected at recommended initial screening time (4–6 weeks after birth). The frequency of other ocular diseases was 8.03%, in which the main disease was fundus hemorrhage. In 2665 more mature and unqualified infants, only 2 retinoblastoma and 2 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy were detected, which indicates the advantage of early diagnosis and treatment based on fundus examination. Conclusions. It is suggested that the standard of GA < 32 weeks and/or BW < 1800 g could be served as the screening criteria in the local region for ROP screening. 4 weeks after birth is the most appropriate time for initial screening. PMID:25538849

  17. The Impact of Psychological Capital on Job Burnout of Chinese Nurses: The Mediator Role of Organizational Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. Objective The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. Methods A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi’an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Results Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. Conclusion The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout. PMID:24416095

  18. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  19. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  20. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  1. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  2. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  3. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  4. JPRS Report, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    that the greater the experimentation here, the more likely we are to find a good recipe to help state enterprises enter the market soon. The...local budget contracting has prompted local gov- ernments not only to scramble to improve local living conditions, as has happened in some Western...and Steel disagreed rejecting the old idea of "only wanting to take eggs , but not wanting to raise chickens." Capital Iron and Steel wrote a report

  5. JPRS Report, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the overall issue; the theories are in touch with practi- cality, and they offer specific suggestions on how to deal with the situations. They are... suggests that structure determines function, it is clear that the failure of China’s capital goods market to function properly is due to its...their growth rate was 6.3 percent lower than in the same period last year. Statistics suggest that 24 of the 29 major commodity categories

  6. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-03

    Japan, Taiwan large," emphasized Shih Yen- hsiang [2457 7346 4382], must devote every effort to increasing its control over director of the Ministry of...a large hsiang , director of the Ministry of Economics, Science electrical appliances factory said frankly that in techno- and Technology Advisory...megabyte dram chip). Yu- chuan , which was founded in 1990 by a group of seven people who China Picture Tube, which was jointly capitalized by returned

  7. The Economic Importance of Human Capital in Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1993-01-01

    Human capital invests in new forms of physical capital, hence, human capital is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human capital; for example, human capital cannot be separated from person who has it, and human capital is not visible. Human capital is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…

  8. Financial capital and intellectual capital in physician practice management.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J C

    1998-01-01

    Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.

  9. Efficiency, new equity capital enable systems to compete.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; McCool, B P

    1985-01-01

    Because of limited cash, sponsors of some community and religious hospitals have sought to sell or lease their institutions to a not-for-profit (NFP) system or to a for-profit system. A number of national alliances address the capital formation problem of NFP institutions. Until now they have been almost exclusively concerned with acquiring less costly debt. Without new equity capital, market influence is difficult to obtain. Even well-managed voluntary systems face a serious threat from well-capitalized investor-owned systems. Increased competition among hospitals and physicians will force future advantages to those who have capital. It will also restrict funding of certain programs and services by voluntary enterprises. In anticipation of this, various forms of partnerships have developed with investor-owned systems. To regain the initiative as the premier sponsors of health care, religious and other voluntary systems must go beyond merely competing in their markets to acquiring weaker institutions. They also must revitalize private giving and excel in efficiency to offset threats from ambulatory, day-care operations and from high-technology hospitals. Structural changes in the industry can be predicted, including the following: The trend toward integration for production, financing, and marketing will continue. Public market equity capital will be increasingly used to finance medical practice. Hospitals that sell their equity values will establish service foundations. National alliances will continue, but strictly local systems will maintain operation. Investor-owned systems will move increasingly into high-technology tertiary care.

  10. Building social capital in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Brune, Nancy E; Bossert, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Studies of social capital have focused on the static relationship between social capital and health, governance and economic conditions. This study is a first attempt to evaluate interventions designed to improve the levels of social capital in post-conflict communities in Nicaragua and to relate those increases to health and governance issues. The two-year study involved a baseline household survey of approximately 200 households in three communities in Nicaragua, the implementation of systematic interventions designed to increase social capital in two of the locales (with one control group), and a second household survey administered two years after the baseline survey. We found that systematic interventions promoting management and leadership development were effective in improving some aspects of social capital, in particular the cognitive attitudes of trust in the communities. Interventions were also linked to higher levels of civic participation in governance processes. As in other empirical studies, we also found that higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with some positive health behaviors. The behavioral/structural components of social capital (including participation in groups and social networks) were associated with more desirable individual health behaviors such as the use of modern medicine to treat children's respiratory illnesses. Attitudinal components of social capital were positively linked to community health behaviors such as working on community sanitation campaigns. The findings presented here should be of interest to policy makers interested in health policy and social capital, as well as those working in conflict-ridden communities in the developing world.

  11. Ordovician appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block, South China: Geochronological and geochemical evidence for intrusion into a local extensional zone within an intracontinental regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yufang; Ma, Changqian; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Jianping; Nong, Junnian; Zhang, Zejun

    2014-06-01

    Palaeozoic mafic igneous rocks are potentially significant in constraining the tectonic nature and evolution of the Kwangsian Orogeny in the eastern South China Block, yet they have received little attention because of their limited outcrop. Geochemistry and geochronology was carried out on newly identified Ordovician ultramafic-mafic appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block. Seven appinite samples yielded 206Pb/238U crystallisation ages ranging from 452 ± 4 Ma to 473 ± 3 Ma. Abundant 480-500 Ma zircon xenocrysts and/or inherited zircons were found in the appinites, possibly indicating an earlier magmatism episode in the early Palaeozoic period. The Wugongshan appinites are ultramafic to mafic in composition, and the ultramafic rocks display features of cumulates (high concentrations of MgO, Fe2O3t, Cr, Ni, and low concentrations of total alkali and total rare earth elements [REE]). The appinite geochemistry displays: relatively flat chondrite normalised REE patterns with slight enrichment in light REE and weak negative Eu anomalies; enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (such as Rb, K), and weak depletion in Nb-Ta in primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns. We suggest that the Wugongshan appinites likely originated from an ancient metasomatised mantle, and that crustal assimilation, fractional crystallisation (AFC), magma mingling and hydration were involved in the petrogenetic process, based on the combination of geochemistry, crust-like bulk Sr, Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εNd (t) = - 8.2 to - 3.2, initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7067-0.7144, zircon εHf (t) values peaking at - 9 to - 3) and regional geological data. Further considering the alignment and chronology of the appinites, we suggest that the appinitic magmas probably were emplaced along the Jiangshan-Shaoxing Fault in a local extensional zone in an intracontinental regime in the early Palaeozoic.

  12. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  13. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  14. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  15. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  16. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  17. The Dynamic Role of Cultural Capital in the Competitive School Admission Process: A Chinese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    School choice in China is a parent-initiated bottom-up movement characterised by the payment of a substantial "choice fee" to the desired school, and parents' positional competition through the use of cultural, social and economic capital, before and during the school choice process. This study demonstrates that Chinese middle class…

  18. Drive-away policing and situational crime prevention in China: an analysis of motorcycle ban (jinmo) policy in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    Using the example of motorcycle ban policy in Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, this article examines how situational crime prevention strategies are used in contemporary urban China. The article argues that although a motorcycle ban policy may reduce motorcycle snatch theft (feiche qiangduo) in Guangzhou, it inevitably caused a problem of displacement. However, some types of displacement are desirable for local government. An argument about drive-away policing is proposed in this article to understand policing styles in contemporary China. In addition, the article argues that motorcycle ban, as a strategy to prevent snatch theft and robbery, is also a strategy to deal with the crisis in police legitimacy. Therefore, crime prevention in China has more social and political significance than just reducing crime.

  19. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.

  20. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  1. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  2. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  3. "Sense of community belonging" in health surveys: what social capital is it measuring?

    PubMed

    Carpiano, Richard M; Hystad, Perry W

    2011-03-01

    Canadian national health surveys regularly ask respondents to rate their sense of belonging to their local community. Health studies commonly use this question as a social capital indicator, but what social capital domains community belonging is measuring remains unclear. Analyzing Canadian General Social Survey data, we evaluate the validity of this measure with respect to network-based social capital and health. Results indicate that sense of community belonging is associated positively with several network-based social capital measures. Neighborhood network-based social capital most substantially reduced associations between sense of community belonging and health measures, but results differed by urban and rural settings. These findings indicate the need for public health surveys to include specific measures of respondents' networks.

  4. Reports From Greening America's Capitals Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reports from projects conducted under the Greening America's Capitals Program, which helped capital cities explore green infrastructure and sustainable design strategies to revitalize neighborhoods, improve public health, and protect the environment.

  5. 20 CFR 638.305 - Capital improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.305 Capital improvements. Capital improvement projects and new construction on Job Corps Centers...

