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Sample records for china oil fields

  1. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites. PMID:20861922

  2. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  3. On the origin of oil-field water in the Biyang Depression of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yong; Zhan, Hongbin

    2009-09-01

    We have surveyed groundwater samples collected from oil and gas reservoirs in the Biyang Depression of China and quantitatively analyzed the chemical features of those samples using the proportional coefficients. Three different proportional coefficients, namely the de-calcium-magnesium, the boron-calcium-magnesium, and the chloration coefficients have been calculated. These three coefficients reflect the strength of de-calcium-magnesium reaction, the trace elements concentrations, and the degree of diagenesis of the oil-field water, respectively. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions are found to be very low in the groundwater of the Biyang Depression. The concentration of anion in the oil-field groundwater changes greatly with the salinity of groundwater in the Biyang Depression. In low salinity oil field, bicarbonate is generally the dominating anion; but when salinity increases, sulfate gradually replaces bicarbonate to become the dominating anion. However, in high salinity oil field, chloride is the dominating anion. Bromine, iodine, and boron are found to be relatively rich in oil-field water of Biyang Depression. The results show that extensive dolomite deposited near the center of the depression was resulted from de-calcium-magnesium reaction, and the degree of diagenesis of the oil-field water and concentrations of trace elements increase with buried depth in the reservoir.

  4. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; ...

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  5. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  6. Significant role of structural fractures in Ren-Qiu buried-block oil field, eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Xie-Pei, W.

    1983-03-01

    Ren-qui oil field is in a buried block of Sinian (upper Proterozoic) rocks located in the Ji-zhong depression of the western Bohai Bay basin in eastern China. The main reservoir consists of Sinian dolomite rocks. It is a fault block with a large growth fault on the west side which trends north-northeast with throws of up to 1 km (0.6 mi) or more. The source rocks for the oil are Paleogene age and overlie the Sinian dolomite rocks. The structural fractures are the main factor forming the reservoir of the buried-block oil field. Three structural lines, trending northeast, north-northeast, and northwest, form the regional netted fracture system. The north-northeast growth fault controlled the structural development of the buried block. The block was raised and eroded before the Tertiary sediments were deposited. In the Eocene Epoch, the Ji-zhong depression subsided, but the deposition, faulting, and related uplift of the block happened synchronously as the block was gradually submerged. At the same time, several horizontal and vertical karst zones were formed by the karst water along the netted structural fractures. The Eocene oil source rocks lapped onto the block and so the buried block, with many developed karst fractures, was surrounded by a great thickness of source rocks. As the growth fault developed, the height of the block was increased from 400 m (1300 ft) before the Oligocene to 1300 m (4250 ft) after. As the petroleum was generated, it migrated immediately into the karst fractures of the buried block along the growth fault. The karst-fractured block reservoir has an 800-m (2600-ft) high oil-bearing closure and good connections developed between the karst fractures.

  7. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. PMID:27284131

  9. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  10. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  11. Geological emission of methane from the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junhong; Bao, Zhengyu; Xiang, Wu; Gou, Qinghong

    2008-01-01

    A static flux chamber method was applied to study natural emissions of methane into the atmosphere in the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China. Using an online method, which couples a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) together, the 13C/12C ratios of methane in the flux chambers were measured. The results demonstrated that methane gases were liable to migrate from deep oil/gas reservoir to the surface through microseepage and pervasion, and that a part of the migrated methane that remained unoxidized could emit into the atmosphere. Methane emission rates varied less in the oil/gas field because the whole region was homogeneous in geology and geography, with a standard deviation of less than 0.02 mg/(m2 x h). These were the differences in methane emission flux in the day and at night in the oil/gas field. The maximum methane emission flux reached 0.15 mg/(m2 x h) at 5:00-6:00 early in the morning, and then decreased gradually. The minimum was shown 0.10 mg/(m2 x h) at 17:00-18:00 in the afternoon, and then increased gradually. The daily methane released flux of the study area was 2.89 mg/(m2 x d), with a standard deviation of 0.43 mg/(m2 x d), using the average methane flux of every hour in a day for all chambers. delta13C of methane increased with the increase of methane concentration in the flux chambers, further indicating that the pyrogenetic origin of methane was come from deep oil/gas reservoirs.

  12. Precambrian oil and gas in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sisheng Hao; Guangdi Liu

    1989-03-01

    Abundant Precambrian oil and gas occurring mainly in two large basins, Sichuan basin in southwestern China and Bohai Bay basin in northern China, account for a considerable portion of the reserves and production in China. The Precambrian producing formations are all carbonates. Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin is one of the large gas fields in China. Its gas is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Dengying Formation (Sinian System) and was generated chiefly in the algal dolomite of the same system. However, a deeper origin for the gas cannot be ruled out. Renqiu oil field in Bohai Bay basin, a buried-hill oil field, is also one of the largest oil fields in China. The oil is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Wumishan Formation of the middle-upper Proterozoic and was generated chiefly in the Oligocene Shahejie Formation. It is also possible that the oil was partly sourced by middle-upper Proterozoic rocks. In addition, many oil and gas shows have been found in the middle-upper Proterozoic of the Yanshan fold-belt at the northern margin of the Bohai Bay basin. According to an organic geochemical study, the middle-upper Proterozoic in the area has a good potential for hydrocarbon generation, and formation conditions for indigenous hydrocarbon accumulation should exist in the Bohai Bay basin and nearby Yanshan foldbelt. From the analyses of hydrocarbon generation, reservoir, cap rock, trapping, and preservation, the presentation systematically describes the petroleum geological features and hydrocarbon prospects of the Precambrian in China.

  13. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  14. US firms in middle of Vietnam, China oil battle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1994-04-21

    U.S. oil companies Crestone Energy and Mobil are developing oil fields in the South China Sea and are in the middle of a dispute between China and Vietnam over ownership of two large fields. The two fields together contain an estimated 1.1 billion barrels of petroleum. Vietnam maintains they own both fields since they are located on the Vietnamese continental shelf, while China says they own them historically. Companies from Australia, Japan, and Indonesia are also involved in developing the two fields.

  15. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  16. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  17. Geochemistry of oils from the Junggar basin, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Yang, J.; King, J.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Warden, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Junggar basin of northwestern China is a structural basin containing a thick sequence of Paleozoic-Pleistocene rocks with estimated oil reserves of as much as 5 billion bbl. Analyses of 19 oil samples from nine producing fields and two oil-stained cores in the Junggar basin revealed the presence of at least five genetic oil types. The geochemistry of the oils indicates source organic matter deposited in fresh to brackish lake and marine environments, including coaly organic matter sources. The volumetrically most important oil type discovered to date is produced from Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic reservoirs in the giant Karamay field and nearby fields located along the northwestern margin of the Junggar basin. Oil produced from the Mahu field, located downdip in a depression east of the Karamay field, is from a different source than Karamay oils. Unique oil types are also produced from an upper Permian reservoir at Jimusar field in the southeastern part of the basin, and from Tertiary (Oligocene) rocks at Dushanzi field and Lower Jurassic rocks at Qigu field, both located along the southern margin of the basin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of Upper Permian source rocks, and the possibility of Mesozoic or Tertiary sources has been proposed, but not tested by geochemical analysis, although analyses of some possible Jurassic coal source rocks have been reported. Our findings indicate that several effective source rocks are present in the basin, including local sources of Mesozoic or younger age for oil accumulations along the southern and southeastern margins of the basin. Future exploration or assessment of petroleum potential of the basin can be improved by considering the geological relationships among oil types, possible oil source rocks, and reservoirs.

  18. Geochemistry of oils from the Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Lillis, P.G.

    1997-11-01

    The Junggar basin of northwestern China is a structural basin containing a thick sequence of Paleozoic-Pleistocene rocks with estimated oil reserves of as much as 5 billion bbl. Analyses of 19 oil samples from nine producing fields and two oil-stained cores in the Junggar basin revealed the presence of at least five genetic oil types. The geo-chemistry of the oils indicates source organic matter deposited in fresh to brackish lake and marine environments, including coaly organic matter sources. The volumetrically most important oil type discovered to date is produced from Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic reservoirs in the giant Karamay field and nearby fields located along the northwestern margin of the Junggar basin. Oil produced from the Mahu field, located downdip in a depression east of the Karamay field, is from a different source than Karamay oils. Unique oil types are also produced from an upper Permian reservoir at Jimusar field in the southeastern part of the basin, and from Tertiary (Oligocene) rocks at Dushanzi field and Lower Jurassic rocks at Qigu field, both located along the southern margin of the basin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of Upper Permian source rocks, and the possibility of Mesozoic or Tertiary sources has been proposed, but not tested by geochemical analysis, although analyses of some possible Jurassic coal source rocks have been reported. Our findings indicate that several effective source rocks are present in the basin, including local sources of Mesozoic or younger age for oil accumulations along the southern and southeastern margins of the basin. Future exploration or assessment of petroleum potential of the basin can be improved by considering the geological relationships among oil types, possible oil source rocks, and reservoirs.

  19. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  20. Simulation of the migration and transformation of petroleum pollutants in the soils of the Loess plateau: a case study in the Maling oil field of northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Ma, Jinzhu; Wang, Yunquan; Zhang, Yali; Chen, Lihua; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-10-01

    We developed a coupled water-oil simulation model to simulate the migration and transformation of petroleum-derived contaminants in the soil of the Xifeng oil field. To do so, we used the HYDRUS-2D model, which simulates the diffusion, adsorption or desorption, and microbial degradation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the soil-water system. The saturated soil hydraulic conductivity of petroleum-derived pollutants was 0.05 cm day(-1), which is about 1 to 2 % of the soil moisture permeability coefficient. Our numerical simulation results show that spilled crude oil was mainly concentrated in the surface horizons of the soil. The organic pollutant concentration tended to be highest nearest to the pollution source. The pollutant migration was generally concentrated within the top 20 to 30 cm of the soil, with the maximum concentration in the top 5 cm of the soil. With passing time, the pollutant accumulation increased and the adsorption and degradation functions reached a dynamic balance with the input rate at depths greater than 30 cm below the soil surface. The oil-derived pollutants totaled 50 to 100 mg kg(-1) under the dynamic balance condition, which occurred after 20 to 30 years. The petroleum-derived pollutant concentration in the loess soil was inversely correlated with the horizontal distance from the oil well, and the concentration decreased greatly at a distance greater than 40 m from the well.

  1. Classroom in the Oil Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jeanne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a petroleum production program created in Bradford, Pennsylvania, by oil company executives and local educators to answer the need of the regional oil industry for trained manpower. Discusses the need for the program, the search for qualified teachers, funding, and how one student feels about the program. (CT)

  2. China onshore heavy oil reservoir features and new recovery measures

    SciTech Connect

    Naiju Wang

    1995-12-31

    China is known as being rich in onshore heavy oil resources, with a variety of reservoir characteristics, and complex conditions for thermal recoveries. Over the past decade, with improvement in technology, the scale of heavy oil production has continually expanded, and China has now become one of the major heavy oil producing countries in the world. To date, a complete set of techniques associated with huff and puff processes has been developed with some unique features. This paper analyzes several problems inherent in heavy oil development, and presents technical measures for the future development of heavy oil.

  3. 75 FR 3248 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1... industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain... Commerce ] (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of China. 2 3 \\1\\ The record is defined in...

  4. OIL AND GAS FIELD EMISSIONS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an oil and gas field emissions survey. The production segment of the oil and gas industry has been identified as a source category that requires the development of more reliable emissions inventory methodologies. The overall purpose of the project was ...

  5. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  6. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  7. X factor: is Chinese oil worth China's price

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-19

    Oil companies who eagerly sought joint ventures with the Chinese are becoming disenchanted by a combination of disappointed exploration results and difficult operating restrictions requiring the use of Chinese equipment, overhiring at international wage rates, and providing substandard service. Joint venture risks differ in China because of the X factor, under which each consortium negotiated a separate and secret trade deal over how much crude oil the companies can keep after taxes, royalties, and the China National Offshore Oil Company take their share. As production increases, the percentage will decrease. Oil companies are watching for signs of improvements in the secret arrangements because these splits will affect their project's success. 1 table.

  8. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  9. Modeling underwater transport of oil spilled from deepwater area in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; An, Wei; You, Yunxiang; Lei, Fanghui; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model was developed to simulate the underwater transport of oil from a deepwater spill. This model comprises two submodels: a plume dynamics model and an advection-diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by the initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil, while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by the ambient current and turbulence. The model validity was verified through comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data from several laboratory flume experiments and a field experiment. To demonstrate the capability of the model further, it was applied to the simulation of a hypothetical oil spill occurring at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea. The results of the simulation would be useful for contingency planning with regard to the emergency response to an underwater oil spill.

  10. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-09-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  11. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  12. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  13. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  14. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  15. First application of airborne gravity to oil exploration in the Shengli oil province, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyong; Zhoud, Jianxin; Liu, Yanxu; Xu, Jianchun

    2015-07-01

    An airborne gravity survey was successfully conducted over the Dongying, Gudao and Gudong oilfields of Shengli oil province, eastern China. These survey areas cover onshore and offshore regions of the south-west Bohai Sea. The data were processed using the potential field transformation approach. The derived Bouguer gravity data correlate well with features such as known faults, swells and sags identified by earlier seismic survey and drilling data. The depth to the Cenozoic basement in the study area, including the Dongying, Gudao, and Gudong oilfields, was calculated by means of gravity inversion constrained by seismic and drilling data. The differences between the depths to the Cenozoic basement calculated from gravity anomaly and those determined by the earlier seismic and drilling data are less than 5%.

  16. China’s Oil Rush in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    exploration and production sharing agreement with the EPRDF government to exploit the Ogaden Basin , located in eastern Ethiopia, and the 9...of oil production. The largest foreign oil producer is Anadarko (US), which produces 530,000 bpd. Chinese companies have steadily been...where it operates in an oil mining lease area of approximately 19,300 square miles. SPDC has more than 3,700 miles of pipelines and flow lines

  17. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  18. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  19. Oil-shale mining in Maoming basin of China

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Maoming basin in Guangdong Province is one of the major oil-shale mining areas of China and is situated about 300 km southwest of Hong Kong. This Tertiary basin produces oil from shales mined from a 5-km long open-faced pit on the crest of an anticline in the center of an uplifted and tilted graben. The oil shale extends about 30 km in a northwest-southeast line, and the beds dip as much as 10/degree/ toward metamorphic mountains to the northeast. In the surrounding area are numerous oil seeps, especially in ponds, water wells, and at the foundations of buildings. Holes with oil shows, made to test the extent of the oil shale, have been drilled to a depth of 1000 m. At the base of the mine face is a limestone hardground on top of which is a coal seam about 0.5 m thick that can be traced throughout the basin. Atop this Paleocene coal bed are Eocene oil-shale and thin sandstone beds in five repeated sections, each about 15 m thick, called the Youganwou formation. All kinds of freshwater fossils - fish, insects, plants, turtles, and tree trunks - are found in a near-perfect state of preservation in these oil-rich shales and coal sections. The estimated oil content of the rock is about 8% of good-quality oil with plenty of light ends.

  20. Terrestrial tight oil reservoir characteristics and Graded Resource Assessment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shejiao; Wu, Xiaozhi; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    The success of shale/tight plays and the advanced exploitation technology applied in North America have triggered interest in exploring and exploiting tight oil in China. Due to the increased support of exploration and exploitation,great progress has been made in Erdos basin, Songliao basin, Junggar basin, Santanghu basin, Bohai Bay basin, Qaidam Basin, and Sichuan basin currently. China's first tight oil field has been found in Erdos basin in 2015, called xinanbian oil field, with over one hundred million tons oil reserves and one million tons of production scale. Several hundred million tons of tight oil reserve has been found in other basins, showing a great potential in China. Tight oil in China mainly developed in terrestrial sedimentary environment. According to the relations of source rock and reservoir, the source-reservoir combination of tight oil can be divided into three types, which are bottom generating and top storing tight oil,self- generating and self-storing tight oil,top generating and bottom storing tight oil. The self- generating and self-storing tight oil is the main type discovered at present. This type of tight oil has following characteristics:(1) The formation and distribution of tight oil are controlled by high quality source rocks. Terrestrial tight oil source rocks in China are mainly formed in the deep to half deep lacustrine facies. The lithology includes dark mudstone, shale, argillaceous limestone and dolomite. These source rocks with thickness between 20m-150m, kerogen type mostly I-II, and peak oil generation thermal maturity(Ro 0.6-1.4%), have great hydrocarbon generating potential. Most discovered tight oil is distributed in the area of TOC greater than 2 %.( 2) the reservoir with strong heterogeneity is very tight. In these low porosity and permeability reservoir,the resources distribution is controlled by the physical property. Tight sandstone, carbonate and hybrid sedimentary rocks are three main tight reservoir types in

  1. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  2. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  3. Gullfaks oil field - From challenge to success

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, H.; Nygaard, O. )

    1990-09-01

    The giant Gullfaks oil field was discovered in 1978. The field contains oil reserves in excess of 1.3 billion bbl. The field is located in the northeastern past of Block 34/10 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Gullfaks represents the shallowest structural element of the Tampen Spur and was formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic delta-deposited Brent Group, the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic fluvial channel and delta-plain deposits of the Statfjord Formation. The presence of gas in the post-Jurassic section and a variable water depth have complicated seismic interpretation. However, the improved quality of the 1985 three dimensional seismic survey and deliberate deepening of the development wells have resulted in a more accurate and complete structural interpretation. The Brent reserves in the western part of the field currently are being developed by the Gullfaks A and B platforms. The eastern part of the field is developed by a third platform, Gulflaks C. Water injection is the major drive mechanism maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point.

  4. Research of Coal Substituting Oil (Natural Gas) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng

    The complexion that coal gives priority to others resource is decided by the energy production and consume structure. It is difficult to change in the future. With the economy growth, the energy demand is increasing, especially the oil and natural gas. But the resource condition of oil and natural gas are not optimism, domestic production is satisfy to the energy demand difficultly, the direct way is by the import. However the import is affected by the international energy subsituation, and it can affect the energy safety. Whereas the abundant coal resource, the coal can substitute the oil(natural gas).It not only cuts down the dependence on the overseas energy, but also builds up the safety. So, applying the trans-log production function, the text analyses the substitution among capital, coal, oil and natural gas in China.

  5. The management in response to marine oil spill from ships in China: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangao; Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Wan, Jun; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-07-15

    Historical trends about marine ship-source oil spill incidents from 1990 to 2010 in China were analyzed, and it provided an overview of the status quo of China's management in response to marine oil spill from ships. The Chinese government has issued a series of laws on marine environmental protection since 1982, and promulgated many regulations to prevent and tackle ship-source oil spill. At present, the oil spill emergency response system established in China has five levels: the national level, sea level, provincial level, port level, and ship level. China has demonstrated its ability to control and remove small-scale oil spill from ships in port area and near-shore coastal waters, and also paid attention to related research and development projects. Although China has made significant progress in managing shipping oil spill, challenges still exist, including strengthening oil spill emergency cooperation, enhancing China's response capability, and improving relevant research and development projects.

  6. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  7. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of crude oils after Dalian oil spill, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; He, Shijie; Zhao, Mingming

    2013-06-15

    In an attempt to analyze the chemical characterization of oil residues and examine the suitability of chemical fingerprinting methods in oil spill investigations, multiple parameters sensitive to both sources and degree of weathering were used to characterize oil residues from "7-16" Dalian oil spill, China. Oil residues collected 90 days to 120 days after the spill showed a weathering pattern where significant amounts of light to middle molecular weight normal alkanes were depleted with pristane and phytane as dominant peaks. Diagnostic ratios developed from n-alkane and selected isoprenoids (e.g. Pr/Ph, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, carbon preference index, LMW/HMW-alkanes ratio), all display obvious changes over weathering time, indicating that these ratios are not valid for oil source identification. Furthermore, the biomarker ratios of hopanes and steranes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.88-4.08% were useful for source identification even for severely weathered oil residues. In addition, RSD of δ(13)C values of individual n-alkanes in oil residue varied from 0.07% to 0.20%, which suggest that stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can also be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill.

  8. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  9. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  10. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  11. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  12. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  13. Desert disturbance assessments of regional oil exploitation by Aster and ETM+ images in Taklimakan Desert China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Fu, Yongshuo; Zhang, Jiaxun

    2008-09-01

    To feed its rapidly growing energy demand, oil exploitation in China has never been more intensive. The most obvious characteristics of oil exploitation are progressive and regional, which can be monitored by remote sensing, such as land use and cover change, either perpetual or temporary, during oil field development such as construction of oil well, roads, transportation systems and other facilities. In this paper, the oil field located on the north edge of Taklimakan Desert, in the Tarim River watershed in northwest of China. The disturbance effects of regional oil exploitation were the main content of regional environmental managements and monitoring. Based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Aster images, analyzed regional land use and landscape change from 2001 to 2003. By the comparison, it can be concluded that the ecological quality was deteriorating in these 3 years. The woodland was degrading to grass and desert. The area of woodland dropped from 9.06 km(2) in 2001 to 3.24 km(2) in 2003 with a 64.23% decrease. At the same time, the area of shrubbery lessened 18.23%. On the other hand, the whole area of desert and Saline soils inflated from 15.08 km(2) in 2001 to 25.36 km(2) in 2003. The patch number of bare land did climb dramatically, but single patch area increased. The research demonstrated that desert and Saline soils patches were activated by the human behavior and climate change. The information from the ETM+ and Aster images was proved be an effective and efficient way to be applied in regional environmental managements.

  14. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  15. Microbial processes in oil fields: culprits, problems, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha; Elshahed, Mostafa S; McInerney, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, metabolic capabilities, ecological roles, and community dynamics of oil reservoir microbial communities is far from complete. The lack of appreciation of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can lead to detrimental consequences such as souring or plugging. In contrast, knowledge of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can be used to enhance productivity and recovery efficiency. It is clear that (1) nitrate and/or nitrite addition controls H2S production, (2) oxygen injection stimulates hydrocarbon metabolism and helps mobilize crude oil, (3) injection of fermentative bacteria and carbohydrates generates large amounts of acids, gases, and solvents that increases oil recovery particularly in carbonate formations, and (4) nutrient injection stimulates microbial growth preferentially in high permeability zones and improves volumetric sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Biosurfactants significantly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water and large amounts of biosurfactant can be made in situ. However, it is still uncertain whether in situ biosurfactant production can be induced on the scale needed for economic oil recovery. Commercial microbial paraffin control technologies slow the rate of decline in oil production and extend the operational life of marginal oil fields. Microbial technologies are often applied in marginal fields where the risk of implementation is low. However, more quantitative assessments of the efficacy of microbial oil recovery will be needed before microbial oil recovery gains widespread acceptance.

  16. Waste oil derived biofuels in China bring brightness for global GHG mitigation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed a novel way for global greenhouse gas reduction through reusing China's waste oil to produce biofuels. Life cycle greenhouse gas mitigation potential of aviation bio-kerosene and biodiesel derived from China's waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 28.8% and 14.7% of mitigation achievements on fossil-based CO2 emissions by Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol in the period of 1990-2008, respectively. China's potential of producing biodiesel from waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 7.4% of China's fossil-based diesel usage in terms of energy. Potential of aviation bio-kerosene derived from waste oil could provide about 43.5% of China's aviation fuel demand in terms of energy. Sectors key to waste oil generation are identified from both production and consumption perspectives. Measures such as technology innovation, government supervision for waste oil collection and financial subsidies should be introduced to solve bottlenecks.

  17. Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Jiang; Zhao, Jimin

    2010-02-01

    Crude oil exploration and production has been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil on wetland soils, we examined the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), as well as pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oil sites and uncontaminated areas in the Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH and TOC, but significantly lower (p < 0.05) TN contents than those of the uncontaminated areas. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C/N and C/P ratios. For TP contents and EC, no significant changes were detected. The level of soil contamination and impact of oil residuals on soil quality greatly depended on the length of time the oil well was in production. Oil residuals had caused some major changes in the soils' chemical properties in the Momoge Wetland.

  18. Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ji, Guodong; Ni, Jinren

    2009-07-01

    Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mgg(-1) dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C(16)-C(23)) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

  19. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields.

  20. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale.

  1. Biomarker analysis of Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales containing up to 34% TOC (total organic carbon) underlie approximately 50,000 km{sup 2} of the Junggar basin in western China, and appear to be the principal source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar and in several recent discoveries in other areas of the basin. The siliceous oil shales were deposited in a sediment-starved foreland basin during a period of predominantly humid climate. Previous biomarker studies of crude oils from Karamay field have documented an abundance of {beta}-carotane (which in some cases dominates the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution) and gammacerane, suggesting a source bed deposited under hypersaline conditions. However, relatively complete outcrop exposures of finely laminated oil shales in the southern Junggar conspicuously lack evaporites, extensive dessication horizons, or other sedimentological evidence of playa lake environments. Indeed, the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution in bitumen extracts from southern Junggar oil shales appear characteristic of freshwater to brakish water deposition of organic matter in an anoxic lake. Normal alkanes show a slight odd-over-even preference with relatively low levels of the C{sub 22}, n-alkane, pristane/phytane ratios close to unity, low {beta}-carotane and gammacerane levels, and the absence of C{sub 34}-C{sub 35} hopanes. This apparent difference in source bed depositional environments may be due to tectonic partitioning between separate depocenters of the Late Permian Junggar basin. Alternatively, hypersaline oil shale facies may be limited to deeper basinal areas, whereas upslope southern Junggar sediments record highstands in lake level or influx of fresh water from the adjacent drainage areas.