  6. A Capital Assets Preservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

  7. Modeling and Measuring Organization Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkeson, Andrew; Kehoe, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Manufacturing plants have a clear life cycle: they are born small, grow substantially with age, and eventually die. Economists have long thought that this life cycle is driven by organization capital, the accumulation of plant-specific knowledge. The location of plants in the life cycle determines the size of the payments, or organization rents,…

  8. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  9. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... comment on a proposed rule to effect a provision of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and..., for rescinding such an increase and a time frame for review of such an increase. DATES: Comments on... effect the higher temporary minimum capital level, the Director must issue regulations setting...

  10. A Radical Redistribution of Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiston-Serdan, Torie L.

    2009-01-01

    The study of capital in all of its forms has provided key insights into the system of education: its structure, its inequities, its values and its contributions. While the research is a key component to understanding educational opportunity and inequity, it does not advance from research to application. There is a general consensus that the…

  11. Presidential Transitions during Capital Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, capital campaigns at institutions of higher education have increased in duration, while collegiate presidential tenures have been doing just the opposite. Turnover in the top post was frequent, even during major fundraising campaigns. Before this study, presidential transitions during campaigns had not been previously…

  12. School Cheating and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  13. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... (Board). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is adopting amendments to Regulation Y to require large... proposal in the Federal Register to require large bank holding companies to submit capital plans to the... upon the Federal Reserve's existing supervisory expectation that large bank holding companies...

  14. Afresh look at capital investments.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alexis; Lawrence, Jennifer; Shiple, David

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals should focus on optimizing performance in five primary areas of capital investment: facilities, IT, physician networks, service lines, and clinical equipment/technology. Hospitals require a broad evaluation framework to help identify the key issues and concerns associated with each area. Discipline is critical to this process, so that every area receives its due consideration.

  15. 76 FR 11668 - Minimum Capital

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... capital level. * * * Instead, we encourage the Finance Agency to develop an MVE model that reflects... adequately; that their operations foster liquid, efficient, competitive and resilient national housing... maturity lower than most other entities. The Banks pass along a portion of their funding advantage to...

  16. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  17. Social Capital and Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness .49...peace, good governance, and open market economies – like those being pursued in Afghanistan – will be limited in effectiveness when social capital is... effective international system, providing the foundation for continued prosperity, and, not least, in protecting Americans from external threats to our

  18. Positioning for capitation by redesigning internal processes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J R; Maroney, R

    1995-07-01

    Now that healthcare reform is no longer at the forefront of President Clinton's agenda, competition among providers, practitioners, and health systems will become more common as they ready themselves for capitation. In addition, mergers, consolidations, acquisitions, alliances, and partnerships will continue to reshape the healthcare industry. In order for the parties to be successful in a capitated environment, providers, practitioners, and healthcare systems must manage and adapt to consolidation, capitation, communication, control, cost, customer, capital, and culture.

  19. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... incorporating aspects of the BCBS's Basel II standardized framework in the ``International Convergence of... references to credit ratings. \\5\\ See BCBS, ``International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital...'' of common equity tier 1 capital in excess of the new minimum capital requirements. \\11\\...

  20. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  1. 75 FR 61790 - Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application September 29, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicant, Capital Southwest Corporation (``Capital Southwest''), requests an order to permit it to issue.... Applicant's Representations 1. Capital Southwest, a Texas corporation, is an internally managed,...

  2. 47 CFR 69.310 - Capital leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital planning. 615.5200 Section 615.5200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The...

  4. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  5. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  6. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  7. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  8. Intergenerational Learning and Social Capital. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    The concept of social capital refers to the resources of networks, norms or shared values, and trust to which individuals have access as community members. A reason to consider intergenerational learning in the context of social capital is awareness of unequal access to positive social capital and the risk that social exclusion and disadvantage…

  9. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is...

  10. Sociospatial Schooling Practices: A Spatial Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthon, Catherine; Monfroy, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance today of the spatial dimension within the analysis of parents' education strategies concerning their school choices at the secondary school level. This study is based on the 2 dimensions of the concept of spatial capital (Levy, 1994): position capital and situation capital. It explores sociospatial schooling…

  11. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  12. Capital Facilities Planning and Debt Administration. Module Number Seven of Policy/Program Analysis and Evaluation Techniques. Package VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiss, Alan Walter

    This packet contains the instructional materials necessary for presentation of the seventh of ten modules that comprise a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. This module focuses on capital facilities planning in local government finance. Capital facilities planning encompasses…

  13. Negotiating strategies for capitation.

    PubMed

    Mildworm, L L

    1998-01-01

    The appropriate strategy to employ in contract negotiations will vary, depending on a number of important factors. These include the relative size and power of the network, the conditions of the local market, the strength of the managed-care payer in the market, and a host of other issues. The negotiating strategy ultimately adopted will be in accordance with the organizations overall preference, style, and needs. In approaching any contract negotiation, two key points should be kept in mind. First, networks must recognize they can become more prepared and empowered for contract negotiations through the acquisition of additional information. Second, form contracts can be changed; nothing is set in stone. Despite the frequent statements of payer organizations that the form cannot be modified to meet the provider's unique desires and needs, in most cases a contract can be modified in one way or another to meet the parties' mutual needs and desires. Everything is negotiable: Any party involved in such negotiations should be positive, avoiding conflict; use a problem-solving approach; agree whenever possible--strive to become "we"; acknowledge the payer's interest and position, expressing a desire to compromise; and acknowledge the authority and ability of the assigned negotiator. Once the managed-care contract is consummated, the network should attempt to ensure that the parties get maximum value from the agreement. One step to achieving such a desired end is to identify a leader who will be responsible for overseeing contract implementation and performance and responsible for knowing the requirements of the agreement inside out and for focusing on all other requirements of the managed-care program.

  14. Predicting recidivism in a communitarian society: China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhong

    2005-08-01

    Research on the prediction of recidivism has largely been an enterprise of Western criminology. Therefore, the identification and selection of predictors has tended to follow the individualistic traditions of the West. Important advances in models and methods have not been extended to non-Western societies such as China. This article explores the implications of communitarian features of Chinese urban communities for prediction of recidivism. The article applies the perspective of social capital to the specification of predictors. Available community social-capital measures are included in the prediction model to capture the effects of communitarian cultural features. The results indicate that social capital variables generally have significant effects.

  15. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  16. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  17. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  18. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  19. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  20. 12 CFR 324.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POLICY CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 324.10... maintain the following minimum capital ratios: (1) A common equity tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5 percent. (2) A tier 1 capital ratio of 6 percent. (3) A total capital ratio of 8 percent. (4) A leverage ratio...

  1. 12 CFR 3.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.10 Minimum capital requirements. (a) Minimum capital requirements. A national bank or Federal savings association must maintain the following minimum capital ratios: (1) A common equity tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5 percent. (2) A tier 1 capital ratio of 6 percent....

  2. ‘Face’ and the Embodiment of Stigma in China: The Cases of Schizophrenia and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Kleinman, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The majority of theoretical models have defined stigma as occurring psychologically and limit its negative effects to individual processes. This paper, via an analysis of how ‘face’ is embodied in China, deepens an articulation of how the social aspects of stigma might incorporate the moral standing of both individual and collective actors defined within a local context. We illustrate: 1) how one’s moral standing is lodged within a local social world; 2) how one’s status as a ‘moral’ community member is contingent upon upholding intrapersonal and social-transactional obligations; and 3) how loss of face and fears of moral contamination might lead to a ‘social death’. We first draw from Chinese ethnographies that describe the process of human cultivation before one can achieve fully ‘moral’ status in society. We integrate findings from empirical studies describing how social exchange networks in China are strictly organized based on the reciprocation of favors, moral positioning, and ‘face’. We further ground these Chinese constructs within a theoretical framework of different forms of capital, and discuss the severe social consequences that loss of face entails. By utilizing the examples of schizophrenia and AIDS to illustrate how loss of moral standing and stigma are interwoven in China, we propose a model highlighting changes in moral status to describe how stigma operates. We suggest that symbolic restoration of moral status for stigmatized groups takes place as local-level stigma interventions. By analyzing the moral aspects of ‘face’, we propose that across cultures, stigma is embedded in the moral experience of participants, whereby stigma is conceived as a fundamentally moral issue: stigmatized conditions threaten what matters most for those in a local world. We further propose that stigma jeopardizes an actor’s ability to mobilize social capital to attain essential social statuses. PMID:18420325

  3. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.

  4. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  5. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  6. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  7. The Study of the Teaching Models and Prospects of Bilingual Teaching in Local Universities of China-- A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In present China, bilingual teaching, as an education model, can meet an urgent demand for increasing interdisciplinary talents who have high levels of professional knowledge as well as competent foreign language abilities to deal with the ever-increasing global social, economic, scientific and technological exchanges, and international…

  8. An Observational Study of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea: Local, Regional, and Basin-Wide Perspectives on a Western Boundary Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Morinaga, K., N. Nakagawa, K. Osamu , and B. Guo (1998): Flow pattern of the Kuroshio west of the main Okinawa Island, Proceedings of Japan-China...Oceanography, 55, 45-64. Morinaga, K., N. Nakagawa, K. Osamu , and B. Guo (1998). Flow pattern of the Kuroshio west of the main Okinawa Island

  9. The worth of land use: a GIS-emergy evaluation of natural and human-made capital.

    PubMed

    Mellino, Salvatore; Buonocore, Elvira; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-02-15

    Natural systems make their natural capital and ecosystem services available to human economy. A careful analysis of the interplay between natural and human-made capital is needed to prevent natural capital being overexploited for present economic benefits, affecting lifestyles and wellbeing of future generations. In this study, the emergy synthesis is used to evaluate the natural and the human-made capital of Campania region (southern Italy) by accounting for the environmental support directly and indirectly provided by nature to resource generation. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) models are integrated with the emergy accounting procedure to generate maps of the spatial patterns of both natural and human-made capital distribution. Regional storages of natural and human-made capital are identified and evaluated in emergy units (seJ). The human-made capital of the Campania region (6.29E+24seJ) results to be about 11 times higher than the natural capital (5.69E+23seJ) due to the past and present exploitation of the natural resources needed to generate it over time. Moreover, by overlaying the total natural capital map and the total human-made capital map with a map of the protected areas within the region, only the 19% of the regional natural capital appears to be concentrated within protected areas, while most of it (81%) is concentrated outside. These findings suggest that the conservation of natural resources is also necessary outside protected areas by means of suitable policies, directives and investments. The human-made capital is mainly concentrated (88%) inside non-protected areas and interacts with the local natural capital. A management of the interactions between the two categories of wealth is crucial to prevent that the growth of human-made storages degrades the natural ecosystems and the environment. The proposed emergy-GIS framework reveals to be a useful tool for environmental planning and resource management aimed to conserve and

  10. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  11. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.

  12. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  13. The Romance of China: The Geography of Fascination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how geography instructors can capitalize on student interest in China and its unique images in teaching basic geographic themes. Demonstrates how China can illustrate these five themes (which are absolute and relative location; physical and cultural place; human-environment interaction; movement; and region) in a way that will capture…

  14. On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production.

    PubMed

    Bair, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization.

  15. Social Capital and Technological Literacy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technological literacy. Age, gender, education, income, web access, and social capital were included as independent variables. The results show that age, gender, education, web access, and social capital were good predictors of technological literacy. It is concluded that social capital is helpful in coping with rapid technological change. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:22619593

  16. How does the size and shape of local populations in China compare to general anthropometric surveys currently used for product design?

    PubMed

    Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François; Paul, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry has long been used for a range of ergonomic applications & product design. Although products are often designed for specific cohorts, anthropometric data are typically sourced from large scale surveys representative of the general population. Additionally, few data are available for emerging markets like China and India. This study measured 80 Chinese males that were representative of a specific cohort targeted for the design of a new product. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were recorded and compared to two large databases that represented a general population, a Chinese database and a Western database. Substantial differences were identified between the Chinese males measured in this study and both databases. The subjects were substantially taller, heavier and broader than subjects in the older Chinese database. However, they were still substantially smaller, lighter and thinner than Western males. Data from current Western anthropometric surveys are unlikely to accurately represent the target population for product designers and manufacturers in emerging markets like China.

  17. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.

  18. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  19. A critique of social capital.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    This article critiques the concepts of communitarianism and social capital as used in the United States and in Europe. For the United States, the author focuses on Robert Putnam's understanding of both concepts, showing that the apolitical analysis of the Progressive Era, of the progressive developments in Northern Italy, and of the situation of labor unions in the United States is not only insufficient but wrong. The critique also includes the difference between U.S. communitarianism and its European versions, Christian democracy and New Labour, and the limitations of both approaches. The uses and misuses of these concepts in the political debate are discussed.

  20. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  1. Capital optimization: linking investment with strategic intent.

    PubMed

    Fine, Allan; Bacchetti, J Alex

    2004-01-01

    With operating margins showing some improvement in 2003, Y2K being a distant memory, and many critical capital investment decisions delayed as long as possible, hospitals have been on a relative spending spree, building new facilities, renovating operating rooms and inpatient units, and investing in new medical and information technologies. However, with pressure on both cost and revenue expected to continue, if not increase, this spending spree may be short-lived, and hospitals must improve their capital planning efforts; align them with their mission, vision, and strategies; and ensure that capital is available when unplanned or even expected needs arise. This article explores some of the challenges that hospitals face in their capital planning efforts and, more importantly, suggests the necessity for hospitals to integrate capital and strategic planning. Capital planning must be driven by an organization's strategies; however, we also argue that an organization's ability to execute its strategies is highly dependent on the existence of a cohesive capital prioritization and planning process. In this article, we explore a number of issues critical to developing a comprehensive capital plan, including estimating capital costs, evaluating and designing strategies to contend with risk, saving for the proverbial "rainy day," and recognizing the role and value of philanthropy, while challenging some conventional thinking of hospital executives with respect to investment, growth, and planning.

  2. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; and (3) The leverage ratio. (b) Capital...; and (ii) Has a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has a leverage... of 4.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has: (A) A leverage ratio of 4.0 percent or greater; or (B)...

  3. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tangible capital requirement. 567.9 Section 567.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.9 Tangible capital requirement. (a) Savings associations shall have and maintain tangible capital in an amount equal to...

  4. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  5. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  6. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  7. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  8. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  9. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  10. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  11. 12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum leverage capital requirement. 325.3... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Minimum Capital Requirements § 325.3 Minimum leverage capital requirement. (a) General. Banks must maintain at least the minimum leverage capital requirement set forth...

  12. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital...

  13. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  14. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  15. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  16. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  17. "Capitalizing on Sport": Sport, Physical Education and Multiple Capitals in Scottish Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, John; Lingard, Bob; Weiner, Gaby; Forbes, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a research study into the existence and use of different forms of capital--including social, cultural and physical capital--in three independent schools in Scotland. We were interested in understanding how these forms of capital work to produce and reproduce "advantage" and "privilege". Analysis is framed by…

  18. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  19. 13 CFR 107.240 - Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital. 107.240 Section 107.240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing...

  20. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the liquidity, capital, earnings or continuing operations of the Bank, including those affecting... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion. 933.5 Section 933.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  1. 12 CFR 325.103 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category definitions. 325.103 Section 325.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... subpart, a bank shall be deemed to be: (1) Well capitalized if the bank: (i) Has a total...

  2. Social Capital and Educational Aspiration of Students: Does Family Social Capital Affect More Compared to School Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…

  3. Human and Social Capital in China's Learning Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yan; Boshier, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In March 2006, Premier Wen Jiabao acknowledged that the situation in the Chinese countryside is desperate and claimed new resources would be devoted to healthcare and education. This announcement should have pleased architects of the Chinese "learning initiative" who are building learning cities and villages. The authors describe why…

  4. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  5. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  6. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenglan; Tao, Jingjing; Bekedam, Henk

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China.There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable.

  7. The economics of population aging in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X

    1996-01-01

    This article relies on a Marxist framework for discussing the relationship between economic development and population aging in China. China places value on correctly understanding the causes, processes, trends, and socioeconomic consequences of population aging during the development of its socialist market economy. Many policies have an impact on the aged. Marxist theories of economic operations identify four key features--production, distribution, exchange, and consumption--which are affected by human activity. The age structure of population affects socioeconomic operations. An increase in accumulated capital means a decrease in consumption capital. China must maintain its high level of annual economic growth (6.0%-6.5%). 30% of China's national income must be used for accumulation of capital and investment, but the increase in the aged has led to growth in consumption capital. By 2050, it is expected that there will be over 100 million retirees needing about 800 billion RMB in pensions (20 times the amount in 1993). As the number of elderly grows, savings decline. The growth of the elderly will place demands on social security funds, which will in turn rely on an increased proportion of consumption capital. The increased labor force and the increased number of aged will both vie for a share in the national economy until about 2020, and then the problem will be declines in productivity in some areas. It is generally believed that support of the elderly should not rise above 10% of national income. In 1993, the elderly's share was 3.7%, and at the present rate of growth, it is expected that the share will be above 10% by 2030. Working families will have to carry a heavy domestic burden of care for their aged. Productivity will have to increase in order to offset the decline in per capita consumption capital due to aging. The author offers countermeasures at the macro- and microlevel for dealing with the demographic changes.