  2. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  3. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  4. Kuwait Oil Fields as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A clear view of the northern Kuwait coast shows the southern part of Kuwait City, and the major oil fields to the south. Oil laden sands, where wells were set ablaze during the Gulf War in 1991, are visible south of Kuwait City as a dark, elongated patch surrounded by light-colored sand. Oil-stained sandbetween well sites (dots) and criss-crossing roads is gradually being covered by clean sand carried by strong, seasonal northwest winds.

  5. Environmental contamination in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.; Hall, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on freshwater wildlife of chronic exposure to oil field discharges are not well known. Collections of wastewater, aquatic invertebrates, fish, salamanders, and small mammals were made in several streams in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania during 1980-81. Estimates of the petroleum content of two wastewater discharges were high (21.9 and 8.4 ppm) and one was low (0.3 ppm). Water conductivity was inversely related to aquatic invertebrate biomass. Hydrocarbons accumulated in significantly greater amounts in crayfish, fish, and small mammals from collection sites with oil extraction activity than from sites without oil extraction activity. Estimates of total petroleum in invertebrates, trout, and suckers averaged between 200 and 280 ppm for oil extraction sites and between 8 and 80 ppm for sites without oil extraction activity: Oil extraction activity did not affect metal accumulation by fish. Oil and wastewater discharges in oil fields disrupt community composition and can cause an overall reduction in stream productivity.

  6. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  8. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  9. The enigma of oil and gas field growth

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    Growth in estimates of recovery in discovered fields is an important source of annual additions to United States proven reserves. This paper examines historical field growth and presents estimates of future additions to proved reserves from fields discovered before 1992. Field-level data permitted the sample to be partitioned on the basis of recent field growth patterns into outlier and common field set, and analyzed separately. The outlier field set accounted for less than 15% of resources, yet grew proportionately six times as much as the common fields. Because the outlier field set contained large old heavy-oil fields and old low-permeability gas fields, its future growth is expected to be particularly sensitive to prices. A lower bound of a range of estimates of future growth was calculated by applying monotone growth functions computed from the common field set to all fields. Higher growth estimates were obtained by extrapolating growth of the common field set and assuming the outlier fields would maintain the same share of total growth that occurred from 1978 through 1991. By 2020, the two estimates for additions to reserves from pre-1992 fields are 23 and 32 billion bbl of oil in oil fields and 142 and 195 tcf of gas in gas fields. 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.

    1984-11-01

    A Field Guide for Oil Spill Behavior was developed to provide the On-Scene Coordinator with the spill-behavior information needed to assess whether timely and adequate containment and removal actions are taken. The field guide describes arctic ice conditions, the physical properties of oil as it weathers, oil spill behavior in cold water and ice conditions, and spill retention potential for the Alaskan shore line. The guide then uses six spill scenarios to show the user how to apply spill behavior information to solve real-world problems.

  11. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  12. An improved method for estimating GHG emissions from onshore oil and gas exploration and development in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojun; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Chengfu; Zhong, Jiaai; Wang, Zuodong; Zhang, Zhongning; Fang, Xuan; Li, Shutong; Yang, Wei; Xue, Lianhua

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from oil and gas exploration and development are major contributors to emission inventories in oil and natural gas (ONG) systems. For the developing countries, including China, studies of this aspect of the industry, being at an early stage, lack a unified method of calculation, and this leads to varied projections of national emissions. In this paper, progress is reported on direct measurement of CH4 and CO2 emissions along the oil and gas value chain, for four oil and gas fields. An improved calculation method (classification calculation method), which considers the production status of each type of oil and gas field in China, is proposed for the first time in this study. Based on in situ measurement, it is used to estimate the national CH4 and CO2 emissions from the process of petroleum exploration and development. The results showed that CH4 and CO2 emissions in 2013 were 73.29×10(4) and 20.32×10(4)tonnes, respectively (in CO2 equivalent: 1559.36×10(4)tonnes). Compared with the results (731.52×10(4)tonnes of CH4, 1031.55×10(4)tonnes of CO2, 16,393.48×10(4)tonnes of CO2 equivalent) in 2013 determined by the Tier 1 method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the carbon emissions from field measurement method were much lower than that of IPCC method, which indicated that carbon emissions of ONG systems in China were severely overrated by IPCC. Hence, the GHG emission results reported herein could fundamentally improve the knowledge and understanding of GHG emissions from ONG exploration and development in China.

  13. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  14. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  15. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  16. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  17. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  18. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  19. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  20. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  1. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Albright, J.N.; Boade, R.R.; Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H.

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  2. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  3. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  4. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern Alaskan landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.A.; Webber, P.J.; Binnian, Emily F.; Everett, K.R.; Lederer, N.D.; Nordstrand, E.A.; Walker, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  5. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  6. Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

  7. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

  8. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  9. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Tinis, R.

    1991-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment.

  10. [Sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils--recent developments in China and central Asia].

    PubMed

    Aitzetmüller, K; Xin, Y

    1999-08-01

    Since several years, sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils are booming in China, Russia and Central Asia. The background of this development is described and the different species and varieties of sea buckthorn are mentioned. The two different oils obtained from sea buckthorn (pulp oil and seed oil) and their composition is discussed. The use of sea buckthorn and its oils for medical and pharmaceutical purposes has its roots in ancient Tibet. The various "health claims", particularly by Russian and Chinese medical authorities, could not be discussed here. However, a number of recent papers are quoted here without further comment.

  11. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  12. Growth history of oil reserves in major California oil fields during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Oil reserves in 12 of California's 52 giant fields (fields with estimated recovery > 100 million barrels of oil) have continued to appreciate well past the age range at which most fields cease to show significant increases in ultimate recovery. Most of these fields were discovered between 1890 and 1920 and grew to volumes greater than 500 million barrels in their first two decades. Growth of reserves in these fields accelerated in th e1950s and 1960s and is mostly explained by application of secondary and tertiary recovery technicques, primarily waterflooding and thermal recovery. The remaining three-fourths of California's giant fields show a pattern of growth in which fields cease to grow significantly by 20-30 years following recovery. virtually all of these fields have estimated ultimate recoveries less than about 500 million barrels and most are in the 100-200 million barrel range. Three of six offshore giant fields, all discovered between 1966 and 1981, have shown decreases in their estimated ultimate sizes within about the first decade after production began, presumably because production volumes ailed to match initial projections. The data suggest that: 1. Only fields that attain an estimated ultimate size of several hundred million barrels shortly after discovery and have geologic characterisics that make them suceptible to advanced recovery techniques are likely to show substantial late growth. 2. Offshore fields are less likely to show significant growth, probably because projections based on modern seismic reflection and reservoir test data are unlikely to underestimate the volume of oil in the field. 3. Secondary and tertiary recovery programs rather than field extensions or new pool discoveries are responsible for most of the significant growth of reserves in California. 4. field size data collected ove rmany decades provide a more comprehensive context for inferring reasons for reserve appreciation than shorter data series such as the Oil and Gas

  13. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

  14. Palaeoclimatic evolution during Eocene and its influence on oil shale mineralisation, Fushun basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingtao; Liu, Zhaojun; Bruch, Angela A.; Liu, Rong; Hu, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Fushun basin is a small, explored, coal and oil shale-bearing, Cenozoic fault basin in the Liaoning Province, northeast China. The basin mainly consists of Eocene swamp to lacustrine deposits of the Guchengzi to Xilutian Formation, and contains the biggest opencast oil shale mine in Asia. This mine has provided an ideal opportunity to undertake palaeoclimate reconstruction in this basin based on a single geological profile and the analyses of 93 samples, using various approaches, namely field geological observation, clay mineralogical and geochemical (Sr/Ba, Sr/Cu, stable C and O isotope) analyses, all of which were compared with palaeobotanical data. The Eocene climate of Fushun basin evolved from warm temperate to north subtropical, and generally changed from warm humid to subhumid-semiarid. Paleoclimatic and geochemical parameters shows that the very warm and humid climate during Jijuntun Formation increased the initial productivity of lake water, and caused a steady stratification of the lake water, then caused oxygen lack in the bottom of water. Productivity of the lake provides the mean origin of organic matters for oil shale formation, and steady anoxic environment is beneficial for the conservation of organic matters.

  15. Remote sensing assessment of oil lakes and oil-polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwarteng, Andy Yaw

    A heinous catastrophe imposed on Kuwait's desert environment during the 1990 to 1991 Arabian Gulf War was the formation of oil lakes and oil-contaminated surfaces. Presently, the affected areas consist of oil lakes, thick light and disintegrated tarmats, black soil and vegetation. In this study, Landsat TM, Spot, colour aerial photographs and IRS-1D digital image data acquired between 1989 and 1998 were used to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the oil lakes and polluted surfaces at the Greater Burgan oil field. The use of multisensor datasets provided the opportunity to observe the polluted areas in different wavelengths, look angles and resolutions. The images were digitally enhanced to optimize the visual outlook and improve the information content. The data documented the gradual disappearance of smaller oil lakes and soot/black soil from the surface with time. Even though some of the contaminants were obscured by sand and vegetation and not readily observed on the surface or from satellite images, the harmful chemicals still remain in the soil. Some of the contaminated areas displayed a remarkable ability to support vegetation growth during the higher than average rainfall that occurred between 1992 to 1998. The total area of oil lakes calculated from an IRS-1D panchromatic image acquired on 16 February 1998, using supervised classification applied separately to different parts, was 24.13 km 2.

  16. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C. ); Honey, F.R. ); Ballew, G.I. )

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  17. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L.; Talukdar, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  18. Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1993-09-01

    The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

  19. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  20. Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. ); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. ); Pilger, P.F. )

    1993-09-20

    A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

  1. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  2. Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42° gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

  3. Responses of benthic foraminifera to the 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea, PR China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan Li; Li, Tie Gang; Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Wen Lin; Song, Wen Peng; Li, Ji Ye; Li, Cheng Chun

    2015-07-15

    The 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea was the largest spill event in China. Nine sediment cores were taken near the spill site and environmental factors including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs), oils, sulfides, organic carbon were measured 6 months later. Benthic foraminifera were separated into >150 μm (large) and 63-150 μm (small) size fractions for 2-cm depth interval of each sediment core. Statistical analyses suggested that the species composition of living foraminifera was impacted by oils, PAHs and sulfides. Large foraminifera were more sensitive to the oils than the small. Abnormal specimens were positively correlated with oils or PAHs. Small forms, however, tended to have high reproduction and mortality. Pollution-resistant and opportunistic taxa were identified to calculate a Foraminiferal Index of Environmental Impacts (FIEI). The FIEI increased from low to high oil-polluted station and from deep layer to surface sediment reflects the impact of oil pollution in this area.

  4. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in cooking oil and related products from China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Niisoe, Tamon; Adachi, Ayumu; Fujii, Yukiko; Nouda, Chihiro; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants. It has been found that dietary intakes of SCCPs in China have recently increased and are now higher than in Japan and Korea. The contribution of cooking oil to dietary exposure to SCCPs in China was evaluated by analyzing SCCPs in cooking oil, raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, and fried confectionery products collected in China in 2010 and 2012. Detectable amounts of SCCP homologs were found in 48 out of the 49 cooking oil samples analyzed, and the SCCP concentrations varied widely, from <9 to 7500 ng g(-1). Estimated dietary intakes of total SCCPs in cooking oil ranged from <0.78 to 38 μg d(-1). The estimated dietary intake of SCCPs was relatively high (mean 14.8 μg d(-1)) for residents of Beijing. Fried confectionery was found to contain SCCP concentrations of 11-1000 ng g(-1). Cooking oil might therefore be one of the sources of SCCPs to Chinese diets. SCCPs were also detected in raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, but the concentrations varied widely. The SCCP homolog patterns in the raw seed and cooking oil samples were different, implying that the seeds used to produce the oil (and therefore the soil on which the seeds were produced) were unlikely to be the sources of SCCPs in cooking oil. Further investigations are needed to determine the routes through which cooking oil becomes contaminated with SCCPs during the production and processing of the oil.

  5. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  6. Bird mortality in oil field wastewater disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980's. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  7. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  8. Toxicology of oil field pollutants in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Coppock, R W; Mostrom, M S; Khan, A A; Semalulu, S S

    1995-12-01

    Cattle are poisoned by petroleum and substances used in drilling and operating oil and gas wells. The most common reported route of exposure for non-gaseous material is oral. Exposures occur when the petroleum or chemicals used in oil and gas field activities are available to cattle and when water and feed-stuffs are contaminated. Cattle, as a leisure activity, explore and ingest crude oil. Based on morbidity patterns in cattle herds, the amount of toxic substance ingested is variable. When water and feedstuffs are contaminated, a larger number in a herd generally are affected. Cattle have been poisoned by a wide variety of chemical mixtures. For substances high in volatile hydrocarbons, the lung is a target organ. Hydrocarbons also target the kidney, liver and brain. Exposure-linked abortions have been reported in cattle. Diethylene glycol targets the brain, liver and kidney. The reported threshold dose of unweathered oil for cattle ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 ml/kg bw, and the reported threshold dose for weathered oil is 8.0 ml/kg.

  9. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bockmeulen, M.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain oil which is mostly heavy with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Lake Maracaibo is now in an intermontane basin enclosed on three sides by the Andes Mountains. The area has a complex history and tectonic movement continues today. In the Cretaceous, the area was part of the platform of a large geosyncline, but by the Eocene it was near a coast where a series of large sandy deltas was deposited, with terrestrial sediments on the south and thick marine shales on the north. At this time, conditions for oil generation in the shales and migration to the sands were established, but the subsequent Oligocene faulting, uplift, and erosion may have allowed meteoric water to penetrate into reservoirs. During the Miocene and Pliocene, the basin was tilted first west and then south, and filled with continental sediments from the rising Andes. Tilting is still continuing and oil is moving up along the Oligocene unconformity, forming surface seeps.

  10. Monitoring Microseismicity in a Carbonate Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Kindy, F.; Ibi, O.

    2006-12-01

    Microseismicity was monitored continuously for 2003 and 2004 years using shallow downhole seismic network in a carbonate oil field in Northern Oman. A total of 406 microearthquake events were analyzed to assess events location relative to producing horizons. The depth of the microearthquakes ranges from 0 to 2.95 km below the ground surface. The events location is confined to the carbonate reservoir boundary and temporally correlates well with the gas production, total fluid productions and water injection for the 2003 year. There is no temporal correlation between oil production and seismic activity for the 2003. Direct month to month temporal correlation is not apparent between any of oil, gas, fluid productions/water injections and the microseismic activity for the 2004 year. However, a strong temporal correlation between gas production and the number of events and an improved correlation between the oil production and the number of events were obtained when applying a time lag of one month. The focal plane solutions for the largest events in the 2003 indicate normal faulting with extensional stress is in the NW-SE directions. The spatial and temporal distribution of seismic events in the carbonate field fit the characteristics of reservoir induced seismicity and the triggering mechanism can be explained by the Mohr envelope criterion. This indicates that the reservoir layers are critically stressed and the pore pressure is changing at variable rate.

  11. Niger delta oil production, reserves, field sizes assessed

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-11-13

    The article presents tables and figures showing the reserve estimates and production histories of the 252 fields in the Niger delta, then makes forecasts of the likelihood of discoveries above a given size. The paper discusses oil reserves, development programs, drilling and 3D seismic surveying, secondary and tertiary EOR, reserve incentives, production facilities, capital spending required, Nigerian export blends, and the trend in these blends.

  12. Surface reclamation of the Big Lake oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, M.L. ); Moore, K.R. ); Ford, D.L. ); Curlee, C.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Since the discovery of 1 Santa Rita in 1923, millions of barrels of salt water have been produced along with 135 million bbl of oil from the Big Lake oil field in Reagan County, Texas. Until the early 1960s, the accepted disposal method for the produced water was surface discharge to a large evaporation pond north of the field. Produced water was allowed to flow from wells to the pond via natural topographic drainage. This practice resulted in 2000 ac of eroded, barren landscape, characterized by highly saline soils incapable of supporting vegetation. In 1989, the University of Texas System, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, and Marathon Oil Company, which acquired Big Lake field in 1962, initiated an experimental project to reclaim the affected land and restore rangeland productivity. An underground drainage system, consisting of 125,000 ft of buried drainage conduit and eight collection sumps, was installed over 205 ac of the affected area. Earthen terraces were constructed to capture and hold rain water to facilitate downward percolation and leaching of salts from the soil profile. Salts leached from the soil are captured by the drainage system and pumped to injection wells for disposal. The excellent revegetation that has occurred over the test area after three years of operations is encouraging and has shown the need for expanding and enhancing the existing system with supplemental water from fresh water wells, application of soil-amending agents, additional terracing, and selective planting with salt-tolerant species.

  13. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  14. Universal Indicators for Oil and Gas Prospecting Based on Bacterial Communities Shaped by Light-Hydrocarbon Microseepage in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunping; Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Sun, Weilin; Yuan, Hongli

    2016-07-28

    Light hydrocarbons accumulated in subsurface soil by long-term microseepage could favor the anomalous growth of indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, which could be crucial indicators of underlying petroleum reservoirs. Here, Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted to determine the bacterial community structures in soil samples collected from three typical oil and gas fields at different locations in China. Incubation with n-butane at the laboratory scale was performed to confirm the presence of "universal microbes" in light-hydrocarbon microseepage ecosystems. The results indicated significantly higher bacterial diversity in next-to-well samples compared with background samples at two of the three sites, which were notably different to oil-contaminated environments. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the bacterial community structures above the oil and gas fields at the scale of the present study were shaped mainly by environmental parameters, and geographic location was able to explain only 7.05% of the variation independently. The linear discriminant analysis effect size method revealed that the oil and gas fields significantly favored the growth of Mycobacterium, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas, as well as other related bacteria. The relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas increased notably after n-butane cultivation, which highlighted their potential as biomarkers of underlying oil deposits. This work contributes to a broader perspective on the bacterial community structures shaped by long-term light-hydrocarbon microseepage and proposes relatively universal indicators, providing an additional resource for the improvement of microbial prospecting of oil and gas.

  15. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project.

  16. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  17. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  18. 75 FR 28551 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ..., Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International..., Equipment Co., Ltd. The Thermal Recovery of Shengli Oil Field, Equipment, Zibo Branch. The Thermal Recovery... Petroleum 32.07 Petroleum Equipment Co., Ltd. Equipment Co., Ltd. of Shengli Oil Field, The Thermal...

  19. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  20. Potential for oil mining at Elk Basin oil field, Wyoming-Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ayler, M.F.; Brechtel, C.

    1987-08-01

    By using the teachings of two US Patents, 4,458,945 and 4,595,239, it is possible to place mine workings below the Frontier sands of the Elk basin field, drill upward safely into the reservoir, and produce by gravity added to any present drive system. The patents describe equipment and a way of drilling upward with all cuttings and fluids flowing into a closed pipeline system for surface discharge. A final casing can be cemented into place and the well completed, again with all production into a closed pipeline. This system would permit field pressure control and maintenance with gravity drainage. Wells could be placed on one-acre spacing or less, thus producing much of the oil normally lost between surface wells. An analysis will be presented of probable mining costs for development of the Elk basin oil field on one-acre spacing. Petroleum engineers will then be able to estimate for themselves which method has the most profit potential and maximum recovery - the present systems or oil recovery by mining.

  1. Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1994-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 μm wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

  2. 78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China... tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is...'s Republic of China: Amended Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and...

  3. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  4. Microbial biodiversity in a Malaysian oil field and a systematic comparison with oil reservoirs worldwide.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Midgley, David J; Ross, Jason P; Oytam, Yalchin; Abell, Guy C J; Volk, Herbert; Daud, Wan Ata Wan; Hendry, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Microbial diversity within formation water and oil from two compartments in Bokor oil reservoir from a Malaysian petroleum oil field was examined. A total of 1,056 16S rRNA gene clones were screened from each location by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. All samples were dominated by clones affiliated with Marinobacter, some novel Deferribacteraceae genera and various clones allied to the Methanococci. In addition, either Marinobacterium- or Pseudomonas-like operational taxonomic units were detected from either compartment. A systematic comparison with the existing pertinent studies was undertaken by analysing the microbial amplicons detected and the PCR primers used. The analyses demonstrated that bacterial communities were site specific, while Archaea co-occurred more frequently. Amplicons related to Marinobacter, Marinobacterium and Pseudomonas were detected in a number of the studies examined, suggesting they may be ubiquitous members in oil reservoirs. Further analysis of primers used in those studies suggested that most primer pairs had fairly broad but low matches across the bacterial and archaeal domains, while a minority had selective matches to certain taxa or low matches to all the microbial taxa tested. Thus, it indicated that primers may play an important role in determining which taxa would be detected.

  5. Tests of Oil Recovery Devices in Broken Ice Fields. Phase I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conducted with both devices in broken fresh water ice and salt water ice, with No. 2 diesel oil and a crude oil selected to closely match the...properties of Prudhoe Bay crude oil , at temperatures of +25F and +15F. These tests demonstrated that with minor hardware modifications and the proper...operating procedures, both devices will successfully recover crude oil and No. 2 diesel oil spilled in a broken ice field of moderate icepiece size.

  6. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  8. China’s Oil Security Pipe Dream: The Reality, and Strategic Consequences, of Seaborne Imports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    its oil imports from possible interdiction during a confl ict. A robust internal debate is being waged within China at multiple levels and across a...BTC) Pipeline is one of the great engineering endeavours of the new millenni - um.” See “Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline,” BP Caspian, www.bp.com/; and

  9. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  10. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides.

  11. Geochemistry of oil-field water from the North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of oil-field water is important in understanding the origin and migration of petroleum as well as the water mineral reactions that affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir rocks. This knowledge is essential in interpreting electric logs and in determining potential pollution, corrosion, and disposal problems of water produced with oil and gas. Finally, the chemical composition of water is an important factor in determining the conditions (temperature, pressure) for the formation of clathrates. This chapter reports detailed chemical analyses of seven formation-water samples from wells within the NPRA and one surface-and two formation-water samples from the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The authors also report {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values for eight of the water samples as well as analyses for gases from six wells. The formation-water samples were obtained from depths ranging from about 700 to 2800 m and from reservoir rocks ranging in age from Mississippian (Lisburne Group) to Triassic. The reservoir rocks are sandstone except for sample 79-AK-5, which was obtained from a limestone interbedded with sandstone. Generally, the pre-Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks on the North Slope have a similar mineral composition. Van de Kamp (1979) gave the following description of these sandstones: Quartz (usually monocrystalline) and chert are the major components; carbonate and clay are variable. Carbonate occurs as detrital grains and as cement, siderite being the most common type. Siderite can form as much as 30 percent of the rock. Clay occurs as a common matrix, generally making up less than 10 percent of the rock. Accessory minerals include pyrite, plagioclase, microcline, glauconite, zircon, sphene, tourmaline, and muscovite.

  12. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  13. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  14. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pengfei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui; Chai, Derong; Yin, Shiyan; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Wanfeng

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574) have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised “baseline hump” named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil. PMID:25177711

  15. Formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures in lacustrine biodegraded oil from Nanxiang Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengfei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui; Chai, Derong; Yin, Shiyan; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Wanfeng

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574) have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised "baseline hump" named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  16. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment.

  17. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity.

  18. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  19. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8.

  20. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  1. Structural evolution of the East China Sea and the relationship with oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xianghong; Duan, Chang

    1995-12-31

    The East China Sea (ECH) is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, lying on the Pre-Cretaceous basement. During Cenozoic Era, the basin went through three development stages: the half-graben, domnwarping depression, and regional subsidence. Analyzed the data from gravity, magnetism, reflection seismology measurements, the structural pattern of the ECS can be decided: east-west zone of the NE-or NNE-trending structural belts and a south-north differentiation of structural blocks. From west to east the structural belts are the Zhe-min uplift, the shelf basin, Diaoyu island uplift, Okinawa trough basin and Ryukyu islands. This structural pattern is controlled by the activity of the Eurasia plate and the Pacific plate, which can be interpreted from the data of the earthquake and the structural stress field. Calculating of Moho and Curie, and 2-D modeling of gravity and magnetism data help constrain the seismic interpretation and understood the faults and structure. Modeling of sedimentary and thermal history help find the region of generation oil.

  2. Tukau Field: Finding new oil in matured and complex field after 20 years of production

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, M.D.; Ridza, M.; Majid, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tukau Field is located some 30 km offshore Sarawak, Malaysia. in water depth of about 160 ft. The field, discovered by TK-2 in 1966 found 235 ft net oil sand and 16 ft wet gas sand. After further seismic data acquisition and interpretation, six (6) appraisal wells were drilled from 1973 to 1975 before the field could be commercially developed. The Tukau structure is a structurally complex feature formed as a domal anticlinal uplift, located along the Tukau I Bakau / Baram trend. It is dissected at the shallow level by normal synthetic and antithetic faults. These fault system divide the field into seven (7) fault blocks. The major hydrocarbon accumulations are between 2400 ftss and 7500 ftss and the main prospective sequence consists of fine to very fine grained sand of the upper cycle V of late Miocene age and deposited in a deltaic, fluviomarine, coastal to near shore environment. Development drilling commenced in 1975 with a total of 23 wells. To date a total of nine (9) rounds of development activities were carried out resulting in 55 wells being drilled and nine (9) well jackets installed. In 1975, based on the seismic and well data. the field is estimated to contain some 300 MMSTB of oil. Following subsequent field reviews Incorporating some 50 odd well data and seismic reinterpretation in 1987. the field STOIIP increased to 500 MMST. 3D seismic was acquired in 1992 and field review carried out In 1995 resulted In some development potential and appraisal / exploration opportunities. The appraisal well drilled in October 1995, increased the field STOIIP by some 50 MMSTB. Preliminary evaluation based on geological, engineering and economic information indicated that Tukau field will be further developed with additional well jacket and this will boost the field production by about 50%.