  8. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  9. Cultural Capital: A Thesaurus for Teaching Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickfaden, Megan; Heylighen, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unravel what is hypothesised as being at the root of design education: the cultural capital of design educators. The premise is that capital is developed within the design learning environment: that is, designers-to-be and educators-to-be are encultured into design while studying, the same way that parents enculture children…

  10. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  11. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  12. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  13. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  14. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  15. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  16. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  17. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  18. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  1. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure....

  2. Campus Master Planning and Capital Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent; Lazell, Daniel T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of college and university campus master planning, describes factors and actors in the process, discusses the relationship to capital budgeting, and offers a typical master planning and capital-budgeting process as illustration. Developing a comprehensive institutional master plan can profoundly affect the institution's…

  3. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  4. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  5. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  6. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  7. Developing Functional Networks of Frontier Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ABSTRACT Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of a capital market network in which it operates is vital to understanding...opportunities. Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of the capital market network in which they operate is vital to...behavior and economics. The individual motivations, information availability, transaction systems , and cultural realities in these markets provide a rich

  8. 47 CFR 32.4540 - Other capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other capital. 32.4540 Section 32.4540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4540 Other capital....

  9. School Capital Funding: Supplementary State Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley, Richard

    In July 2001, the Tennessee Comptroller's Office of Education Accountability (OEA) began studying methods other states use to finance K-12 capital outlay. The final product of this research is the report "School Capital Funding: Tennessee in a National Context." As part of this research, OEA staff compiled information on state K-12…

  10. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  11. A Human Capital Approach to Career Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…

  12. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  13. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  14. Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Ray; Kearns, Ade

    2001-01-01

    Outlines key dimensions of social cohesion, exploring whether societies are facing a new crisis in this area. Examines where contemporary residential neighborhoods fit into social cohesion debates, particularly regarding the interaction between social cohesion and social capital. Outlines key debates over social capital, showing how it can be…

  15. School Social Capital and Secondary Education Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article intends to identify the effects of school social capital on the educational plans of students, particularly those staying in school and obtaining an intermediate certificate. It is hypothesised that social capital helps to explain individual educational plans and differences between schools regarding the amount of students with…

  16. Assessing Educational Capital: An Imperative for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.; Finney, Joni E.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the need for greater information about those aspects of U.S. educational capital (the reservoir of knowledge and skills) that are affected by higher education. Urges a concerted, long-term effort to take stock of this under-reported aspect of the nation's educational capital and offers reasons and strategies to focus on a comprehensive…

  17. Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora

    2002-01-01

    Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…

  18. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  19. The Capital Costs Of A University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Frederic D.

    This study examines the capital cost component of higher education. The focus is on data related to the capital stock of the University of California. A conceptual framework is provided as a method for analyzing three types of choices facing university decisionmakers. These choices concern: (1) the relative size of various educational programs by…

  20. Bell's Paradox under Different Capital Market Regimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Johan Moonwon

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 "Economics of Education Review" paper, E. Bell indicates that, when capital markets are imperfect in a certain sense, demand for education may not always be directly related with present net value of education. This study shows Bell's paradox is possible under the alternative definitions of capital market imperfections and…

  1. Contributions of local terrestrial evaporation and transpiration to precipitation using δ18O and D-excess as a proxy in Shiyang inland river basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongxing, Li; Qi, Feng; Wang, Q. J.; Yanlong, Kong; Aifang, Cheng; Song, Yong; Yongge, Li; Jianguo, Li; Xiaoyan, Guo

    2016-11-01

    Moisture recycling by terrestrial evaporation and transpiration has recently been confirmed as an important source of precipitation, but little is known of this contribution in inland river basins of China. This study determines the fractions contributed by terrestrial evaporation and transpiration to precipitation in the Shiyang river basin, located in Gansu province of northwestern China. The basin has an area of 4.16 × 104 km2 and mean annual precipitation of 300 mm/yr. Hundreds of samples of precipitation, surface water, plant stem water and soil water were collected and analyzed for their isotopic compositions. The Craig-Gordon model and a three-end-member mixing model were used to partition precipitation into water sourced from evaporation, transpiration and advection. On average, evaporation, transpiration and advection were responsible for 9%, 14% and 77%, respectively, of precipitation, and the contribution from terrestrial evaporation and transpiration also increased with elavation; they also varied with season, being highest in August. The significant contribution from transpiration highlights the importance of vegetation conservation in this ecologically fragile basin.

  2. 78 FR 14366 - Triangle Capital Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Triangle Capital Corporation; Notice of Application February 28, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Application: Triangle Capital Corporation (``Triangle'') requests an order (``Amended Order'') that would... directors (the ``Board''). \\1\\ Triangle Capital Corporation, Investment Company Act Release Nos. 28165...

  3. Recognizing Constraints to Local Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joan; Meyer, Peter B.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on Kaufman's distinction between development in the community and development of the community, this paper discusses the constraints on local economic development associated with increased concentration of capital. The likelihood of successfully employing "import substitution" and other localization strategies without confronting issues of…

  4. Gendered Social Capital in a Johannesburg Township

    PubMed Central

    Myroniuk, Tyler W.

    2016-01-01

    Social capital research rarely takes a gendered approach. This article explores how black women and men from a marginalized community in Johannesburg, South Africa, rely on family, friends, and community members to survive and strategize for the future by utilizing social capital. The results from 30 semi-structured interviews and ego network mapping illustrate that gender moderates the type of social capital used and benefits associated with bonding and bridging social capital in important ways. This research builds upon knowledge of gendered advantages and disadvantages in social networks and informs researchers how women and men survive in pervasive poverty. I posit that identifying potential sources of support is an important consideration within social capital or any network research because the prospect of receiving assistance in the future undoubtedly alters the development of these individuals’ livelihood strategies. PMID:27773948

  5. Gendered Social Capital in a Johannesburg Township.

    PubMed

    Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2016-01-01

    Social capital research rarely takes a gendered approach. This article explores how black women and men from a marginalized community in Johannesburg, South Africa, rely on family, friends, and community members to survive and strategize for the future by utilizing social capital. The results from 30 semi-structured interviews and ego network mapping illustrate that gender moderates the type of social capital used and benefits associated with bonding and bridging social capital in important ways. This research builds upon knowledge of gendered advantages and disadvantages in social networks and informs researchers how women and men survive in pervasive poverty. I posit that identifying potential sources of support is an important consideration within social capital or any network research because the prospect of receiving assistance in the future undoubtedly alters the development of these individuals' livelihood strategies.

  6. The Contribution of a Social Enterprise to the Building of Social Capital in a Disadvantaged Urban Area of London.

    PubMed

    Bertotti, Marcello; Harden, Angela; Renton, Adrian; Sheridan, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    There has been much enthusiasm over the past 10 years for the potential contribution of social enterprises to the regeneration of disadvantaged urban areas. This enthusiasm has far outstripped the availability of empirical evidence. This paper reports a qualitative study of one social enterprise, a community café, and its contribution to building social capital in a disadvantaged urban area in London. The analysis reveals how the café builds 'bonding' and 'bridging' social capital whilst also addressing 'downside' social capital. Overall, the manager of the social enterprise played a considerable role in facilitating the development of social capital, thus emphasising the importance of individuals and their attitudes, skills, and background in urban regeneration. However, the role of the social enterprise in building 'linking' social capital was minor. In this instance, more effective mechanisms of community engagement need to be put in place in order to empower local residents and organisations.

  7. Does Workplace Social Capital Associate with Hazardous Drinking Among Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Workers?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). Methods A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Results Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04–1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05–1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13–1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Conclusions Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population. PMID:25502013

  8. Livelihood sustainability and community based co-management of forest resources in China: changes and improvement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  9. Livelihood Sustainability and Community Based Co-Management of Forest Resources in China: Changes and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  10. Capital Growth Paths of the Neoclassical Growth Model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Taro

    2012-01-01

    This paper derives the first-order approximated paths of both types of capital in the two-capital neoclassical growth model. The derived capital growth paths reveal that the short-run growth effect of capital injection differs considerably depending on which type of capital is enhanced. This result demonstrates the importance of well-targeted capital enhancement programs such as public sector projects and foreign aid. PMID:23185344

  11. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; ...

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. Themore » Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.« less

  12. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  13. Gender-Based Employment and Income Differences in Urban China: Considering the Contributions of Marriage and Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Hannum, Emily; Wang, Meiyan

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on China's labor market gender gaps has emphasized the human and political capital disadvantages of women and new discrimination in the reform era. Analyzing the China Urban Labor Survey/China Adult Literacy Survey, this paper shows that while women are significantly disadvantaged by various measures of human and political…

  14. Comparison of perceived quality amongst migrant and local patients using primary health care delivered by community health centres in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing good quality primary health care to all inhabitants is one of the Chinese Government’s health care objectives. However, information is scarce regarding the difference in quality of primary health care delivered to migrants and local residents respectively. This study aimed to compare patients’ perceptions of quality of primary health care between migrants and local patients, and their willingness to use and recommend primary health care to others. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. 787 patients in total were chosen from four randomly drawn Community Health Centers (CHCs) for interviews. Results Local residents scored higher than migrants in terms of their satisfaction with types of drugs available (3.62 vs. 3.45, p = 0.035), attitude of health workers (4.41 vs. 4.14, p = 0.042) and waiting time (4.30 vs. 3.86, p < 0.001). Even though there was no significant difference in overall satisfaction between local residents and migrants (4.16 vs. 3.91, p = 0.159), migrants were more likely to utilize primary health care as the first choice for their usual health problems (94.1% vs. 87.1%, p = 0.032), while local residents were more inclined to recommend Traditional Chinese Medicine to others (65.6% vs. 56.6%, p = 0.026). Conclusions Quality of primary health care given to migrants is less satisfactory than to local residents in terms of attitude of health workers and waiting time. Our study suggests quality of care could be improved through extending opening hours of CHCs and strengthening professional ethics education. Considering CHCs as the first choice by migrants might be due to their health insurance scheme, while locals’ recommendations for traditional Chinese medicine were possibly because of cultural differences. PMID:24779564

  15. Capitalization and the Median Voter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    1981-01-01

    A model analyzing the relationships among housing values, property taxation, local services, residential mobility, voting patterns, and local government policies leads to the conclusion that changes in intergovernmental grants, rather than tax limitations, may solve current problems in housing and services use. Availablility: Secretary, 1313 21st…

  16. Social capital and fisheries management: the case of Chilika Lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Nagothu Udaya

    2007-04-01

    This article shows how social capital impacts fisheries management at the local level in Chilika Lake, located in the state of Orissa in India. In Chilika, the different fishing groups established norms and "rules of the game" including, but not limited to, spatial limits that determine who can fish and in what areas, temporal restrictions about when and for how long people may fish, gear constraints about what harvesting gear may be used by each group, and physical controls on size and other characteristics of fish that may be harvested. A survey of the members of fishing groups has shown that the bonding social capital is strong within the Chilika fishing groups. Bonding and bridging social capital keeps the fishers together in times of resource scarcity, checks violations of community rules and sanctions, and strengthens the community fisheries management. In contrast, linking social capital in Chilika appears to be weak, as is evident from the lack of trust in external agencies, seeking the help of formal institutions for legal support, and increasing conflicts. Trust and cooperation among fishers is crucial in helping to build the social capital. A social capital perspective on fisheries governance suggests that there should be a rethinking of priorities and funding mechanisms, from "top-down" fisheries management towards "co-management" with a focus on engendering rights and responsibilities for fishers and their communities.

  17. Enhancing social capital for sustainable coastal development: Is satoumi the answer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henocque, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Social capital constitutes the cultural component of modern societies. Building social capital has typically been seen as a task for ‘second generation' economic reform, but unlike economic policies and institutions, social capital is not created or shaped by public policy but is inherited throughout local communities successive generations. Enhancing social capital therefore is about promoting local knowledge deeply rooted into local communities' practices on land and at sea. In Japan, the culturally specific interaction of humans with nature has led to the emergence of specific socio-ecosystems called ‘satoyama' on the land side and ‘satoumi' on the coast and sea side. Here, characteristics of related local knowledge include information about consumed products like wild edible plants or seaweeds, and learning by doing practices like traditional rice cultivation or sea ranching. This knowledge has been developed over centuries and has been handed down from generation to generation. There are actually other types of satoyama and satoumi which have been flourishing around the world though the latter (satoumi) probably has no equivalent in other countries' coastal areas because of the unique Japanese fishing rights system. First largely ignored as a social capital, satoumi has emerged as a new concept only a few years ago. In the frame of the recently adopted national ocean policy such a social capital, like it may be found in other countries, should not be ignored when addressing integrated coastal zone management processes and tools for the sake of sustainable coastal development in Japan and elsewhere in the world.

  18. Reducing the cost of health care capital.

    PubMed

    Silberman, R

    1984-08-01

    Although one may ask four financial experts their opinion on the future of the hospital capital market and receive five answers, the blatant need for financial strategic planning is evident. Clearly, the hospital or system with sound financial management will be better positioned to gain and/or maintain an edge in the competitive environment of the health care sector. The trends of the future include hospitals attempting to: Maximize the efficiency of invested capital. Use the expertise of Board members. Use alternative capital sources. Maximize rate of return on investments. Increase productivity. Adjust to changes in reimbursements. Restructure to use optimal financing for capital needs, i.e., using short-term to build up debt capacity if long-term financing is needed in the future. Take advantage of arbitrage (obtain capital and reinvest it until the funds are needed). Delay actual underwriting until funds are to be used. Better management of accounts receivable and accounts payable to avoid short-term financing for cash flow shortfalls. Use for-profit subsidiaries to obtain venture capital by issuing stock. Use product line management. Use leasing to obtain balance sheet advantages. These trends indicate a need for hospital executives to possess a thorough understanding of the capital formation process. In essence, the bottom line is that the short-term viability and long-term survival of a health care organization will greatly depend on the financial expertise of its decision-makers.

  19. Toward a neighborhood resource-based theory of social capital for health: can Bourdieu and sociology help?

    PubMed

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Within the past several years, a considerable body of research on social capital has emerged in public health. Although offering the potential for new insights into how community factors impact health and well being, this research has received criticism for being undertheorized and methodologically flawed. In an effort to address some of these limitations, this paper applies Pierre Bourdieu's (1986) [Bourdieu, P. (1986). Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood] social capital theory to create a conceptual model of neighborhood socioeconomic processes, social capital (resources inhered within social networks), and health. After briefly reviewing the social capital conceptualizations of Bourdieu and Putnam, I attempt to integrate these authors' theories to better understand how social capital might operate within neighborhoods or local areas. Next, I describe a conceptual model that incorporates this theoretical integration of social capital into a framework of neighborhood social processes as health determinants. Discussion focuses on the utility of this Bourdieu-based neighborhood social capital theory and model for examining several under-addressed issues of social capital in the neighborhood effects literature and generating specific, empirically testable hypotheses for future research.

  20. Whose social capital matters? The case of U.S. urban public hospital closures and conversions to private ownership.

    PubMed

    Ko, Michelle; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Needleman, Jack; Ponce, Ninez A

    2014-08-01

    Prior literature on social capital and health has predominantly focused on health outcomes and individual access to healthcare services. It is not known to what degree, if any, community social capital influences the performance or behaviors of public hospitals, a key source of healthcare for disadvantaged communities in the United States. In this study we developed measures of community bridging social capital - horizontal social networks between heterogeneous groups of similar social position - and linking social capital - vertical networks across the status hierarchy - relevant to public hospitals. We examined associations between social capital, and U.S. urban public hospital closures and conversions to private ownership from 1987 to 2007. We found that higher voting participation was associated with a greater hazard of public hospital closure over time (p < 0.01), whereas the number of business, professional and political organizations per 10,000 residents was associated a greater hazard of conversion (p < 0.05). Additional measures of bridging and linking social capital were not associated with either outcome. Taken together, our findings suggest that, at least historically, horizontal forms of social capital among more privileged groups (e.g., business, professional, and political associations) bear influence on public hospital outcomes. Specific efforts to increase engagement of disadvantaged groups and connect them with decision-makers may be needed to fully realize the potential of linking social capital to influence local healthcare policy promoting social protection.

  1. Isolation, identification and evolution analysis of a novel subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from a local Chinese yellow broiler in South China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel A...

  2. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  3. 47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.300 Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital. (a... composite financial structure for all local exchange carriers with annual revenues equal to or above...

  4. Social Capital and Adolescents Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Analysis of Eight European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gisladottir, Berglind

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on mathematics achievement in eight European cities. The study draws on data from the 2008 Youth in Europe survey, carried out by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis. The sample contains responses from 17,312 students in 9th and 10th grade of local secondary schools in the…

  5. School Facilities Funding and Capital-Outlay Distribution in the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Wang, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, financing the construction of school facilities has been a local responsibility. In the past several decades, states have increased their support for school facilities. Using data collected from various sources, this study first classifies the design of capital aid programs in all 50 states into various categories based on the scope…

  6. The Development and Recovery of Social Capital through Community-Based Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between participation in community-based adult learning (CBAL) and the development of social capital. It is based on a life-history study of participation in community-based adult learning opportunities undertaken in two local authority areas in Scotland. A life-history approach was chosen in order to ensure that…

  7. Development of a Video Story Board for Recruitment at Capital-Community-Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kenneth A.