  3. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  4. Indexes of pumps for oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    As reported previously, a series of oil field pumping units has been developed with power outputs of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kW, designed for injecting working fluids in cementing operations in oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing of formations, washing out sand plugs, and other production operations. The units are designed for the use of three-plunger pumps with individual power outputs of 125 or 500 kW. In the 250- and 1000-kW units, two such pumps are used. The 1000-kW pumping unit serves mainly for deep-penetration hydraulic fracturing of formations, and also for fracturing deep formations. The hydraulic fracturing process does not require the use of units with two pumps; this has been demonstrated by experience, both here and in other countries. All units intended for use in hydraulic fracturing are built with a single pump, transmission, and drive. Pumping units for well cementing must have two pumps that will give a high delivery rate. At the start of the operation, a single pump can be used to feed water into the cement mixer, with the second pump used to transfer the cement slurry to the well. Then both pumps are connected to the slurry injection line. The operation of these pumps is described.

  5. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; McDaniel, Richard

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  6. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product

  7. Alkanes in benthic organisms from the Buccaneer oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.

    1980-06-01

    About 200 g per day of alkanes are present in brine discharged from each of two production platforms in the Buccaneer oil field in the NW Gulf of Mexico. These alkanes disperse rapidly in the water column, so that seawater concentrations of petroleum alkanes in this region are generally very low. They can be taken up to some extent by plankton, fish, and barnacles, but the petroleum alkane concentrations in these organisms are also relatively low. The largest pool of petroleum alkanes is in the surficial sediments, where concentrations of up to 25 ppM are observed, with concentration gradients extending more than 20 m from the production platforms. Organisms are examined which are exposed to these sediments and, for comparison, other specimens from control sites around structures from which there are no discharges.

  8. Magnetotelluric signature of anticlines in Iran's Sehqanat oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Isa; Oskooi, Behrooz; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2015-07-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has proved to be an effective tool in hydrocarbon exploration especially in areas with geological structures/formations where seismic reflection provides neither good quality data nor images. The Sehqanat oil field located in the sedimentary zone of Zagros in SW of Iran is a typical example. It is covered by the high velocity and heterogeneous formation of Gachsaran, which is exposed at the surface and has a thickness varying from 500 m to more than 2 km in the region. Gachsaran is composed mainly of salt and evaporites overlying, as a cap rock, the Asmari limestone formation which is the main reservoir in all oil fields of Iran along the Zagros range. The main geological interface which is targeted to be imaged with the MT method is the contact between the highly conductive evaporites of the Gachsaran formation and the underlying more resistive carbonates of the Asmari formation. MT data at more than 600 stations along five parallel SW-NE profiles crossing the main geological trend of the study area and transient electromagnetic data over 400 stations to be used for static shift corrections of the MT data were available. Dimensionality and strike analysis of the MT data show dominant two-dimensional (2-D) conditions in almost all sites and periods. The 2-D resistivity models resolved the boundary between Gachsaran and Asmari formations as a transition zone from highly conductive to resistive structures. The Sehqanat anticline has also been delineated throughout the 2-D resistivity sections as a resistive dome-shaped body located in the middle part of the MT profiles. There is a considerable correlation between the 2-D resistivity models and the adjacent 2-D reflection seismic sections so that a more reliable interpretation on the hydrocarbon trap of the Sehqanat anticline can be obtained.

  9. Simulated oil release from oil-contaminated marine sediment in the Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lingling; Han, Longxi; Bo, Wenjie; Chen, Hua; Gao, Wenshen; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-17

    There is a high degree of heavy oil partitioning into marine sediments when an oil spill occurs. Contaminated sediment, as an endogenous pollution source, can re-pollute overlying water slowly. In this study, a static oil release process and its effects in marine sediment was investigated through a series of experiments with reproductive heavy oil-contaminated marine sediment. The oil release process was accurately simulated with a Lagergren first-order equation and reached equilibration after 48h. The fitted curve for equilibrium concentration (C0) and first-order rate constant (k1) for sediment pollution levels exhibited a first-order log relationship. The instantaneous release rate (dCtdt) was also calculated. The C0 increased with increases in temperature and dissolved organic matter (DOM), and decreasing salinity. The k1 increased with temperature, but was not affected by DOM and salinity. These results can be used to better understand the fate of heavy oil in contaminated sediments of the Bohai Sea.

  10. The nexus of oil consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in China, Japan and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Behnaz; Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Sung, Jinsok

    2017-01-20

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between oil consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in three East Asian oil importing countries (i.e. China, South Korea and Japan) over the period 1980-2013, by using the Granger causality, Johansen cointegration test, Generalised Impulse Response functions (GIRF) and variance decompositions. The empirical findings provide evidence for the existence of a long-run relationship between oil consumption and economic growth in China and Japan. The results also point to a uni-directional causality from running from oil consumption to economic growth in China and Japan, and from oil consumption to CO2 emissions in South Korea. The overall results of GIRF reveal that while economic growth in China and South Korea shows a positive response to oil consumption, this variable responses negatively to the same shock in Japan. In addition, oil consumption spikes cause a negative response of CO2 emissions in Japan and China, as well as a U-shape response in South Korea.

  11. PVTX characteristics of oil inclusions from Asmari formation in Kuh-e-Mond heavy oil field in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatinia, Zeinab; Haghighi, Manouchehr; Shafiei, Ali; Feiznia, Sadat; Zendehboudi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Incorporating PVT properties and compositional evolution of oil inclusions into reservoir engineering simulator protocols can enhance understanding of oil accumulation, reservoir charge history, and migration events. Microthermometry and volumetric analysis have proven to be useful tools in compositional reconstitution and PT studies of oil inclusions and were used to determine composition, thermodynamic conditions, physical properties, and gas-to-oil ratios of heavy oil samples from Asmari carbonate reservoir in Kuh-e-Mond heavy oil field in Iran. PVT properties were predicted using a PVT black-oil model, and an acceptable agreement was observed between the experiments and the simulations. Homogenization temperatures were determined using microthermometry techniques in dolomite and calcite cements of the Asmari Formation, as well. Based on the homogenization temperature data, the undersaturated hydrocarbon mixture prior to formation of the gas cap migrated with a higher gas-to-oil ratio from a source rock. According to the oil inclusion data, the onset of carbonate cementation occurred at temperatures above 45 °C and that cementation was progressive through burial diagenesis. PVT black-oil simulator results showed that the reservoir pressure and temperature were set at 100 bar and 54 °C during the initial stages of oil migration. Compositional modeling implies that primary and secondary cracking in source rocks were responsible for retention of heavy components and migration of miscible three-phase flow during hydrocarbon evolution. The PT evolution of the petroleum inclusions indicates changes in thermodynamic properties and mobility due to phenomena such as cracking, mixing, or/and transport at various stages of oil migration.

  12. Leakage diffusion of underwater crude oil in wind fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqiong; Liu, Qi; Li, Yunyun; Lu, Rui; Wu, Shijuan; Li, Xin; Hou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of underwater crude oil pipes causes severe pollution to soil and water, and results in great economic loss. To predict the diffusion area of spilled oil before it reaches the water's surface and to reduce the time required for emergency response, numerical simulations were conducted on underwater spilled oil diffusion of bare crude oil pipes using FLUENT software. The influences of water-surface wind speed, leakage hole diameter, water velocity, and initial leakage velocity on oil diffusion were analyzed. The results revealed the following: (1) with wind blowing on the surface of the water, the vertical displacement of spilled oil jet-flow was affected by the combined action of water flow and wind, making it difficult for a high-speed jet-flow to form. A horizontal oil flow mostly moved in the direction of the bottom water, and frontier oil droplets dispersed quickly; (2) during the diffusion of spilled oil in water, the maximum horizontal displacement mostly increased linearly, while the maximum vertical displacement initially increased quickly and then slowed; (3) the greater the initial velocity and leakage hole diameter, the higher the oil jet-flow and the wider the diffusion area; the higher the water flow rate and water-surface wind speed, the smaller the vertical displacement of spilled oil. The existence of water-surface wind had no obvious influence on the horizontal displacement of underwater spilled oil.

  13. Transnational Pipelines and Naval Expansion: Examining China’s Oil Insecurities in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Analysis, “the threat of economic stagnation raises real risks of social instability, which could in turn threaten the continued political monopoly of...Renmin University of China and a heavy consumer of Baijiu toasts at banquets , submits: Although the risk of military conflict in the Taiwan Strait...that would link Kunming city – the capital of China’s Yunnan 103 “Musharraf Makes Chinese Oil Plea

  14. Lake-bottom sediment composition for the assessment of ecological state of West Siberian oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoyarova, N. A.; Russkikh, I. V.; Strel'nikova, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research findings on the oil composition of Fedorovskoe and Nivagal'skoe, Nizhnevartovskoe and Samotlorskoe (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug), Verkhtarskoe (Novosibirsk region) fields and also the organic components of bottom sediments of Vachlor, Dolgoe, and Balman Lakes. A comparison is given for hydrocarbon composition in bituminous components of lake-bottom sediments and nearby oil fields. The contribution of crude oils to the organic composition of bottom sediments of Vachlor and Balman Lakes is studied in this paper.

  15. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil.

  16. Cleaning method of the oil field wastewater treatment by UF process.

    PubMed

    Wang, J R; Xu, C

    2001-07-01

    This article introduces experiments and researches of polysulphone ultrafiltration membrane's effect on oil field polluted water and approaches renewing oil field polluted water and approaches renewing of membrane's flux by different detergents and cleaning method. Good result has been achieved by doing experiments and the renewal rate of membrane is over 90%.

  17. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 °API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 °API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 °API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  19. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of later Proterozoic age. The main granitic luton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian sheild. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alternation/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers.

  20. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-02-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of late Proterozoic age. The main granitic pluton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian shield. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alteration/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers. A model has been constructed to illustrate the changes in the primary rock texture and structure with sequential diagenetic processes, taking into consideration the fracture distribution and their opening affinities as related to their depths.

  1. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  2. Differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species on seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera) in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-05-01

    Seed hoarding is an important behavioral adaptation to food shortages for many rodent species. Sympatric rodents may affect the natural regeneration of large-seeded trees differently as seed dispersers or seed predators. Using seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera), we investigated differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species in semi-natural enclosures in a subtropical forest in southwest of China. We found that all these six species ate seeds of C. oleifera, but only Edward's long-tailed rats ( Leopoldamys edwardsi) were predominantly scatter hoarders; chestnut rats ( Niviventer fulvescens) and white-bellied rats ( Niviventer confucianus) scatter hoarded and larder hoarded few seeds, but were seed predators; South China field mice ( Apodemus draco) exhibited little larder-hoarding behavior; and Chevrier's field mice ( A. chevrieri) as well as Himalayan rats ( Rattus nitidusa) did not hoard seeds at all. The rodents that engaged in scatter hoarding often formed single-seed caches and tended to cache seeds under grass or shrubs. Our findings indicate that sympatric rodents consuming seeds of the same species of plant can have different hoarding strategies, affecting seed dispersal and plant regeneration differently. We conclude by discussing the role of these species in hoarding seeds of C. oleifera and highlight the essential role of Edward's long-tailed rats as predominantly potential dispersers of this plant species.

  3. Comparative analysis of essential oil components of three Phlomis species in Qinling Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2008-05-12

    The essential oils of three wild-growing Phlomis species (Phlomis umbrosa Turcz., Phlomis megalantha Diels and Phlomis szechuanensis C.Y. Wu), collected from Qinling Mountains of China during the bloom stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 22, 26 and 19 constituents (mainly aliphatic compounds) were identified in P. umbrosa, P. megalantha and P. szechuanensis which represented 92.5%, 96.3% and 93.1% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were hexadecanoic acid (7.1-52.1%), trans-phytol (5.7-50.8%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (2.2-24.8%). Fatty acids and aliphatic esters were the major groups of P. umbrosa and P. megalantha, but P. szechuanensis showed higher content of alcohols. P. megalantha has relatively higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes than the others. The comparison of essential oil components of Phlomis species between the present and previous work indicated that the composition of oils vary greatly with respect to the geographical environment, mainly for the proportion of aliphatic compounds and terpenoids. This study is the first report on the chemical composition of essential oils of the three wild-growing herbs mentioned above.

  4. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces.

  5. Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL&E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the structure so the truncation of three (3) prospective sands in the Wilcox, Lower Eocene could be determined. The interpretation of the Reeddell Dome was complicated by the influence of the nearby Pine Prairie Salt Dome and both had to be modeled. A regional gravity was removed from the Bouguer gravity to give a Residual Gravity Map representing the gravity response to the salt domes. Gamma-gamma density logs were used to determine the density of the sediments and the contrasting densities between the sediments and the consistent salt density. Another input for the computer modeling program was a reference surface; in this case the top of the Louann salt, Lower Jurassic. The digital data are gridded with a square grid that is appropriate for the gravity control. The reference surface becomes a series of prisms whose height is a variable. The modeling program uses an iterative procedure to develop a salt structure whose computed gravity matches the input gravity. The domes were successfully modeled from the gravity and a discovery well was drilled at the Reddell Dome. This dome was later developed along with the Pine Prairie Dome.

  6. Case history -- Reddell Oil Field -- Evangeline Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, C.T. )

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the gravity meter credit as the main geophysical method used in the discovery of the Reddell Oil Field in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. LL E provided me with gravity data to use in the calculation of a salt model of the Reddell Salt Dome. The purpose of the study was to define the structure so the truncation of three (3) prospective sands in the Wilcox, Lower Eocene could be determined. The interpretation of the Reeddell Dome was complicated by the influence of the nearby Pine Prairie Salt Dome and both had to be modeled. A regional gravity was removed from the Bouguer gravity to give a Residual Gravity Map representing the gravity response to the salt domes. Gamma-gamma density logs were used to determine the density of the sediments and the contrasting densities between the sediments and the consistent salt density. Another input for the computer modeling program was a reference surface; in this case the top of the Louann salt, Lower Jurassic. The digital data are gridded with a square grid that is appropriate for the gravity control. The reference surface becomes a series of prisms whose height is a variable. The modeling program uses an iterative procedure to develop a salt structure whose computed gravity matches the input gravity. The domes were successfully modeled from the gravity and a discovery well was drilled at the Reddell Dome. This dome was later developed along with the Pine Prairie Dome.

  7. Particulate emission reductions from road paving in California oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    Calculation of road dust emissions before and after paving shows that paving is an effective measure for reducing road dust emissions in Kern County oil fields. Control efficiency values for particles smaller than 10 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter averaged about 70 percent for paving with coldmix asphalt and 95 percent for paving with hot-mix asphalt. These control efficiencies are about the same for other particle size fractions up to 30 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. The higher efficiency associated with hot-mix asphalt reflects the substantially lower quantities of surface road dust found on hot-mix roads in comparison to cold-mix roads in Kern County. The emission reductions achievable by paving a given road depend on the VMT as well as the type of asphalt pavement used. VMT increases with increasing traffic count and length of the road segment. Emission reductions also depend on the texture (silt content) of the surface before paving and on the traffic characteristics, i.e., vehicle speed, vehicle weight and number of wheels per vehicle.

  8. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Driving mechanism for plunger pumps in oil field installations

    SciTech Connect

    Gazarov, R.E.; Zaslavskii, Yu.V.

    1995-07-01

    Mobile oil field pumping installations of up to 1600 kW power at a pressure up to 140 MPa are widely used in hydraulic fracturing of beds, acid treatment of the near-face zone, cementation of wells, and other flushing and pressure operations. Equipment in these installations, which include high-pressure plunger pumps of high unit capacity, are mounted on mobile bases of limited lifting capacity (KrAZ automobile chassis, T-130 tractors, etc.). Very strict demands are made on the reliability, durability, and mass/size characteristics of the pumps and on all the equipment of the mobile installations. In modern pumps, an axial load of up to 100 tons or more, which is transmitted to the crankshaft, acts on each plunger. The engine of the installation rotates the crankshaft through a multiple-speed transmission and the transmission shaft of the pump. The forces acting on the elements of the driving part of a pump with a connecting rod - crank drive and a single-reduction tooth gear are described.

  10. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  12. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  13. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  14. Uncertainty of oil field GHG emissions resulting from information gaps: a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-09-02

    Regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from liquid fuel production generally work with incomplete data about oil production operations. We study the effect of incomplete information on estimates of GHG emissions from oil production operations. Data from California oil fields are used to generate probability distributions for eight oil field parameters previously found to affect GHG emissions. We use Monte Carlo (MC) analysis on three example oil fields to assess the change in uncertainty associated with learning of information. Single factor uncertainties are most sensitive to ignorance about water-oil ratio (WOR) and steam-oil ratio (SOR), resulting in distributions with coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.1-0.9 and 0.5, respectively. Using a combinatorial uncertainty analysis, we find that only a small number of variables need to be learned to greatly improve on the accuracy of MC mean. At most, three pieces of data are required to reduce bias in MC mean to less than 5% (absolute). However, the parameters of key importance in reducing uncertainty depend on oil field characteristics and on the metric of uncertainty applied. Bias in MC mean can remain after multiple pieces of information are learned, if key pieces of information are left unknown.

  15. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hidden action or hidden strategy: China's control of its national oil companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Charles

    China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by parallel growth in energy demand, particularly in demand for oil. Due to political and economic constraints on domestic reform, the CPC has focused on the international dimension through the creation of vertically integrated national oil companies. The foreign investments of these companies have become increasingly controversial due to the high levels of political and financial support afforded them by the CPC. I measure control by employing a model of institutional constraints on state-owned enterprises in conjunction with a managerial variant of Principal Agent theory well suited to political analyses. I conclude that the combination of institutional overlap, the process which led to the formation of the CNOCs as they currently exist and the current overseas activities of the CNOCs all demonstrate that the CPC is in control of the CNOCs.

  17. A Survey of Snakebite Knowledge among Field Forces in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chulin; Gui, Li; Kan, Ting; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: A snakebite is a neglected extrinsic injury associated with high morbidity and global mortality. Members of Chinese field forces are at high risk of snakebites, and their perception and knowledge of snakebites are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess perception and knowledge of snakebites in field forces in southeast China; Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in July 2016. A total of 216 field force members participated in this study; Results: A total of 10.3% had experienced snakebites and 86.4% rated their demands for knowledge about snakebite as “high”. No significant correlation between the actual and perceived snakebite knowledge status was detected (κ = 0.0237, p = 0.3852). Ineffective and harmful traditional first-aid methods, such as the application of tourniquets, sucking the venom out of the wound, and making local incisions, were used by more than three quarters of the respondents. However, pressure immobilization bandages were applied by only 17.3% of members. The proportion of responses for each question was not significantly different among the respondents when considering separate demographic groups; Conclusions: Snakebite knowledge among Chinese field force members is inadequate and in some cases misleading, when focusing on manifestation, prevention, and first-aid. A pragmatic, intensive educational scheme should be undertaken in at-risk populations. PMID:28035960

  18. Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Hai-Yan, Gong; Tun-Hai, Xu; Tian, Shuge

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. PMID:21120028

  19. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  20. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  1. 37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  3. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  4. The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Mast, R.F.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  5. The analysis of repeated failures of pipelines in Kal'chinskoe oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavlov, E. N.; Brusnik, O. V.; Lukjanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the chemical analysis of oilfield water and hydraulic analysis of the liquid flow in Kal'chinskoe oil field pipeline that allow detecting the causes of the internal corrosion processes. The inhibitor protection is suggested to reduce the corrosion rate in the pipelines of Kal'chinskoe oil field. Based on the analysis of the pipeline failures, it is suggested to replace steel pipes by fiberglass pipes.

  6. Field performance of a laser fluorosensor for the detection of oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneil, R. A.; Buja-Bijunas, L.; Rayner, D. M.

    1980-03-01

    An airborne laser fluorosensor is described that was designed to detect and identify targets by means of the characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum. The first field trials of the sensor over marine oil and dye spills are reported. A correlation technique has been developed that, when applied to the data collected during these field trials, clearly differentiated among dye, the two crude oils, and the general fluorescence background of ocean water.

  7. Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

  8. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of oils from the Chaidamu, Shanganning and Jianghan Basins, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philp, R. P.; Fan, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Zhu, H.; Wang, H.

    Thirty oil samples from the Shanganning, Jianghan and Chaidamu Basins in China have been examined by a number of geochemical techniques. The techniques included gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), stable isotope mass spectrometry. There were several reasons for undertaking this study. Firstly was the attempted oil-source rock correlation studies within the individual basins. Secondly was the continuing quest for novel, or sets of, biomarkers that could be assigned to saline and hypersaline environments and subsequently used to characterize other similar depositional environments. Thirdly was the desire to compare and contrast results obtained from these three basins with those from a similar study being undertaken on the South Florida Basin and the Anadarko Basin in the U.S.A. Whereas the Chinese basins are lacustrine, those in the U.S.A. are marine. For the purposes of this paper, only the results from the three Chinese basins will be discussed. In addition to examining the results from the biomarker distributions as determined by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, the results are correlated with those obtained from the δ 13C isotropic determinations. For example, three oils in the Shanganning Basin showed anomalous isotopic data, which immediately suggested that they should be examined in greater detail than the remaining oils, all of which correlated quite closely with each other. A combination of results used in this way is far more valuable than the biomarker data alone. In summary, the results demonstrate that various families of oils in the three basins can be distinguished on the basis of geochemical data and in many cases on the basis of the carbon isotopic composition alone. The oils from the Shanganning Basin had the lightest values, around -32%, whereas the Chaidamu were the heaviest in the -26% region. The Jianghan oils had values intermediate to

  10. The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skelton, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

  11. Volumetric calculations in an oil field: The basis method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, V.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The basis method for estimating oil reserves in place is compared to a traditional procedure that uses ordinary kriging. In the basis method, auxiliary variables that sum to the net thickness of pay are estimated by cokriging. In theory, the procedure should be more powerful because it makes full use of the cross-correlation between variables and forces the original variables to honor interval constraints. However, at least in our case study, the practical advantages of cokriging for estimating oil in place are marginal. ?? 1993.

  12. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  13. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  14. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  15. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  16. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  17. An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Halbouty, M.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

  18. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  19. Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Mast, R.F.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

  20. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  1. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  3. South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

  4. 75 FR 3203 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') and the International Trade Commission (``ITC''), the Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on certain oil country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Also, as explained in this notice, the Department is amending its final determination to correct certain......

  5. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  6. A Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    are called ice is easily deformed. As movement cracks, leads or polynyas depending decreases in the shorefast Ice, so 1-9 I does rafting, but In an...Ocean Resources Engineering, January 1980. 11. Peterson, Hanne K., Fate and Effect of Bunker C Oil Spilled by the USNS Potomac In Melville Bay, Greenland...with using any conventional it is likely to be streaming out spill response methods. As a result, Into polynyas and leads. This probably even so much as

  7. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  8. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  9. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  10. Electric field and space charge distribution measurement in transformer oil struck by impulsive high voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Wenxia; Guo, Hongda; Yang, Qing; Song, He; Yang, Ming; Yu, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

  11. The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil field exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, N. G.; Vasilyeva, E. E.; Evsyutkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil fields exploitation is developed. Service-oriented architecture of its software is a distinctive feature of the system. The results of the cluster analysis of real field data received by means of this system are shown.

  12. Simulation of phase separation with large component ratio for oil-in-water emulsion in ultrasound field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heping; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploration for separation of oil-in-water and coalescence of oil droplets in ultrasound field via lattice Boltzmann method. Simulations were conducted by the ultrasound traveling and standing waves to enhance oil separation and trap oil droplets. The focus was to the effect of ultrasound irradiation on oil-in-water emulsion properties in the standing wave field, such as oil drop radius, morphology and growth kinetics of phase separation. Ultrasound fields were applied to irradiate the oil-in-water emulsion for getting flocculation of the oil droplets in 420kHz case, and larger dispersed oil droplets and continuous phases in 2MHz and 10MHz cases, respectively. The separated phases started to rise along the direction of sound propagation after several periods. The rising rate of the flocks was significantly greater in ultrasound case than that of oil droplets in the original emulsion, indicating that ultrasound irradiation caused a rapid increase of oil droplet quantity in the progress of the separation. The separation degree was also significantly improved with increasing frequency or irradiation time. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of ultrasonic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of oil and emulsion phases. The analyses recovered the two different temporal regimes: the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages, which further quantified the morphology results. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the separation of oil-in-water emulsion in the ultrasound field.