    To address a decrease in the number of local high school graduates enrolling in Capital Community-Technical College (CCTC) in Connecticut, a project was undertaken to develop a story board for a video to inform prospective students of the benefits of a college education at CCTC. A literature review was performed to find information about the…

  8. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  9. Managing Human Capital in World Cities: The Development of Hong Kong into an Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ada; Maclean, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the Hong Kong government has sought to build a regional education hub and develop an education industry. However, the rationales and intentions behind this move and the implications these have for the nurturing of local human capital and economic capacity are not always clear. This article seeks to contextualize Hong Kong's economic…

  10. Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case. Working Paper #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda

    The role of female educators in the Brazilian Amazon community of Itaituba (population in 1970: 12,690) has fallen short of that envisioned by the policymakers and social scientists in the early 1970s, as indicated by research conducted in 1976-77. Based on the "human capital" theory, better-trained local teachers were to train the local…

  11. Repositioning Biliteracy as Capital for Learning: Lessons from Teacher Preparation at the US-Mexico border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick Henry; Murillo, Luz A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores biliteracy as understood and practiced in school and community contexts in a particular region of the US-Mexico borderlands, the Rio Grande Valley of southeast Texas. Drawing on capital theory, we contrast the ambivalent perceptions of Spanish/English biliteracy held by local pre-service and in-service educators with biliterate…

  12. The Impact of Economic Shocks on Quality of Life and Social Capital in Small Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Terry L.; Recker, Nicholas; Agnitsch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Economic shocks are sudden events causing a significant impact on the local economy. Disaster community literature predicts that community outcomes from shocks will depend on the kind of shock. Consensus crisis shocks will be followed by increases in social capital and quality of life. Corrosive community shocks will result in declines in these…

  13. Small Farmers and Social Capital in Development Projects: Lessons from Failures in Argentina's Rural Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelini, Juan Jose

    2013-01-01

    The importance of social capital as a resource for rural development, especially in the context of projects involving joint participation of state and civil society, is widely recognized today. This paper analyzes the obstacles confronted by local players--small farmers and government organizations--in the development of an irrigation area through…

  14. Integrating remote sensing data with WRF for improved simulations of oasis effects on local weather processes over an arid region in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X.; Dong, W.; Liao, X.; Lu, S.; Jin, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land use/cover types derived by satellite remote sensing data from the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used to replace the U.S. Survey (USGS) data in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations in this study were further improved by modifying the initial fields of WRF with soil temperature and moisture observations, because these two variables are important to producing "cold-wet island" effects. These improvements enabled the WRF model to reproduce the observed "cold and wet island" effects of the oasis.; Location and landscape map of the Jinta oasis. Jinta oasis is an inverse triangle situated between 98°39‧E and 99°08‧E and 39°56‧N and 40°17‧N in the north-central Heihe River Basin in northwestern China (Fig. 1). The average annual total precipitation is about 59.5 mm and the annual potential evapotranspiration is about 2538.6 mm (Meng et al. 2009). The total area is about 1652 km2. Jinta oasis is a typical irrigated area in arid northwestern China. It has an undulating topography and varies in elevation by only 80 m. ; In the field, there were 4 automatic weather stations (AWSs) and 1 oasis meteorological tower station in the vegetated areas, and 1 Gobi meteorological tower station was located in the nonvegetated area. The four AWSs were at 2 m height, and the two tower stations were at 4 heights (1.8, 5.8, 13, and 18.9 m). This figure shows the comparison of land use/vegetation maps between the default (USGS) and modified MODIS data for the 1 km-resolution domain. Most of the oasis is irrigated cropland, with grassland decreasing rapidly in the interior and outer edges of the Jinta oasis and degrading to desert (Fig. 2b). With population growth, more and more grassland is used to plant crops, which results in the reduction of shrubland and grassland.

  15. The social architecture of capitalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ian

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.

  16. Homicides in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    1999-09-01

    In this study we investigated homicides in the two Scandinavian capitals, Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway, for the 10-year period from 1985 to 1994. The total number of homicides was 431; 63.8% occurred in Copenhagen and 36.2% in Oslo. The average homicide rate was 1.6/100,000 in Copenhagen and 1.8/100,000 in Oslo. Blunt force, sharp force, and strangulation were the most common methods. Firearms were also used but did not account for >20% in either of the two cities. This is probably due to strict gun laws in both countries. There was no clear difference between the homicide victim populations in the two cities with regard to age, gender, or social and marital status. The proportion of alcoholics and unemployed persons was much higher than in the background population and to a similar extent in both cities, indicating that the homicide victim populations differ from the background populations. The perpetrator knew the victim in the majority of the cases. The most frequent motives or circumstances in both cities were fights, family rows, financial controversies, or jealousy.

  17. Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L

    2012-09-01

    Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments.

  18. Mongolian pines (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines.

  19. Genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating rhizobia in response to locally-based long term fertilization in a Mollisol of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Chen, WenFeng; Han, XiaoZeng; Wang, EnTao; Zou, WenXiu; Zhang, ZhiMing

    2017-01-01

    The influences of five different fertilizer treatments on diversity of rhizobia in soybean nodule were investigated in a long-term experiment with with four replicates: (1) control (without fertilization), (2) balanced NPK fertilizer (NPK), and (3-5) unbalanced chemical fertilizers without one of the major elements (NP, PK, and NK) in Mollisol in Northeast China. The highest soybean yield was observed in the NPK treatment. Total of 200 isolates were isolated and grouped into four Bradyrhizobium genospecies corresponding to B. japonicum, B. diazoefficiens, B. ottawaense and Bradyrhizobium sp. I, based upon the multilocus sequence analysis of 6 housekeeping genes. The Bradyrhizobium sp. I was extensively distributed throughout the study site and was recorded as the dominant soybean rhizobia (82.5-87.5%). Except the NK treatment, the other fertilizer treatments had no effect on rhizobial species composition. Compared with the CK treatment, all the fertilizer treatments decreased species richness, diversity and evenness. The soil organic carbon contents, available N content and pH were the key soil factors to rhizobial community structure. Results suggest that long-term fertilization can decrease rhizobial species diversity, while balanced fertilization with NPK is the most suitable fertilization regime if taking both soybean yields and rhizobial diversity into account.

  20. Localization and characterization of the Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone in Zibo city, Shandong province, China, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.

    2017-01-01

    A 2D ERT survey is performed along 10 cross-sections intersecting with the trace of Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone, a Quaternary active normal fault zone going from south to north across Zibo city, Shandong province, China. During the survey, the Wenner-α array with the strongest anti-electrical disturbance ability is adopted, and some ways to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of apparent resistivity data are performed. The reconstructed resistivity tomograms illustrate that Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone in Zibo city consists of 4 NW-striking normal faults which are the west branch (F1), the secondary fault of west branch (F1-1), the secondary fault of east branch (F2-1) and the east branch (F2). Fault F1 has NE apparent dip direction and 67° -75° apparent dip angle, and fault F2 SW and 60° -63°. The two faults are the main faults of Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone and form a graben. Subsequent geologic drilling records prove our inference. Our results present an important basis for the definition of seismic fortification level and new city planning in Zibo city.

  1. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the capital adequacy plan: (1) Capability of management and the board of directors; (2) Quality of... portfolios; (5) Sufficiency of liquid funds; (6) Needs of an institution's customer base; and (7) Any...

  2. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  3. Greening America's Capitals - Baton Rouge, LA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The design options from this Greening America's Capitals project provide strategies that can improve environmental performance in Baton Rouge by increasing tree canopy, capturing and holding stormwater, and improving natural habitat.

  4. Cultural capital and social inequality in health.

    PubMed

    Abel, T

    2008-07-01

    Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.

  5. Greening America's Capitals - Des Moines, IA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from Greening America's Capitals project in Des Moines, IA, to help the city enhance the 6th Avenue Corridor with pedestrian and bike improvements and green infrastructure to manage stormwater.

  6. Capital expenditures and the availability of funds.

    PubMed

    Muller, C; Worthington, P N; Allen, G

    1975-01-01

    Data on capital expenditures and the availability of funds assembled from the annual financial and service records of 42 short-term voluntary hospitals in New York City over two decades were used to analyze the behavior of annual capital expenditures on building and equipment assets. Desired expenditures on capital as a factor of production are viewed as being the result of changes in anticipated output and of the substitution of capital for labor. Actual capital expenditures in each year also reflect the availability of flows of nonoperating revenues and the completion of capital programs initiated in previous years. Nonoperating revenues include philanthropy and earnings on financial assets as principal sources. A monetary revenue series, adjusted for changes in hospital charges, was used to measure output and thus to seperate the effects of demand for hospital services and supply of funds on investment behavior. The data were approached as annual aggregates for 42 hospitals over the years 1946-1966 and as annual hospital averages for teaching and nonteaching hospitals over the same period. In both approaches four causal factors-output, substitution, the flow of nonoperating revenues, and a distributed lag-explained about 95 per cent of the sample variance of capital expenditures. Allowing for available funds reduced the average time required for 95 per cent completion of a capital adjustment from 7 to 3 years. Responsiveness of hospitals to these economic variables suggests that socially desired investment can be attained by (a) "monetizing" needs of groups now underserved; (b) improving availability of funds if used for acceptable public purposes; and (c) including consumers in determining institutional and regional priorities.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1202-1 - Deduction for capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... asset has been held. Nevertheless, the net short-term capital gain or loss and the net long-term capital... exceeds the net short-term capital loss, 50 percent of the amount of the excess is allowable as a... under section 1202 in the case of an estate or trust, any long-term or short-term capital gains...

  8. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk capital requirement, its market risk capital requirement, and its operations risk capital... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  9. 12 CFR 1777.22 - Limitation on capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on capital distributions. 1777.22... Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.22 Limitation on capital distributions. (a) Capital distributions in general. An Enterprise shall make no capital distribution that would decrease the total...

  10. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  11. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  12. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  13. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  14. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  15. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank may issue either one or both classes of its capital stock (including subclasses), as authorized by §...

  16. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  17. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have...

  18. Effects of Social Capital on Academic Success: A Narrative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers link social capital theory to education and commonly use examples from the field of education to examine social capital theory. Accordingly, they accept that reflections and contributions of social capital can be observed in the field of education. This paper examines social capital's effects on academic success in education. In…

  19. Social and Subcultural Capital among Teenagers in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for the inclusion of subcultural capital as an indicator of social capital networks in the lives of teenagers. It does so by critiquing approaches that assume that adult measures of social capital can be non-problematically extended to account for stocks of social capital held by younger generations. To illustrate the…

  20. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (1) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  1. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (1) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  2. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section with respect to capital obligations that qualify for recognition as old capital, old capital costs...-related expenses (including but not limited to, taxes, insurance, license and royalty fees on depreciable... 31, 1990 and the costs meet all other provisions for recognition of old capital costs contained...

  3. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  4. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  5. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized...

  6. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3 Section 931.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 931.2 - Issuance of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of capital stock. 931.2 Section 931.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.2 Issuance of capital stock. (a) In general. A Bank...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  13. 24 CFR 902.50 - Capital Fund program assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LOCCS (or its successor) for all Capital Fund program grants that were open during the assessed fiscal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capital Fund program assessment... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Capital Fund Program Indicator § 902.50 Capital...

  14. 24 CFR 902.50 - Capital Fund program assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LOCCS (or its successor) for all Capital Fund program grants that were open during the assessed fiscal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capital Fund program assessment... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Capital Fund Program Indicator § 902.50 Capital...

  15. 24 CFR 902.50 - Capital Fund program assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...LOCCS (or its successor) for all Capital Fund program grants that were open during the assessed fiscal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capital Fund program assessment... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Capital Fund Program Indicator § 902.50 Capital...

  16. 75 FR 47860 - Kohlberg Capital Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... COMMISSION Kohlberg Capital Corporation; Notice of Application August 3, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... Application: Kohlberg Capital Corporation (``Kohlberg Capital'') requests an order to permit it to issue... Commission, 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Kohlberg Capital Corporation, 295 Madison...

  17. 75 FR 16211 - MCG Capital Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION MCG Capital Corporation; Notice of Application March 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... of the Application: MCG Capital Corporation (the ``Applicant''), requests an order to amend a prior...'') pursuant to the MCG Capital Corporation 2006 Employee Restricted Stock Plan and the MCG Capital...

  18. Administrative competencies for physician organizations with capitation.

    PubMed

    Penner, M

    1999-01-01

    In California, it is common for HMOs to capitate physician organizations (e.g., independent practice organizations and multispecialty medical groups) for all professional and outpatient ancillary services (and to share risk for inpatient care) under professional risk capitation contracts. This arrangement exports most of the financial risk from the HMO to the physician organization. When HMOs and physician organizations contract under these arrangements, HMOs delegate many of their administrative functions to physician organizations--giving the physician organization authority to make the decisions needed to manage capitated risk. As a result, administrators of physician organizations must be competent in such areas as provider network development, financial forecasting, utilization and quality management, contract negotiation, and establishing systems for claims, reporting, authorizations, and the like. In this study four HMO and 22 physician organization administrators were interviewed concerning key administrative competencies for managing capitation contracts. The competencies were assessed as key administrative work activities that required specific knowledge, skill, or ability to perform. Identifying these competencies is important for physician organizations preparing for capitated risk and will be essential for organizations preparing for HMO or Medicare capitation.

  19. Teachers' Understanding and Operationalisation of `Science Capital'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Heather; Nomikou, Effrosyni; Archer, Louise; Regan, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, governments, industry and educationalists are in agreement that more needs to be done to increase and broaden participation in post-16 science. Schools, as well as teachers, are seen as key in this effort. Previous research has found that engagement with science, inclination to study science and understanding of the value of science strongly relates to a student's science capital. This paper reports on findings from the pilot year of a one-year professional development (PD) programme designed to work with secondary-school teachers to build students' science capital. The PD programme introduced teachers to the nature and importance of science capital and thereafter supported them to develop ways of implementing science capital-building pedagogy in their practice. The data comprise interviews with the participating teachers (n = 10), observations of classroom practices and analyses of the teachers' accounts of their practice. Our findings suggest that teachers found the concept of science capital to be compelling and to resonate with their own intuitive understandings and experiences. However, the ways in which the concept was operationalised in terms of the implementation of pedagogical practices varied. The difficulties inherent in the operationalisation are examined and recommendations for future work with teachers around the concept of science capital are developed.

  20. Isolation, identification and evolution analysis of a novel subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from a local Chinese yellow broiler in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjian; Lin, Wencheng; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Xinheng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Baohong; Shu, Dingming; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel ALV strain named GD14LZ was isolated from a Chinese local yellow broiler in 2014. The proviral genome was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The replication ability and pathogenicity of this virus were also evaluated. The complete proviral genome sequence of GD14LZ was 7482 nt in length, with a genetic organization typical of replication-competent type C retroviruses lacking viral oncogenes. Sequence analysis showed that the gag, pol and gp37 genes of GD14LZ have high sequence similarity to those of other ALV strains (A-E subgroups), especially to those of ALV-E. The gp85 gene of the GD14LZ isolate showed a low sequence similarity to those other ALV strains (A-E subgroups) but showed high similarity to strains previously described as ALV-K. Phylogenetic analysis of gp85 also suggested that the GD14LZ isolate was related to ALV-K strains. Further study showed that this isolate replicated more slowly and was less pathogenic than other ALV strains. These results indicate that the GD14LZ isolate belongs to the novel subgroup ALV-K and probably arose by recombination of ALV-K with endogenous viruses with low replication and pathogenicity. This virus might have existed in local Chinese chickens for a long time.

  1. Distribution of trace element contamination in sediments and riverine agricultural soils of the Zhongxin River, South China, and evaluation of local plants for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Yuan, Jiangang; Wu, Shanshan; Lin, Biyun; Yang, Zhongyi

    2012-10-26

    Contents of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediments of river bed and bankside and adjacent agricultural soils along the Zhongxin River, Guangdong, China, were determined to investigate the metal distribution and assess ecological risk of trace element contamination. The results show that Cd and Zn are the two major metal elements contaminating the sediments and riverine farmlands. Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) also revealed that the river sediments were polluted by Cd at levels from moderate to extreme, and by Zn at levels from moderate to high in most cases. Agricultural soils were generally moderately or highly polluted by Cd, and were unpolluted by Zn in most cases. The trace element contents of the river sediments in the upper and middle reaches of the river were much higher than in the downstream reaches. Agricultural soils in site S3 at Zhongxin Town had the highest amount of all the tested trace elements. Although the contents of the trace elements generally decreased from the upper and middle reaches to the downstream river, there was no obvious trend found for agricultural soils. The trace element contents were less influenced by pH and TOC in the sediments as well as in the soils. Storage in river alluvium and dilution by downstream clean sediments were the main mechanisms responsible for the decrease of the metal contents in the river sediments. The linear fit model depicts the risk of transportation of polluted sediments to Xinfengjiang Reservoir, the largest protection zone for sources of drinking water in Guangdong Province. Torpedo grass and rice plant showed the potential to be used in biomonitoring of metal contamination, however, further investigations are needed before using them in practice.