  13. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  14. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  15. Proposed operating strategy for a field mis oil shale retorting experiment (RBOSC Retort O)

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Campbell, J.H.; McKenzie, D.R.; Raley, J.H.; Gregg, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A possible operating strategy for a field scale retort (similar to Retort 0) proposed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC)) is discussed. This retorting strategy was developed based on model calculations, pilot retort experiments, and laboratory work carried out at LLL. From these calculations a set of operating conditions are derived that appear to give the best overall retort performance. A performance monitoring strategy is being developed based solely on the exit gas and oil composition.

  16. The effect of thermotropic oil-displacing compound thickened Ninka on reservoir microflora and the composition of oil in Usinskoe oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Shcherbakova, A. G.; Guseva, Y. Z.; Altunina, L. K.; Chuykina, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents results of the study of the impact of thermotropic sol-forming compound thickened NINKA on enhanced oil recovery, stimulation of oil production, on the composition of crude oil, and on oil reservoir microflora sampled from reservoir fluids in the testing and reference areas of Usinskoe field. In vitro, the compound in the concentrations of 0.1-0.5% has a stimulating effect on the microflora, which is more pronounced in a low-mineralized environment. In reservoir conditions, after the injection of the compound, along with the appearance of nitrogen-containing components of the compound and products of its hydrolysis in the wellstream, some wells showed a significant increase in the number of heterotrophic and denitrifying microflora, which is indicative of a stimulating effect of the compound. The change in the composition of oil from these producing wells is due to the desorption of polar and high-molecular components and, to a lesser extent, to the redistribution of filtration flows.

  17. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  18. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  19. Synthetic biology: An emerging research field in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy. PMID:21729747

  20. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.

    PubMed

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-12-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions.

  1. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  3. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  4. Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  5. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, A.

    1987-11-01

    The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

  6. ROLE OF SMALL OIL AND GAS FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Fleming, Mary L.

    1985-01-01

    The actual economic size cutoff is a function of such factors as depth, water depth offshore, and accessibility to transportation infrastructure. Because of the constraint of resource availability, price is now the principal force driving drilling activity. The proportion of new-field wildcats to other exploratory wells has fallen in recent years, but success in new-field wildcats has risen to about 20%. However, only very small fields, less than 1 million BOE, are being found in large numbers. Through 1979, almost 93% of known gas fields and 94. 5% of known oil fields were small, yet they contain only 14. 5% of the ultimately recoverable gas and 12. 5% of the oil. However, small fields are less capital intensive than equivalent-capacity synthetic-fuel plants, they are extremely numerous, and they are relatively easy and inexpensive to find and put on production. Refs.

  7. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  8. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  9. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  10. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  11. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    PubMed

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  12. Toluene depletion in produced oil contributes to souring control in a field subjected to nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Park, Hyung Soo; Nathoo, Safia; Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Thomas R; Miner, Kirk; Ertmoed, Ryan; Benko, Aaron; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2012-01-17

    Souring in the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field, which has a low bottom-hole temperature (30 °C), results from the presence of 0.8 mM sulfate in the injection water. Inclusion of 2 mM nitrate to decrease souring results in zones of nitrate-reduction, sulfate-reduction, and methanogenesis along the injection water flow path. Microbial community analysis by pyrosequencing indicated dominant community members in each of these zones. Nitrate breakthrough was observed in 2-PW, a major water- and sulfide-producing well, after 4 years of injection. Sulfide concentrations at four other production wells (PWs) also reached zero, causing the average sulfide concentration in 14 PWs to decrease significantly. Interestingly, oil produced by 2-PW was depleted of toluene, the preferred electron donor for nitrate reduction. 2-PW and other PWs with zero sulfide produced 95% water and 5% oil. At 2 mM nitrate and 5 mM toluene, respectively, this represents an excess of electron acceptor over electron donor. Hence, continuous nitrate injection can change the composition of produced oil and nitrate breakthrough is expected first in PWs with a low oil to water ratio, because oil from these wells is treated on average with more nitrate than is oil from PWs with a high oil to water ratio.

  13. Cryogels for oil and gas field construction under the conditions of arctic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Manzhay, V. N.; Fufaeva, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The results of investigation of elastic and thermal properties of cryogels filled with used mineral oil are presented. A new chemical-biological method for oil and gas field construction in the northern regions is proposed and tested. The field experiments carried out in the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are described. The formation of cryotropic polymer systems occurring at shallow freezing from 0 to -3°C and the impact of crystructured soil on the viability, enzymatic activity of native soil microflora and growth of perennial herbs have been investigated. Cryogels are harmless to humans and safe for the environment.

  14. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  15. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  16. Analysis of the ecological risk of opening new oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anikiev, V.V.; Mansurov, M.N.; Fleishman, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    Practical recommendations that would ensure the ecological safety of opening new marine oil and gas fields should include analysis of ecological risk. Such an analysis should precede the studies of ecological safety and resolve a sequence of problems in evaluating the ecological risk, the probability and scale of accidents at the oil and gas extraction complex, and economic damage that could occur. This paper presents a method of evaluation of risks for fish populations incurred by marine extraction of oil and gas, calculates the required limit of probability of accidents excluding the possibility of degradation of flatfish populations, estimates expenses incurred by accidental oil spills, and presents data on level of pollution. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  18. Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

    2013-05-01

    Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf

  19. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  20. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  1. [Microbial community structure analysis of unexploited oil and gas fields by PCR-DGGE].

    PubMed

    Man, Peng; Qi, Hong-Yan; Hu, Qing; Ma, An-Zhou; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities of different depths (30, 60, 100, 150, 200cm) from the unexploited oilfield, gas field and control area were studied by PCR-DGGE and sequencing methods. The objectives of this study were to understand the microbial distribution in the regions of unexploited oil and gas fields, and to investigate the potential microbial indicators of oil and gas resources. The results showed that the Dice coefficients between different depths were very low (26-69.9). The microbial communities in the soil of 150 cm and 200 cm depth had greater richness (S > or = 19), diversity (H > or = 2.69) and evenness (E > or = 0. 90). The results of sequencing demonstrated that the bands from oilfield were mainly grouped into alpha-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria with the predominance of gamma-Proteobacteria (75%). Most of the bands were related to oil-associated and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, such as Methylophaga and Alcanivorax. While the gas field had alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and gamma-Proteobacteria accounted for only 24%. More strains showed relativity to methanotrophs, such as Methylocystaceae. Thus, 150 cm and 200 cm were more suitable as the oil-gas exploration sampling depth. Methylocystaceae may act as potential indicators for gas resources, Methylophaga and Alcanivorax for oil.

  2. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  3. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  4. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  5. "Oil for the Lamps of China" - Beijing’s 21st-Century Search for Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    process and thus preserve the habitat in which pandas flourish.174 Much progress has been made in China during the past quarter- century to lessen the...conditions.224 According to one writer, foreign oil giants “are scrambling to get their foot in the door [with] visions of a gas station on every corner in a...World Oil Giant BP to Invest More in Chongqing,” Xinhua, October 31, 2001, in FBIS-CPP20011031000043; Xie Ye, “China’s Largest Petrochemical Firm Enters

  6. Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

    The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to

  7. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the

  8. Hidden oil leg: Case study of lower D1 Miocene sandstone, Dulang field, offshore Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, G.J.; Chandramohan, S.; Karra, S.; Sonrexa, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Dulang Field is located offshore east coast of Peninsular Malaysia in water depths of approximately 75 m. The field, discovered in 1981, is about 24 km by 3.5 km. After drilling 14 exploration/appraisal wells by both Carigali and its partner Esso Production Malaysia Inc., the central part of the field was developed as a unitized area in November 1990. Three 32-slot platforms have been installed in the unitized area, and development drilling is ongoing. Production commenced in March 1991 and is currently maintained at approximately 50,000 BOPD. The estimated OIIP (oil-initially-in-place) for the unitized area is in the order of 700 million barrels. There are 19 reservoir sands in Groups D and E which are of Middle-Late Miocene age. During the exploration/appraisal phase, oil and gas were encountered in the Group E and only gas in the Lower D1 reservoirs. Wireline formation pressure test data taken in the Lower D1 reservoir in these wells plotted along a common trend with a gradient of 0.06 psi/ft. The lowermost gas pressure point was only 6 m above the normal hydrostatic gradient. It was therefore concluded that an oil column, even if present, would be thin. At the time, it was understandable that the gas pressures plotted along the same trend because the hydrocarbon column of the Lower D1 reservoir was large and extended beyond the limits of the major faults, suggesting a common pool. However, during the development drilling phase, it was discovered that the Lower D1 sandstone was a major oil reservoir, with estimated oil-in-place of about 100 million barrels. Oil columns of 75 m and 40 m have been proven up in the northern and southern flanks of the field, respectively, in the Lower D1. In addition, development plans were flexible enough to be able to effectively exploit the discovery.

  9. Evaluation of electromagnetic mapping methods to delineate subsurface saline waters in the Brookhaven oil field, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.D.; Bisdorf, R.; Slack, L.J.; Mazzella, A.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrologic and geophysical studies of saline waters at the Brookhaven oil field (Mississippi) began in 1985. Past and present practices to dispose of brines produced with oil and gas poise an environmental risk to ground water resources, agriculture, and other land uses. At Brookhaven, there is an elevated total chloride content in shallow (<100m) water wells within the field. Background levels of total chloride in the region are around 20 milligrams per liter (mg/L), which is exceptionally fresh water in comparison to other oil producing areas, particularly in the western United States. Contamination in the oil field at some sites is several hundred mg/L chloride as determined from water well samples taken in the mid-1980s. The EPA funded a feasibility study that included a dc resistivity survey which showed low resistivities in one area of known saline water contamination. Detailed electrical geophysical surveys are not possible due to numerous metallic features associated with oil production. In 1988 a helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey of the oil field was flown under contract to the USGS as part of an EPA funded research project. An interpreted resistivity map for a depth of 30m showed low resistivities associated with clays, shales, and saline waters near some of the abandoned brine disposal pits. In 1995 water wells were re-sampled and two areas of high changes in chloride content were found. Also in 1995, a new HEM survey was flown and new dc resistivity soundings were made. Comparison of the ground and airborne survey along a profile where there has been a high change in chloride content shows good agreement for interpreted subsurface resistivities. The HEM survey shows greater detail than the ground measurements and suggests there may be local vertical migration of saline waters in areas where there has been a large increase in ground water chloride content.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  15. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  16. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, D.I. )

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  17. A look at Bacon Flat, Grant Canyon oil fields of Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1993-05-17

    The prolific wells at Grant Canyon, and the puzzling geology, have intrigued explorationists and promoters. Many a Nevada prospect has been touted as 'another Grand Canyon.' But what processes formed Grant Canyon, and can others be found Last August, Equitable Resources Energy Co,'s Balcron Oil Division spudded a well at Bacon Flat, a mile west of Grant Canyon. A one well field, Bacon Flat had been abandoned in 1988. But just 900 ft north of the field opener, Balcron's well tested oil at a rate or 5,400 b/d. It turns out that Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields have a common geological history and, in fact, share the same faulted horst. However, they formed by an unusual combination of events that may be unique to those fields. This paper describes the geologic history, well logging interpretations, structures, the Jebco C seismic line, a geologic cross section, and the author's conclusions.

  18. Tectonic controls on Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales in the Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of Asia during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian resulted in uplift of an ancestral Tian Shan range and geographic isolation of the previously marine Junggar basin. Dramatic shifts from marine to nonmarine sedimentation took place in both the southern Junggar and northern Tarim basins during the Permina. Paleocurrent analysis indicate that by the Late Permian, coarse-grained sediments in both basins were being supplied predominantly from the area of the Tian Shan. During the Late Permian, the southern Junggar received in excess of 5,000 m of nonmarine sediments, including approximately 1,000 m of laminated, highly organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales). These deposits commonly have TOCs of 20-30%, and Rock-Eval pyrolitic yields reaching 2,000 mg/g, ranking them among the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the world. Based on a comparison of the distribution of steranes and extended tricyclic terpanes, these Upper Permian oil shales appear to be the primary source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Ancestral uplift of the Tian Shan thus produced a complex tectono-hydrologic partitioning of the Late Permina Junggar basin, which exerted a strong influence on the character of petroleum source rocks deposited within the basin.

  19. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations.

  20. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  1. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  3. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D. ); Edwards, E.B. ); Heck, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  4. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D.; Edwards, E.B.; Heck, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  5. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  6. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  7. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  8. Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

  9. Identifying the multiscale impacts of crude oil price shocks on the stock market in China at the sector level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shupei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Xuan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the multiscale dynamic linkages between crude oil price and the stock market in China at the sector level. First, the Haar à trous wavelet transform is implemented to extract multiscale information from the original time series. Furthermore, we incorporate the vector autoregression model to estimate the dynamic relationship pairing the Brent oil price and each sector stock index at each scale. There is a strong evidence showing that there are bidirectional Granger causality relationships between most of the sector stock indices and the crude oil price in the short, medium and long terms, except for those in the health, utility and consumption sectors. In fact, the impacts of the crude oil price shocks vary for different sectors over different time horizons. More precisely, the energy, information, material and telecommunication sector stock indices respond to crude oil price shocks negatively in the short run and positively in the medium and long runs, terms whereas the finance sector responds positively over all three time horizons. Moreover, the Brent oil price shocks have a stronger influence on the stock indices of sectors other than the health, optional and utility sectors in the medium and long terms than in the short term. The results obtained suggest implication of this paper as that the investment and policymaking decisions made during different time horizons should be based on the information gathered from each corresponding time scale.

  10. Immunomagnetically Captured Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Bjørn; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1992-01-01

    Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulfotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells. T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media. Images PMID:16348693

  11. Kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption.

    PubMed

    Nourafkan, E; Asachi, M; Marandi, R

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption. A population balance equation, coupled with a mass balance equation, was used in the estimation of kinetic parameters. Metal removal was performed by potential sorption of lead and copper through CaCO3 precipitates induced by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2. The oil-field brine was selected from an oil well in Gachsaran, Iran. The crystal size distribution of the solid phase was measured by dynamic laser scattering analyzer, and the liquor phase was analyzed using atomic adsorption. The morphology of calcium carbonate particles was illustrated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of copper and lead decreases the average size distribution of calcium carbonate particles by influencing the kinetic parameters. Lead and copper concentrations were reduced from 2.911 to 0.127 ppm (95.63% removal) and 0.476 to 0.025 ppm (94.74% removal), respectively, in exchange for 12 g CaCO3 consumption per 100 ml oil-field brine.

  12. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  13. An acoustic system for providing the two-phase liquid profile in oil field storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Meribout, Mahmoud; Al Naamany, Ahmed; Al Busaidi, Khamis

    2009-10-01

    The continuing need for in situ measurements of the emulsion layer between crude oil and water within oil field tanks has initiated experimental and theoretical investigations of candidate measurement methods. This paper describes a new low-cost and nonradioactive industrial field prototype device that provides, continuously and in real time, the vertical profile of the 2-phase liquid within oil field tank separators (i.e., percentage of water in oil at different heights of the tank, as well as the emulsion layer interfaces) using ultrasonic waves. The device, which has been installed in a vessel through an 8-in. flange, consists of a 1-D array of tens of ultrasonic transducers (28 transducers in this paper) that are activated in a time-multiplexed manner by an embedded transmitter fixed on the top of the tank. This latest version implements a feedforward neural network with back-propagation learning to determine the vertical water-cut distribution along the vessel. It also implements an expert-system-based algorithm to determine the lower and higher positions of the emulsion layer. The results obtained from the extensive experiments, which have been conducted under various conditions of temperature, indicate that the device can determine the profile of the 2-phase liquid within a relative error of +/- 3%.

  14. Globalizing Technical Communication: A Field Report from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Carol M.; Philip, Kavita; Reynolds, Alison; Shauf, Michele S.; Thompson, Theresa Mae

    2001-01-01

    Recounts a technical writing institute presented by a delegation of North American technical communication faculty to Chinese English as a foreign language teachers. Discusses planning the 10-day technical writing institute; challenges and assumptions about teaching technical communication in China; institute lectures and activities; and institute…

  15. Open sesame: Identification of sesame oil and oil soot ink in organic deposits of Tang Dynasty lamps from Astana necropolis in China.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Anna; Yang, Yimin; Knaust, Andrea; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Mai, Huijuan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Changsui; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent-burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins. Proteomics evidence corroborated and detailed the assignments of source organism relying upon comparative profiling of intact triacylglycerols by shotgun lipidomics. We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism.

  16. Open sesame: Identification of sesame oil and oil soot ink in organic deposits of Tang Dynasty lamps from Astana necropolis in China

    PubMed Central

    Knaust, Andrea; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Mai, Huijuan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Changsui; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent—burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins. Proteomics evidence corroborated and detailed the assignments of source organism relying upon comparative profiling of intact triacylglycerols by shotgun lipidomics. We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism. PMID:28234998

  17. Lloydminster fireflood performance, modifications promise good recoveries. [Canadian oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fairfield, W.H.; White, P.D.

    1982-02-08

    Efforts to increase ultimate recovery by thermal methods began 16 years ago with steam huff-and-puff and displacement steam drive. These early efforts were not successful. The first in situ combustion drive, the Golden Lake Sparky Fireflood, was initiated 12 years ago and is the subject of this work. It consists of one 20-acre inverted five-spot pattern and two approximately 30-acre inverted seven-spots. All three patterns are currently operating, and the project shows promise of accomplishing recoveries in excess of 30%. It is currently being expanded to include two additional patterns. Field characteristics are discussed along with observations on combustion operations Sparky sands. A critique of the fireflood process is given and the oxygen fireflood - a modification to the fireflood process - is outlined. 4 refs.

  18. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  19. Study on source apportionment of Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Compounds (NMHC) in Dagang Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Tan; Lin Tao; Bai Zhipeng

    1996-12-31

    To identify the sources of non-methane total hydrocarbon in atmosphere in the region of Dagang Oil Field, 35 samples were collected and 10 hydrocarbon compounds were analyzed with GC/FID. Then, the Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model was set up and the source contributions and standard errors were determined with the effective variance weighted least squares estimation method. The sources of the non-methane total hydrocarbon in this region includes crude oil, gasoline, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and motor exhaust, whose contributions are 46.64%, 8.56%, 20.05%, 18.17% and 6.08% respectively. Upon these analyses, the major sources of regional non-methane total hydrocarbon are crude oil, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.

  20. Origin and occurrence of crude oils in the Zhu1 sub-basin, Pearl River Mouth Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yue; Hao, Fang; Zhu, Junzhang; Tian, Jinqiang; Ji, Yubing

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the seventeen major oil fields in the Zhu1 sub-basin, Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) was studied based on the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis on more than 370 samples and biomarker analysis on 31 source rock samples and 63 oil samples. The two possible source rock intervals have different biomarker assemblages and were deposited in different environments. The Wenchang Formation (E2w, 56.5-32 Ma) is characterized mainly by low C19/C23 tricyclic terpane (<2.0), low C24 tetracyclic terpane/αβC30 hopane (<0.06), low bicadinane-T/αβC30 hopane (<2.0) and high 4-methyl steranes/∑C29 steranes (most >0.4) ratios, and were deposited in anoxic to suboxic environments with important contribution from Pediastrum and Dinoflagellates. The Enping Formation (E3e, 32-30 Ma) has high C19/C23 tricyclic terpane, high C24 tetracyclic terpane/αβC30 hopane, widely variable yet overally high bicadinane-T/αβC30 hopane and low 4-methyl steranes/∑C29 steranes ratios, and were deposited in freshwater lacustrine to swamp conditions with significant terrigenous organic matter input. According to oil-source correlation, three oil classes can be identified in the Zhu1 sub-basin. Class 1 oil is E2w-derived and occurs widely. Class 2 oil is E3e-derived and refers to oils from F field in the north of the Huizhou depression. Class 3 oil is a mixture of oils generated from E2w and E3e, only distributed in the Huizhou depression and on its southern margin. The petroleum distribution pattern is mainly controlled by the distribution of source rocks and the migration pathways of oils. This research has important implications for future exploration.

  1. Higher Education Research as a Field in China: Its Formation and Current Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuang-Ye; Hu, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the field of higher education research in China from its historical roots through to its current development. It is a case study of how the field of higher education research emerged and was co-constructed by the state and the academic community of higher education researchers to become an established and recognised discipline…

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and <0.1% of the Ba was released. Potential for the release of 226Ra was demonstrated, and the 226 Ra release associated with sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

  3. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  4. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  5. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2(∗), π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  6. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  8. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield.

  9. Detecting surface oil slick related to gas hydrate/petroleum on the ocean bed of South China Sea by ENVI/ASAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Duofu; Song, Zhiguang

    2013-03-01

    For exploring the distribution of oil slick related to gas hydrate or petroleum in the northern part of South China Sea and evaluating the potential of ENVI/ASAR radar data for detecting oil slick, this paper tries to detect the oil slick on ocean surface of some potential areas in South China Sea and map oil slick from anomaly area in radar image. Seven surface oil slicks in Qiongdongnan Basin and four potential targets of oil slicks in Taixi-Dongsha Basin were detected and extracted by using ENIV/ASAR data. The anomalies of the radar image representing oil slick are validated by in-site sampling and laboratory analyzing. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) results of the extracted oil from the water samples gathered from the sites of detected oil slick demonstrate a typical composition of oil rather than that of ocean microbial origins, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in two designed vertical profiles keep steady in different depths, showing that the organic contents in water column are steady from the deep area to ocean surface. These results suggest the detected oil slick is a thin floating oil rather than a thick spill. Influencing factors to the results of oil slick detection including wind speed, current, small islands and capes as well as deep-sea petroleum reservoirs are discussed. The results in this study exhibit that extracting the anomaly signals related to oil slick related to oil/gas seeps using image processing techniques from ENVI/ASAR data is helpful to predict anomaly areas as potential targets for further exploration in this area.

  10. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images PMID:16348538

  11. Sedimentary style and oil-gas field distribution in Western Bohai Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansheng Qiao )

    1994-07-01

    Western Bohai Bay is located near Tianjing City and the Yanshan Mountains. Tectonically, it is part of the Bohai Bay rift, including the Qiku, Nanpu, and Cangdong depressions. The Paleogene strata consist of three cycles in the rift. Usually, the sublacustrine fans or basalts formed at the initial stage of every cycle. The dark shales and turbidites developed at the high level of lacustrine transgression. However, the deltas or evaporates appeared at the regressive stage. The sublacustrine fans or deltas generally distribute in the marginal part of a depression, with humic type kerogen. The dark shales of deep lacustrine facies in the inner part of it contain sapropel type kerogen. The transitional zone between them is interbedded shales and sandstones, with mixed type kerogen. The oil-gas fields mainly occur in the transitional zone around the oil-generating center. The great oil-gas fields are formed in areas where the big drape anticline coincided with the sublacustrine fan-front or delta-front sandstones and were sealed by shales or evaporates. A great number of small overpressured oil reservoirs are in the mature source rocks in the depression center.

  12. Assessment of Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Granite Rock Mass for a Pilot Underground Crude Oil Storage Facility in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhechao; Li, Shucai; Qiao, Liping

    2015-11-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of a pilot underground crude oil storage facility in a granite host rock in China was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Characterization of hydro-mechanical behavior of the rock mass was performed using laboratory test, field monitoring, back analysis of field measurements and permeability tests. FEM numerical analyses were used to assess the hydro-mechanical behavior of the granite to study several design and construction issues. The containment properties of the storage facility were investigated without and with the water curtain system. Results showed that the stored oil would leak into rock mass if a water curtain system is not provided, whereas the containment property of the facility will be maintained when a water curtain system is in place. On the influence of cavern excavation sequence, it was indicated that the excavation of the caverns from left to right is a better choice than right to left for the containment property of the facility. On the influence of permeable condition, it was found that the extent of plastic zones, horizontal convergence and crown settlement under permeable condition are lower than those under impermeable condition due to the different stress paths in the rock mass experienced during excavation.

  13. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for light oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G.; Coma, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a laboratory and field investigation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for the enhanced recovery of light crude oil. The results of continuous and cyclic CO/sub 2/ displacements using a 31.2 /sup 0/API (870 kg/m/sup 3/) stock tank oil in watered-out Berea cores are presented. Fourteen single-well cyclic CO/sub 2/ field tests in south Louisianan sands are examined. Laboratory results demonstrate that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil. Incremental oil recovery increased with the amount of CO/sub 2/ injected, and was not benefited by operating at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Maximum ultimate incremental oil recovery required a soak period and additional water influx. Incremental oil recovery continued with a second cycle of CO/sub 2/, but a third cycle showed significant decline. Recovery factors averaging less than 2 Mscf (57 m/sup 3/) of CO/sub 2/ per barrel of incremental oil were achieved in nine out of fourteen field tests. Field results suggest that in the absence of mechanical problems, initial response improved with larger space occupied by CO/sub 2/, thicker perforation interval, and lower CO/sub 2/ reservoir viscosities; while lifetime response improved with lower prior water cut. Field results confirm that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil, and that a second cycle can be successful.

  14. Truncated shifted pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a J-shape, and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment.