  2. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses: the mediating effect of psychological capital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24) scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout. PMID:23107113

  3. [Workplace social capital and intention to stay among Chinese nurses: a structural equation model].

    PubMed

    Gao, J L; Zhu, M Y; An, N; Fu, H

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To explore a model that workplace social capital is associated with intention to stay (ITS) in the nursing profession and that this association is partially mediated by organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job stress among Chinese nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional, observationalstudy was conducted in Shanghai, China between September and December 2014. Two thousandforty-two nurses from 23 healthcare organizations were recruited for the current study using a two-stage sampling process.Intention to stay, workplace social capital, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job stress was measured by validated scale. Measured variable path analysis (MVPA) was used to test their hypothesized relationships. Results: There were significant positive direct effects from workplace social capital (β=0.11, P<0.01) , organizational commitment (β=0.81, P<0.01) and job satisfaction (β=0.03, P<0.01) to ITS, and a negative direct effects from job strain to ITS (β=-0.03, P<0.01) . The model explained 84% of the variability in ITS. Additionally, workplace social capital had significant positive direct effects on organizational commitment (β=0.65, P<0.01) , job satisfaction (β=0.44, P<0.01) and negative direct effects on job strain (β=-0.35, P<0.01) . The indirect effect of social capital to ITS was 0.55. Job satisfaction was positively associated with organizational commitment (r=0.47, P<0.01) , and negtively associated with job stress (r=-0.12, P<0.01) . Job stress was negtively associated with organizational commitment (r=-0.20, P<0.01) . Conclusion: This study suggests that greater workplace social capital may lead to higher ITS in nursing primarily by increasing commitment to the nursing occupation and their job satisfaction and by reducing their sense of job stress.

  4. Social capital, collective efficacy and the provision of social support services and amenities by municipalities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Waverijn, Geeke; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Klerk, Mirjam

    2017-03-01

    Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and amenities in Dutch municipalities, against a background of decentralisation of long-term care to municipalities. We used data on neighbourhood social capital, collective efficacy (the extent to which people are willing to work for the common good), and the provision of services and amenities in 2012. We included the services municipalities provide to support informal caregivers (e.g. respite care), individual services and support (e.g. domiciliary help), and general and collective services and amenities (e.g. lending point for wheelchairs). Data for social capital were collected between May 2011 and September 2012. Social capital was measured by focusing on contacts between neighbours. A social capital measure was estimated for 414 municipalities with ecometric measurements. A measure of collective efficacy was constructed based on information about the experienced responsibility for the liveability of the neighbourhood by residents in 2012, average charity collection returns in municipalities in 2012, voter turnout at the municipal elections in 2010 and the percentage of blood donors in 2012. We conducted Poisson regression and negative binomial regression to test our hypotheses. We found no relationship between social capital and the provision of services and amenities in municipalities. We found an interaction effect (coefficient = 3.11, 95% CI = 0.72-5.51, P = 0.011) of social capital and collective efficacy on the provision of support services for informal caregivers in rural municipalities. To gain more insight in the relationship between social capital and health, it will be important to study the relationship between social capital and differential provision of

  5. The response of public and private credit markets to typhoons in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    When natural disasters strike, both public and private credit markets may finance the reconstruction of lost capital. We examine the response of public and private credit markets to cyclone events in China, using provincial fiscal data from 1978 to 2008, and find striking differences in the sectors targeted by public and private creditors. Following a cyclone event, public loans to the agricultural sector expand 2% for every additional 10 m/s in local wind exposure, while private loans to industrial and commercial sectors grow 7% for the same event. In addition, we find that these expansions to local credit markets persist at these levels for at least one year following exposure to a storm. We then demonstrate that these results are consistent with a model in which private creditors maximize profits and the government maximizes equity. In this stylized model, we show that when governments value short-term equity and finance risky sectors with plausibly negative net present value, this may have the perverse effect of encouraging populations and capital to remain in disaster-prone regions and lower equity in the long-run.

  6. Structural and compositional analysis of a casting mold sherd from ancient China

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Lang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuexiang; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Duan, Xiulan; Li, Nannan; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    Casting had symbolic significance and was strictly controlled in the Shang dynasty of ancient China. Vessel casting was mainly distributed around the Shang capital, Yin Ruins, which indicates a rigorous centralization of authority. Thus, for a casting mold to be excavated far from the capital region is rare. In addition to some bronze vessel molds excavated at the Buyao Village site, another key discovery of a bronze vessel mold occurred at Daxinzhuang. The Daxinzhuang site was a core area in the east of Shang state and is an important site to study the eastward expansion of the Shang. Here, combining synchrotron X-rays and other physicochemical analysis methods, nondestructive three-dimensional structure imaging and different elemental analyses were conducted on this mold sherd. Through high penetration X-ray tomography, we obtained insights on the internal structure and discovered some pores. We infer that the generation of pores inside the casting mold sherd was used to enhance air permeability during casting. Furthermore, we suppose that the decorative patterns on the surface were carved and not pasted onto it. Considering the previous compositional studies of bronze vessels, the copper and iron elements were analyzed by different methods. Unexpectedly, a larger amount of iron than of copper was detected on the surface. According to the data analysis and archaeological context, the source of iron on the casting mold sherd could be attributed to local soil contamination. A refined compositional analysis confirms that this casting mold was fabricated locally and used for bronze casting. PMID:28296963

  7. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  8. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items....

  9. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items....

  10. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items....

  11. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items....

  12. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan may allow a member to transfer any excess capital stock of the Bank to another member of that Bank...

  13. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan may allow a member to transfer any excess capital stock of the Bank to another member of that Bank...

  14. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan may allow a member to transfer any excess capital stock of the Bank to another member of that Bank...

  15. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan may allow a member to transfer any excess capital stock of the Bank to another member of that Bank...

  16. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by section 5309(e)(1)(C). The local financial commitment to a proposed project will be evaluated according to...

  17. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local financial commitment criteria. 611.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by...

  18. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Asch, Theo; Luna, Byron Quan; Tang, Chenxiao; van Westen, Cees; Alkema, Dinand; Fan, Xuanmei

    2013-04-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical changes. In the Wenchuan area in the Sichuan Province, SW China, changes in thresholds are related to a depletion of source materials for these debris flows. The intensive Earthquake of 2008 in the Wenchuan area generated many co-seismic landslides, which delivered a lot of loose source material. It caused a dramatic increase in debris flow occurrences in the subsequent years. A preliminary model was designed, with entrainment processes driven by run-off water as the main triggering mechanism, to describe the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out with the intention to assess rainfall thresholds for the start of debris flows and critical run out distances. The model was calibrated on the depositional volumes of debris flow events which occurred in individual catchments in August 2011. The calibrated model was used to construct rainfall intensity -duration threshold curves. These curves describe the thresholds for a critical run-out distance, determined by the outlet of the catchment, which was considered as the limit beyond which elements at risk situated in the main river plain are threatened. The research is focused on the change in these thresholds curves after a range of consecutive debris flow triggering rain events. It appeared that for individual catchments the rate of change of these thresholds can vary dramatically which is related to the location of available loose erodible material in the catchment. The model is also applied on a regional scale in the Jingxiu area. A method was proposed to made a general estimate of the time duration to arrive at a debris flow frequency level before the earthquake

  19. Social capital and health and well-being in East Asia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazue

    2008-02-01

    How individual-level social capital relates to adult health and well-being was examined using data from a cross-sectional interview survey in East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, five areas in Mainland China, and Taiwan) in 2002-2004. The number of self-reported somatic symptoms, subjective health satisfaction, life satisfaction and social capital indicators, as well as socio-economic status (SES), were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Adjusting for SES, social capital measured by belonging to organizations and weakness in "norms of reciprocity" were related to a greater number of self-reported somatic symptoms (p<0.001 for both). Lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) and of a person to consult (p=0.012) were related to poor health satisfaction. Lower "interpersonal trust" (p=0.016), weakness in "norms of reciprocity" (p<0.001) and lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) were related to poor life satisfaction. Gender inequality was observed across countries, but the relationships varied according to the health indicator. Specifically, self-reported somatic symptoms were more numerous and health satisfaction was worse in women (p<0.001), but life satisfaction was worse in men (p=0.017). The analyses provide evidence that dimensions of social capital are positively associated with self-reported somatic symptoms and overall well-being in East Asian countries.

  20. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-11

    As time has shown, doesn’t the earthshaking image of an "end-of-era emperor" still have a spellbinding grip on the imagination of ordinary people...continued; this placed China under a pincer attack, as well as in local wars or under the threat of war. Very significant changes have already