  15. Jurassic Haynesville oil production unfolds in Mississippi's mature Bay Springs field

    SciTech Connect

    Sticker, E.E. )

    1992-07-13

    This paper discusses Bay Springs field in western jasper Country, Miss., about 1 mile east of the town of Bay Springs. The field was discovered in 1965 after seismic work conducted by Shell Oil Co. led to the drilling of the Shell 1 C.E. Brown in 27-2n-10e. After initial completion attempts in Jurassic Upper and Lower Smackover yielded unsatisfactory results, a completion was made in a Jurassic Lower Cotton Valley sand later to be named the Bay Springs sand. The well was officially tested through perforations at about 14,500 ft in the Bay Springs sand at a rate of 585 b/d of oil through a 10/64 in. choke with a flowing tubing pressure of 1,850 psi. The gravity of the crude was 47.5{degrees} with a GOR of 630:1.

  16. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  18. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  19. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  20. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  1. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  2. Storage of oil field-produced waters alters their chemical and microbiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hulecki, Jordan C; Foght, Julia M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2010-05-01

    Many oil fields are in remote locations, and the time required for shipment of produced water samples for microbiological examination may be lengthy. No studies have reported on how storage of oil field waters can change their characteristics. Produced water samples from three Alberta oil fields were collected in sterile, industry-approved 4-l epoxy-lined steel cans, sealed with minimal headspace and stored under anoxic conditions for 14 days at either 4 degrees C or room temperature (ca. 21 degrees C). Storage resulted in significant changes in water chemistry, microbial number estimates and/or community response to amendment with nitrate. During room-temperature storage, activity and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (and, to a lesser extent, fermenters and methanogens) in the samples led to significant changes in sulfide, acetate and propionate concentrations as well as a significant increase in most probable number estimates, particularly of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfide production during room-temperature storage was likely to be responsible for the altered response to nitrate amendment observed in microcosms containing sulfidogenic samples. Refrigerated storage suppressed sulfate reduction and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. However, declines in sulfide concentrations were observed in two of the three samples stored at 4 degrees C, suggesting abiotic losses of sulfide. In one of the samples stored at room temperature, nitrate amendment led to ammonification. These results demonstrate that storage of oil field water samples for 14 days, such as might occur because of lengthy transport times or delays before analysis in the laboratory, can affect microbial numbers and activity as well as water sample chemistry.

  3. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  4. Depositional environments of Upper Triassic sandstones, El Borma oil field, southwestern Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Bentahar, H.; Ethridge, F.G. )

    1991-03-01

    El Borma oil field in southwestern Tunisia is located on the Algerian border and produces from five Upper Triassic sandstone reservoirs at depths ranging from 2,300 to 2,400 m. The 250 km{sup 2} field has recoverable reserves of 770 mm bbl of equivalent oil. Reservoir sandstones rest unconformably on south-dipping Lower Devonian clastic deposits. Silurian shale represents the major oil source rock and the field is capped by 550 m of shale, carbonate, and evaporite. Hercynian, topography below the reservoir sandstones comprises an 18 km wide, northeast-oriented paleovalley. Each of the four lower reservoir sandstones, bounded by a lower scour surface and a basal lag deposit, is commonly discontinuous and separated by lenticular shale beds. These 5 to 15 m thick sandstones display in channels flowing to the northeast. The overlying 12 m thick transgressive marine dolomitic shale contains carbonized bivalves and is capped by a paleosoil with root structures and siderite cement indicating subaerial exposure. The clay-rich and locally bioturbated uppermost reservoir sandstone was probably deposited in a tidally influenced estuary. Overall, the Upper Triassic reservoirs at El Borma consists of valley-fill estuary deposits that were formed during transgression of the sea from the northeast.

  5. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  6. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  7. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  8. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field.

  9. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ Huff 'n' Puff process for light-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G. ); Coma, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    Cyclic CO/sub 2/ injection for enhanced recovery of light crude oil is investigated. Results from watered-out Berea corefloods and 14 field tests demonstrate that first and second cycled recover waterflood residual oil. Factors that may improve performance include larger reservoir slug volume, soak period, thicker interval, and lower prior water cut.

  10. The China Mental Health Survey: II. Design and field procedures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaorui; Huang, Yueqin; Lv, Ping; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Li, Qiang; Yan, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui; Xu, Xiufeng; Lu, Jin; Wang, Zhizhong; Qiu, Hongyan; Xu, Yifeng; He, Yanling; Li, Tao; Guo, Wanjun; Tian, Hongjun; Xu, Guangming; Xu, Xiangdong; Ma, Yanjuan; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Limin; Yan, Yongping; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Li, Lingjiang; Tan, Liwen; Chen, Hongguang; Ma, Chao

    2016-11-01

    China Mental Health Survey (CMHS), which was carried out from July 2013 to March 2015, was the first national representative community survey of mental disorders and mental health services in China using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Face-to-face interviews were finished in the homes of respondents who were selected from a nationally representative multi-stage disproportionate stratified sampling procedure. Sample selection was integrated with the National Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance Survey administered by the National Centre for Chronic and Non-communicable Disease Control and Prevention in 2013, which made it possible to obtain both physical and mental health information of Chinese community population. One-stage design of data collection was used in the CMHS to obtain the information of mental disorders, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, while two-stage design was applied for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and dementia. A total of 28,140 respondents finished the survey with 72.9% of the overall response rate. This paper describes the survey mode, fieldwork organization, procedures, and the sample design and weighting of the CMHS. Detailed information is presented on the establishment of a new payment scheme for interviewers, results of the quality control in both stages, and evaluations to the weighting.

  11. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  12. Field experiences with rotordynamic instability in high-performance turbomachinery. [oil and natural gas recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Two field situations illustrate the consequences of rotordynamic instability in centrifugal compressors. One involves the reinjection of produced gas into a North Sea oil formation for the temporary extraction of crude. The other describes on-shore compressors used to deliver natural gas from off-shore wells. The problems which developed and the remedies attempted in each case are discussed. Instability problems resulted in lost production, extended construction periods and costs, and heavy maintenance expenditures. The need for effective methods to properly identify the problem in the field and in the compressor design stage is emphasized.

  13. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, N.A. ); Avrov, V.P. ); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  14. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF.

  15. A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

  16. A new reserve growth model for United States oil and gas fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Reserve (or field) growth, which is an appreciation of total ultimate reserves through time, is a well-recognized phenomenon, particularly in mature petroleum provinces. The importance of forecasting reserve growth accurately in a mature petroleum province made it necessary to develop improved growth functions, and a critical review of the original Arrington method was undertaken. During a five-year (1992-1996), the original Arrington method gave 1.03% higher than the actual oil reserve growth, whereas the proposed modified method gave a value within 0.3% of the actual growth, and therefore it was accepted for the development for reserve growth models. During a five-year (1992-1996), the USGS 1995 National Assessment gave 39.3% higher oil and 33.6% lower gas than the actual growths, whereas the new model based on Modified Arrington method gave 11.9% higher oil and 29.8% lower gas than the actual growths. The new models forecast predict reserve growths of 4.2 billion barrels of oil (2.7%) and 30.2 trillion cubic feet of gas (5.4%) for the conterminous U.S. for the next five years (1997-2001). ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  18. Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  20. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process

  1. Controls of oil family distribution and composition in nonmarine petroleum systems: A case study from Inner Mongolia Erlian basin, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhelong; Liu, Guangdi; Huang, Zhilong; Lu, Xuejun; Luo, Qiang; Ding, Xiujian

    2014-10-01

    The Erlian basin is a continental rift basin located in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. It is a typical representative of Cretaceous Northeast Asian Rift System, which includes many small petroliferous basins in Mongolia Republic and Northern China. Although Lower Cretaceous source rocks are understood to be most important in the Erlian petroleum systems, the precise identification of these source rock intervals and their determination on oil families distribution and composition are poorly understood in this tectonically complicated, nonmarine basin. New bulk data have been gathered from source rock intervals, oil sands and crude oil samples in eight main oil-producing subbasins. Geochemical analyses indicate that Lower Cretaceous Aershan formation (K1ba) and Tengger 1 formation (K1bt1) are two main source intervals in the Erlian basin and their source rock facies vary from profundal lacustrine to marginal lacustrine according to biomarker and trace elements calibration, the profundal lacustrine facies is characterised by brackish water and anoxic environment, which is similar to their correlative oils (Family 1 oils). The marginal lacustrine facies is characterised by freshwater and suboxic environment, which sourced the most common Family 2 oils. Meanwhile, different maturation processes exercise the second control on oil groups and their compositions, the profundal lacustrine source rocks characterised by their sulphur-rich kerogens lead to two oil groups (group 1 and group 2 oils), whose maturity range from low to normal; while, the marginal lacustrine source rock only lead to normal-maturity oils. At last, biodegradation affected the composition of a certain oils and formed group 4 heavy oils. In addition, short migration distance in small subbasins made the contamination or fractionation less notable in the Erlian basin.

  2. A fortran program for Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a program for performing Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery histories. A synthetic parent population of fields is generated as a finite sample from a distribution of specified form. The discovery sequence then is simulated by sampling without replacement from this parent population in accordance with a probabilistic discovery process model. The program computes a chi-squared deviation between synthetic and actual discovery sequences as a function of the parameters of the discovery process model, the number of fields in the parent population, and the distributional parameters of the parent population. The program employs the three-parameter log gamma model for the distribution of field sizes and employs a two-parameter discovery process model, allowing the simulation of a wide range of scenarios. ?? 1993.

  3. Magnetic field induced modulated phases in a ferrofluid lutidine silicone oil mixture.

    PubMed

    Bugase, Jonas; Berner, Johannes; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-10-19

    A mixture of an ester based ferrofluid with silicone oil and 2,6-lutidine is exposed to an external magnetic field. We find a region of composition of the ternary mixture, where weak magnetic fields of the order of a few kA m(-1) induce a modulated phase with a pattern characterized by equilibrium size droplets of the minority phase immersed into the extended majority phase. While the pattern resembles in many ways the pattern of immiscible magnetic fluids, the dependence of the characteristic parameters of the pattern on the magnetic field are completely different than in immiscible fluids. We theoretically explain the pattern formation as a magnetic field induced polymerization of magnetic particles into magnetic chains that goes along with a reduction of the entropy of mixing. This entropy reduction causes the Ostwald ripening of chains into mesoscopic droplets the size of which is limited by repulsive dipolar interactions between the chains.

  4. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  5. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols.

  6. Tectonic and climate control of oil shale deposition in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (Songliao Basin, NE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianliang; Liu, Zhaojun; Bechtel, Achim; Strobl, Susanne A. I.; Sun, Pingchang

    2013-09-01

    Oil shales were deposited in the Songliao Basin (NE China) during the Upper Cretaceous period, representing excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. High organic matter (OM) contents, a predominance of type-I kerogen, and a low maturity of OM in the oil shales are indicated by bulk geochemical parameters and biomarker data. A major contribution of aquatic organisms and minor inputs from terrigenous land plants to OM input are indicated by n-alkane distribution patterns, composition of steroids, and organic macerals. Strongly reducing bottom water conditions during the deposition of the oil shale sequences are indicated by low pristane/phytane ratios, high C14-aryl-isoprenoid contents, homohopane distribution patterns, and high V/Ni ratios. Enhanced salinity stratification with mesosaline and alkaline bottom waters during deposition of the oil shales are indicated by high gammacerane index values, low MTTC ratios, high β-carotene contents, low TOC/S ratios, and high Sr/Ba ratios. The stratified water column with anoxic conditions in the bottom water enhanced preservation of OM. Moderate input of detrital minerals during the deposition of the oil shale sequences is reflected by titanium concentrations. In this study, environmental conditions in the paleo-lake leading to OM accumulation in the sediments are related to sequence stratigraphy governed by climate and tectonics. The first Member of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin, containing the oil shale sequence, encompasses a third-order sequence that can be divided into three system tracts (transgressive system tract—TST, highstand system tract—HST, and regressive system tract—RST). Enrichment of OM changed from low values during TST-I to high-moderate values during TST-II/III and HST-I/II. Low OM enrichment occurs during RST-I and RST-II. Therefore, the highest enrichment of OM in the sediments is related to stages of mid-late TST and early HST.

  7. Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence

  8. Geochemical evidence for mudstone as the possible major oil source rock in the Jurassic Turpan Basin, Northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Qin, Yelun; Huff, B.G.; Wang, D.; Han, D.; Huang, D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologists and geochemists have debated whether hydrocarbons from Jurassic coal measures are derived from the mudstones or the coals themselves. This paper identifies mudstones as the possible major source rock of hydrocarbons in the Jurassic basins in Northwest China. The Turpan Basin is used as a representative model. Mudstones in the Middle-Lower Jurassic are very well developed in the basin and have an average genetic potential from 2 to 4 mg/g. The vitrinite reflectance of the source rocks ranges from 0.6 to 1.3%, exhibiting sufficient thermal maturity to generate oil and gas. Biomarkers in crude oils from the basin are similar to those in mudstones from the coal-bearing strata, with a low tricyclic terpane (cheilanthane) content, a relatively high content of low carbon number (less than C22) tricyclic terpanes and a low content of high carbon number tricyclic terpanes, relatively high ratios of Ts/Tm, and C29 Ts/17?? (H)-C29 norhopane, and low ratios of Tm/17?? (H)-C30 hopane and 17?? (H)-C31 homohopane/17?? (H)-C30 hopane. These characteristics and the distribution of steranes and terpanes in the crude oil and mudstone differ significantly from those of the Jurassic coals and carbonaceous shales of the basin, indicating mudstone is possibly the major source rock of the oils in the Turpan Basin. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  10. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Fan, Wenxiu; Wang, Xuejing; Qu, Li; Yao, Shuwen

    2011-12-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.214-0.875, 0.742-2.56, 16.2-45.3, 0.113-0.556, 0.026-0.075, 0.009-0.018 and 0.009-0.019 μg g(-1), respectively. Cadmium was found to be 2.64-8.43 μg/kg. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in the investigated edible vegetable oils. Comparing with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the dietary intakes of the eight heavy metals from weekly consumption of 175 g of edible vegetable oils or daily consumption 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no risk to human health.

  11. A modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, Jorge C.

    1982-10-01

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  12. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations.

  13. Weathering of field-collected floating and stranded Macondo oils during and shortly after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Baker, Gregory

    2016-04-15

    Chemical analysis of large populations of floating (n=62) and stranded (n=1174) Macondo oils collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico sea surface and shorelines during or within seven weeks of the end of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill demonstrates the range, rates, and processes affecting surface oil weathering. Oil collected immediately upon reaching the sea surface had already lost most mass below n-C8 from dissolution of soluble aliphatics, monoaromatics, and naphthalenes during the oil's ascent with further reductions extending up to n-C13 due to the onset of evaporation. With additional time, weathering of the floating and stranded oils advanced with total PAH (TPAH50) depletions averaging 69±23% for floating oils and 94±3% for stranded oils caused by the combined effects of evaporation, dissolution, and photo-oxidation, the latter of which also reduced triaromatic steroid biomarkers. Biodegradation was not evident among the coalesced floating oils studied, but had commenced in some stranded oils.

  14. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables.

  15. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  16. Sedimentation, zoning of reservoir rocks in W. Siberian basin oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kliger, J.A. )

    1994-02-07

    A line pattern of well cluster spacing was chosen in western Siberia because of taiga, marshes, etc., on the surface. The zoning of the oil pools within productive Upper Jurassic J[sub 3] intervals is complicated. This is why until the early 1990s almost each third well drilled in the Shaimsky region on the western edge of the West Siberian basin came up dry. The results of development drilling would be much better if one used some sedimentological relationships of zoning of the reservoir rocks within the oil fields. These natural phenomena are: Paleobasin bathymetry; Distances from the sources of the clastic material; and Proximity of the area of deposition. Using the diagram in this article, one can avoid drilling toward areas where the sandstone pinch out, area of argillization of sand-stones, or where the probability of their absence is high.

  17. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

  18. Geological history and petroleum system of the Mittelplate oil field, Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassmann, S.; Cramer, B.; Delisle, G.; Messner, J.; Winsemann, J.

    2005-12-01

    The geological history of Germany’s largest and most productive petroleum accumulation, the Mittelplate oil field in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany), is reconstructed by simulating the structural and thermal evolution along a 2D cross-section. The Mittelplate field is located at the western flank of the Büsum salt dome at the transition from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland to the German North Sea Sector. Organic geochemical data confirm the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale to be the predominant oil source rock in the Schleswig-Holstein area. The studied section is characterized by salt walls and salt domes built up by Permian evaporites. Reconstruction of the structural and thermal evolution of the Mittelplate field by means of basin modelling reveals the dominating influence of salt dynamics on the entire petroleum system: The development of secondary rim-synclines during salt rise provided accommodation space for the deposition of the Posidonia Shale as well as the deltaic Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones. The rise of the nearby Oldenswort salt wall controlled the timing of maturation and petroleum generation during Cenozoic times. Hydrocarbon migration from the Posidonia Shale into the reservoirs occurred up-dip from the deeper subsiding rim-syncline into the structural trap with the Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones pinching out at the flank of the Büsum salt dome. Along the modelled 2D section the field’s recent temperature field and its complex reservoir architecture are reconstructed.

  19. VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

    2008-12-01

    Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

  20. Urbanization Effects on Fog in China: Field Research and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zi-hua; Yang, Jun; Shi, Chun-e.; Pu, Mei-juan

    2012-05-01

    Since the policy of "Reform and Open to the Outside World" was implemented from 1978, urbanization has been rapid in China, leading to the expansion of urban areas and population synchronous with swift advances in economy. With urban development underway, the urban heat island (UHI) and air pollution are being enhanced, together with vegetation coverage and relative humidity on the decrease. These changes lead to: (1) decline of annual fog days in cities (e.g. In Chongqing, so-called city of fog in China, the annual fog days have reduced from 100-145 in the 1950s to about 20-30 in the 2000s); (2) decrease in fog water content (FWC) and fog droplet size, but increase in fog droplets number concentration [e.g. Jinghong, a city in Yunnan province, the average FWC (the droplet diameter) during an extremely dense fog episode with drizzle was 0.74 g/m3 (28.6 μm) during the 1968/69 winter and 0.08 g/m3 (6.8 μm) in another extremely dense fog episode during the 1986/87 winter, correspondingly, the fog droplets number density had increased from 34.9 to 153 cm-3]; (3) decrease in fog water deposition (FWD) (e.g. the annual mean FWD measured in Jinghong had dropped from 17.3 mm in the 1950s to 4.4 mm in the 1970s and less than 1 mm in the 1980s, and no measurable FWD now.); (4) decrease in visibility in large cities (e.g. in Chongqing, the annual average visibility had decreased from 8.2-11.8 km in the 1960s to 4.9-6.5 km in the 1980s, and around 5 km in recent years); and (5) increase in the ion concentrations and acidity in fog water in urban areas [e.g. the average total ion concentration (TIC) in the center of Chongqing was 5.5 × 104 μmol/L, with mean pH value of 4.0, while the corresponding values are 9.7 × 103 μmol/L and over 5.5 in its rural area]. These changes endanger all kinds of transportation and human health. This paper summarized the authors' related studies, including observations and numerical simulations to confirm the above conclusions.

  1. Hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.; Mendes, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, located in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. Data about the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water are presented in tabular form. The tables contain records of privately owned wells (active and abandoned), monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, oil wells, and brine-injection wells; lithologic descriptions of drill cuttings and well-completion data from monitoring wells; data from two aquifer tests conducted in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits; chemical quality of ground water; and information on the quantity and chemical quality of surface water. Records of electromagnetic geophysical measurements collected throughout an area of about 20 square miles of the study area are compiled and included on a floppy disk. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, site- numbering system, general physical and cultural features, and construction of monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey. plate-sized map presents additional information about privately owned wells, monitoring wells, oil wells, brine-injections wells, surface-water data-collection sites, and area of electromagnetic data collection. The data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water in the vicinity of the Poplar River Valley in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The data can be used to help delineate the occurrence of brine and saline water in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits in the East Poplar oil field.

  2. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  3. Geochemical study of crude oils from the Xifeng oilfield of the Ordos basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Zheng, C. Y.; Wu, B. X.; Zheng, G. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Xifeng oilfield is the largest newly-discovered oilfield in the Ordos basin. In order to determine the possible source, crude oils collected systematically from the oilfield and an adjacent oilfield have been examined isotopically and molecularly. The predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, high abundance of C 29 sterane, lower ratios of C 25/C 26 tricyclic terpane and C 25 tricyclic terpane/C 24 tetracyclic terpane and high C 24 tetracyclic terpane/(C 24 tetracyclic terpane + C 26 tricyclic terpanes ratio in the studied oils suggest generation from a source with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic matter. The presence of diterpenoid hydrocarbon with abietane skeletons is characteristic of the main contribution of higher land plants to the oils. The biomarker distributions in the oils show that they were formed under a weakly reducing freshwater environment. Molecular maturity parameters indicate that the crude oils are mature. The oil-source rock correlation and oil migration investigation suggest that the oils in the Xifeng oilfield originated from the source rocks of the Yanchang formation deposited in a shallow to deep freshwater lacustrine environment, especially Chang-7 source rocks. The data from the distribution of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds indicate that the charging direction of the Chang-8 crude oils is mainly from the Zhuang 12 well northeast of the oilfield toward the southwest. This direction of oil migration is consistent with that indicated by regional geological data.

  4. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  5. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-03-10

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  6. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  7. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  8. Toxicological effects of military fog oil obscurant on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia in field and laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Cropek, Donald M; Esarey, Joan C; Conner, Cassie L; Goran, Jacob M; Smith, Thomas; Soucek, David J

    2008-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if the acute and sub-lethal effects of fog oil, an obscurant used for military training, could be observed in realistic field exposures. To this end, we exposed Daphnia magna to oil fogs under actual release conditions at a U.S. Army training site. Guided by field investigations, acute toxicity experiments were conducted in the laboratory with the more sensitive species Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that dissolution of fog oil constituents into water is minimal and actual contact by organisms with the water surface is required to cause toxicity. We conducted further experiments to test the hypothesis that vaporization of fog oil alters its chemical composition and toxicity to freshwater invertebrates. In the field, daphnid mortality was minimal more than 5 m from the point of fog generation, but sub-lethal effects were more extensive. Both field and laboratory experiments suggested that physical contact with oils on the water surface was the most important factor driving toxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate toxicological endpoints with freshwater invertebrates in field exposures with fog oil.

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  10. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  11. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  12. Arsenic accumulation by ferns: a field survey in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study reported here was to characterize arsenic (As) accumulation by Pteris ferns by comparing 3 of the ferns of this genus with each other as well as with four non-Pteris ferns growing on seven sites in southern China with different As levels. A total of 112 samples, including 78 Pteris vittata, 13 P. cretica, 3 P. multifida and 18 ferns from other non-Pteris genera, with the soils in which they grew were collected for As and other elemental analyses. P. vittata was found to be the most dominant species and the most efficient As-accumulator, whereas P. multifida was the lowest As-accumulator among the Pteris ferns, with 4.54-3599, 28.7-757 and 11.2-341 mg kg(-1) As recorded in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica and P. multifida, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in non-Pteris ferns were generally much lower than those in Pteris ferns, with 0.81-1.32, 3.59, 10.7, 6.17-24.3 mg kg(-1) in the fronds of Blechumum orientale, Dicranopteris dichotoma, Pteridium aquilinum and Cyclosorus acuminatus, respectively. For P. vittata, the As bioaccumulation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in soils) changed, whereas the As translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in roots) remained unchanged among the different sites. The concentrations of Fe were very high in all of the collected fern sample, with the exception of B. orientale, with 207-6865, 637-3369, 375-1856, 1876, 493-6865 and 492 mg kg(-1) in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica, P. multifida, C. acuminatus, P. aquilinum and D. dichotoma, respectively. The association between Fe accumulation and As accumulation and tolerance in these ferns indicates the unique role of Fe in As-hyperaccumulation.

  13. Analyzing the oil refining industry in developing countries: A comparative study of China and India

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, F.C.

    1994-12-31

    The oil refining industry is a critical link in the energy chain in many developing and industrialized countries, transforming crude oil into transport fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel), residual fuel oil (widely used as a fuel in industry and the electric power sector), and other products such as kerosine, frequently for lighting an cooking usages. Three to four decades ago, the demand for oil products in most developing countries was centered to a few large cities; thus, few refineries were built in these regions. But because of the astonishing economic growth in many developing nations, demand for oil products has increased rapidly. As a result, the refining industry has expanded rapidly in such countries, even in cases were there is no domestic crude oil production. Oil product demand and refinery expansion in Asian developing countries in particular have experienced significant growth. Between 1976 and 1993, oil product demand and refinery capacity in that region (excluding Japan) increased annually an average of 5.2 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively, whereas the comparable figures for the world as a whole remained virtually unchanged during the same period. The substantial gains in Asia`s crude oil production in the 1970s is believed to have facilitated this refinery expansion.

  14. Four-dimensional seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard James

    2004-12-01

    The seismic reflection method, traditionally a geologic structural imaging tool, is increasingly being utilized for petroleum reservoir monitoring purposes. Time-lapse, or four dimensional (4D) seismic reservoir monitoring is the process by which repeated 3D seismic surveys are acquired over a common area during the production of a petroleum reservoir in an effort to spatially image production related changes. While if successful, this seismic method can have a significant impact on an oil field's development plan, the sometimes subtle nature of the 4D seismic signals restricts the universal application of 4D seismic methods in all reservoirs and operating environments. To examine the potential use of 4D seismic on Canada's Grand Banks, this thesis conducts a 4D seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field---the first example of 4D seismic technology on the Grand Banks. Due to a challenging environment (seismic and reservoir) at Hibernia for 4D seismic success, rock physics modeling predicts a subtle 4D seismic response for areas of both water and gas injection. To equalize the 4D seismic datasets, specialized poststack cross equalization including a volume event warping process is applied to two 3D post stack seismic datasets from the Hibernia oil field, a pre-production "legacy" survey acquired in 1991, and a 2001 survey. The cross equalization processing improves the repeatability of non-reservoir events fieldwide and enhances reservoir anomalies in some areas of the field. While the data contains a fair degree of noise, 4D seismic anomalies above the noise level can be imaged in areas of both water and gas injection. Through interpretation, some of these anomalies are shown to be consistent with modeled responses to water and gas injection. In addition, there is evidence that some of the seismic anomalies may be due to pore pressure changes in the reservoir. The results of the Hibernia 4D seismic analysis are then used as background for a feasibility analysis for

  15. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of transformer oil in soils with cyclodextrin--from the laboratory to the field.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Leitgib, Laura; Gruiz, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Eva; Szaniszló, Nikoletta; Szejtli, József; Fava, Fabio

    2005-03-01

    The use cyclodextrins for the intensification of bioremediation by improving the mobility and bioavailability of contaminants has recently been studied. In this work, the role of randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with transformer oil was studied both in bench scale bioreactors and through field experiments. The aims of this research were to (a) establish the scientific background of a cyclodextrin-based soil bioremediation technology, (b) demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness in the field, and (c) develop an integrated methodology, consisting of a combination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological analytical methods, for efficiently monitoring the technology performances. The stepwise increasing scale of the experiments and the application of the integrated analytical methodology supported the development of a scientifically established new technology and the identification of the advantages and the limitations of its application in the field. At each phase of the study, randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin was found to significantly enhance the bioremediation and detoxification of the transformer oil-contaminated soils employed by increasing the bioavailability of the pollutants and the activity of indigenous microorganisms.

  17. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  18. Application of new geological modeling technology in secondary development in Daqing oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. L.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, H. K.; Liu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The reconfiguration on underground geology system is one of the key techniques for secondary development in Daqing oil field. The geological modeling is the unique method to characterize new knowledge system of reservoir. The development history of maturing field is long. The structure of maturing field is complex and the distribution of oil remaining is highly scattered. The difficulty of adjustment and potential tapping is great. In viewing of demand for secondary development, the strategies and methods of geological modeling are proposed. According to the characteristics that many faults crosscut each other, the clue of fractional simulation—key horizon controlling—overall structural modeling is carried out to accurately and effectively build fine structural models. In order to approximate the real microfacies simulation effect, microfacies modeling technology of multiple iterations and geology tendency under vertical and lateral geology tendency constraint is used. And the attribute models could approximate the real parametric distribution. Moreover, in viewing of the key and potential reservoir sand, the countermeasure on configuration modeling by different stochastic simulation methods and step simulation is proposed to rapidly build geologic models. The geologic models are scientific and feasible. The above-mentioned countermeasures and methods have been used in secondary development of Daqing oilfield and the effect was well. This new technology presents directive sense.

  19. Development programs call for two concrete platforms in oil, gas fields off Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-23

    This paper reports on development plans for two fields off Norway that have given a boost to use of concrete for the construction of floating production facilities. Conoco Norway Inc. let a $350 million contract for construction of the world's first concrete hull, tension leg platform (TLP) to Norwegian Contractors, Stavanger. As part of a $3.5 billion project, it will be installed in the Conoco group's Heidrun oil and gas field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian Sea off mid-Norway. In addition, a group led by Norsk Hydro Produksjon AS, Oslo, chose a concrete floating production platform as the basis for a $2.42 billion development of the oil province in Troll gas field in the North SEa. Also in the Norwegian North Sea, companies involved in the Sleipner gas development project agreed to seek approval for the $1.77 billion, first phase development phase of West Sleipner reserves beginning in 1996. This will use conventional production technology, although the possibility of a concrete treatment platform has not been ruled out.

  20. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast–southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957–1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

  1. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenwen; Yang, Ruping; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Zhang, Shouwei; Jiang, Bingjun; Tian, Shiyan; Liu, Xiaobing; Han, Tianfu

    2016-05-25

    From 2010 to 2013, 763 soybean samples were collected from an extensive area of China. The correlations between seed compositions and climate data were analyzed. The contents of crude protein and water-soluble protein, total amount of protein plus oil, and most of the amino acids were positively correlated with an accumulated temperature ≥15 °C (AT15) and the mean daily temperature (MDT) but were negatively correlated with hours of sunshine (HS) and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The correlations of crude oil and most fatty acids with climate factors were opposite to those of crude protein. Crude oil content had a quadratic regression relationship with MDT, and a positive correlation between oil content and MDT was found when the daily temperature was <19.7 °C. A path analysis indicated that DTR was the main factor that directly affected soybean protein and oil contents. The study illustrated the effects of climate factors on soybean protein and oil contents and proposed agronomic practices for improving soybean quality in different regions of China. The results provide a foundation for the regionalization of high-quality soybean production in China and similar regions in the world.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Yellow Horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge): A Potential Oil-Rich Seed Tree for Biodiesel in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Zhedong; Ao, Yan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge) is an oil-rich seed shrub that grows well in cold, barren environments and has great potential for biodiesel production in China. However, the limited genetic data means that little information about the key genes involved in oil biosynthesis is available, which limits further improvement of this species. In this study, we describe sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to produce the first comprehensive and integrated genomic resource for yellow horn and identify the pathways and key genes related to oil accumulation. In addition, potential molecular markers were identified and compiled. Methodology/Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from 30 plants from two regions, including buds, leaves, flowers and seeds. Equal quantities of RNA from these tissues were pooled to construct a cDNA library for 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 1,147,624 high-quality reads with total and average lengths of 530.6 Mb and 462 bp, respectively, were generated. These reads were assembled into 51,867 unigenes, corresponding to a total of 36.1 Mb with a mean length, N50 and median of 696, 928 and 570 bp, respectively. Of the unigenes, 17,541 (33.82%) were unmatched in any public protein databases. We identified 281 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and metabolism. Furthermore, 6,707 SSRs, 16,925 SNPs and 6,201 InDels with high-confidence were also identified in this study. Conclusions This transcriptome represents a new functional genomics resource and a foundation for further studies on the metabolic engineering of yellow horn to increase oil content and modify oil composition. The potential molecular markers identified in this study provide a basis for polymorphism analysis of Xanthoceras, and even Sapindaceae; they will also accelerate the process of breeding new varieties with better agronomic characteristics. PMID:24040247

  3. El Furrial oil field, Northeastern Venezuela: First giant in foreland fold and thrust belts of Western Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The El Furrial giant oil field lies on the northern flank of the prolific Eastern Venezuela basin. Major tectonic elements of the region consist of a fold and thrust belt and a deep foreland basin, whose deformation is a product of right-oblique arc-continent collision. This mountain-front oil province displays parallel bands of thrusts and associated folds that extend over 150 mi and have relay trend patterns. The El Furrial structure is a long, doubly plunging anticline, flanked by imbricated, blind thrusts. Seismic data indicate vertical closure of about 3,000 ft over an area of 17,300 ac. The prospective section, of middle Tertiary to Late Cretaceous age, is mainly clastic, with an oil column of 1,800 ft. The interval of greater hydrocarbon potential is equated with shallow marine platform sandstones. Production tests reach sustained daily flow rates exceeding 9,500 bbl of 28/sup 0/API oil and 9,100 mcf of gas. Analysis of the oil suggests a marine Cretaceous source. Although in an early stage of development, the field is estimated to contain approximately 2 billion bbl of recoverable oil reserves. This places El Furrial in the forefront of the giant oil fields in the foreland fold and thrust belt provinces of the Western Hemisphere, second only to the supergiant accumulations of the Zagros zone in the Persian Gulf. The eastern Venezuela basin probably contains on the order of 2 trillion bbl of oil in place, making it the largest oil-bearing basin in the world. An ultimate recovery of 500 billion bbl is estimated. Therefore, the basin offers significant geologic scope for exploration for other giant fields.

  4. Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

  5. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    San, S; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J; Stephens, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.
METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.
RESULTS—Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81).
CONCLUSIONS—The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.


Keywords: cancer; oil; Amazon; Ecuador PMID:11452046

  6. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. ); Baby, P. ); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. ); Guillier, B. )

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  7. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  8. Interpreting Reservoir Microseismicity Detected During CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring is expected to be a useful tool in CO2 sequestration projects for mapping pressure fronts and detecting fault activation and potential leakage paths. Downhole microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration is conducting the monitoring activities in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources Company, under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. The CO2 injection at Aneth is associated with a field-wide enhanced oil recovery operation following decades of pressure maintenance and oil recovery by water-flood injection. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Over the first year of monitoring, approximately 3800 microearthquakes have been detected within about 3 km of the geophone string. The Aneth reservoir events are relatively large with magnitudes ranging from approximately -1 to 1. For comparison, reservoir seismicity induced during hydraulic fracturing treatments typically result in events with magnitudes <-1, unless pre-existing faults are pressurized by the treatments. The Aneth events delineate two NW-SE oriented fracture zones located on opposite flanks of the reservoir. Injection activity is fairly uniform over the entire field area, and the microseismicity does not correlate either temporally or spatially with any anomalous changes in injection or production activities near the source locations. Because the activity is fairly isolated and relatively energetic, I speculate that the seismicity may be due to critically stressed structures driven by longer-term production- and

  9. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations.

  10. Geo-information approach to the study of Romashkino oil field geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, S.; Sharipov, B.; Akhmetov, A.; Delev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geodynamic processes have an immediate influence on a fluid dynamics, for that version they are of significant importance in the formation and reformation processes of oil and gas deposits. The object of our analysis was Romashkino oil field, which is confined to the anticlinal structure of the arch part of the South Tatar Arch. The initial data in our project include the series of a paper maps, which contain the location of the intersection of production and injection wells with the Kyn horizont at the Romashkino oil field and geologic engineering information, which contains the flow rates's inversions data of the well's production activity. Inversion occurs as a periodic increasing of the flow rates which is not caused by the external special influence on the well, against the long-term production activity's decreasing by the decreasing of oil's flow rates. During the analysis of the data we identified the anomalous wells in which the hydrocarbon feed process was observed with the highest probability based on several criteria. By the using of modern GIS technology we have compared the plots, in which an anomal wells are located, with a block structure of the basement and the sedimentary cover, and with the deconsolidated and fluid's penetrability zones of the crystalline basement. For analysis of tabular data array we used ArcGis software package. Romashkino's map was vectorized by using the EasyTrase and when we assigned a number to each object. When the project was exported to ArcGIS and data obtained the geographic coordinates. We obtained the following attributes for the testing wells: the year of exploitation's beginning, the period of the inversion, the ratio of flow rates before and after inversion, and others. We created a series of maps with location of wells, with a flow rate's inversion by the year (1957-1998) for Minnibayevo area and by the five-year intervals for Minnibayevo area separately and for the Romashkino oil field. The maps of the inversion

  11. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  12. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community.

  13. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  14. Pyrosequencing Investigation into the Bacterial Community in Permafrost Soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills. PMID:23300754

  15. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes.

  16. A surface vitrinite reflectance anomaly related to Bell Creek oil field, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dalziel, M.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements from surface samples of mudrock and coal show anomalously high values over the Bell Creek oil field. The average vitrinite reflectance (Rm) increases to a maximum of 0.9 percent over the field against background values of about 0.3 percent. The Rm anomaly coincides with a geochemical anomaly indicated by diagenetic magnetite in surface rocks and a geobiologic anomaly indicated by ethane-consuming bacteria. These samples were taken from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Fort Union Formations which form an essentially conformable sequence. The depositional environment is similar in both formations, and we expect little variation in the source and composition of the organic matter. The surface R m should be approximately constant because of a uniform thermal history across the field. Temperature studies over local oil fields with similar geology suggest the expected thermal anomaly would be less than 10?C (50?F), which is too small to account for the significantly higher rank over the field. Coal clinkers are rare in the vicinity of Bell Creek and an Rm anomaly caused by burning of the thin, discontinuous coal seams is unlikely. The limited topographic relief, less than 305 m (1,000 ft), over the shallow-dipping homoclinal structure and the poor correlation between Rm and sample locality elevation (r = -0.2) indicate that the Rm anomaly is not due to burial, deformation and subsequent erosion. We conjecture that activity by petroleum-metabolizing bacteria is a possible explanation of the Rm anomaly. Microseepage from oil reservoirs supports large colonies of these organisms, some of which can produce enzymes that can cleave hydrocarbon side-chains on the kerogen molecule. The loss of these side chains causes condensation of the ring structures (Stach and others, 1982) and consequently increases its reflectance. These data indicate that vitrinite reflectance may be a useful tool to explore for stratigraphic traps in the

  17. Effects of nitrate treatment on a mixed species, oil field microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Dunsmore, Braden; Youldon, James; Thrasher, David R; Vance, Ian

    2006-06-01

    Biofilms of bacteria, indigenous to oil field produced water, were grown in square section, glass capillary flow cells at 45 degrees C. Initially, in situ image analysis microscopy revealed predominantly coccoid bacteria (length-to-width ratio measurements (l (c):w (c)) of bacterial cells gave a mean value of 1.1), while chemical measurements confirmed sulphate reduction and sulphide production. After nitrate ion addition at 100 and 80 mg/l, in the two repeat experiments respectively, the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria (mean l (c):w (c) = 2.8) was observed. This coincided with the occurrence of nitrate reduction in the treated flow cells. Beneficially, no significant increase in biofilm cover was observed after the addition of nitrate. The dominant culturable nitrate-reducing bacterium was Marinobacter aquaeolei. The l (c):w (c) ratio measured here concurs with previously reported cell dimensions for this organism. Several Marinobacter strains were also isolated from different oil fields in the North Sea where nitrate treatment has been applied to successfully treat reservoir souring, implying that this genus may play an important role in nitrate treatment.

  18. Study of reaction of a viscous oil structure on actions by a physical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievskii, A. N.; Konov, V. I.; Volodin, I. A.; Degtyareva, O. V.; Terpugov, E. L.; Terpugova, S. E.; Savranskii, V. V.

    2011-03-01

    The regularities of reaction of the viscous bitumen (maltha) structure when affected by modulated and impulse electromagnetic and acoustic fields via recording of infrared emission spectra are studied. It has been found that characteristic reactions of viscous oil clusters and links between them are located in the THz range for electromagnetic waves and in the MHz range for acoustic actions, which are revealed in absorption and emission spectra. The reaction of the rest (non-THz) part of the infrared spectrum is described on the basis of the physical-mathematical model of the process of a photon-phonon soliton, which causes decrease of emission IR spectrum intensity after microwave action due to fixation of the electromagnetic field by a soliton. The obtained results, which establish selectability of the maltha specimen reaction on spectral composition of the affected radiation, are important for increasing the efficiency of ultrasonic and electromagnetic microwave actions on the productive stratum during application of secondary methods for oil deposit exploration.

  19. Water-in-oil emulsification in a non-uniform alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suhwan; Saveliev, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    The emulsification of a water microdroplet placed in castor oil was performed using a non-uniform alternating electric field formed in the pin-to-plate geometry. A non-uniform electric field of ~40 kV/mm alternating with a frequency of 6.7 kHz was generated near the pin electrode. The applied frequency exceeded charge relaxation frequency of castor oil (0.3 Hz) and was below charge relaxation frequency of deionized water (7.8 kHz) used in the experiments. The emulsification process was captured with a CCD camera. The emulsification process started with entrainment of the water droplet in the high electric filed region near the pin electrode under the dielectrophoretic force. Upon touching the pin, the microdroplet was disintegrated in numerous channels and secondary droplets. The process continued by entrainment of secondary droplets and continuous size reduction. Three droplet breakup mechanisms were identified: drop elongation and capillary breakup, ac electrospraying of individual droplets, chain and bridge formation and decay. The quasi-steady narrow size distribution of emulsified water droplets with diameters close to 1 μm was formed after a few minutes. The generated emulsion was confined near the needle electrode due to the dielectrophoretic force. The emulsion had a well-defined boundary with a shape resembling a pendant drop suspended on the pin electrode.

  20. Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

  1. Magnetic forward models of Cement oil field, Oklahoma, based on rock magnetic, geochemical, and petrologic constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Webring, M.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic forward models of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were generated to assess the possibility that ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite related to hydrocarbon seepage in the upper 1 km of Permian strata contributes to aeromagnetic anomalies at Cement. Six bodies having different magnetizations were constructed for the magnetic models. Total magnetizations of the bodies of highest pyrrhotite content range from about 3 ?? 10-3 to 56 ?? 10-3 A/m in the present field direction and yield magnetic anomalies (at 120 m altitude) having amplitudes of less than 1 nT to ~6 to 7 nT, respectively. Numerous assumptions were made in the generation of the models, but nevertheless, the results suggest that pyrrhotite, formed via hydrocarbon reactions and within a range of concentrations estimated at Cement, is capable of causing magnetic anomalies. -from Authors

  2. 3-D reservoir characterization of the House Creek oil field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.; Pantea, Michael P.; Slatt, Roger M.

    1997-01-01

    This CD-ROM is intended to serve a broad audience. An important purpose is to explain geologic and geochemical factors that control petroleum production from the House Creek Field. This information may serve as an analog for other marine-ridge sandstone reservoirs. The 3-D slide and movie images are tied to explanations and 2-D geologic and geochemical images to visualize geologic structures in three dimensions, explain the geologic significance of porosity/permeability distribution across the sandstone bodies, and tie this to petroleum production characteristics in the oil field. Movies, text, images including scanning electron photomicrographs (SEM), thin-section photomicrographs, and data files can be copied from the CD-ROM for use in external mapping, statistical, and other applications.

  3. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  4. Composition of the products of conversion of the oil shale from Chim-Loptyugskoye shale field in supercritical benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Elena Yu.; Mel'nikov, Yaroslav Yu.; Sagachenko, Tatiana A.; Min, Raisa S.; Patrakov, Yury F.

    2016-11-01

    Methods of adsorption chromatography, NMR and IR-spectroscopy and GC-MS are used to analyze the liquid products of thermal decomposition of organic matter in the oil shale sample from Chim-Loptyugskoye field in benzene under supercritical conditions within the temperature range 200, 200-300, 300-400°C are used. The data on the structure of resin-asphaltene compounds and composition of oil components of resulting pyrolysates are presented. This investigation is important for the choice of optimal methods of processing of oil shale liquefaction products.

  5. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current thermal operations in the Wilmington Field are economical with low oil prices due to the availability of inexpensive steam from an existing 50 MMBTU/hr steam generator that can utilize non-commercial low Btu produced gas. Such favorable terms for obtaining steam are not expected to be available in the future.

  6. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    PubMed

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  7. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate

  8. Synthesis of Moored Observations Collected During the IWISE 2011 Field Program in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    IWISE 2011 Field Program in the South China Sea Steven R. Ramp Soliton Ocean Services, Inc. 691 Country Club Drive Monterey, CA 93924 phone...internal waves in the mid -thermocline region have a profound effect on navigation and acoustic propagation. Improved understanding and predictive...Alford (SIO), and J. Nash (OSU). Travel funds to facilitate collabration with international colleagues was provided via Soliton Ocean Services, Inc

  9. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Guodong; Middleton, Beth; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Sedge meadows can be difficult to restore from farmed fields if key structural dominants are missing from propagule banks. In hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China, we asked if tussock-forming Carex and other wetland species were present as seed or asexual propagules. In the Sanjiang Plain, China, we compared the seed banks, vegetative propagules (below-ground) and standing vegetation of natural and restored sedge meadows, and hand-cultivated soybean fields in drained and flooded conditions. We found that important wetland species survived cultivation as seeds for some time (e.g. Calamogrostis angustifolia and Potamogeton crispus) and as field weeds (e.g. C. angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Key structural species were missing in these fields, for example, Carex meyeriana. We also observed that sedge meadows restored without planting or seeding lacked tussock-forming sedges. The structure of the seed bank was related to experimental water regime, and field environments of tussock height, thatch depth, and presence of burning as based on Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling analysis. To re-establish the structure imposed by tussock sedges, specific technologies might be developed to encourage the development of tussocks in restored sedge meadows.

  10. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  11. The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields and the distribution of tight sandstone gas in the eastern Ordos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bingqiang; Zhang, Huaan; Zhang, Chunguan; Xu, Haihong; Yan, Yunkui

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform gas exploration and determine the distribution pattern of gas in the Yanchang Oil Field in the eastern part of the North Shaanxi Slope, Ordos Basin, China, gravity and magnetic survey data were systemically collated, processed and interpreted in combination with the drilling data and recent seismic data. The genesis of gravity and magnetic anomalies and the relationship between the characteristics of the gravity and magnetic fields and known gas distribution were explored in order to predict the favourable exploration targets for gas. Gravity anomalies resulted both from the lateral variation in density of the basement rock and lateral lithologic transformation in the sedimentary cover. The regional magnetic anomalies were mainly caused by the basement metamorphic rocks and the residual magnetic anomalies may reflect the amount and general location of the volcanic materials in the overlying strata. The residual gravity and magnetic anomalies generated by high-density sandstone and high content of volcanics in the gas reservoir of the upper Paleozoic distorted and deformed the anomaly curves when they were stacked onto the primary background anomaly. The gas wells were generally found to be located in the anomaly gradient zones, or the distorted part of contour lines, and the flanks of high and low anomalies, or the transitional zones between anomaly highs and lows. The characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields provide significant information that can be used for guidance when exploring the distribution of gas. Based on these characteristics, five favourable areas for gas exploration were identified; these are quasi-equally spaced like a strip extending from the southeast to the northwest.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  13. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  14. Potential CO2 Sequestration in Oil Field Reservoirs: Baseline Mineralogy and Natural Diagenesis, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Kaess, A. B.; Nguyen, D. T.; Caffee, S. E.; Olabise, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil fields have been suggested as potential sites for sequestration of CO2 generated from the burning of hydrocarbons. However, to be effective for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, the injected CO2 must remain within the reservoir. The role of atmospheric CO2 in rock weathering is well known and a growing body of experimental work indicates that under reservoir conditions supercritical CO2 also reacts with sedimentary rocks. In order to predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a given reservoir, detailed knowledge of the mineralogy is required. In addition, post-injection monitoring may include analyzing core samples to examine interactions between reservoir rocks and the CO2. Thus, documentation of the natural diagenetic processes within the reservoir is necessary so that changes caused by reactions with CO2 can be recognized. Kern County, California has been a major petroleum producing area for over a century and has three oil fields that have been identified as potential sites for CO2 sequestration. Two of these, Rio Bravo-Greeley and McKittrick, have no previously published mineralogic studies. Samples from these (and nearby Wasco) oil fields were studied using transmitted-light petrography and scanning electron microscopy. At Rio Bravo-Greeley-Wasco, Kreyenhagen (Eocene) and Vedder (Oligocene) sandstones are mainly arkosic arenites with only small amounts of volcanic rock fragments. Detrital feldspars exhibit wide compositional ranges (up to Or75Ab25 & Ab50An50). Diagenesis has greatly altered the rocks. There are significant amounts of relatively pure authigenic K-feldspar and albite. Small amounts of authigenic quartz, calcite, dolomite, ankerite, kaolinite, illite/smectite, chlorite, zeolite, and pyrite are present. Plagioclase has been preferentially dissolved, with andesine more susceptible than oligoclase. Al3+ has been exported from the sandstones. At McKittrick, Temblor sandstones (Oligocene-Miocene) contain up to 33% volcanic rock fragments

  15. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  16. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  17. The Field Operations and Early Results of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Ding, Yihui; Wang, Jough-Tai; Johnson, Richard; Keenan, Tom; Cifelli, Robert; Gerlach, John; Thiele, Otto; Rickenbach, Tom; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is an international field experiment with the objective to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to fluctuation of the regional hydrologic cycle over Southeast Asian, southern East Asia, aiming at improving monsoon prediction. In this article, we present a description of the major meteorological observation platforms during the Intensive Observing Periods (IOP) of SCSMEX. We also provide highlights of early results and discussions of the role of SCSMEX in providing valuable in-situ data for calibration of satellite rainfall estimate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results indicate that there are distinctive stages in the onset of the South China Sea monsoon including possibly strong influences from extratropical systems as well as from convection over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. There are some tantalizing evidence of complex interactions between the supercloud cluster development over the Indian Ocean, advancing southwest monsoon flow over the South China Sea, midlatitude disturbances and the western Pacific subtropical high, possibly contributing to the disastrous flood over Yangtze River Basin in China during June 1998.

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross

  19. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1999-04-28

    The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

  20. Occurence of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria in stratal waters of the Romashkinskoe oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Nazina, T.N.; Ivanova, A.E.; Goulbeva, O.V.; Ibatullin, R.R.; Belyaev, S.S.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1995-03-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms and the rates of terminal biogenic processes-sulfate reduction and methane synthesis-were studied in stratial waters in bed 302 of the Bashkir Carboniferous deposit at the Romashkinskoe oil field. It was shown that bed 302 was a dynamic, highly reduced ecosystem containing sulfates and hydrogen sulfide in considerable concentrations, in which active biogenic processes occurred. Sulfate reduction was a dominating anaerobic process by which the transformation of organic matter occurred. The sulfate-reducing microflora was diverse and characterized by a wide range of metabolic potentials. Enrichment cultures capable of oxidizing many organic substances, such as benzoate, acetate, ethanol, or lactate, at the expense of reduction of sulfates and ferric ion were isolated from 302. It was suggested that the sulfate-reducing microflora might be responsible not only for sulfate reduction in the stratum but also for mobilization of some insoluble iron oxides in the oil-bearing rock. These findings indicate that bacteria carrying out dissimilatory reduction of sulfate and iron can contribute to the geochemistry of organic and mineral compounds in subsurface ecosystems. 24 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64–3.02 (control pile) to 2.34–3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study. PMID:25228785

  2. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-09-01

    Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64-3.02 (control pile) to 2.34-3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study.

  3. The 7 May 2001 induced seismic event in the Ekofisk oil field, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OttemöLler, L.; Nielsen, H. H.; Atakan, K.; Braunmiller, J.; Havskov, J.

    2005-10-01

    A moderate size seismic event on 7 May 2001 was strongly felt on platforms in the Ekofisk oil field, in the southern North Sea, but did not cause damage to platforms or wells. We combined near- and far-field observations to develop a consistent source model and to determine whether the event was induced. Seismic data placed the epicenter inside the Ekofisk field and suggested a shallow source depth based on spectral and moment tensor analysis. GPS data from the Ekofisk platforms displayed permanent vertical and horizontal movement due to the event. A topographic bulge in the sea bottom, revealed by differential bathymetry data, and overpressure in the overburden in the northeastern part of the field, detected only after the event, had been caused by unintentional water injection that started in 1999. The injection pressure and rate were sufficient to raise the overburden. Pressure gauge and compaction data ruled out that the event occurred at reservoir level, which was further supported by unaffected production rates and absence of well failure. We therefore conclude that the event occurred in the overburden, at less than 3 km depth. Initially, this appeared unlikely on account of very low shear strength of the overburden clay-rich shale and mud rocks. The seismic event was induced owing to stress changes caused by water injection. The event possibly initiated on the northern flank of the field near the water injector and may have involved flexure of the overburden into the depression bowl in the rest of the field. Moment tensor analysis is consistent with a pure double-couple source. We suggest that slip occurred on the near-horizontal rather than along the near-vertical nodal plane. Stress drop was low, and owing to the low overburden shear strength, the event released less energy than a typical stress drop event with similar source dimensions.

  4. The chronic effects of oil pollution on marine phytoplankton in a subtropical bay, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Xu, Xiao-qun

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) on marine phytoplankton community, natural phytoplankton collected seasonally from the Yueqing bay were exposed to eight groups of crude oil WAF for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Chlorophyll a and cell density were measured, and species of phytoplankton were identified every 24 h to reflect the change of phytoplankton community. The results showed that (1) High concentrations (≥ 2.28 mg l(-1)) of oil pollution would greatly restrain phytoplankton growth (p<0.001), decrease chlorophyll a content and cell density, whereas low concentrations (≤ 1.21 mg l(-1)) did not restrain its growth but rather promoted the phytoplankton growth. (2) The biodiversity, evenness, and species number of phytoplankton were all significantly influenced by crude oil WAF in all seasons (p<0.001). (3) The dominant species changes were different under different pollutant concentrations in different seasons. Different species had different tolerances to the oil pollution, thus leading to abnormal succession.

  5. Oil-source correlation for the paleo-reservoir in the Majiang area and remnant reservoir in the Kaili area, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yunxin; Liao, Yuhong; Wu, Liangliang; Geng, Ansong

    2011-05-01

    There are different viewpoints on the oil-source correlation of the Majiang paleo-reservoir and the neighbouring Kaili remnant reservoir in the Southern Guizhou Depression of China. Three potential source rocks in this depression could be inferred: the Lower-Cambrian marine mudstone, Lower-Silurian shale and Lower-Permian mudstone. Most of the potential source rocks are of high maturity. The solid bitumens and oil seepages in the Southern Guizhou Depression suffered severe secondary alterations, such as thermal degradation and biodegradation. The solid bitumens of the Majiang paleo-reservoir are also of high maturity. The oil seepages and soft bitumen of the Kaili remnant reservoir were severely biodegraded. All these secondary alterations may obscure oil-source correlations by routine biomarkers. Thus, it is very important to select appropriate biomarker parameters for the oil-source correlation. In this work, biomarkers resistant to thermal degradation and biodegradation and the data of organic carbon isotopic compositions were used for the correlation. The δ 13C values of n-alkanes in asphaltene pyrolysates were also used to make oil-oil and oil-source correlations between severely biodegraded oils. The results indicate that the Lower-Cambrian marine mudstones are the main source for the Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) solid bitumens of the Majiang area and the Ordovician-Silurian oil seepages and soft bitumens of the Kaili area. Remnant reservoir in the eastern Kaili area might have been charged at least twice by the oil generated from the Lower-Cambrian marine source rocks.

  6. Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. E.; Parkinson, w; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

  7. Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil in a large-scale field simulated experiment.

    PubMed

    Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinping; Wang, Lina; Cao, Lixin; Li, Fujuan

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients was carried out by a large-scale field simulated experiment in this paper. After a 103 day experiment, for n-alkanes, the maximum biodegradation rate reached 71% and the results showed hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients have a comprehensive effect. It also showed that rhamnolipid biosurfactants could shorten the biodegradation time through an emulsifying function; the nutrients could greatly increase the biodegradation rate by promoting HDB production. For PAHs, the chrysene series had higher weathering resistance. For the same series, the weathering resistance ability is C1- < C2- < C3- < C4-. After 53 days, no comprehensive effect occurred and more biodegradation was found for different n-alkanes in two pools which only had added rhamnolipid biosurfactants or nutrients, respectively. Except for C14, C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes, most of the steranes and terpanes had high antibiodegradability.

  8. Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

    2012-04-01

    Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35°C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

  9. Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

  10. PISCES field chemical emission measurement program: Recent emission results from oil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; McDannel, M.; Behrens, G.

    1995-09-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate emissions and health risks associated with 189 hazardous air pollutants emitted from the stacks of electric utility steam generating stations. EPA is currently proceeding with the electric utility study and expects to summarize its findings in a report to Congress in 1995. In anticipation of the CAAA, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated the Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emission Studies (PISCES) research program. The PISCES program has sampled over a range of fuels, boiler configurations, flue gas desulfurization systems, and NO{sub x} control technologies. This paper highlights some of the recent results and issues from field sampling programs at utility oil-fired power plant sites.

  11. Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters

    SciTech Connect

    Voordouw, G.; Shen, Y.; Harrington, C.S.; Teland, A.J. ); Jack, T.R. ); Westlake, W.S. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters.

  12. Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-08-06

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important pollutants, yet few data on ambient BFRs levels have been available for North China, one of the most developed regions of the country. In this study, we investigated levels and spatial distributions of BFRs based on gridded field observations coupled with passive air sampling in the aforementioned region. A model incorporating both point and nonpoint sources was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and to achieve source apportionment. Although high concentration was observed at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site, the median level of the sum of tri-, tetra-, hepta-, hexa-, and hepta-PBDEs (∑10PBDEs) was 0.56 ng/sample, which was lower than those observed previously in mainland China. Source apportionment revealed that nonpoint emissions contributed nearly 78% of ∑10PBDEs observed in this study. In contrast, high levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed, with median concentrations of 4.0 and 10.2 ng/sample, respectively. Point sources located in the region around Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province were the major sources, which contributed 31% of BDE-209 and 70% of DBDPE observed in this study, indicating that this manufacturing base was the most important source region for atmospheric deca-BFRs in North China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report source apportionment of atmospheric BFRs based on gridded field observations.

  13. Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes and their predators inhabiting rice field communities in Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Zhang, Chongxing

    2016-07-01

    Wolbachia are inherited, endocytoplasmic bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Here is the first systematic report on the study of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes and their predators from both Thailand and China. In Thailand, 632 mosquito specimens (20 spp.) and 424 insect predators (23 spp.) were collected from the rice agroecosystem, mostly from the Central region, followed by the Northeast, the North and the South and were inhabiting rice fields, wetlands and ditches. In China, 928 mosquitoes (15 spp.) and 149 insect predators (16 spp.) were collected from rice fields along the Weishan Lake in Shandong province. Specimens were classified in the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata and Hemiptera. Using wsp, ftsZ, 16S rRNA and groE gene amplifications, Wolbachia were detected in 12 mosquito spp. and 6 predator spp. from Thailand and 11 mosquito spp. and 5 predator spp. from China. The relative Wolbachia densities of these species were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the predator, Agriocnemis femina, had the highest bacterial densities. These results imply that Wolbachia of supergroup B are distributed throughout these insects, probably via horizontal transmission in rice agroecosystems.

  14. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  15. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  16. Temperature-, electric field- and solute-induced percolation in water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, L; Spilgies, J H; Runge, F; Lipgens, S; Boye, S; Schübel, D; Ilgenfritz, G

    1996-01-16

    We report investigations on the percolation of the aqueous phase in water-in-oil microemulsions, comparing systems stabilized by ionic AOT and non-ionic Igepal amphiphiles. First, we briefly review the opposite effect of temperature on the two systems and compare electric conductivity with viscosity data. In the second part, we show that percolation can be induced by high electric fields resulting in a shift of the percolation curve. The electric field measurements allow to investigate the dynamics of clustering of the water droplets to form a network of percolating channels. We examine the slow build-up and the fast decay of the percolating structure, monitoring simultaneously electric conductivity and electric birefringence. In the third part we discuss the effect of some solutes on the percolation curve, especially of small molecules which act as protein denaturants and of native and denatured proteins like methemoglobin, chymotrypsin and gelatin. The spectroscopic determination of the dimerization of hemin, released from denatured hemoglobin, reflects the incorporation of the hemin monomers in the surfactant monolayer. In the gelatin system time resolved electric birefringence shows that even at low concentrations it is the macromolecule which determines the structure of the aqueous domain. In the appendix, a simple estimate of the intrinsic Kerr-constant is given for microemulsion droplets deformed in an electric field.

  17. The role of active and ancient geothermal systems in evolution of Grant Canyon oil field, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Bereskin, S.R. ); Bortz, L.C.

    1991-06-01

    Since discovery in 1983, the Grant Canyon field has been among the most prolific oil producers (on a per-well basis) in the US. Production through June 1990 was 12,935,630 bbl of oil, principally from two wells which in tandem have consistently yielded more than 6,000 bbl of oil per day. The field is hosted by highly porous Devonian dolomite breccia loosely cemented with hydrothermal quartz. Results of fluid-inclusion and petrographic research in progress at Grant Canyon suggest that paleogeothermal and perhaps currently circulating geothermal systems may have played a major role in oil-reservoir evolution. For example, as previously reported, the breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary aqueous, aqueous/oil, and oil fluid inclusions which were trapped at about 120C (average homogenization temperature) and document initial oil migration and entrapment as droplets or globules dispersed in dilute (< 2.2 wt.% equivalent NaCl) aqueous solutions. Additional evidence of geothermal connection is that the horst-block trap at Grant Canyon is top and side sealed by valley-fill clastic and volcanic rocks which are locally hydrothermally altered and calcite flooded. These secondary seals are enhanced by disseminated, solid asphaltic residues locally accounting for 23% (volume) of the rock. Current reservoir temperatures at Grant Canyon (120C) and the adjacent Bacon Flat field (171C) attest to vigorous contemporary geothermal activity. Based on results of the authors' Grant Canyon work to date, they suggest that active and paleohydrothermal systems could be viable petroleum exploration targets in otherwise favorable terrain elsewhere in the Basin and Range.

  18. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  19. Geochemical Characteristics and its Geological Significance of Oil Shale from the Youganwo Formation, Maoming Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Nansheng

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical elements of oil shale in the Maoming Basin were analyzed to discuss provenance attribute and depositional environment of the Youganwo formation. Experimental date of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of 24 samples from the Maoye 1 well were examined.The analyzed oil shale samples were characterized by enrichment of Th, U, Pb and LREE, depleted of Zr, Cr and Hf,negative Eu and Ce anomalies, indicating that these samples were originated from continental crust. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the Zr/Sc-Th/Sc diagrams indicate that source rocks had undergone intense chemical weathering and deposition recirculation. Based on the La/Th-Hf and La/Yb-∑REE diagrams and the negative anomaly of Eu element, the oil shale in the Maoming Basin has diverse sources, which mainly came from felsic source region of the upper crust or the mixture of felsic volcanic rocks, granite and sedimentary rocks. Ratios of the Sr/Cu, MgO/CaO suggest that oil shale was formed in fresh water under warm and humid climate, shallow water column became deeper during the middle and late sedimentary period. The depositional environment is interpreted to be limnetic with weak reduction at the early stage and gradually turned into semi-deep to deep lacustrine.

  20. Exposure assessment of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol esters from edible oils and fats in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Zhou, Yong-Qiang; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-01-01

    3-monochoropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters from edible oils are considered to be a possible risk factor for adverse effects in human. In the present study, the exposure assessment of 3-MCPD esters to Chinese population was performed. A total of 143 edible oil and fat samples collected from Chinese markets were determined for the concentrations of 3-MCPD esters. The concentration data together with the data of fats consumed were analyzed by the point evaluation and probabilistic assessment for the exposure assessment. The point evaluation showed that the mean daily intake (DI) of 3-MCPD esters were lower than the value of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 3-MCPD (2 µg/kg BW/d). The mean DI values in different age groups obtained from probabilistic assessment were similar to the results of the point evaluation. However, in high percentiles (95th, 97.5th, 99th), the DI values in all age groups were undesirably higher than the value of PMTDI. Overall, the children and adolescents exposed more to 3-MCPD esters than the adults. Uncertainty was also analyzed for the exposure assessment. Decreasing the level of 3-MCPD esters in edible oils and consuming less oil were top priority to minimize the risk of 3-MCPD esters.

  1. Implications of China’s Growing Demand for Oil: A Case Study in Venezuela

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Mearsheimer is a leading exponent of the perspective that a rising China poses a danger. He contends that a rising power is always interested in...Soft power. 57 Mike Hurst , “A Giant Awakens - $48 bn to kick-start a new era --- Beijing 2008,” The Daily Telegraph (Australia), Extended Metro

  2. Borehole geophysical data for the East Poplar oil field area, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 1993, 2004, and 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Tyrrell, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Areas of high electrical conductivity in shallow aquifers in the East Poplar oil field area were delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, in order to interpret areas of saline-water contamination. Ground, airborne, and borehole geophysical data were collected in the East Poplar oil field area from 1992 through 2005 as part of this delineation. This report presents borehole geophysical data for thirty-two wells that were collected during, 1993, 2004, and 2005 in the East Poplar oil field study area. Natural-gamma and induction instruments were used to provide information about the lithology and conductivity of the soil, rock, and water matrix adjacent to and within the wells. The well logs were also collected to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over most of the East Poplar oil field in 2004. The objective of the USGS studies was to improve understanding of aquifer hydrogeology particularly in regard to variations in water quality.

  3. Regional stratigraphy of Smackover limestone (Jurassic) in south Arkansas and north Louisiana, and geology of Chalybeat Springs oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Troell, A.R.; Robinson, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    Prior to 1960, the Reynolds oolite of the Smackover Formation of south Arkansas, was correlated with the Smackover B oolite of north Louisiana. The absence of anticlines with structural closure and the paucity of untested fault closures along the Arkansas-Louisiana boundary provided little exploratory interest in the area. Discovery of oil at Lick Creek field in 1960 and at Walker Creek in 1968 revealed a trend of traps and led to the geologic investigation that resulted in the discovery, in 1972, of Chalybeat Springs field, in Columbia County, Arkansas. Chalybeat Springs field is a combination stratigraphic-structural trap in oolitic calcarenite at a depth of 10,250 ft in the Smackover B limestone. Production is limited by the combination of a tilted anticline with porosity pinch-out on its flank. The field originally had 28 producing wells and 10 dry holes, and covered approximately 4500 productive acres. Original oil in place is estimated to have been 37 million bbl and cumulative production through 1985 was approximately 12 million bbl. The geologic relationships and principles observed in the Smackover Limestone of south Arkansas and north Louisiana have been successfully applied to other regions and in carbonate strata of different age, in the search for oil and gas production. Practical geologic studies of carbonate rocks, aided by examination of drill cuttings, cores, and thin sections, combined with mechanical log evaluation, result in lower finding costs for oil and gas reserves.

  4. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  5. Microbial diversity and hydrocarbon degrading gene capacity of a crude oil field soil as determined by metagenomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Lockington, Robin; Ramadass, Kavitha

    2016-05-01

    Soils contaminated with crude oil are rich sources of enzymes suitable for both degradation of hydrocarbons through bioremediation processes and improvement of crude oil during its refining steps. Due to the long term selection, crude oil fields are unique environments for the identification of microorganisms with the ability to produce these enzymes. In this metagenomic study, based on Hiseq Illumina sequencing of samples obtained from a crude oil field and analysis of data on MG-RAST, Actinomycetales (9.8%) were found to be the dominant microorganisms, followed by Rhizobiales (3.3%). Furthermore, several functional genes were found in this study, mostly belong to Actinobacteria (12.35%), which have a role in the metabolism of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (2.51%), desulfurization (0.03%), element shortage (5.6%), and resistance to heavy metals (1.1%). This information will be useful for assisting in the application of microorganisms in the removal of hydrocarbon contamination and/or for improving the quality of crude oil. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:638-648, 2016.

  6. Analysis of AIS Data of the Recluse Oil Field, Recluse, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Segal, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were flown over the Recluse, Wyoming oil field on September 9, 1984. Processing software was developed at Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) for interactive analysis of the AIS data. EarthSat's AIS processing capabilities include destriping, solar irradiance corrections, residual calculations, geometric resampling, equal energy normalization, interactive spectral classifications and a variety of compressive algorithms to reduce the data to 8-bit format with a minimum of information loss. The in-house photolab facilities of EarthSat can routinely produce high-quality color renditions of the enhanced AIS data. A total of 80 lithologic samples were collected under the AIS flight lines. Correlation (within the atmospheric windows) between the laboratory and the AIS spectra of sample sites was generally poor. Reasonable correlation was only possible in large, freshly plowed fields. Mixed pixels and contrast between the natural and sample's surfaces were believed responsible for the poor correlation. Finally, a drift of approximately three channels was observed in the diffraction grating position within the 1.8 to 2.1 micron quadrant.

  7. Resistance allele frequency to bt cotton in field populations of helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Zhiping; Chang, Juhua; Chen, Jin; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-06-01

    Resistance evolution in target insects to Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a main threat to Bt cotton technology. An increasing trend of population density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been observed since 2001 in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), where Bt cotton has been planted dominantly since 1998. This region was selected in 2006 and 2007 for estimating frequency of gene alleles conferring resistance to Bt cotton by screening the F1 progeny from single-pair cross between field-collected male and laboratory female of the Bt-resistant strain of H. armigera (F1 screen). F1 offspring from each single-pair line were screened for resistance alleles based on larval growth, development, and survival on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d. Two-year results indicated that approximately equal to 20% of field-collected males carried resistance alleles. The conservative estimate of the resistance allele frequency was 0.094 (95% CI, 0.044-0.145) for 2006 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.055-0.159) for 2007. This is the first report of resistance allele frequency increase to such a high level in the field in China. Long-term adoption of Bt sprays, dominant planting of single-toxin-producing Bt cotton, and lack of conventional cotton refuge system might accelerate the resistance evolution in the region.

  8. Foucault, fields of governability, and the population–family–economy nexus in China.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    It was only in the early twentieth century that China discovered that it had a population, at least if a population is understood not as a simple number of people but instead in terms of such features as variable levels of health, birth and death rates, age, sex, dependency ratios, and so on—as an object with a distinct rationality and intrinsic dynamics that can be made the target of a specific kind of direct intervention. In 1900, such a developmentalist conception of the population simply did not exist in China; by the 1930s, it pervaded the entire social and political field from top to bottom. Through a reading of a series of foundational texts in population and family reformism in China, this paper argues that this birth of the Chinese population occurred as a result of a general transformation of practices of governing, one that necessarily also involved a reconceptualization of the family and a new logic of overall social rationalization; in short, the isolation of a population–family–economy nexus as a central field of modern governing. This process is captured by elaborating and extending Foucault's studies of the historical emergence of apparatuses (dispositifs) into a notion of fields of governability. Finally, this paper argues that the one-child policy, launched in the late 1970s, should be understood not in isolation from the imposition of the “family-responsibility system” in agriculture and market reforms in exactly that period, but as part—mutatis mutandis—of a return to a form of governing that was developed in the first half of the twentieth century.

  9. Spatial analysis in a Markov random field framework: The case of burning oil wells in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezzani, Raymond J.; Al-Dousari, Ahmad

    This paper discusses a modeling approach for spatial-temporal prediction of environmental phenomena using classified satellite images. This research was prompted by the analysis of change and landscape redistribution of petroleum residues formed from the residue of the burning oil wells in Kuwait (1991). These surface residues have been termed ``tarcrete'' (El-Baz etal. 1994). The tarcrete forms a thick layer over sand and desert pavement covering a significant portion of south-central Kuwait. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that utilizes satellite images from different time steps to examine the rate-of-change of the oil residue deposits and determine where redistribution is are likely to occur. This problem exhibits general characteristics of environmental diffusion and dispersion phenomena so a theoretical framework for a general solution is sought. The use of a lagged-clique, Markov random field framework and entropy measures is deduced to be an effective solution to satisfy the criteria of determination of time-rate-of-change of the surface deposits and to forecast likely locations of redistribution of dispersed, aggraded residues. The method minimally requires image classification, the determination of time stationarity of classes and the measurement of the level of organization of the state-space information derived from the images. Analysis occurs at levels of both the individual pixels and the system to determine specific states and suites of states in space and time. Convergence of the observed landscape disorder with respect to an analytical maximum provide information on the total dispersion of the residual system.

  10. Source Mechanism, Stress Triggering, and Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity in Oil/Gas Fields in Oman and Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Toksoz, M. N.; Ding, M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Al-Jeri, F.; Meng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Induced seismicity has drawn new attentions in both academia and industry in recent years as the increasing seismic activity in the regions of oil/gas fields due to fluid injection/extraction and hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanism and triggering stress of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. The induced seismic data in this study are from both Oman and Kuwait. For the Oman data, the induced seismicity is monitored by both surface network (0oil/gas field. The data used in the study consist of 800 events located by the surface network and 2000 events from the downhole network. For the Kuwait data a surface network is used to collect the local seismic data (0oil/gas fields from year 1999 to 2007 for Oman, and from year 2006 to 2015 for Kuwait. In addition, the local hazard corresponding to the induced seismicity in these oil/gas fields is assessed and compared to ground motion prediction due to large (M>5.0) regional tectonic earthquakes.

  11. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  12. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  13. Cyclic CO sub 2 injection for light oil recovery: Performance of a cost shared field test in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.A.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a base of knowledge on the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process for the enhanced recovery of Louisiana crude oil. Project goals include laboratory corefloods to investigate several parameters important to the process, and numerical simulation to interpret coreflood results. Additional activities include construction and analysis of a field test data base to facilitate target reservoir screening, and to identify sensitive operational parameters. This quarter, one final horizontal coreflood was performed to examine the influence of remaining oil saturation. An environmental assessment was performed in order to assess environmental impacts; and a numerical simulation was performed. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  15. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  16. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  17. Correlations among hydrocarbon microseepage, soil chemistry, and uptake of micronutrients by plants, Bell Creek oil field, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeming, S.S.; Donovan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Chelate-extractable iron and manganese concentrations in soils over and around the Bell Creek oil field suggest that compared to low average background values, there are moderate amounts of these elements directly over the production area and higher concentrations distributed in an aureole pattern around the periphery of the field. Adsorbed and organically bound iron and manganese appear to be readily taken up by plants resulting in anomalously high levels of these elements in leaves and needles over the oil field and suggesting correlation with corresponding low concentrations in soils. Iron and manganese appear to have bypassed the soil formation process where, under normal oxidizing conditions, they would have ultimately precipitated as insoluble oxides and hydroxides. ?? 1985.

  18. Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

  19. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more

  20. The Prestige oil spill. 2. Enhanced biodegradation of a heavy fuel oil under field conditions by the use of an oleophilic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Sabaté, Jordi; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M; Solanas, Anna M; Albaiges, Joan

    2006-04-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 10 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach of the Cantabrian coast (North Spain). The field survey showed that S200 significantly enhanced the biodegradation rate, particularly of high molecular weight n-alkanes, alkylcyclohexanes, and benzenes, and alkylated PAHs, paralleling the results previously found in vitro. The most significant molecular bioremediation indicators were the depletion of diasteranes and C-27 sterane components. Enhanced isomeric selectivity was also observed within the C1-phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes. Through the analysis of some target aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons a number of chemical indicators for assessing the efficiency of field bioremediation as well as identifying the source of highly weathered samples collected in the area after the spill are defined.

  1. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985.

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from China and Malaysia based on species-specific simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L X; Xiao, Y; Xia, W; Yang, Y D

    2015-12-08

    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species.

  3. Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

    2001-04-19

    Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

  4. A procedure to estimate the parent population of the size of oil and gas fields as revealed by a study of economic truncation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An estimation technique has been derived to predict the number of small fields in a geologic play or basin. Historically, many small oil and gas fields went unreported because they were not economical. This led to an underestimation of the number of undiscovered small fields. A study of the distributions of reported oil and gas fields in well-explored areas suggests that the large fields when grouped into log base 2 size classes are geometrically distributed. Further, the number of small fields reported is a function of the cost of exploration and development. Thus, the population field-size distribution is conjectured to be log geometric in form. ?? 1983 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  5. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  6. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  7. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  8. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  9. China switches E and D focus to natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that China is shifting its exploration and development emphasis to natural gas in light of lagging oil production. Another factor in the shift has been the accelerated pace of significant gas discoveries in the country. Latest world class discovery was a gas field in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Nigngxia area, with potential reserves estimated at 3.5 tcf. It is China's biggest onshore gas discovery. For now, China's explorationists are focusing on the Qaidam basin in Qinghai province of Northwest China, where gas reserves discovered in 1991 alone total about 350 bcf, China Features' Xu Yihe reported.

  10. Waste-Oil Boiler Firing Demonstration at Naval Weapon Center China Lake, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    necessary. Visual observations were also made of the stack gas. For waste oil concentrations > 50 %, visible white smoke was noted. Because of this color, the...14- 41 W u e Ad 4) w 03 -H4c W .- 4 cc) V15 CIt 30 25 20 15 01 10 030 50 + 75 X 88 5 -0 100o 01 10 20 30 40 so 60 70 Nozzle Pressure (psig) Figure 3...Langley AFB VA; MAC/DET (Col. P. Thompson) Scott, IL: SAMSO/MNND. Norton AFB CA; Samso. Vandenburg, AFB, CA; Stinfo Library, Offutt NE; (LT Acero ). McGuire

  11. Analysis of field size distributions, LACIE test sites 5029, 5033, and 5039, Anhwei Province, People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the field size distributions for LACIE test sites 5029, 5033, and 5039, People's Republic of China. Field lengths and widths were measured from LANDSAT imagery, and field area was statistically modeled. Field size parameters have log-normal or Poisson frequency distributions. These were normalized to the Gaussian distribution and theoretical population curves were made. When compared to fields in other areas of the same country measured in the previous study, field lengths and widths in the three LACIE test sites were 2 to 3 times smaller and areas were smaller by an order of magnitude.

  12. A Field-Scale Simulation of the Reversible Nanoparticle Adsorption for Enhancing Oil Recovery Using Hydrophilic Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liyuan

    In order to develop and apply nanotechnology in oil industry, nanoparticles transport in porous media has been studied in the past few years. Theoretical modeling were carried out to evaluate nanoparticle mobility and investigate nanoparticle retention mechanism. In this study, a simulator based on Ju and Fan's mathematical model was used to study nanoparticles transport in porous media on a reservoir scale. The simulator was verified with two simulation software, Eclipse from Schlumberger and MNM1D (Micro- and Nanoparticle transport Model in porous media in 1D geometry) developed by Tosco et al. Different injection scenarios were simulated: continuous injection, slug injection, and postflush. The effect of injection time, injection rate, and slug size on oil recovery were studied. The result discovered that when nanofluids flooding is used after water flooding as tertiary recovery method, early nanofluids injection will lead to higher oil recovery, but with more nanoparticle loss. Higher injection rate of nanofluids could help improve the flooding efficiency, but not the ultimate oil recovery for field development. Also, it can cause more nanoparticle loss. Brine water postflush is recommended when doing nanoflooding. It can significantly improve the recovery of nanoparticles, and for a homogeneous or heterogeneous reservoir, oil recovery is better compared to water flooding.

  13. Biological treatment of oil field wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Freire, D D; Cammarota, M C; Santanna, G L

    2001-10-01

    This work reports the results of experiments carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated under 24 hour cycles, treating an effluent containing a mixture of oil field wastewater and sewage, in different percentages. The removal of phenols, ammonium and COD was monitored in several experimental runs, varying the dilution degree of the oilfield wastewater (10 to 45% v/v). The volatile suspended solids (VSS) content in the reactor was also monitored and the protein (PTN) and polysaccharide (PS) contents of the suspended biomass were determined. The removal of ammonium and phenols did not vary significantly in the experimental runs, attaining average values of 95% and 65%, respectively. COD removal efficiencies in the range of 30 to 50% were attained in the experiments carried out with dilution percentages of 45 and 35% (v/v) respectively. An experiment carried out with a lower proportion of produced water (15% v/v), keeping the salinity level corresponding to a higher proportion of industrial effluent (45% v/v), led to an improvement in the COD removal, indicating that the recalcitrance of the organic compounds found in the effluent is the main cause ofthe moderate COD removal efficiencies attained in the SBR system. With regard to the composition of the microbial flocs, no significant variation was observed in the PS/PTN, PS/VSS and PTN/VSS ratios when the effluent composition changed (increased salinity and levels of organic material).

  14. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  15. Probing Asphaltene Aggregation in Native Crude Oils with Low-Field NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E.; Hrlimann, Martin D.; Liu, Yongsheng

    2010-04-13

    We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor {zeta}, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters {zeta} to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples.

  16. Probing asphaltene aggregation in native crude oils with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Lukasz; Saha, Indrajit; Freed, Denise E; Hürlimann, Martin D; Liu, Yongsheng

    2010-04-06

    We show that low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and diffusion experiments can be used to study asphaltene aggregation directly in crude oils. Relaxation was found to be multiexponential, reflecting the composition of a complex fluid. Remarkably, the relaxation data for samples with different asphaltene concentrations can be collapsed onto each other by a simple rescaling of the time dimension with a concentration-dependent factor xi, whereas the observed diffusion behavior is unaffected by asphaltene concentration. We interpret this finding in terms of a theoretical model that explains the enhanced relaxation by the transitory entanglement of solvent hydrocarbons within asphaltene clusters and their subsequent slowed motion and diffusion within the cluster. We relate the measured scaling parameters xi to cluster sizes, which we find to be on the order of 2.2-4.4 nm for an effective sphere diameter. These sizes are in agreement with the typical values reported in the literature as well as with the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed on our samples.

  17. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  18. Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, L.; Johnston, D.

    1995-06-01

    Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

  19. Closure of a hazardous waste disposal facility in an active oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.A.; White, A.E. )

    1991-02-01

    State and federal laws and regulations enacted during the past five years have led to closure activities at a large number of hazardous waste disposal facilities. These closures are often lengthy, difficult, and expensive. Closures must adhere to federal regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as State regulations administered by the Department of Health Services and the Regional Water Quality Control Boards. This exhibit depicts the regulatory framework for closure of a hazardous waste site. It also describes the closure alternatives for a site in the Central Valley which primarily accepted wastes generated from oil field activities. Generally, one of two closure alternatives is followed: (1) sites are closed-in-place with the wastes covered or monitored, or (2) wastes are treated and removed so that no waste or waste residue remains. Regulations issued by the EPA in 1987 made another option available. This option is risk-based clean closure and involves the identification of risk-based cleanup goals. A site-specific risk assessment adhering to federal and state guidelines is required to establish the cleanup goals. Waste constituents present in concentrations below these goals may be left in place without post closure care.

  20. Location of oil fields in Forest City basin as related to Precambrian tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-09-01

    Accumulation of petroleum in the Forest City basin is strongly influenced by the tectonic framework established during the Precambrian. A series of Late Proterozoic orogenies created a fracture pattern in the northern Mid-Continent, which was emphasized by the late Keweenawan, Mid-Continent Rift System (MRS). Reactivated basement structures have created both a structural and depositional imprint on younger rocks. The Southeast Nebraska arch is defined by Middle Ordovician (Simpson) overlap of Arbuckle equivalents. Continuing differential movement along segments of the MRS within the North Kansas basin influenced the regional facies distribution of both the Late Ordovician (Viola) and the Late Devonian (Hunton). Middle Pennsylvanian compression from the Ouachita orogeny produced the Nemaha uplift and reactivated transform faulting on the MRS. Extensions of these southeast-trending fractures created offsets on the Nemaha uplift/Humboldt fault system and enhanced structures that host oil production. Fields that lie upon these wrench-fault trends within the Forest City basin have produced from the Simpson (St. Peter), Viola, and Hunton formations. The Precambrian structures and rock types produce strong geophysical signatures in contrast to the subdued anomalies of the Paleozoic sediments. Analyses of magnetic and gravity data provide an interpretation of the basement rocks and, by extrapolation, an additional exploration tool for locating Paleozoic trends related to reactivation of Precambrian tectonics.

  1. Microbial processes in the Savuiskoe oil field in the Ob` region

    SciTech Connect

    Rozanova, E.P.; Savvichev, A.S.; Karavaiko, S.G.; Miller, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ecotopes of a terrigenous stratum of the Savuiskoe oil field flooded with coproduced water, having a temperature of 35{degrees}C and devoid of dissolved O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4}, were studied. The stratal water was of a chloride-calcium type, had a mineralization value of 11-17 g/l, and contained 2-138 mg SO{sup 2-}{sub 4}/l but no H{sub 2}S. the near-bottom zones of two injection wells investigated had a temperature of 37-42{degrees}C (type 1 ecotopes); the temperature of the stratal water in the area of producing wells (type 2 ecotopes) was greater than 60{degrees}C. In stratal waters, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria prevailed. In the water of type 2 ecotopes, the rate of thermophilic sulfate reduction (measured by the radioisotope method) was lower, and that of methanogenesis was higher than the corresponding rates of mesophilic processes in type 1 ecotopes. The share of acetate-derived carbon in the biogenic methane in the water of producing wells was as low as 2-10%. The possible sources of organic matter consumed in the anaerobic processes in the strata and the reasons for the predominance of bicarbonate carbon in the biogenic methane are discussed. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  3. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  4. A classification of Meso-Cenozoic continental basins and their oil-gas potentials in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Changlin ); Xue Shuhao )

    1991-03-01

    Most of the oilfields in China are located in Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental basins. Characteristics of continental sediments are controlled by such factors as paleoclimatic zones, distance from oceans, paleogeomorphic features, and tectonic settings. Based on paleoclimatic zonation, the continental basins in China can be divided into humid, arid, and humid-arid transitional types. Furthermore, based on the distances from oceans, they can be classified into inland and onshore types, and based on regional geomorphic features, they can be classified into faulted and depressional types. According to three factors, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental petroliferous basins in China can be grouped under ten types as follows: (1) onshore humid faulted type such as Zhujiangkou (Pearl River Mouth; E); (2) onshore humid depressional type such as Songliao (K); (3) inland humid faulted type such as Baise (E); (4) inland humid depressional type such as Ordos (T); (5) onshore arid-humid faulted type such as Bohai Bay (E); (6) inland arid-humid faulted type such as Jiuxi (K); (7) inland arid-humid depressional type such as Junggar (E); (8) onshore arid depressional type such as Tarim (E); (9) inland arid faulted type such as Jianghan (E); and (10) inland arid depressional type such as Tsaidam (E-N). Sedimentary systems in different basins have different depositional characteristics and petroliferous potentials. Onshore basins in humid zone and arid-humid transitional zone have best petroleum prospects, and inland basins in humid and arid-humid transitional zones are second while the basins in arid zone are third.

  5. DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

    2009-05-01

    During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

  6. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  7. Stability of binary and ternary model oil-field particle suspensions: a multivariate analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Dudásová, Dorota; Rune Flåten, Geir; Sjöblom, Johan; Øye, Gisle

    2009-09-15

    The transmission profiles of one- to three-component particle suspension mixtures were analyzed by multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The particles mimic the solids present in oil-field-produced water. Kaolin and silica represent solids of reservoir origin, whereas FeS is the product of bacterial metabolic activities, and Fe(3)O(4) corrosion product (e.g., from pipelines). All particles were coated with crude oil surface active components to imitate particles in real systems. The effects of different variables (concentration, temperature, and coating) on the suspension stability were studied with Turbiscan LAb(Expert). The transmission profiles over 75 min represent the overall water quality, while the transmission during the first 15.5 min gives information for suspension behavior during a representative time period for the hold time in the separator. The behavior of the mixed particle suspensions was compared to that of the single particle suspensions and models describing the systems were built. The findings are summarized as follows: silica seems to dominate the mixture properties in the binary suspensions toward enhanced separation. For 75 min, temperature and concentration are the most significant, while for 15.5 min, concentration is the only significant variable. Models for prediction of transmission spectra from run parameters as well as particle type from transmission profiles (inverse calibration) give a reasonable description of the relationships. In ternary particle mixtures, silica is not dominant and for 75 min, the significant variables for mixture (temperature and coating) are more similar to single kaolin and FeS/Fe(3)O(4). On the other hand, for 15.5 min, the coating is the most significant and this is similar to one for silica (at 15.5 min). The model for prediction of transmission spectra from run parameters gives good estimates of the transmission profiles. Although the

  8. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  9. Spatial distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from typical oil-sewage irrigation area, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Gong, Zongqiang; Fan, Shuxiu; Zheng, Le; Verkhozina, E A

    2008-08-01

    Spatial distribution and sources of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 EPA-PAHs) in soils were studied in Shenfu Irrigation Area (SIA) located at northeast of China. SIA (1.3 x 10(4) ha) was an important agricultural farmland irrigated with oil-sewage since the 1960s. Soil profiles at 91 sites controlling all SIA were sampled. The results demonstrated that four- and five-ring PAHs accounted for 71.2% and 73.0% of the total PAHs in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soil, respectively. Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were identified as five dominant individual PAHs. Generally, there was a decreasing trend in concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs from upper to lower reaches (by distance away from source) within 0.6-12.36 mg kg(-1) and 0.04-4.99 mg kg(-1) in surface and subsurface soil, respectively. The concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the surface soil were threefold higher than those in the subsurface soil. A combination of grass, wood or coal combustion and petroleum combustion in surface soil and a combination of grass, wood or coal combustion and petroleum sources in subsurface soil might be the most significant contributors of 16 EPA-PAHs in SIA, indicating different pollution periods.

  10. Fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ in corn products, wheat flour and corn oil marketed in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zheng, Fengjia; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study a total of 522 samples were collected from Shandong province of China in 2014 and analysed for the occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fumonisins were detected in 98.1% of the corn products, with the average total level of 369.2 μg kg(-1). The individual average values of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in corn products were 268.3, 53.7 and 47.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. The simultaneous occurrence of FB1, FB2 and FB3 was observed in 76.7% of the corn products. Especially, the results demonstrated that the difference in the contamination levels for fumonisins in these three types of corn products was apparent. In addition, 6.2% of the wheat flour samples were contaminated with FB1, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 34.6 µg kg(-1). No FB2 or FB3 was detected in wheat flour. In corn oil samples no fumonisins were detected.

  11. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chunhua; Kang, Guofa; Gao, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed. PMID:25243232

  12. How clean is clean enough? Maintaining thermal protective clothing under field conditions in the oil and gas sector.

    PubMed

    Crown, Elizabeth M; Feng, Aifen; Xu, Xia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop practical care procedures to help maintain the protective quality of flame resistant workwear laundered by workers in the field. Based on observed field conditions, experiments were conducted that simulated domestic laundry procedures. The first experiment involved two flame resistant (FR) fabrics, contaminated or not contaminated with oil. Independent variables also included detergent type and laundry pre-treatment. Other laundry parameters were controlled. Results indicated that it is easier to maintain the FR performance of the FR-treated blend than it is for the aramid fabric. It is hypothesized that energy generated by initial ignition of oil on the specimens triggers the FR mechanism of the treatment, which in turn inhibits further combustion. A second experiment using larger specimens and a domestic washing machine also supported the hypothesized mechanism.

  13. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  14. Enigmatic organosiliceous rocks in the 2000 Ma petrified oil field in Russian Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines, Yu.; Melezhik, V.; Lepland, A.; Filippov, M.; Romashkin, A.; Rychanchik, D.

    2009-04-01

    The c. 2000 Ma, 900 m-thick, Zaonezhskaja Formation in the Onega basin, Russian Fennoscandia, contains one of the greatest accumulations of organic matter (OM) in the Early Precambrian. It also represents a unique preservation of a supergiant petrified oil field. Zaonezhskaja Formation rocks are greenschist-facies volcaniclastic greywackes (distal turbidites), dolostone and limestones, mafic tuffs and lavas intruded by numerous mafic sills. Several sedimentary beds are enriched in OM with the overall content of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 0.1 to 16 wt.% whereas d13C varies between -44 and -17 per mil(V-PDB). The formation contains plentiful evidence of generation and migration of oil (now petrified) as well as oil traps. Results of geophysical surveys combined with drillcore data, including results recently obtained within the framework of the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project (FAR-DEEP), revealed numerous bodies of organosiliceous rocks (OSR) containing mainly silica (c. 57 wt.% SiO2), organic carbon (up to 40 wt.%), Al2O3 (c. 5 wt.%), S (c. 2 wt.%), and minor K, Mg, Fe, Ca and Ti. d13C of the OSR ranges between -40 and -20 per mil. The OSR form crudely stratified beds, cupola-like bodies or veins. The cupola-like bodies show cross-cutting (intrusive) contacts with the host turbiditic greywackes, reach thicknesses of 120 m with a lateral extent of several hundreds of metres. Veins are a few tens of centimetres thick. The OSR show close spatial association with gabbro sills. Although different fabrics have been recognised in the OSR, syngenetic macro- and microbreccias per se are the most common rock types. Fragments of different sedimentary rocks, as well as those with alternating C-rich and C-poor concentric lamina are present. The latter suggests precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. The nature of the OSR remains enigmatic. Several models have been advanced for explanation of origin of the OSR. However, neither of them

  15. Essential oil of Actinidia macrosperma, a catnip response kiwi endemic to China*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-peng; Wang, Xiao-yun; Wang, Zhi-can; Lu, Yin; Fu, Cheng-xin; Chen, Shao-yuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify compounds that may be responsible for catnip response of Actinidia macrosperma, and compare chemical compositions in the wild and in vitro regenerated plants. Methods: GC-MS and relative retention indices with n-alkanes as reference points were used for compound identification, and component relative percentage was calculated based on GC peak areas without using correction factors. Results: There are 28 compounds (92.72%) and 15 compounds (93.88%) identified in the essential oils from the wild and regenerated plants, respectively. Dihydronepetalactone, iridomyrmecin, and dihydroactinidiolide, which are believed to be attractive to felines, are present in both wild and regenerated plants. Actinine was not detected, and beta-pheylethyl alcohol was only present in wild plant. In addition, short-chain enol derivatives, messengers in chemical communication, are commonly present in wild plant of A. macrosperma, but absent in regenerated one. Conclusion: Dihydronepetalactone, iridomyrmecin, and dihydroactinidiolide are responsible for the catnip response of A. macrosperma. PMID:16909471

  16. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

  17. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1994-01-25

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

  18. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-12-21

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

  19. LANDSAT Study of Alteration Aureoles in Surface Rocks Overlying Petroleum Deposits. [Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A series of low altitude underflight remote sensing experiments were flown at Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma. An experimental algorithm which employs a sinusoidal stretch of brightness values was developed and applied to a January 1973 scene (bands 4, 5, and 6) of Cement. The results, although not spectacular, are extremely encouraging and for the first time demonstrate that the alteration anomaly at Cement may be defined through enhanced LANDSAT images.

  20. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  1. Vertical section construction of wells at Kuyumbinsky oil field via percussive-rotary drilling with DTH hammer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanov, K. V.; Nechaeva, L. N.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of sequential use of mobile percussive-rotary drilling sets with DTH hammer and bottom-hole cleaning by foam mud in construction of vertical sections along with at Kuyumbinsky oil field. On the basis of the analysis, an engineering solution is proposed to prevent disastrous mud loss that is the key factor of efficiency in implementation of resource-saving technologies.

  2. [Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a central Sichuan hilly area of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-sheng; Wang, Yue-si; Zheng, Xun-hua; Zhu, Bo; Huang, Yao

    2006-02-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment was conducted in situ for two years to study the effects of three cultivation systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a hilly area in Southwest China. The results show that the average CH4 fluxes from a permanently flooded rice field with a single middle rice crop and flooded with no winter crop (PF) were (21.44 +/- 1.77) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and (3.77 +/- 0.99) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during rice-growing and non-rice growing periods, respectively, where both values were much lower than many previous reports from similar regions in Southwest China. The annual CH4 emission was mainly occurred in the rice growing period, being only 23.2% of the total annual CH4 flux emitted from the non-rice growing period, though the latter occupied two thirds of a year. The annual average flux of nitrous oxide was (0.051 +/- 0.008) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and the N2O emission also intensive in the rice growing period. However, being only 8.1% of total annual N2O flux emitted from the non-rice growing period. After implementing the rice-wheat rotation (RW) and rice oil-seed rape rotation (RR), the CH4 emissions were reduced substantially, only 43.8% and 40.6% of those of PF, respectively. However, the N2O emissions were increased after conducting RW and RR systems, which were 3.7 and 4.5 times larger than those of PF. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of the CH4 and N2O emissions under the three tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results show that the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions are in the following sequence: PF>RR approximately equal to RR. Within 20, 100 and 500 years spans, the GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions of PF were 2.6, 2.1 and 1.7 times larger than those of RW (or RR), respectively. After introducing rice-wheat or rice oil-seed rape rotation systems into the permanently flooded rice fields, the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions were

  3. Salt distribution under mulched drip irrigation in a cotton field of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Yao, X.; Zhong, R.; Hu, H.

    2012-12-01

    A 3-year experiment was conducted in Xinjiang, northwestern China, to investigate the specific pattern of salt distribution and accumulation associated with mulched drip irrigation in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. The experimental site was divided into three fields according to their distinct features of soil particle size distribution, and three replicators were designed in every field. Above 30,000 soil samples were collected throughout the experimental years, and this large number of soil samples help to answer the strong heterogeneity of soil salinity at the field scale and get the continuous salinity data under the destructive salinity measurement method. The results indicate that the soil salt migrates with water flux and accumulates at the periphery of the wetted soil mass, and the ration of the EC value in inter-film zone to wide-row zone at the end of growth period are 2.34, 1.78 and 1.24 for the three fields, respectively, which implies soil salt would transport to and accumulate in the inter film zone (IFM) more easily for sandy soil than clay soil along the horizontal direction. The field experiment shows the soil salt tends to build up at the interface of soil texture (where the soil texture changes rapidly from sandy at the upper layer to clay at the lower) , which means that layered pattern of soil particle size distribution dominates the vertical distribution pattern of soil salinity. The dimensionless index representing the specific salt distribution pattern associated with mulched drip irrigation was also introduced and modified, and the study shows that the index can well delineate the salt qualitative distribution along the vertical direction.

  4. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated naphthalenes in the atmosphere across North China based on gridded field observations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Yifan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) belong to a group of dioxin-like pollutants; however little information is available on PCNs in North China. In this study, gridded field observations by passive air sampling at 90 sites were undertaken to determine the levels, spatial distributions, and sources of PCNs in the atmosphere of North China. A median concentration of 48 pg m(-3) (range: 10-2460 pg m(-3)) for ∑29PCNs indicated heavy PCN pollution. The compositional profile indicated that nearly 90% of PCNs observed were from thermal processes rather than from commercial mixtures. Regarding the source type, a quantitative apportionment suggested that local non-point emissions contributed two-thirds of the total PCNs observed in the study, whereas a point source of electronic-waste recycling site contributed a quarter of total PCNs. The estimated toxic equivalent quantity for dioxin-like PCNs ranged from 0.97 to 687 fg TEQ m(-3), with the electronic-waste recycling site with the highest risk.

  5. Effect of Nitrate Injection on the Microbial Community in an Oil Field as Monitored by Reverse Sample Genome Probing

    PubMed Central

    Telang, A. J.; Ebert, S.; Foght, J. M.; Westlake, D.; Jenneman, G. E.; Gevertz, D.; Voordouw, G.

    1997-01-01

    The reverse sample genome probe (RSGP) method, developed for monitoring the microbial community in oil fields with a moderate subsurface temperature, has been improved by (i) isolation of a variety of heterotrophic bacteria and inclusion of their genomes on the oil field master filter and (ii) use of phosphorimaging technology for the rapid quantitation of hybridization signals. The new master filter contains the genomes of 30 sulfate-reducing, 1 sulfide-oxidizing, and 16 heterotrophic bacteria. Most have been identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Use of improved RSGP in monitoring the effect of nitrate injection in an oil field indicated that the sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing isolate CVO (a Campylobacter sp.) becomes the dominant community component immediately after injection. No significant enhancement of other community members, including the sulfate-reducing bacteria, was observed. The elevated level of CVO decayed at most sampling sites within 30 days after nitrate injection was terminated. Chemical analyses indicated a corresponding decrease and subsequent increase in sulfide concentrations. Thus, transient injection of a higher potential electron acceptor into an anaerobic subsurface system can have desirable effects (i.e., reduction of sulfide levels) without a permanent adverse influence on the resident microbial community. PMID:16535595

  6. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  7. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  8. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I. )

    1996-01-01

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  9. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Findings Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. Conclusions The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against

  10. Preparation and fuel properties of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed oil ethyl esters and blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a widely distributed winter annual with high seed oil content (36%) and is suitable as an off-season rotational crop in the Midwestern U.S. Erucic [(13Z)-docosenoic] acid (36.2%) is the most abundant constituent in the oil, with unsaturated and very long chai...

  11. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

    2012-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance