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Sample records for china southern airlines

  1. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  2. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  3. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  4. Rupture of dissecting aneurysm in a China Airlines co-pilot.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K P; Ho, B L; Lee, W H; Fong, J M

    1996-08-15

    A 46-year-old male co-pilot of China Airlines developed shortness of breath during landing on a flight from Tokyo to Taipei on May 17, 1994. He was found dead shortly after landing. He was well and had passed his semi-annual health examination with no history of cardiovascular disease or hereditary disease. A dissecting aneurysm of DeBakey type I and cardiac tamponade with 200 ml blood inside the pericardial cavity during autopsy was noted. The right and left coronary arteries showed atherosclerotic changes with the lumen narrowing down to 30% in the anterior descending branch. Focal myocardial infarction with a healing scar, atheroma and arteriosclerosis of the small arteries including the kidney were observed. Nonspecific changes of the chest X-Ray and EKG with hyperlipoproteinemia suggests that a more advanced technique is required to carefully examine the heart condition during regular physical checkups to prevent sudden illness that might contribute to mass disaster.

  5. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  6. A Study of an ESP Curriculum for Airline Agents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Qi

    2008-01-01

    English for specific purpose (ESP) has for about 30 years been a separate branch of English language Teaching (ELT). Recent years in China, with the development of international trade and foreign exchange, more and more in-service and pre-service staffs are expected to learn practical al and useful English language in order to adapt to the new…

  7. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  8. Multi-element geochemical mapping in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhizhong; Xie, Xuejing; Yao, Wensheng; Feng, Jizhou; Zhang, Qin; Fang, Jindong

    2014-04-01

    The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China.

  9. Forecasting sea fog on the coast of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Huang, B.; Liu, C.; Tu, J.; Wen, G.; Mao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast sea fog is still full of challenges. We have performed the numerical forecasting of sea fog on the coast of southern China by using the operational meso-scale regional model GRAPES (Global/Regional assimilation and prediction system). The GRAPES model horizontal resolution was 3km and with 66 vertical levels. A total of 72 hours forecasting of sea fog was conducted with hourly outputs over the sea fog event. The results show that the model system can predict reasonable characteristics of typical sea fog events on the coast of southern China. The scope of sea fog coincides with the observations of meteorological stations, the observations of the Marine Meteorological Science Experiment Base (MMSEB) at Bohe, Maoming and satellite products of sea fog. The goal of this study is to establish an operational numerical forecasting model system of sea fog on the coast of southern China.

  10. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-wen; Pei, Shu-wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-yuan; Yang, Xiong-xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-jie

    2015-10-29

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern China). This site has provided 47 human teeth dated to more than 80,000 years old, and with an inferred maximum age of 120,000 years. The morphological and metric assessment of this sample supports its unequivocal assignment to H. sapiens. The Daoxian sample is more derived than any other anatomically modern humans, resembling middle-to-late Late Pleistocene specimens and even contemporary humans. Our study shows that fully modern morphologies were present in southern China 30,000-70,000 years earlier than in the Levant and Europe. Our data fill a chronological and geographical gap that is relevant for understanding when H. sapiens first appeared in southern Asia. The Daoxian teeth also support the hypothesis that during the same period, southern China was inhabited by more derived populations than central and northern China. This evidence is important for the study of dispersal routes of modern humans. Finally, our results are relevant to exploring the reasons for the relatively late entry of H. sapiens into Europe. Some studies have investigated how the competition with H. sapiens may have caused Neanderthals' extinction (see ref. 8 and references therein). Notably, although fully modern humans were already present in southern China at least as early as ∼80,000 years ago, there is no evidence that they entered Europe before ∼45,000 years ago. This could indicate that H. neanderthalensis was indeed an additional ecological barrier for modern humans, who could only enter Europe when the demise of Neanderthals had already started.

  11. Skillful seasonal predictions of winter precipitation over southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick; Smith, Doug; Ren, Hong-Li; Liu, Ying; Eade, Rosie

    2017-07-01

    Southern China experiences large year-to-year variability in the amount of winter precipitation, which can result in severe social and economic impacts. In this study, we demonstrate prediction skill of southern China winter precipitation by three operational seasonal prediction models: the operational Global seasonal forecasting system version 5 (GloSea5), the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) and the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM1.1m). The correlation scores reach 0.76 and 0.67 in GloSea5 and CFSv2, respectively; and the amplitude of the ensemble mean forecast signal is comparable to the observed variations. The skilful predictions in GloSea5 and CFSv2 mainly benefit from the successful representation of the observed ENSO teleconnection. El Niño weakens the Walker circulation and leads to the strengthening of the subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific. The anti-cyclone then induces anomalous northward flow over the South China Sea and brings water vapor to southern China, resulting in more precipitation. This teleconnection pattern is too weak in BCC-CSM1.1m, which explains its low skill (0.13). Whereas the most skilful forecast system is also able to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean on southern China precipitation via changes in southwesterly winds over the Bay of Bengal. Finally, we examine the real-time forecast for 2015/16 winter when a strong El Niño event led to the highest rainfall over southern China in recent decades. We find that the GloSea5 system gave good advice as it produced the third wettest southern China in the hindcast, but underestimated the observed amplitude. This is likely due to the underestimation of the Siberian High strength in 2015/2016 winter, which has driven strong convergence over southern China. We conclude that some current seasonal forecast systems can give useful warning of impending extremes. However, there is still need for further model improvement to fully represent the complex

  12. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  13. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female). PMID:26798279

  14. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female).

  15. Early human settlements in the southern Qinling Mountains, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuefeng; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Yi, Liang; Li, Yongxiang; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Voinchet, Pierre; Hu, Xuzhi; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhuo, Haixin

    2017-05-01

    China is a key area of early human settlement in East Asia, with numerous Paleolithic localities indicating an early Pleistocene presence of hominins in northern and southern China. Considerable research has been devoted to determining possible migration routes for hominins linking the two areas. In this paper, we report the discovery of several loess-covered Paleolithic sites in the Hanzhong and Ankang Basins along the Hanjiang River in the southern piedmont of the Qinling Mountains (QLM) in central China. A chronology is developed for these sections using a combination of detailed optically stimulated luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphic analyses, and pedostratigraphic correlation with the well-dated loess-paleosol sequence of the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The results indicate that the age of the oldest lithic assemblage at the Longgangsi locality 3 Paleolithic site in Hanzhong Basin is ∼1.20 Ma, thus making this locality as one of the oldest sites in central China. Our work also indicates that hominins occupied the Hanjiang valley at several times: ∼1.2, 0.9, ∼0.6, and ∼0.1 Ma. We propose that the Hanjiang River Valley was a probable hominin routeway through the QLM because many sites corresponding to these different phases were also discovered to the north of the QLM. Future study on the Hanjiang River Valley is important for verifying the hypothesis of an early human migration route between southern and northern China.

  16. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-01-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25–40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China. PMID:27461985

  17. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-07-27

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25-40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China.

  18. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-07-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25-40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China.

  19. Emergence of highly virulent pseudorabies virus in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhenqing; Hou, Chengcai; Sun, Haifeng; Yang, Wenping; Dong, Jing; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorabies has been controlled efficiently in China for many years by vaccination. However, it suddenly broke out in many pig farms in 2012–2013 in southern China. In this study, a systematic investigation that included virus isolation, genetic and pathological studies, and immunogenicity analysis was carried out with the aim of understanding the pathogenetic and antigenic features of novel isolates of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Of 38 tissue samples collected from pigs with clinical signs of pseudorabies on 13 farms in 4 provinces in southern China in 2012–2013, 29 showed wild-type PRV infection by polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of 5 isolates from the 4 provinces showed that they belonged to a relatively independent cluster that shared 2 insertions of a single amino acid in the gE gene and 1 insertion of 7 amino acids in the gC gene. In experiments, isolate ZJ01 caused death in 100% of pigs that were either 14 or 80 days old. The serum antibodies to the commercial PRV vaccines had significantly lower neutralizing activity against the ZJ01 isolate than against the vaccine strains. The antigenic relatedness between ZJ01 and the vaccine strains was 0.378 to 0.455. These findings indicated that a novel, highly virulent PRV strain with antigenic variance had spread widely in southern China. PMID:26130855

  20. Occurrence and sequence analysis of porcine deltacoronaviruses in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Wei, Wen-Kang; Li, Xiao-Peng; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, He; Lv, Dian-Hong; Li, Feng; Wang, Dan

    2016-08-05

    Following the initial isolation of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) from pigs with diarrheal disease in the United States in 2014, the virus has been detected on swine farms in some provinces of China. To date, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PDCoV in southern China where major swine production is operated. To investigate the prevalence of PDCoV in this region and compare its activity to other enteric disease of swine caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus group C (Rota C), 390 fecal samples were collected from swine of various ages from 15 swine farms with reported diarrhea. Fecal samples were tested by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) that targeted PDCoV, PEDV, TGEV, and Rota C, respectively. PDCoV was detected exclusively from nursing piglets with an overall prevalence of approximate 1.28 % (5/390), not in suckling and fattening piglets. Interestingly, all of PDCoV-positive samples were from 2015 rather than 2012-2014. Despite a low detection rate, PDCoV emerged in each province/region of southern China. In addition, compared to TGEV (1.54 %, 5/390) or Rota C (1.28 %, 6/390), there were highly detection rates of PEDV (22.6 %, 88/390) in those samples. Notably, all five PDCoV-positive piglets were co-infected by PEDV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) gene sequences of PDCoVs revealed that currently circulating PDCoVs in southern China were more closely related to other Chinese strains of PDCoVs than to those reported in United States, South Korea and Thailand. This study demonstrated that PDCoV was present in southern China despite the low prevalence, and supported an evolutionary theory of geographical clustering of PDCoVs.

  1. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  2. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Xu, M J; Zhou, D H; Zou, F C; Lin, R Q; Yin, C C; He, X H; Liang, R; Liang, M; Zhu, X Q

    2011-03-01

    Enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a severe disease of pigs, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide, including the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain the baseline prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in pigs from intensive farms in southern China, double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect M. hyoneumoniae antibodies in 460 pig serum samples collected from 12 administrative cities in China's southern Guangdong province. According to the proportions of the infected animals, among the 12 intensive farms, only two of them showed no infection of M. hyoneumoniae and the seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 90%, with an averaged prevalence of 45.7%. The highest prevalence was found in breeding boars (68.8%), followed by sows (54.5%). These data showed that the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae is severe, and boars might be more important carriers and transfers of M. hyoneumoniae than sows. Integrated strategies and measures should be taken to control the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae in southern China.

  3. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  4. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  5. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much greater capacity for retaining inorganic N than northern soils. The rates of autotrophic nitrification and NH3 volatilization in acidic southern soils were significantly lower due to low soil pH. Meanwhile, the relatively higher rates of NO3− immobilization into organic N in southern soils can counteract the effects of leaching, runoff, and denitrification. Taken together, these processes are responsible for the N enrichment of the humid subtropical forest soils in southern China. PMID:23907561

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these

  7. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern.

  8. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  9. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  10. Airline meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  11. Risk assessment of drought disaster in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Drought has become an increasing concern in southern China, but the drought risk has not been adequately studied. This study presents a method for the spatial assessment of drought risk in southern China using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the combined role of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure.A drought hazard map was retrieved with a compound index of meteorological drought method in a GIS environment. Normally, a large variation in the disaster-inducing factor implies a high probability of economic/social losses caused by a drought disaster. The map indicated that areas with a higher risk of drought hazard were mainly distributed in mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The vulnerability indices were based on climate factors as well as land use, geomorphological types, soil properties, and drainage density. The water preserving capability of purple calcareous soil in the basins in Sichuan and mid-east Yunnan, and the lateritic red soil in northeastern Guangdong is relatively weak. The main geomorphological features in Guangxi and Guangdong are hills, which leads to a serious expectation of soil and water losses. Thus, the main areas with a high risk of drought vulnerability are mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The exposure indices were based on population density and agricultural production because population and agriculture experience the main impacts of a drought disaster. Higher exposure indices mean higher economic/social losses due to drought disasters. Areas with high exposure indices were mainly distributed in Guangdong and southern Guangxi.The overall risk was then calculated as the product of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The results indicated a higher risk of drought disaster in the basins in eastern Sichuan,, northeastern Yunnan, and northeastern Guangdong. The main factor influencing the risk of a drought disaster was the hazard, but the vulnerability and exposure also played important roles.

  12. Acute sporadic hepatitis E virus infection in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tan, D; Im, S W; Yao, J L; Ng, M H

    1995-09-01

    The hepatitis E virus is responsible for epidemic and sporadic hepatitis in northwestern China, but its role as a cause of acute sporadic hepatitis in southern China has not been reported. We applied the most practical current methods for diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection, IgM and IgG anti-HEV detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among acute sporadic hepatitis. Anti-HEV IgM was found in 1 of 26 (3.8%), 4 of 20 (20.0%), 4 of 19 (21.1%), and 51 of 142 (35.9%), with acute hepatitis A, B, C and non-ABC, respectively. Anti-HEV IgM was not detectable in healthy subjects, while IgG anti-HEV was found in 14 of 77 healthy subjects (18.2%) and was long-lasting. Ninety-one cases without any evidence of hepatitis A, B or C infections and anti-HEV IgM were tentatively classified as non-A, B, C, D, E (non-ABCDE) hepatitis. By comparison with non-ABCDE, cases with hepatitis E were more frequently icteric and exhibited higher alanine aminotransferase levels (92.2% vs. 45.1%, 770 iu/l vs 377 iu/l, respectively, p < 0.005). Chronic cases were not observed in hepatitis E virus infections. However, 14 of 91 (15.4%) cases with non-ABCDE developed to chronicity (p < 0.005). Hepatitis E virus infection is sporadic as well as endemic in southern China. Only IgM anti-HEV but not IgG anti-HEV can be used as an appropriate marker of acute hepatitis E virus infection. Superinfection of hepatitis E virus with other types of hepatitis viruses is frequent in this area. While the disease was associated with more severe clinical manifestations, patients usually recovered completely.

  13. Outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Guangdong, southern China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Gang; Fu, Jiamo; Simonich, Staci

    2007-12-15

    The atmospheric outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Guangdong, China, a region of high PAH emission, was modeled using a potential receptor influence function (PRIF) probabilistic model which was based on a spatially resolved PAH inventory and air mass forward-trajectory calculations. Photochemical degradation and deposition (dry and wet) of PAHs during atmospheric transport were taken into consideration. On average, 48% of the PAHs (by mass) remained in the atmosphere for a transport period of 5 days, staying within the boundary of the source region. The medium molecular weight PAHs (four rings) were predicted to travel longer distances in the atmosphere than the low (three rings) or high molecular weight PAHs (five rings) because they are less photodegradable than the lower molecular weight, gas-phase PAHs and less likelyto undergo wet and dry depositions than the higher molecular weight, particulate phase PAHs. Under the strong influence of the East Asian monsoons in winter, the predominant outflow pattern of PAHs from Guangdong was to the South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries. In summer, PAHs were transported primarily to northern mainland China. Under particular weather conditions in winter, the PAH-containing air masses were lifted by cold fronts or convection and transported toward the Pacific Ocean by westerly winds. In addition to the distinct seasonality in PAH dispersion and outflow, interannual long-term variation in the outflow is likely influenced by El Niño and southern oscillation.

  14. University Flight Operations Internships with Major Airlines: Airline Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NewMyer, David A.; Ruiz, Jose R.; Rogers, Ryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Compares the internship programs among the top 12 airlines; discusses some of the myths surrounding these programs; and looks at the benefits to the participants, the airlines, and universities. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  15. Acute diarrhea during army field exercise in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Dai, Ying-Chun; Li, Jian-Dong; Nie, Jun; Chen, Qing; Wang, Hong; Rui, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can be a major threat to military forces. During field training in southern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattle injury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrhea in emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiological data from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) during field training in southern China. METHODS: From September 25 to October 2 1997, 2636 military personnel were investigated. Fecal sample cultures for lapactic pathogens were obtained from 103 military personnel with diarrhea. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 103 cases and 206 controls to evaluate the association between illness and potential risk factors. At the same time, another questionnaire of 1:4 case-case control was administered to 22 severe cases (each severe case paired 4 mild cases). RESULTS: The training troop’s diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea included drinking raw water, eating outside, contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression, lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis. CONCLUSION: A series of risk factors are associated with the incidence rate of

  16. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  17. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  18. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    46 Industrial, Commercial Tax Revenues Grow in 1990 [XINHUA...POPULATION Population Growth Among Religious Minorities [RENKOU YANJIU No 6] ...................... 69 TRANSPORTATION China Eastern Airlines Establishes...Shandong Branch [XINHUA] ................................................. 75 Airline Service Develops Rapidly [Shijiazhuang Radio

  19. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  20. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  1. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  2. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  3. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  4. Improving Airline Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA-Ames Space Act Agreement, Coryphaeus Software and Simauthor, Inc., developed an Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS). This software, developed for the aerospace and airline industry, enables the replay of Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) data in a flexible, user-configurable, real-time, high fidelity 3D (three dimensional) environment.

  5. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  6. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  7. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  8. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  9. Seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in bats from southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Lili; Lu, Zongji; Xuan, Hua; Han, Xiaohu; Xia, Xianzhu; Zhao, Fuguang; Tu, Changchun

    2010-03-01

    Members of the Order Chiroptera are the natural reservoirs of lyssaviruses and play an important role in the transmission of rabies to animals and humans. In this present study, the seroprevalence for rabies virus was determined for bats sampled from four southern provinces on the Chinese mainland. A total of 685 bats of 8 species representing 4 families were collected from 10 sites, and were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated protein A/G mixture and viral neutralization test. Rabies antibody response was only detected from three bat species (Rousettus leschenaulti, Rhinolophus blythi, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The overall rabies seroconversion rate was only 2.2% (15/685). Of the 15 positive sera, 13 (12 fruit bats and 1 insectivorous bat) were indirect fluorescent antibody test positive, and two insectivorous bats were virus neutralization positive when tested by the modified fluorescent antibody viral neutralization test, albeit extremely low. To our knowledge, this is the first published report describing rabies seroprevalences from Chinese bats. These results suggest that bats may play a role in the ecology of lyssaviruses in China, and further surveillance for the presence of lyssaviruses in bats should be undertaken throughout the country and extended to other species.

  10. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-07

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters.

  11. Complete genome sequence of duck Tembusu virus, isolated from Muscovy ducks in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Wei, Chunya; Wang, Heng; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Tang, Fengfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Liang, Huanbin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo

    2012-12-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) WJ-1 strain, isolated from Muscovy ducks. This is the first complete genome sequence of DTMUV reported in southern China. Compared with the other strains (TA, GH-2, YY5, and ZJ-407) that were previously found in eastern China, WJ-1 bears a few differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We found that there are 47 mutations of amino acids encoded by the whole open reading frame (ORF) among these five strains. The whole-genome sequence of DTMUV will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck Tembusu virus in southern China.

  12. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  13. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  14. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  15. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arsenic accumulation by ferns: a field survey in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study reported here was to characterize arsenic (As) accumulation by Pteris ferns by comparing 3 of the ferns of this genus with each other as well as with four non-Pteris ferns growing on seven sites in southern China with different As levels. A total of 112 samples, including 78 Pteris vittata, 13 P. cretica, 3 P. multifida and 18 ferns from other non-Pteris genera, with the soils in which they grew were collected for As and other elemental analyses. P. vittata was found to be the most dominant species and the most efficient As-accumulator, whereas P. multifida was the lowest As-accumulator among the Pteris ferns, with 4.54-3599, 28.7-757 and 11.2-341 mg kg(-1) As recorded in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica and P. multifida, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in non-Pteris ferns were generally much lower than those in Pteris ferns, with 0.81-1.32, 3.59, 10.7, 6.17-24.3 mg kg(-1) in the fronds of Blechumum orientale, Dicranopteris dichotoma, Pteridium aquilinum and Cyclosorus acuminatus, respectively. For P. vittata, the As bioaccumulation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in soils) changed, whereas the As translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in roots) remained unchanged among the different sites. The concentrations of Fe were very high in all of the collected fern sample, with the exception of B. orientale, with 207-6865, 637-3369, 375-1856, 1876, 493-6865 and 492 mg kg(-1) in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica, P. multifida, C. acuminatus, P. aquilinum and D. dichotoma, respectively. The association between Fe accumulation and As accumulation and tolerance in these ferns indicates the unique role of Fe in As-hyperaccumulation.

  17. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    PubMed

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Airlines look at 150-seaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetman, B.; Woolley, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of economic changes and deregulation on the structuring of airlines are considered. The rebalancing of airline fleets from large aircraft to 150-seaters due to changing interest rates and lower fuel cost is examined. The conversion of turbofan-powered aircraft to propeller-powered aircraft is proposed.

  19. Complete genome sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus discovered in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-ya; Su, Shuo; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Wan-jun; Chen, Ji-dang; Zhao, Fu-rong; Wang, Yan-jing; Xie, Jie-xiong; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2012-09-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated from mixed infections with DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and DHAV-3 in ducklings in Southern China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology with the sequence of DHAV-3 (GenBank accession number DQ812093) (96.2%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene rearrangement between DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and it will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck hepatitis A virus in Southern China.

  20. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  1. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. V. Seasonal drought characteristics division and assessment in southern China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-10-01

    Zoning seasonal drought based on the study of drought characteristics can provide theoretical basis for formulating drought mitigation plans and improving disaster reduction technologies in different arid zones under global climate change. Based on the National standard of meteorological drought indices and agricultural drought indices and the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, this paper analyzed the climatic background and distribution characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China, and made a three-level division of seasonal drought in this region by the methods of combining comprehensive factors and main factors, stepwise screening indices, comprehensive disaster analysis, and clustering analysis. The first-level division was with the annual aridity index and seasonal aridity index as the main indices and with the precipitation during entire year and main crop growing season as the auxiliary indices, dividing the southern China into four primary zones, including semi-arid zone, sub-humid zone, humid zone, and super-humid zone. On this basis, the four primary zones were subdivided into nine second-level zones, including one semi-arid area-temperate-cold semi-arid hilly area in Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau, three sub-humid areas of warm sub-humid area in the north of the Yangtze River, warm-tropical sub-humid area in South China, and temperate-cold sub-humid plateau area in Southwest China, three humid areas of temperate-tropical humid area in the Yangtze River Basin, warm-tropical humid area in South China, and warm humid hilly area in Southwest China, and two super-humid areas of warm-tropical super-humid area in South China and temperate-cold super-humid hilly area in the south of the Yangtze River and Southwest China. According to the frequency and intensity of multiple drought indices, the second-level zones were further divided into 29 third-level zones. The distribution of each seasonal drought zone was

  2. Genome Sequence of a Novel Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Strain That Reemerged in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Lin, Tao; Zhang, He; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xiu-Rong; Jia, Chun-Ling; Tu, Du; Zhu, Xue-Liang; Chen, Qin-Ling

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe a novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) variant (GD2014) found in the Guangdong province, southern China. Its complete genome is 1,766 nucleotides and contained a 708-nucleotide open reading frame 2 (ORF2). Sequence analysis suggested that GD2014 is closest to JS2015 originating from the Jiangsu province of China and belongs to the PCV2d genotype. PMID:28209816

  3. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management.

  4. Patient Transport via Commercial Airlines

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, Andrew John

    1992-01-01

    Because the frequency of patient transport from one hospital to another is increasing and the popularity of air travel continues to rise, physicians should be aware of the procedures for patient transport by commercial airlines. Major airlines in Canada have experienced personnel and established procedures that facilitate the transportation of patients with special medical needs. By working with the airline medical health officers and using up-to-date equipment, physicians can achieve safe, cost-effective transport of appropriate patients via commercial aircraft. PMID:21221401

  5. Food irradiation and airline catering

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  6. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  7. Spatial boundary of urban ‘acid islands’ in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Du, E.; de Vries, W.; Liu, X.; Fang, J.; Galloway, J. N.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia in China have resulted in high levels of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, being contributors to soil acidification, especially in and near large cities. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the way that large cities shape spatial patterns of acid deposition. Here, we assessed the patterns of pH, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall in southern China’s forests by synthesizing data from published literature. Concentrations and fluxes of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall exhibited a power-law increase with a closer distance to the nearest large cities, and accordingly pH showed a logarithmic decline. Our findings indicate the occurrence of urban ‘acid islands’ with a critical radius of approximately 70 km in southern China, receiving potential acid loads of more than 2 keq ha−1 yr−1. These urban acid islands covered an area of 0.70 million km2, accounting for nearly 30% of the land area in southern China. Despite a significant capacity to neutralize acids in precipitation, our analysis highlights a substantial contribution of ammonium to potential acid load. Our results suggest a joint control on emissions of multiple acid precursors from urban areas in southern China. PMID:26211880

  8. Complete genome sequence of southern tomato virus identified from China using next generation sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete genome sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, southern tomato virus (STV), on tomatoes in China, was elucidated using small RNAs deep sequencing. The identified STV_CN12 shares 99% sequence identity to other isolates from Mexico, France, Spain, and U.S. This is the first report ...

  9. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mochan; Liang, Junfeng; Li, Yanchun; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; James, Timothy Y; Xu, Jianping

    2010-05-18

    In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called "Dahongjun" or "Big Red Mushroom" by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. The ectomycorrhizal mushroom "Dahongjun" from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

  10. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Treesearch

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  11. Spatial boundary of urban ‘acid islands’ in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; de Vries, W.; Liu, X.; Fang, J.; Galloway, J. N.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Elevated emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia in China have resulted in high levels of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, being contributors to soil acidification, especially in and near large cities. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the way that large cities shape spatial patterns of acid deposition. Here, we assessed the patterns of pH, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall in southern China’s forests by synthesizing data from published literature. Concentrations and fluxes of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall exhibited a power-law increase with a closer distance to the nearest large cities, and accordingly pH showed a logarithmic decline. Our findings indicate the occurrence of urban ‘acid islands’ with a critical radius of approximately 70 km in southern China, receiving potential acid loads of more than 2 keq ha-1 yr-1. These urban acid islands covered an area of 0.70 million km2, accounting for nearly 30% of the land area in southern China. Despite a significant capacity to neutralize acids in precipitation, our analysis highlights a substantial contribution of ammonium to potential acid load. Our results suggest a joint control on emissions of multiple acid precursors from urban areas in southern China.

  12. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  13. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  14. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  15. Autosomal STRs Provide Genetic Evidence for the Hypothesis That Tai People Originate from Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  16. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  17. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  18. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  19. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry

    2016-10-01

    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  20. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-09-19

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Water pollution and cyanobacteria's variation of rivers surrounding southern Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyang; Huang, Linglin; Tan, Lisha; Yang, Zhe; Baig, Shams Ali; Sheng, Tiantian; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    The water quality and cyanobacterial variation of rivers surrounding southern Taihu Lake, China were purposively monitored from 2008 to 2010. Trophic level index (TLI) was used to evaluate the trophic levels of southern Taihu Lake. Results showed a considerable decline in the monitored data compared with 2007, and the data showed downward trends year after year. The TLI decreased from 55.6 to 51.3, which implied that southern Taihu Lake was mildly eutrophic. The water quality and cyanobacterial variation indicated a positive response to the adopted control measures in the southern Taihu Lake basin, but the intra- and inter-annual variability was still quite varied. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus typically lead to algae outbreaks, however, the cyanobacteria growth may result in a decline of the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. Temperature and other weather conditions are also important factors for algae outbreaks; the risk of blue-green algal blooms still persists.

  2. Genetic diversity of the nucleocapsid protein gene of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus from Hymenocallis littoralis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Xu, Y; Zhu, M; Dong, Y; Hu, J; Li, Y; Liu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Hymenocallis littoralis growing in southern China has been recently extensively damaged by virus-like symptoms of necrosis, chlorosis, and ringspot. Of 44 plant samples collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces in southern China, 32 were infected with hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV). Phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene divided the virus samples into two branches suggesting a geographic distribution attributed to the initial stage of a founder effect. The N gene was under purifying selection pressure and most of the deleterious mutants had been removed. Both the population dynamics and genetic analyses suggested that populations of HCRV in southern China are spreading.

  3. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-06

    airlines to retain for a time the revenues from the airline ticket tax . Other suggestions are... airline industry. Allowing Airlines to Retain Revenues From the Airline Ticket Tax Airlines collect a 10-percent excise tax on the price of airline tickets...ticket tax would be an indirect form of federal financial assistance for the industry. The airlines would increase their cash flow and reduce their

  4. A new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Hu, Ping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Ying-Yong

    2016-09-26

    A new species, Amolops albispinus sp. nov. is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mt. Wutong, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known congeners by molecular divergence in the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene and morphological characters including presence of white conical spines on the lips, loreal and temporal regions, excluding the tympanum; small body, SVL 36.7-42.4 mm in adult males and 43.1-51.9 mm in adult females; very rough dorsal skin of body with numerous raised large warts; olive-brown dorsum with dark brown blotches; strongly developed vomerine teeth; absence of vocal sacs; absence of tarsal glands; absence of dorsolateral folds; presence of circummarginals groove on the disk of first finger; and absence of outer metatarsal tubercles. At present, the genus Amolops contains 51 species, of which 23 occur in China.

  5. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management. PMID:27571513

  6. Airline pilot disability: economic impact of an airline preventive medicine program.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Gullett, C C

    1982-04-01

    The current economic crisis facing most major United States airlines has forced a close examination of airline-sponsored activities. The effectiveness of one airline's pilot preventive medicine program was estimated by comparing disability experience of its pilots against the experience of a larger population of airline pilots. The preventive medicine program at the studied airline was shown to reduce disability experience by one-third, while saving the airline better than $6 million annually. This program yielded the airline better than a 6-1 return on investment during the years studied.

  7. Two new species of the genus Goniurosaurus (Squamata: Sauria: Eublepharidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2015-06-26

    Two new species of large geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus are described based on specimens collected from karst areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China: Goniurosaurus kadoorieorum sp. nov. and Goniurosaurus kwangsiensis sp. nov. Data on natural history of the new species are provided, as well as discussions on the current conservation status of Goniurosaurus species in southern China. Due to the popularity of this genus as novelty pets, and recurring cases of scientific descriptions driving herpetofauna to near-extinction by commercial collectors, we do not disclose the collecting localities of these restricted-range species in this publication. However, such information has been presented to relevant government agencies, and is available upon request by fellow scientists.

  8. [Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized.

  9. Full genome sequence of a recombinant H5N1 influenza virus from a condor in southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Wei, Liangmeng; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming; Luo, Kaijian

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report the first genomic information on an H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a condor in Guangdong Province in southern China in 2003. Full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that it is a recombinant virus containing genome segments derived from the Eurasia and North America gene pools. This will be useful for analyses of the evolution of H5N1 AIV in southern China.

  10. Emergency medical equipment on board German airliners.

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Picker, Susanne; Böttiger, Bernd W; Gathof, Birgit S

    2014-01-01

    Medical emergencies often occur on commercial airline flights, but valid data on their causes and consequences are rare. Therefore, it is unclear what emergency medical equipment is necessary. Although a minimum standard for medical equipment is defined in regulations, additional material is not standardized and may vary significantly between different airlines. German airlines operating aircrafts with more than 30 seats were selected and interviewed with a 5-page written questionnaire between August 2011 and January 2012. Besides pre-packed and required emergency medical material, drugs, medical devices, and equipment lists were queried. If no reply was received, airlines were contacted another three times by e-mail and/or phone. Descriptive analysis was used for data presentation and interpretation. From a total of 73 German airlines, 58 were excluded from analysis (eg, those not providing passenger transport). Fifteen airlines were contacted and data of 13 airlines were available for analysis (two airlines did not participate). A first aid kit was available on all airlines. Seven airlines reported having a doctor's kit, and another four provided an "emergency medical kit." Four airlines provided an automated external defibrillator (AED)/electrocardiogram (ECG). While six airlines reported providing anesthesia drugs, a laryngoscope, and endotracheal tubes, another four airlines did not provide even a resuscitator bag. One airline did not provide any material for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although the minimal material required according to European aviation regulations is provided by all airlines for medical emergencies, there are significant differences in the provision of additional material. The equipment on most airlines is not sufficient for the treatment of specific emergencies according to published medical guidelines (eg, for CPR or acute myocardial infarction). © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  12. Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the Southern East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multibeam Mapping Of The Uncertainty Of The Seafloor In The Southern East China Sea 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...application of Angular Range Analysis to Multibeam sonar data.”, Mar. Geo. Res., 28(2), pp. 119-126. Goff, J., Jenkins, C. and Calder, B. R., 2006

  13. Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the Southern East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the...the Southern East China Sea Brian R. Calder1 and Larry Mayer Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping 2 University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824

  14. Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the Southern East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    Multibeam Mapping of the Uncertainty of the Seafloor in the Southern East China Sea Brian R. Calder Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping ...DATE 30 SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multibeam Mapping Of The Uncertainty Of...University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824 Phone: (603) 862 0526 E-Mail: brc@ccom.unh.edu Larry Mayer Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

  15. A chronological study of the bacterial pathogen changes in acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Li, Ming; Chen, Hongbo; Ping, Guo; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Shusheng

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the project is to retrospectively study the changes in bacterial pathogens in acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis from 2002 to 2016 in Southern China. The results may provide the guidance for drug choice for acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis. Secretion specimens for bacterial culture were taken from 485 cases with clinically diagnosed acute bacterial neonatal conjunctivitis. Bacterial pathogens were detected by Gram staining and subsequent bacterial culture. From the analysis of the bacterial pathogens in 485 cases of acute neonatal conjunctivitis patients from 2002 to 2016 in Southern China, there is an overall trend of decreasing detection of Gram-positive bacteria and increasing detection of Gram-negative bacteria from the conjunctival sac secretions. Gram-positive bacteria in the bacteria-positive samples dropped year by year from 82.6% in 2002 to 72.4% in 2016. Accordingly, the ratio of Gram-negative bacteria increased from 17.4% in 2002 to 27.6% in 2016. Of note, despite the overall trend, there was a significant increase in detection of Gram-positive bacteria and decrease in detection of Gram-negative bacteria from 2011 to 2012. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, there is a trend of increasing percentage of the opportunistic pathogens (an ~60% increase in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophytic) and decreasing percentage of Staphylococcus aureus (~30% decrease) and hemolytic streptococcus (~20% decrease) in the last 15 years. The main Gram-negative bacterium is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Overall, there is a change in the pattern of bacterial species in acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis in Southern China in the last 15 years. Our study provides a trend analysis of the bacterial pathogens in the conjunctival sac secretions of the acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis patients in Southern China in recent years. This data could provide useful information regarding the treatment options for neonatal bacterial

  16. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  17. NASA Research to Support the Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint document that reviews NASA aeronautics research that supports airline operations. It provides short descriptions of several lines of work including the Airline Operations Workshop, Airline Operations Research Laboratory Forum, Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool, dispatcher human factors study, turbulence research, ramp area accidents research, and Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests.

  18. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure. Aircraft...

  19. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative Expectations and Postoperative Outcomes of Visual Functioning among Cataract Patients in Urban Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Bo; Gao, Wuyou; Zuo, Yajing; Peng, Wenyan; Jin, Ling; Yu, Minbin; Lamoureux, Ecosse

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between preoperative expectations and actual postoperative outcomes of visual function (VF) among patients undergoing first eye cataract surgery. Methods A longitudinal study of 182 patients from hospitals in urban Southern China were surveyed prior to surgery and 3 month after cataract surgery regarding their preoperative, expected postoperative and actual postoperative VF for each of the items on the Catquest-9SF and their satisfaction with cataract surgery. In addition, detailed clinical data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The majority of cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for VF outcomes after cataract surgery and in most cases postoperative outcomes achieved the expected level of improvement. The mean (standard deviation, SD) preoperative Catquest-9SF score was 15.7 (5.86) and the mean (SD) expected postoperative score was 26.3 (2.93). The discrepancy between actual and expected improvement was significantly correlated with patients’ health literacy, presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity of the surgery eye, LOCS III nuclear opalescence and cortical cataract grading. Conclusion Cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for surgery outcomes. Patients with low level of health literacy and the presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity may need a comprehensive counseling to decrease the discrepancy regarding expected and actual outcomes. PMID:28068402

  1. Preoperative Expectations and Postoperative Outcomes of Visual Functioning among Cataract Patients in Urban Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyan; Lin, Xianchai; Qu, Bo; Gao, Wuyou; Zuo, Yajing; Peng, Wenyan; Jin, Ling; Yu, Minbin; Lamoureux, Ecosse

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between preoperative expectations and actual postoperative outcomes of visual function (VF) among patients undergoing first eye cataract surgery. A longitudinal study of 182 patients from hospitals in urban Southern China were surveyed prior to surgery and 3 month after cataract surgery regarding their preoperative, expected postoperative and actual postoperative VF for each of the items on the Catquest-9SF and their satisfaction with cataract surgery. In addition, detailed clinical data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively. The majority of cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for VF outcomes after cataract surgery and in most cases postoperative outcomes achieved the expected level of improvement. The mean (standard deviation, SD) preoperative Catquest-9SF score was 15.7 (5.86) and the mean (SD) expected postoperative score was 26.3 (2.93). The discrepancy between actual and expected improvement was significantly correlated with patients' health literacy, presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity of the surgery eye, LOCS III nuclear opalescence and cortical cataract grading. Cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for surgery outcomes. Patients with low level of health literacy and the presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity may need a comprehensive counseling to decrease the discrepancy regarding expected and actual outcomes.

  2. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  3. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  4. Effects of the upstream temperature anomaly on freezing rain and snowstorms over Southern China in early 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Qunjie; Gao, Shouting; Sun, Xiaogong

    2016-08-01

    By using ERA-Interim data, the temperature anomaly of the freezing rain and snowstorm event that occurred from 11 to 22 January 2008 in southern China was analyzed. During this period, diabatic heating and temperature advection caused the temperature to increase anomalously over the Tibetan Plateau. The anomalously high temperature moving from the Tibetan Plateau to southern China played several roles. First, the upper-level subtropical jet over China was split into two parts in the north-south direction, which affected the development of freezing rain in southern China; second, a ridge formed because of the warmer air moving to China, which hindered the transport of cold air from its upstream blocking high, forced the cold air to gather behind the ridge, and facilitated the severe cold air outbreak in the later period of the event; third, an inversion layer formed because of the lower-level cold air and upper-level warmer air over southern China, which was conducive to the development of the event over southern China; and finally, because of the temperature anomaly, opposite wind directions appeared at the lower levels (below 700 hPa), which helped transport of warm-moist and cold-dry air to the event area.

  5. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  6. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  7. Opportunities for woman-initiated HIV prevention methods among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei

    2007-05-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

  8. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  9. [Analysis on the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, 2015-2016].

    PubMed

    Shi, Y J; Lai, S J; Chen, Q L; Mu, D; Li, Y; Li, X X; Yin, W W; Yu, H J

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, and to develop national strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. Methods: Individual data on human brucellosis was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System to describe the situation of brucellosis in China during 2015-2016. Epidemiological features of the disease in northern and southern areas of China were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 125 cases were reported in mainland China during 2015-2016, with an average incidence rate as 3.81/100 000. The overall incidence rate from the northern provinces was 7.77/100 000 in 2016, a 18.6% decrease from 2015 (9.55/100 000), whereas the incidence rate in the southern provinces was 0.27/100 000 in 2016, with an increase of 28.6% than 0.21/100 000 in 2015. 90.0% of the newly infected counties mainly distributed in southern China. As for the locations of reporting cases, most of them were in the same counties in the northern areas (52.3%) while most cases in the southern areas (59.6%) were imported from other counties. The median age of the cases was 48 (IQR: 38-58) years, with male-to-female ratios as 2.7∶1 in the north and 2.2∶1 in the south. Majority of the cases were occupation-related, from both the northern (86.8%) and southern (62.7%) areas. Human brucellosis occurred every month throughout the year but with an obvious seasonal increase between March and July. Conclusions: Different epidemiological features of human brucellosis appeared in both northern and southern areas of China. The disease was seen endemic in the northern and dispersal in the southern provinces. Appropriate strategies for brucellosis prevention and control should be developed, according to the different epidemiological characteristics in the northern or southern areas.

  10. Statistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution in the Tibetan Plateau and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yahao; Liu, Liping

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of raindrop size distribution (DSD) over the Tibetan Plateau and southern China are studied in this paper, using the DSD data from April to August 2014 collected by HSC-PS32 disdrometers in Nagqu and Yangjiang, comprising a total of 9430 and 6366 1-min raindrop spectra, respectively. The raindrop spectra, characteristics of parameter variations with rainfall rate, and the relationships between reflectivity factor ( Z) and rainfall rate ( R) are analyzed, as well as their DSD changes with precipitation type and rainfall rate. The results show that the average raindrop spectra appear to be one-peak curves, the number concentration for larger drops increase significantly with rainfall rate, and its value over southern China is much higher, especially in convective rain. Standardized Gamma distributions better describe DSD for larger drops, especially for convective rain in southern China. All three Gamma parameters for stratiform precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau are much higher, while its shape parameter ( μ) and mass-weighted mean diameter ( D m), for convective precipitation, are less. In terms of parameter variation with rainfall rate, the normalized intercept parameter ( N w) over the Tibetan Plateau for stratiform rain increases with rainfall rate, which is opposite to the situation in convective rain. The μ over the Tibetan Plateau for stratiform and convective precipitation types decreases with an increase in rainfall rate, which is opposite to the case for D m variation. In Z-R relationships, like " Z = AR b ", the coefficient A over the Tibetan Plateau is smaller, while its b is higher, when the rain type transfers from stratiform to convective ones. Furthermore, with an increase in rainfall rate, parameters A and b over southern China increase gradually, while A over the Tibetan Plateau decreases substantially, which differs from the findings of previous studies. In terms of geographic location and climate over the Tibetan Plateau

  11. Characterization of Akabane virus from domestic bamboo rat, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Bo; Chen, Fenglian; Rao, Guibo; Bai, Anbin; Jiang, Jiajia; Du, Yichao; Ren, Pengfei; Liu, Jinfeng; Qin, Shaomin; Yang, Lei; Wu, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    To identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (Rhizomys pruinosus). The routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. There were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. Using PCR-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai virus. Furthermore, the homogenate from the diseased bamboo rats was subjected to viral metagenomic analysis which revealed 48506 filtered viral reads annotated to Akabane virus (AKAV) with >75% nucleotide identity, suggesting the presence of AKAVs in bamboo rats. Five novel AKAV isolates were successfully isolated and characterized. Furthermore the newly isolated AKAV isolate was used to demonstrate that it can reproduce the severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in bamboo rats and mice. The findings add to the better understanding of AKAV epidemiology and to the prevention and control of Akabane diseases in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Airline policy relating to passengers with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mumford, C J; Warlow, C P

    1995-12-01

    To identify the policy of international airlines for the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Postal questionnaire asking about policy for epileptic passengers, training of cabin crew, onboard drugs suitable for the treatment of seizures, and details of any problems reported by crews as a result of in-flight passenger seizures. The questionnaire was addressed to the medical advisors of 42 international airlines. Thirty (71%) of 42 airlines responded. Eleven (37%) of the 30 airlines that responded had a stated policy or restriction on the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Five of these airlines advised increasing the dose of anticonvulsant drugs before travel. One airline insisted that epileptic passengers travel with a companion. Twenty-five (83%) of 30 airlines dealt specifically with epilepsy in the training program of their cabin crews. Seventeen (57%) of 30 airlines carried diazepam onboard, mostly in injectable form. Most airlines reported no, or very few, incidents of in-flight passenger seizures annually. The advice offered to intending epileptic passengers differs greatly between airlines. Some airlines instruct intending passengers to increase their regular medication, probably without justification, since in-flight seizures are very infrequent. Training of cabin crew and the medical equipment carried onboard also vary and in some cases are inadequate.

  13. Homology difference analysis of invasive mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Southern China with COI gene sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Z; Ma, J; Hu, X N; Zeng, L

    2015-02-01

    The mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis (P. solenopsis) has caused much agricultural damage since its recent invasion in China. However, the source of this invasion remains unclear. This study uses molecular methods to clarify the relationships among different population of P. solenopsis from China, USA, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam to determine the geographic origin of the introduction of this species into China. P. solenopsis samples were collected from 25 different locations in three provinces of Southern China. Samples from the USA, Pakistan, and Vietnam were also obtained. Parts of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were sequenced for each sample. Homologous DNA sequences of the samples from the USA and India were downloaded from Gen Bank. Two haplotypes were found in China. The first was from most samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan populations in the China and Pakistan groups, and the second from a few samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan populations in the China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam groups. As shown in the maximum likelihood of trees constructed using the COI sequences, these samples belonged to two clades. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are probably closely related to populations in Pakistan. The variation, relationship, expansion, and probable geographic origin of P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are also discussed.

  14. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province.

  15. Sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to rice in southern subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process.

  16. Properties of aerosols and formation mechanisms over southern China during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weihua; Wang, Xuemei; Blake Cohen, Jason; Zhou, Shengzhen; Zhang, Zhisheng; Chang, Ming; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of size-resolved aerosols from 0.25 to 18 µm were conducted at three sites (urban, suburban and background sites) and used in tandem with an atmospheric transport model to study the size distribution and formation of atmospheric aerosols in southern China during the monsoon season (May-June) in 2010. The mass distribution showed the majority of chemical components were found in the smaller size bins (< 2.5 µm). Sulfate was found to be strongly correlated with aerosol water and anticorrelated with atmospheric SO2, hinting at aqueous-phase reactions being the main formation pathway. Nitrate was the only major species that showed a bimodal distribution at the urban site and was dominated by the coarse mode in the other two sites, suggesting that an important component of nitrate formation is chloride depletion of sea salt transported from the South China Sea. In addition to these aqueous-phase reactions and interactions with sea salt aerosols, new particle formation, chemical aging, and long-range transport from upwind urban or biomass burning regions was also found to be important in at least some of the sites on some of the days. This work therefore summarizes the different mechanisms that significantly impact the aerosol chemical composition during the monsoon over southern China.

  17. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  18. Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

    2015-01-25

    Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study.

  19. Molecular prenatal diagnosis of alpha and beta thalassemia in pregnant Hakka women in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pingsen; Wu, Heming; Zhong, Zhixiong; Lan, Liubing; Zeng, Mei; Lin, Hualan; Wang, Huaxian; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Su, Luxian; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-03

    To date, there has been no systematic study of DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in pregnant Hakka women in southern China. A total of 279 pregnant Hakka women with confirmed cases of thalassemia who had been treated at the Meizhou People's Hospital in China's Guangdong Province from January 2014 to December 2016 were here enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of couples and villus, amniotic fluid, or fetal cord blood. DNA-based diagnosis was performed on the tissues of fetuses whose parents had tested positive for α- and β-globin gene mutations were found using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow-through hybridization technique. Follow-up visits were performed 6 months after the fetuses were born. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on 279 fetuses in at-risk pregnancies. Here, 211 α-thalassemia fetuses were confirmed, including 41 (19.43%) that tested positive for Bart's hydrops syndrome and 15 (7.11%) for Hb H disease. There were 103 (48.81%) heterozygotes. β-thalassemia was confirmed in 68 fetuses, including 23 (33.82%) with severe thalassemia and 27 (39.71%) heterozygotes. Another 12 cases were confirmed with α+β-thalassemia, including three cases of severe β-thalassemia. DNA-based testing prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia was found to be highly reliable. Our findings provide key information for clinical genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis for major thalassemia in pregnant Hakka women in southern China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Airline pilot medical disability: a comparison between three airlines with different approaches to medical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Holt, G W; Taylor, W F; Carter, E T

    1987-08-01

    To study the impact of airline medical departments on pilot disability, three major U.S. airlines, nominally airlines A, B, and C, were chosen because they had distinctly different medical programs. Airline A provided essentially no medical review. Airline B performed preemployment screening and assessment of individual disability claims, along with an irregular pilot review. Airline C provided basically the same services as airline B but also screened pilots annually. The total cohort comprised 12,866 pilots providing 79,797 person-years of experience. Between 1 January 1975 and 31 December 1982, medical losses in all three airlines increased rapidly after pilots reached the age of 45 years, with cardiovascular disease responsible for approximately 50% of the losses. For pilots 45 years old or older, the age-specific disability rates in airline A were significantly higher than those in airlines B and C; rates for airlines B and C were not significantly different. The data suggest that airlines with active medical departments have lower pilot medical disability rates than do airlines without such departments. Data also suggest that preemployment screening and assessment of individual disability claims are more important determinants of long-term disability rates than are regular (annual) pilot health reviews.

  1. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  2. New BZLF1 sequence variations in EBV-associated undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kun-Mei; Li, Chun-Lin; Meng, Guang; Han, Ai-Dong; Wu, Xu-Li

    2008-01-01

    The viral lytic gene BZLF1 triggers replication of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is commonly found in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, RT-PCR revealed five new BZLF1 variants in 8 of 12 NPC and 4 of 12 non-NPC nasopharyngeal biopsies from an NPC-endemic area in southern China. The deduced peptide sequence of the dominant BZLF1 variant differed by 11 amino acids from that of the prototypical strain B95.8 (V01555). Anti-ZEBRA antibody levels were higher in NPC than that in non-NPC patients (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrated a dominant BZLF1 variant in southern Chinese EBV-associated NPC and non-NPC patients.

  3. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-07-20

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications.

  4. Reduced risk of dyslipidaemia with oolong tea consumption: a population-based study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Deqing; Tan, Xuerui; Zhao, Zhiguo; Cai, Yingmu; Li, Yiming; Lin, Xiuying; Lu, Sailan; Chen, Yongsong; Zhang, Qingying

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies have suggested that tea consumption could lower the risk of dyslipidaemia. However, epidemiological evidence is limited, especially in southern China, where oolong tea is the most widely consumed beverage. We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the association between consumption of tea, especially oolong tea, and risk of dyslipidaemia in Shantou, southern China, from 2010 to 2011. Information on tea consumption, lifestyle characteristics and food consumption frequency of 1651 patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia and 1390 controls was obtained using a semi-quantitative questionnaire. Anthropometric variables and serum biochemical indices were determined. Drinking more than 600 ml (2 paos) of green, oolong or black tea daily was found to be associated with the lowest odds of dyslipidaemia risk (P< 0.001) when compared with non-consumption, but only oolong tea consumption was found to be associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels. A dose-response relationship between duration of tea consumption and risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.06, 0.16), as well as that between amount of dried tea leaves brewed and risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.24, 0.48), was found. Moreover, consumption of oolong tea for the longest duration was found to be associated with 3.22, 11.99 and 6.69% lower blood total cholesterol, TAG and LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. In conclusion, the present study indicates that long-term oolong tea consumption may be associated with a lower risk of dyslipidaemia in the population of Shantou in southern China.

  5. Epidemiological Surveillance of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (LPAIV) from Poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Xie, Zhi-xun; Liu, Jia-bo; Pang, Yao-shan; Deng, Xian-wen; Xie, Zhi-qin; Xie, Li-ji; Fan, Qing; Luo, Si-si

    2013-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world “influenza epicenter”, due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8%) were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7%) in chicken and 282 (9.1%) in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11) and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8). The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%). The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area. PMID:24204754

  6. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  7. Characterization of particle number size distribution and new particle formation in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Chuan; Peng, Jianfei; He, Lingyan; Cao, Liming; Zhu, Qiao; Cui, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of particle number size distribution (PND) and new particle formation (NPF) events in Southern China is essential for mitigation strategies related to submicron particles and their effects on regional air quality, haze, and human health. In this study, seven field measurement campaigns were conducted from December 2013 to May 2015 using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at four sites in Southern China, including three urban sites and one background site. Particles were measured in the size range of 15-615nm, and the median particle number concentrations (PNCs) were found to vary in the range of 0.3×10(4)-2.2×10(4)cm(-3) at the urban sites and were approximately 0.2×10(4)cm(-3) at the background site. The peak diameters at the different sites varied largely from 22 to 102nm. The PNCs in the Aitken mode (25-100nm) at the urban sites were up to 10 times higher than they were at the background site, indicating large primary emissions from traffic at the urban sites. The diurnal variations of PNCs were significantly influenced by both rush hour traffic at the urban sites and NPF events. The frequencies of NPF events at the different sites were 0%-30%, with the highest frequency occurring at an urban site during autumn. With higher SO2 concentrations and higher ambient temperatures being necessary, NPF at the urban site was found to be more influenced by atmospheric oxidizing capability, while NPF at the background site was limited by the condensation sink. This study provides a unique dataset of particle number and size information in various environments in Southern China, which can help understand the sources, formation, and the climate forcing of aerosols in this quickly developing region, as well as help constrain and validate NPF modeling.

  8. Analysis of the influenza virus gene pool of avian species from southern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y P; Shu, L L; Wright, S; Bean, W J; Sharp, G B; Shortridge, K F; Webster, R G

    1994-02-01

    Although Southern China has been considered the epicenter of human influenza pandemics, little is known about the genetic composition of influenza viruses in lower mammals or birds in that region. To provide information on the molecular epidemiology of these viruses, we used dot blot hybridization and phylogenetic methods to study the internal genes (PB1, PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS) of 106 avian influenza A viruses isolated from a total of 11,798 domestic ducks, chickens, and geese raised in Southern China including Hong Kong. All 636 genes examined were characteristic of avian influenza viruses; no human or swine influenza genes were detected. Thus, influenza virus reassortants do not appear to be maintained in the domesticated birds of Southeast Asia, eliminating opportunities for further gene reassortment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the internal genes of these viruses belong to the Eurasian avian lineage, supporting geographical separation of the major avian lineages. The PB1 genes were most similar to A/Singapore/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong (H3N2) viral genes, supporting an avian origin for the recent human H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains. The majority of internal genes from avian influenza viruses in Southern China belong to the Eurasian lineage and are similar to viruses that have recently been transmitted to humans, swine, and horses. This study provides evidence that the transmission of avian influenza viruses and their genes to other species is unidirectional and that the transmission of mammalian influenza virus strains to domestic poultry is probably not a factor in the generation of new pandemic strains.

  9. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:27436363

  10. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  11. Landscape Composition and Spatial Prediction of Alveolar Echinococcosis in Southern Ningxia, China

    PubMed Central

    Pleydell, David R. J.; Yang, Yu Rong; Danson, F. Mark; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S.; McManus, Donald P.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wang, Qian; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) presents a serious public health challenge within China. Mass screening ultrasound surveys can detect pre-symptomatic AE, but targeting areas identified from hospital records is inefficient regarding AE. Prediction of undetected or emerging hotspots would increase detection rates. Voles and lemmings of the subfamily Arvicolinae are important intermediate hosts in sylvatic transmission systems. Their populations reach high densities in productive grasslands where food and cover are abundant. Habitat availability is thought to affect arvicoline population dynamic patterns and definitive host–intermediate host interactions. Arvicoline habitat correlates with AE prevalence in Western Europe and southern Gansu Province, China. Methods and Findings Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, borders southern Gansu. The aims of this study were to map AE prevalence across Xiji and test arvicoline habitat as a predictor. Land cover was mapped using remotely sensed (Landsat) imagery. Infection status of 3,205 individuals screened in 2002–2003 was related, using generalised additive mixed models, to covariates: gender; farming; ethnicity; dog ownership; water source; and areal cover of mountain pasture and lowland pasture. A Markov random field modelled additional spatial variation and uncertainty. Mountain pasture and lowland pasture were associated with below and above average AE prevalence, respectively. Conclusions Low values of the normalised difference vegetation index indicated sub-optimality of lowland pasture for grassland arvicolines. Unlike other known endemic areas, grassland arvicolines probably did not provide the principal reservoir for Echinococcus multilocularis in Xiji. This result is consistent with recent small mammal surveys reporting low arvicoline densities and high densities of hamsters, pikas and jerboas, all suitable intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis, in reforested lowland pasture. The risk of re

  12. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  13. Cenozoic tectonic subsidence in the Southern Continental Margin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Penggao; Ding, Weiwei; Fang, Yinxia; Zhao, Zhongxian; Feng, Zhibing

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed two recently acquired multichannel seismic profiles across the Dangerous Grounds and the Reed Bank area in the South China Sea. Reconstruction of the tectonic subsidence shows that the southern continental margin can be divided into three stages with variable subsidence rate. A delay of tectonic subsidence existed in both areas after a break-up, which was likely related to the major mantle convection during seafloor spreading, that was triggered by the secondary mantle convection below the continental margin, in addition to the variation in lithospheric thickness. Meanwhile, the stage with delayed subsidence rate differed along strikes. In the Reed Bank area, this stage is between 32-23.8 Ma, while in the Dangerous Grounds, it was much later (between 19-15.5 Ma). We believe the propagated rifting in the South China Sea dominated the changes of this delayed subsidence rate stage.

  14. Three new species of freshwater Macrostomum (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Lv; Wang, An-Tai; Zhang, Yu

    2015-09-02

    Macrostomum is a diverse genus of turbellarians with more than 180 species described from around the world. However, the Macrostomum fauna in China is poorly known. In this study, three new species of freshwater Macrostomum were described from southern China based on morphology of the penis stylet, an important character for species identification in this genus. In M. heyuanensis n. sp., the penis stylet bends 108° leftwards at its 1/2 length then backwards besides the distal opening, and the terminal region is thicker than other parts of penis stylet. In M. dongyuanensis n. sp., the penis stylet is J-shaped, with the opening at the tail end. In M. bicaudatum n. sp., the penis stylet is C-shaped, with the upper margin of the distal end longer but slimmer than the lower margin. In addition, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to aid the classification of the novel species. Finally, their habitat and taxonomic status are compared and discussed.

  15. Contribution of Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and Aerosol Loading to the Decreasing Precipitation Trend in Southern China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanjie; Lohmann, Ulrike; Zhang, Junhua; Luo, Yunfeng; Liu, Zuoting; Lesins, Glen

    2005-05-01

    The effects of increasing sea surface temperature (SST) and aerosol loading in a drought region in Southern China are studied using aerosol optical depth (AOD), low-level cloud cover (LCC), visibility, and precipitation from observed surface data; wind, temperature, specific humidity, and geopotential height from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields; and SST from the NOAA archive data. The results show a warming of the SST in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, and a strengthening of the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) in the early summer during the last 40 yr, with the high pressure system extending farther westward over the continent in Southern China. Because the early summer average temperature contrast between the land and ocean decreased, the southwesterly monsoon from the ocean onto mainland China weakened and a surface horizontal wind divergence anomaly occurred over Southern China stabilizing the boundary layer. Thus, less moisture was transported to Southern China, causing a drying trend. Despite this, surface observations show that AOD and LCC have increased, while visibility has decreased. Precipitation has decreased in this region in the early summer, consistent with both the second aerosol indirect effect (reduction in precipitation efficiency caused by the more numerous and smaller cloud droplets) and dynamically induced changes from convective to more stratiform clouds. The second aerosol indirect effect and increases in SST and greenhouse gases (GHG) were simulated separately with the ECHAM4 general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results suggest that both effects contribute to the changes in LCC and precipitation in the drought region in Southern China. The flooding trend in Eastern China, however, is more likely caused by strengthened convective precipitation associated with increases in SST and GHG.

  16. Health among commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J S; Butler, G C; Lackland, D T; Tessier, G S; Mohr, L C; Hoel, D G

    2001-09-01

    The airline pilot works within a complex exposure environment that may present physiological challenges to long-term health. This study investigated self-reported disease outcomes among a large group of active and retired commercial airline pilots in the United States and Canada. A survey methodology was used, including the collection of historical information. Of 10,678 surveys mailed, 6609 were returned (6533 men, 63 women). Given the limitations of survey methodology, increased disease rates among pilots were suggested for melanoma, motor neuron disease, and cataracts. However, rates for other diseases were in general lower than those for the U.S. population. Further study has been initiated to verify and follow reported cases, to expand the study to a larger group, and to collect more in-depth information on flight histories, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors.

  17. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  18. Effects of meteorological droughts on agricultural water resources in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Houquan; Wu, Yihua; Li, Yijun; Liu, Yongqiang

    2017-05-01

    With the global warming, frequencies of drought are rising in the humid area of southern China. In this study, the effects of meteorological drought on the agricultural water resource based on the agricultural water resource carrying capacity (AWRCC) in southern China were investigated. The entire study area was divided into three regions based on the distributions of climate and agriculture. The concept of the maximum available water resources for crops was used to calculate AWRCC. Meanwhile, an agricultural drought intensity index (ADI), which was suitable for rice planting areas, was proposed based on the difference between crop water requirements and precipitation. The actual drought area and crop yield in drought years from 1961 to 2010 were analyzed. The results showed that ADI and AWRCC were significantly correlated with the actual drought occurrence area and food yield in the study area, which indicated ADI and AWRCC could be used in drought-related studies. The effects of seasonal droughts on AWRCC strongly depended on both the crop growth season and planting structure. The influence of meteorological drought on agricultural water resources was pronounced in regions with abundant water resources, especially in Southwest China, which was the most vulnerable to droughts. In Southwest China, which has dry and wet seasons, reducing the planting area of dry season crops and rice could improve AWRCC during drought years. Likewise, reducing the planting area of double-season rice could improve AWRCC during drought years in regions with a double-season rice cropping system. Our findings highlight the importance of adjusting the proportions of crop planting to improve the utilization efficiency of agricultural water resources and alleviate drought hazards in some humid areas.

  19. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Some Empirical Findings," Management Science 25 (November 1979)s 1045-1056. 2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics , published monthly by U.S. Civil...Times, various issues 1976-1986. 6. Traffic, ICAO Digest of Statistics , Series T, various editions 1976-1980. 7. World Airline Accident Summary...34 statistical license" and added the rankings from each of the four measures considered separately to produce a final ranking shown in Table 2.2 [7

  20. SST Variability over the Southern South China Sea: Local effects and Remote forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.

    2012-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest semi-enclosed marginal seas in the world ocean. The SCS is connected to the East China Sea through the Taiwan Strait to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean in the east through the Luzon Strait, laying between the Luzon and Taiwan Islands. To the south, SCS is connected to the Indonesian Sea (IS) through the Karimata and Gaspar Straits, and to the Indian Ocean though the Malacca Strait. The large-scale circulation and SST over the SCS is dominantly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoon winds. Beyond the seasonal time scale, the circulation and temperature variability over the SCS demonstrate strong relationship with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean. The present study addresses the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the southern South China Sea with special emphasis on the ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events during the period 1993 to 2009. Due to its geographical location, the dynamics and thermodynamics of the southern SCS is largely influenced by the anomalous events occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A high resolution, three-dimensional sigma co-ordinate, regional ocean general circulation model (ROMS) configured for the South China Sea and Bay of Bengal region is used for the analysis. The model has been forced by 12-hourly varying surface wind, air temperature, relative humidity, surface downward solar and longwave radiation and precipitation fields obtained from the ERA-interim re-analysis data set as well as space- and time-dependent lateral fluxes of temperature, salinity, currents and sea level. Detailed analysis has been done to identify the roles of the surface heat fluxes, and the water mass advection from the Java Sea and northern South China Sea in driving the SST variability over the region. The surface heat flux data set (NOC v2.0) developed by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, is also used to

  1. Baseline Assessment of the Domestic Airline Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    largest investor-owned airlines and has developed a route system that spans North America, Asia , the South Pacific, and Europe. As with most major...of the US Scheduled Airline Industry, "Air Transport 1991", ATA, page 3. (20)US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, FAA...AD-A262 147 1992 Executive Research Project DIS 12 Baseline Assessment of the Domestic Airline Industry Colonel Michael W. Wooley U. S. Air Force

  2. Chemical overprint on the natural remanent magnetization of a subtropical red soil sequence in the Bose Basin, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Wei; Liu, Caicai

    2007-11-01

    We present a high-resolution paleomagnetic investigation of the subtropical red soil sequence at the Damei section, Bose Basin, southern China. Maghemite with low coercivities and fine-grained hematite with high coercivities but relatively low unblocking temperatures were identified as main carriers of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Strong chemical weathering occurring under subtropical climatic conditions in southern China led to a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) overprint that is sufficiently strong to mask the primary NRM. Analysis of the Bose Basin soil sequence indicates that the CRM has a large lock-in depth (>4 m). This example shows that magnetostratigraphic studies on red soil sequences in subtropical-tropical southern China should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Atmospheric aerosol compositions and sources at two national background sites in northern and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiao; He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    Although China's severe air pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric chemistry and the mechanisms of urban air pollution there have been researched extensively, few field sampling campaigns have been conducted at remote background sites in China, where air pollution characteristics on a larger scale are highlighted. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), together with an Aethalometer, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern (Lake Hongze site; 33.23° N, 118.33° E; altitude 21 m) and southern (Mount Wuzhi site; 18.84° N, 109.49° E; altitude 958 m) China in the spring seasons in 2011 and 2015, respectively, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The campaign-average PM1 concentration was 36.8 ± 19.8 µg m-3 at the northern China background (NCB) site, which was far higher than that at the southern China background (SCB) site (10.9 ± 7.8 µg m-3). Organic aerosol (OA) (27.2 %), nitrate (26.7 %), and sulfate (22.0 %) contributed the most to the PM1 mass at NCB, while OA (43.5 %) and sulfate (30.5 %) were the most abundant components of the PM1 mass at SCB, where nitrate only constituted a small fraction (4.7 %) and might have contained a significant amount of organic nitrates (5-11 %). The aerosol size distributions and organic aerosol elemental compositions all indicated very aged aerosol particles at both sites. The OA at SCB was more oxidized with a higher average oxygen to carbon (O / C) ratio (0.98) than that at NCB (0.67). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was used to classify OA into three components, including a hydrocarbon-like component (HOA, attributed to fossil fuel combustion) and two oxygenated components (OOA1 and OOA2, attributed to secondary organic aerosols from different source areas) at NCB. PMF analysis at SCB identified a semi-volatile oxygenated component (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility oxygenated

  4. ESR, U-series and paleomagnetic dating of Gigantopithecus fauna from Chuifeng Cave, Guangxi, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qingfeng; Wang, Wei; Deng, Chenglong; Voinchet, Pierre; Lin, Min; Zazzo, Antoine; Douville, Eric; Dolo, Jean-Michel; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Several Gigantopithecus faunas associated with taxonomically undetermined hominoid fossils and/or stone artifacts are known from southern China. These faunas are particularly important for the study of the evolution of humans and other mammals in Asia. However, the geochronology of the Gigantopithecus faunas remains uncertain. In order to solve this problem, a program of geochronological studies of Gigantopithecus faunas in Guangxi Province was recently initiated. Chuifeng Cave is the first studied site, which yielded 92 Gigantopithecus blacki teeth associated with numerous other mammalian fossils. We carried out combined ESR/U-series dating of fossil teeth and sediment paleomagnetic studies. Our ESR results suggest that the lower layers at this cave can be dated to 1.92 ± 0.14 Ma and the upper layers can be dated to older than 1.38 ± 0.17 Ma. Correlation of the recognized magnetozones to the geomagnetic polarity timescale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and ESR data. The combined chronologies establish an Olduvai subchron (1.945-1.778 Ma) for the lowermost Chuifeng Cave sediments. We also analyzed the enamel δ13C values of the Gigantopithecus faunas. Our results show that southern China was dominated by C3 plants during the early Pleistocene and that the Gigantopithecus faunas lived in a woodland-forest ecosystem.

  5. Differing Epidemiological Dynamics of Influenza B Virus Lineages in Guangzhou, Southern China, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi; Guan, Wenda; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Pan, Sihua; Wu, Shiguan; Zhan, Yangqing; Viboud, Cecile; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of the two cocirculating lineages of influenza B virus, Victoria and Yamagata, are poorly understood, especially in tropical or subtropical areas of Southeast Asia. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences of influenza B viruses isolated in Guangzhou, a southern Chinese city, during 2009 to 2010 and compared the demographic and clinical features of infected patients. We identified multiple viral introductions of Victoria strains from both Chinese and international sources, which formed two phylogenetically and antigenically distinct clades (Victoria 1 and 2), some of which persisted between seasons. We identified one dominant Yamagata introduction from outside China during 2009. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals the occurrence of reassortment events among the Victoria and Yamagata lineages and also within the Victoria lineage. We found no significant difference in clinical severity by influenza B lineage, with the exceptions that (i) the Yamagata lineage infected older people than either Victoria lineage and (ii) fewer upper respiratory tract infections were caused by the Victoria 2 than the Victoria 1 clade. Overall, our study reveals the complex epidemiological dynamics of different influenza B lineages within a single geographic locality and has implications for vaccination policy in southern China. PMID:24027322

  6. Sulfate reduction and iron sulfide mineral formation in the southern East China Sea continental slope sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Saulwood; Huang, Kuo-Ming; Chen, Shin-Kuan

    2002-10-01

    Sulfate reduction rate, organic carbon and sulfide burial rate; organic carbon, carbonate carbon, and reactive iron contents; grain size; and sedimentation rate were determined in sediments of the southern East China Sea continental slope. The results show high sulfate reduction and pyrite sulfur burial rates in slope areas with high organic carbon and sedimentation rates. Unusually high rates of organic carbon deposition enhance sulfate reduction and pyrite sulfide burial in the region. Both sulfate reduction rates and pyrite sulfur burial rates increased linearly with increasing organic carbon burial rate, indicating that deposition of organic carbon on the slope is the primary controlling factor for pyrite formation. Abundant reactive iron indicated that iron is not limiting pyrite formation. Pyrite is the predominant sulfide mineral; however, acid volatile sulfide constituted up to 50% of total sulfide at some stations. Up to 240 μmol/g of pyrite sulfur and 5 mmol/m 2/day of sulfate reduction rates were found in the slope sediment. Sulfate reduction rate and pyrite sulfur did not decrease with increasing overlying water depth. High organic carbon burial rates enhanced the sulfate reduction rate and subsequently the rate of pyrite sulfur burial in the slope region. As a result, the southern East China Sea continental slope environment is an efficient pyrite sulfur burial environment.

  7. Temporal variation of intertidal seagrass in Southern China (2008-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guanglong; Short, Frederick T.; Fan, Hangqing; Liu, Guohua

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the temporal dynamics of seagrasses and the major influences on seagrass growth is critical for seagrass habitat conservation and administration. However, little work has been done regarding these issues in southern China. To examine inter-annual and seasonal variations of the intertidal Halophila ovalis community in southern China, we conducted quarterly sampling using the SeagrassNet methodology and assessed environmental conditions as well as direct anthropogenic impacts on the seagrass meadow from July 2008 to October 2014. Our study demonstrated strong inter-annual and seasonal dynamics of the intertidal seagrass meadow in the study area. Generally, the community performed best (highest seagrass cover, leaf area, shoot density, total biomass) in summer and worst in spring among the 4 seasons. The temporal variations in the seagrass community attributes (e.g. above-ground biomass) were significantly affected by precipitation, atmospheric visibility, and salinity, while leaf width was significantly negatively correlated with temperature, atmospheric visibility and salinity. Temperature was a major factor influencing the seagrass community (both macroalgae and seagrass), with temperature data showing an inverse relationship between seagrass and macroalgae. The above-ground: below-ground biomass ratio and leaf width of H. ovalis were the most sensitive plant parameters monitored when assessing environmental interactions. Human physical disturbances did not have a significant effect on seagrass dynamics in the study area. We concluded that long-term monitoring (like SeagrassNet) is valuable in understanding the relationship between environmental variables and seagrasses.

  8. Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bat and Human Adenoviruses in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Hui-Fang; Chen, Shao-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Peng; Jiang, Li-Na; Huo, Shu-Ting; Shi, Ting-Li; Ma, Li-Zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Qiong-Hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Li, Jin-Ming; Guan, Wei-Jie; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Several novel adenoviruses (AdVs) have recently been identified in humans and other animal species. In this study, we report the molecular detection of and phylogenetically characterize bat and human AdVs detected in fecal or rectal swab samples collected in southern China. To detect AdVs, a 252-261 bp fragment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene was amplified using nested PCR. A total of 520 rectal swab samples were collected from eight bat species in four geographic regions of southern China (Guangzhou, Yunfu, Huizhou, and Haikou city). Thirty-six (6.9%) samples from the following species tested positive for AdVs: Myotis ricketti, Miniopterus schreibersii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus blythi, and Cynopterus sphinx. Eight novel AdVs were detected in 13.3% of the samples from C. sphinx. Of 328 fecal samples from patients with diarrhea, 16 (4.9%) were positive for classical human AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that human AdVs shared low similarity (57.1-69.3%) with bat AdVs in deduced amino acid sequences of the AdV DPOL region. Thus, our study indicated that bat AdVs and human AdVs are species specific. As such, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission of AdV between bats and humans based on current data.

  9. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  10. A downscale experiment on the extreme heavy rainfall case over southern China in June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Chen, G.; Sha, W.; Iwasaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Extensive flood over southern China, brings a severe toll to the livelihood of local residents. Mesoscale heavy rainstorms, interacted with other multi-scale systems and structures, have played an important role in triggering and maintaining precipitation in southern China. By understanding the dynamic and physical mechanism, it is of great help to improve the predictability and accuracy for the heavy rainstorms. Thus, the motivation of the present work is to investigate the multi-scale interaction that leads to an intense precipitation case on June 2005 by carrying out the downscale experiments using a non-hydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) model. 2. Model settings In this test run, we employ three domains that focus on southern China (D1), Pearl River Delta (D2) and Guangzhou city (D3), respectively. All domains have 80*80 grids horizontal and 50 layers vertical. Their spatial resolutions are 15km, 4km and 1km. D1 run begins at 00LT on June 18 and drives D2 run after 3 hours; the later then drives D3 run after another 3 hours. 3. Results and discussion The results show that there area two east-west oriented rain belts over the eastern part of southern China during this long-lasting, wide-range heavy frontal rainfall. One is generated over the inland mountain region, the other is located along the windward coastline. Precipitation reaches the peak at early afternoon for the inland belt while the maximum appears in the morning for the coast belt. The extreme rainfall is mainly caused by the activities of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) within the rainband. The MCSs formed at the upstream of the frontal rainband during midnight and then move eastward in the daytime. During this heavy rainfall process, the plentiful moisture content over southern China and monsoon surge lead to the establishment of the moist convective instability. Then the low level jet, shear line and low-level convergence offer beneficial dynamic conditions for the lifting in the

  11. A new birthweight reference in Guangzhou, southern China, and its comparison with the global reference.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Qiong; Schooling, C Mary; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-12-01

    To formulate a new birthweight reference for different gestational ages in Guangzhou, southern China, and compare it with the currently used reference in China and the global reference. All singleton live births of more than 26 weeks' gestational age recorded in the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (n=510 837) were retrospectively included in the study. In addition, the study sample was supplemented by all singleton live births (n=3538) at gestational ages 26-33 weeks from 2007 and 2008. We used Gaussian mixture models and robust regression to exclude outliers of birth weight and then applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) to generate smoothed percentile curves separately for gender and parity. Of infants defined as small for gestational age (SGA) in the new reference, 15.3-47.7% (depending on gestational age) were considered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by the currently used reference of China. Of the infants defined as SGA by the new reference, 9.2% with gestational ages 34-36 weeks and 14.3% with 37-41 weeks were considered AGA by the global reference. At the 50th centile line, the new reference curve was similar to that of the global reference for gestational ages 26-33 weeks and above the global reference for 34-40 weeks. The new birthweight reference based on birthweight data for neonates in Guangzhou, China, differs from the reference currently used in China and the global reference, and appears to be more relevant to the local population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    J. Oceanic Eng., 29, 1054–1060. 17 Zodiatis, G., and G. P. Gasparini (1996): Thermohaline staircase formations in the 18 Tyrrhenian Sea . Deep- Sea ...1 1 2 Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern 3 Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne 4 Expendable...CA93943-5001, USA Tel: 1-831-656-7819 Fax: 1-831-656-3686 Email: spark@nps.edu Key words: Yellow/East China Seas , AXBT, synoptic thermal fronts

  13. Language Attitudes and Gender in China: Perceptions and Reported Use of Putonghua and Cantonese in the Southern Province of Guangdong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Limei; Ladegaard, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young people's perceptions and reported use of the two language varieties that co-exist in the urban centre of Guangzhou in southern China, Putonghua (P) and Cantonese (C). P is a typical H-variety, promoted by the government and used as a lingua franca throughout China; C is the local L-variety but it also has some…

  14. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area.

  15. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  16. Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Xu, Man; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied using specific, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity measures in the southern Yellow Sea, China. The results showed that the average of Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') in the study area was 3.17. The higher values were distributed in the east part of Shandong coastal waters and north part of Jiangsu coastal waters, while the lower values were distributed in the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The average of taxonomic diversity ( Δ) was 62.09 in the study region. The higher values were distributed in the transitional areas between the coastal areas and the southern YSCWM, while the lower values were distributed near the north part of Jiangsu coastal waters and the YSCWM. Results of correlation analysis of species diversity and taxonomic diversity showed that some of the two kinds of diversity index were independent, which suggested that combining the two kinds of diversity indices can reflect the ecological characteristics better. A test for 95% probability funnels of average taxonomic distinctness and variation in taxonomic distinctness suggested that Station 8794 (in the YSCWM) was outside of the 95% probability funnels, which may be due to the environmental stress. Results of correlation analysis between marine nematodes biodiversity and environmental variables showed that the sediment characteristics (Mdø and Silt-clay fraction) and phaeophorbide a (Pha- a) were the most important factors to determine the biodiversity patterns of marine nematodes.

  17. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in rural southern China: the Yangxi Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangming; Ding, Xiaohu; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lanhua; Han, Xiaotong; Xiao, Ou; Liu, Ran; Wang, Wei; Yan, William; An, Lei; Zhao, Jialiang; He, Mingguang

    2017-08-28

    To describe the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older adults in rural southern mainland China. Eligible persons aged 50 years or over were identified by geographically defined cluster sampling from Yangxi County, Guangdong Province, China. Participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examinations from August to November in 2014. Digital retinal photographs were graded for AMD lesions using the Clinical Classification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration developed by the Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee. Age-standardised prevalence of AMD and AMD lesions was calculated using the 2010 world population data and compared with those of other populations. Of 5825 subjects who participated (90.7% response rate), 4881 (83.8%) had fundus photographs gradable for AMD. Early, intermediate and late AMD were present in 2003 (41.0%), 879 (18.0%) and 42 (0.86%) participants. The age-standardised prevalence of early, intermediate and late AMD was 40.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 41.2%), 17.6% (95% CI 17.0% to 18.2%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.65% to 0.95%), respectively. Total AMD was more prevalent in men than in women (62.8% vs 57.1%). AMD is an important public health concern for rural southern China, and the prevalence of AMD was higher in men than in women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Outcomes of cataract surgery in urban southern China: the Liwan Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Guofu; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J; He, Mingguang

    2011-01-01

    The outcomes of cataract surgery have been well reported in rural China; however, the situation in the urban population remains unclear. This study assessed the outcomes of cataract surgery in urban southern China. Data were gathered from the Liwan Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in people aged 50 years or more in the Liwan District of Guangzhou. Presenting and best corrected visual acuity and a detailed eye examination were performed. For all aphakic and pseudophakic participants identified, information on the date, setting, type, and complications of cataract surgery were recorded. Of the 1405 participants, 62 people (90 eyes) had undergone cataract surgery. Of those, 54.4% underwent the phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique, 33.3% extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and 11.1% ECCE without IOL; 1 patient had intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE). Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was >6/18 in 56 (62.2%) eyes, <6/18 to >6/60 in 20 (22.2%) eyes, <6/60 to >3/60 in 3 (3.3%) eyes, and <3/60 in 11(12.3%) eyes. Of the 34 eyes with PVA less than 6/18, the principal causes were 26.5% retinal abnormalities, 20.6% glaucoma, 35.3% uncorrected aphakia or refractive error, and 14.5% posterior capsule opacification (PCO). ECCE or Phaco with IOL are the major surgical techniques used in urban southern China. More than half of the eyes with poor outcomes due to uncorrected aphakia, refractive error, or PCO are potentially treatable. This result suggests a pressing need for improved surgical training and postoperative care.

  19. Polymorphism analysis of 15 STR loci in a large sample of Guangdong (Southern China) Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Huijie; Qiu, Pingming; Yang, Xingyi; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    AmpFℓSTR Sinofiler PCR Amplification Kit is specially developed for Chinese forensic laboratories, but there are little population-genetic data about this kit for Southern China. This kit contains 15 STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, D18S51, D6S1043, D12S391, D5S818 and FGA. We have conducted genotyping experiments on the 15 STR loci in 5234 unrelated individuals from Guangdong (Southern China). We observed a total of 243 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0001 to 0.3686. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 15 STR loci conform to the Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium (p>0.05). The highest polymorphism was found at D6S1043 locus and the lowest was found at D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination reached 0.99999999999999999977431 and the combined probability of paternity exclusion reached 0.999999721 for 15 STR loci. Guangdong Han population had significant differences compared with Shaanxi, Shandong and Henan province of Northern China. A Neighbor-joining tree indicates that the Guangdong Han has a close genetic relationship with the Yunnan population. Significant differences were found between Guangdong Han population and other reported populations (Japanese, Philippine, African American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Western Romanian) at 2-11 STR loci. The results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies. The present findings indicate that all the 15 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Han population of Guangdong.

  20. Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Chen, Yu; Yao, Hongyan; Wu, Ming; Cui, Mengjing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Cong; Li, Zhen; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 1,422 farm vehicle drivers in southern China. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes that occurred from December 2013 to November 2014 were investigated. Data on farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes and related factors were collected by face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among the investigated drivers was 7.2%. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes were significantly associated with self-reported vision problem (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86-10.87), self-reported sleep disorders (AOR = 10.03, 95% CI, 6.28-15.99), self-reported stress (AOR = 20.47, 95% CI, 9.96-42.08), reported history of crashes (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI, 3.47-8.42), reported history of drunk driving (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI, 2.97-8.65), and reported history of fatigued driving (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.73-8.78). The number of road traffic crashes was highest in the daytime and during harvest season. In over 96% of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes, drivers were believed to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included improper driving, careless driving, violating of traffic signals or signs, and being in the wrong lane. Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  1. Genetic and geographical structure of boreal plants in their southern range: phylogeography of Hippuris vulgaris in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qixiang; Zhu, Jinning; Yu, Dan; Xu, Xinwei

    2016-02-09

    Our current understanding of the evolutionary history of boreal and arctic-alpine plants in their southern range in Asia remains relatively poor. Using three cpDNA non-coding regions and nine nuclear microsatellite (nSSR) loci, we examine the phylogeographic pattern in a broad geographic sampling of the boreal plant Hippuris vulgaris to infer its dispersal and diversification in China. In addition, the species distributions at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and at present were predicted using ecological niche modeling (ENM). The cpDNA results revealed two distinct lineages, A and B. A is restricted to Northeast China; B is distributed in Northwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and North and Northeast (NNE) China; and A and B diverged ca. 1.36 Ma. The nSSR data revealed two genetic clusters corresponding to the two cpDNA lineages and nonreciprocal hybridization with lineage A as the maternal lineage in Northeast China. Cluster B further divided into three subclusters: I, mainly in NNE China and the northeastern border of the QTP; II, in Northwest China and the QTP; and III, on the QTP. ENM predicted a marked range shift on the QTP at the LGM, retreating from the platform to the northeast and southeast edges. Hippuris vulgaris probably diverged into lineages A and B in high latitudes and then immigrated into Northeast China and Northwest China, respectively. Lineage A persisted and diversified in Northeast China. Lineage B reached the QTP during the mid-Pleistocene, diversified in that region due to the influence of climatic oscillations, migrated into Northeast China and subsequently hybridized with lineage A. Our findings give empirical evidence that boreal plants display complex evolutionary history in their southern range in Asia and provide new insights into the evolution of boreal and arctic-alpine plants.

  2. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  3. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  4. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  5. Anemia and airline flight duties.

    PubMed

    Scott, V

    1975-06-01

    This investigation developed and provides guidelines for the determination and medical release of flight crew members for duty with hemoglobin values less than normal. This dilemma occurs commonly to the flight surgeon following blood donation, resolved hemorrhagic disorders, chronic idiopathic blood disorders, and pregnancy. Minimum safe values were computed and tabulated for otherwise healthy individuals at rest and exercise at the routine extremes of the flight environment of present pressurized jet airliners from known physiological parameters. These values were then correlated with the records of 62 pilots and stewardesses with subnormal hemoglobin values to assure the opertional predictive validity.

  6. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  7. Five new species of subgenus Plesiominettia (Diptera, Lauxaniidae, Minettia) in southern China, with a key to known species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Yang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Plesiominettia Shatalkin from the southern China are described as new to science: Minettia (Plesiominettia) flavoscutellata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) longaciculiformis sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) nigrantennata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) tridentata sp. n. and Minettia (Plesiominettia) zhejiangica sp. n. One species, Minettia longistylis Sasakawa, is transferred to the subgenus Plesiominettia from Minettia s. str. A key to separate the known species of the subgenus is presented, along with a taxonomic list of species. The type materials of the new species are deposited in the China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC). PMID:26448714

  8. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  9. The impact of tropical intraseasonal oscillation on the summer rainfall increase over southern China around 1992/1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Lin, Ailan

    2017-09-01

    A pronounced summer rainfall increase over southern China occurred around 1992/1993. In the present study, the impact of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on this decadal increase is investigated through diagnostic analysis. It is found that the BSISO-induced rainfall increase accounts for approximately 17.4% of the observed decadal rainfall increase, with a primary part coming from changes in the rainfall pattern associated with phases 3-5 of the BSISO. A further analysis reveals that changes in rainfall pattern over southern China are mainly ascribed to changes in spatial structure of anomalous convection associated with interdecadal change in BSISO tracks. Apart from significant influence of changes in BSISO tracks, changes in the frequency of individual active BSISO phases also have considerable influence on the interdecadal change in summer rainfall over southern China. Based on our analysis, the increase in absolute and relative frequency of occurrence of phases 1 and 8, coupled with their corresponding rainfall pattern, makes a positive contribution to the increase in southern China summer rainfall. The interdecadal change in the BSISO tracks and the frequency of active BSISO phases is likely related to coherent changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific.

  10. The impact of tropical intraseasonal oscillation on the summer rainfall increase over southern China around 1992/1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Lin, Ailan

    2016-10-01

    A pronounced summer rainfall increase over southern China occurred around 1992/1993. In the present study, the impact of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on this decadal increase is investigated through diagnostic analysis. It is found that the BSISO-induced rainfall increase accounts for approximately 17.4% of the observed decadal rainfall increase, with a primary part coming from changes in the rainfall pattern associated with phases 3-5 of the BSISO. A further analysis reveals that changes in rainfall pattern over southern China are mainly ascribed to changes in spatial structure of anomalous convection associated with interdecadal change in BSISO tracks. Apart from significant influence of changes in BSISO tracks, changes in the frequency of individual active BSISO phases also have considerable influence on the interdecadal change in summer rainfall over southern China. Based on our analysis, the increase in absolute and relative frequency of occurrence of phases 1 and 8, coupled with their corresponding rainfall pattern, makes a positive contribution to the increase in southern China summer rainfall. The interdecadal change in the BSISO tracks and the frequency of active BSISO phases is likely related to coherent changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific.

  11. Genus Distribution of Bacteria and Fungi Associated with Keratitis in a Large Eye Center Located in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lixia; Lan, Weizhong; Lou, Bingsheng; Ke, Hongmin; Yang, Yuanzhe; Lin, Xiaofeng; Liang, Lingyi

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the genus distribution of bacteria and fungi associated with keratitis in a large eye center located in Southern China and to compare the results with existing data from other areas in China. All results of corneal microbiological examinations from 2009 to 2013 of patients who had been clinically diagnosed with bacterial or fungal keratitis were obtained chronologically and anonymously from the microbiology database at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. Smear/culture data were reviewed and analyzed. Antibiotic resistance of the harvested bacteria was also evaluated. Of 2973 samples, the microbial detection rate was 46.05%; in which 759 eyes (25.5%) were positive for bacteria, 796 eyes (26.8%) were positive for fungi, and 186 eyes (6.3%) were co-infected with both fungi and bacteria. The most common type of bacteria isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%). The most common type of fungus was Fusarium species (29.3%), followed by Aspergillus species (24.1%). For the bacteria harvested, mean antibiotic resistance was chloromycetin (34.6%), cephalosporins (20.0%), fluoroquinolones (18.6%), and aminoglycosides (10.5%). The genus distribution of organisms detected in keratitis cases in the largest eye center located in Southern China differs from those in other areas in China. In Southern China during the time period studied, S. epidermidis and Fusarium sp. were the most common pathogens of infectious keratitis. Monitoring the changing trend of pathogens as well as antibiotic resistance are warranted.

  12. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. III. Spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China based on the percentage of precipitation anomalies].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics and occurrence regularity of seasonal drought can provide theoretical basis for constituting the countermeasures of drought resistance and drought mitigation under the background of global climate change. Based on the 1959-2008 daily precipitation and atmospheric temperature data collected from the meteorological stations in 15 provinces (municipalities, and autonomous regions) of southern China, and using the percentages of precipitation anomalies (Pa) in the national standard "Meteorological Drought Classification", which were locally modified, the drought indices in southern China in 1959-2008 were calculated, and the spatial distribution characteristics of drought frequency in southern China in each year, each season, and each month, as well as the inter-annual changes of the drought intensity and the proportions of the stations with seasonal drought were analyzed. In the study period, the annual drought risk in southern China was generally low. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the spatial distribution characteristics of the drought. Autumn drought was most frequent and most intensive, mainly occurred in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, South China and in the other major agricultural areas, winter drought was also frequent and intensive, mainly occurred in the west of Southwest China and the South China and other winter crop planting areas, while spring drought and summer drought were relatively less frequent or intensive. Spring drought mostly occurred in the southwest of Southwest China, the south of South China, and Huaibei area etc. , and summer drought mostly occurred in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, southeastern coastal area of Fujian, and northeast of Southwest China. The area with drought frequently occurred showed an obvious monthly fluctuation and space transformation, which was decreased with time from November to next May, increased with time from May to

  13. Gas Resource Potential of Volcanic Reservoir in Yingtai Fault Depression of Southern Songliao Basin,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are 2 kinds of volcanic reservoir of gas resource in the Yingtai fault depression, southern Songliao basin,China: volcanic lava reservoir in the Yingcheng-1formation and sedimentary pryoclastics rock of the Yingcheng-2 formation. Based on analysis of the 2 kinds of gas pool features and controlling factors, distribution of each kind has been studied. The resources of these gas reservoirs have been estimated by Delphi method and volumetric method, respectively. The results of resources assessment show the total volcanic gas resources of the Yingtai depression is rich, and the resource proving rate is low, with the remaining gas resource in volcanic reservoir accounting for more than 70%. Thus there will be great exploration potential in the volcanic reservoir in the future gas exploration of this area.

  14. Two new species of brackish-water Macrostomum (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chu-Yu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, An-Tai

    2016-09-23

    Two new species of brackish-water Macrostomum (M. zhujiangensis n. sp. and M. baoanensis n. sp.) were described based on samples collected from the littoral zone of the Zhujiang Estuary. These are the first records of brackish-water Macrostomum from southern China. Macrostomum zhujiangensis n. sp. and M. baoanensis n. sp. differ from other similar species in the length and morphology of the penis stylet.  The penis stylet of M. zhujiangensis n. sp. is C-shaped and its distal opening has a beveled edge. The penis stylet of M. baoanensis n. sp. is J-shaped and the distal region is thicker than other parts of the penis stylet. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports the establishment of the new species.

  15. Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  18. El Nino-Southern Oscillation and vector-borne diseases in Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peng; Parton, Kevin A; Tong, Shilu

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly incidences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and malaria in Anhui Province, China, over the periods 1971-1992 and 1966-1987, respectively. On the basis of monthly data over a 22-year period, results indicated that there were positive and negative relationships, respectively, between the SOI and monthly incidences of malaria and HFRS. The results suggest that the SOI could be used as an index in the study of the association of climate variability with the transmission of such diseases, particularly over larger areas, such as at a provincial or even state level, where averaging rainfall or temperature data across regions is inappropriate.

  19. Feasibility of estimating rice planting area of hilly region in southern China using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Geying; Yang, Xingwei

    1998-08-01

    The objective of the study (Zhejiang province as study area) was to estimate rice planting area of hilly region in southern part of China by remote sensing technique with NOAA/AVHRR data. The research contents mainly concerned contrast tests on practical approaches, both digital elevation model (DEM) and digital slope model (DSM) derived from the digital relief map were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of AVHRR imagery in large-area hilly region. The results indicated that the accuracy of maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification could satisfy the professional requirements of estimating rice planting area and fuzzy supervised classification based on unmixing AVHRR imagery has better classification accuracy and stability than MLH. In addition, the results through using both DEM and DSM as ancillary categorization data suggests DSM may improve the results of extracting paddy field signatures from AVHRR, particularly may improve the spatial accuracy, while DEM contribute nothing to improve the accuracy mentioned above.

  20. Coherent and incoherent internal tides in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Xie, Xiaohui; Shang, Xiaodong; Chen, Guiying

    2016-11-01

    Coherent and incoherent internal tides (CITs and ICITs) in the southern South China Sea were investigated from two sets of 18-month mooring current records. The CITs were mainly composed of diurnal Q 1, O 1, P 1 and K 1 and semidiurnal M 2. The observed diurnal internal tides (ITs) were more coherent than the semidiurnal constituents. Coherent diurnal variance accounted for approximately 58% of the diurnal motion, whereas semidiurnal tides contained a much smaller fraction (35%) of coherent motion. The ICITs mainly consisted of motion at non-tidal harmonic frequencies around the tidal frequency, and showed clear intermittency. The modal decomposition of CITs and ICITs showed that CITs were dominated by mode- 1, whereas mode-1 and higher modes in ICITs signals showed comparable amplitudes. CITs and ICITs accounted for approximately 64% and 36% of the total kinetic energy of internal tides, respectively.

  1. Stature estimation from hand dimensions in a Han population of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianpin; Chen, Rui; Lai, Xiaoping

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the relationship between stature and hand dimensions for forensic applications, the stature and hand dimensions of 400 healthy adults aged between 20 and 25 years were measured in a Han population of Southern China. The mean values of the stature are 170.49 and 159.72 cm in the men and the women, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the right- and the left-hand dimensions were not observed in the men, whereas the bilateral differences are statistically significant in female hand dimensions. The correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant for the hand dimensions in both the sexes. The hand length showed higher correlation coefficients than the hand breadth in both sexes. Linear and multiple regressions were developed in this study; multiple regressions showed higher correlation coefficients than linear regressions. Two regression models could be used to estimate the stature from the hand dimensions in this population.

  2. Responses of soil CO(2) efflux to precipitation pulses in two subtropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qi; Zhou, Guoyi; Liu, Shizhong; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Deqiang

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the responses of soil CO(2) efflux to precipitation pulses of varying intensities using precipitation simulations in two subtropical forests [i.e., mixed and broadleaf forests (MF and BF)] in southern China. The artificial precipitation event was achieved by spraying a known amount of water evenly in a plot (50 × 50 cm(2)) over a 30 min period, with intensities ranging from 10, 20, 50 and 100 mm within the 30 min. The various intensities were simulated in both dry season (in December 2007) and wet (in May 2008) season. We characterized the dynamic patterns of soil CO(2) efflux rate and environmental factors over the 5 h experimental period. Results showed that both soil moisture and soil CO(2) efflux rate increased to peak values for most of the simulated precipitation treatments, and gradually returned to the pre-irrigation levels after irrigation in two forests. The maximum peak of soil CO(2) efflux rate occurred at the 10 mm precipitation event in the dry season in BF and was about 3.5 times that of the pre-irrigation value. The change in cumulative soil CO(2) efflux following precipitation pulses ranged from -0.68 to 1.72 g CO(2) m(-2) over 5 h compared to the pre-irrigation levels and was generally larger in the dry season than in the wet season. The positive responses of soil CO(2) efflux to precipitation pulses declined with the increases in precipitation intensity, and surprisingly turned to negative when precipitation intensity reached 50 and 100 mm in the wet season. These findings indicated that soil CO(2) efflux could be changed via pulse-like fluxes in subtropical forests in southern China as fewer but extreme precipitation events occur in the future.

  3. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Guo-Yi; Wei, Xiaohua; Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Huang, Yuhui; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei; Liu, Juxiu; Meng, Ze; Wang, Chunlin; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Shizhong; Tang, Xu-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible.

  4. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Wei, X.; Wu, Y.; Huang, Y.; Yan, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.; Meng, Z.; Wang, C.; Chu, G.; Liu, S.; Tang, X.; Liu, Xiuying

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  6. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity.

  7. Multi-model ensemble projections of future extreme heat stress on rice across southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liang; Cleverly, James; Wang, Bin; Jin, Ning; Mi, Chunrong; Liu, De Li; Yu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Extreme heat events have become more frequent and intense with climate warming, and these heatwaves are a threat to rice production in southern China. Projected changes in heat stress in rice provide an assessment of the potential impact on crop production and can direct measures for adaptation to climate change. In this study, we calculated heat stress indices using statistical scaling techniques, which can efficiently downscale output from general circulation models (GCMs). Data across the rice belt in southern China were obtained from 28 GCMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) with two emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 for current emissions and RCP8.5 for increasing emissions). Multi-model ensemble projections over the historical period (1960-2010) reproduced the trend of observations in heat stress indices (root-mean-square error RMSE = 6.5 days) better than multi-model arithmetic mean (RMSE 8.9 days) and any individual GCM (RMSE 11.4 days). The frequency of heat stress events was projected to increase by 2061-2100 in both scenarios (up to 185 and 319% for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively), especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. This increasing risk of exposure to heat stress above 30 °C during flowering and grain filling is predicted to impact rice production. The results of our study suggest the importance of specific adaption or mitigation strategies, such as selection of heat-tolerant cultivars and adjustment of planting date in a warmer future world.

  8. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-04-14

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9-14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography.

  9. Influence of the May Southern annular mode on the South China Sea summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Jianping; Li, YanJie; Zhao, Sen; Zheng, Fei; Zheng, Jiayu; Yao, Zhixiong

    2017-07-01

    The possible impact of the May Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) on the following South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SCSSM) is examined. A close inverse relationship between the two is revealed in the observations. The simultaneous South Pacific dipole (SPD), a dipole-like sea surface temperature anomaly pattern in the South Pacific, acts as the "oceanic bridge" to preserve the May SAM signal and prolong it into June-September. Observational evidence and numerical simulations both demonstrate that the SPD communicates its large thermal inertia signal to the atmosphere, regulating the Southern Pacific Subtropical Jet (SPSJ) variability over eastern Australia. Corresponding to the adjustment of circulation associated with the SPSJ is a prominent tripolar cross-Pacific teleconnection pattern stretching from the SH middle-high latitudes into the NH East Asia coastal region, referred to as the South-North Pacific (SNP) teleconnection pattern. Wave ray tracing analysis manifests that the SNP acts as the "atmospheric bridge" to propagate the related wave energy across the equator and into the Maritime Continent and SCS monsoon region, modulating the vertical motion and middle-lower tropospheric flows, and favoring the out-of-phase variation of the SCSSM. Therefore, the "coupled oceanic-atmospheric bridge" process and the related Rossby wave energy transmission are possible mechanisms for the significant influence of the May SAM on the variability of the following SCSSM. Therefore, the May SAM provides a fresh insight into the prediction of the SCSSM from the perspective of the SH high latitudes.

  10. The anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea: Observed structure, seasonal development and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rong; Fang, Wendong; Zhou, Sheng-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In situ hydrographic and current observations from cruises in 1998 and 1999, together with 20-year (1993-2012) sea level anomaly (SLA) data from satellite altermeter, have been used to study the vertical structure, seasonal development, and interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea (SCS). The relationship between the anticyclonic circulation and its northern flanking cyclonic eddy are described. Three associated circulation patterns are identified. The anticyclonic circulation is present for an average of 108 ± 30 days per year, while its northern flanking cyclonic eddy is present for an average of 54 ± 25 days per year. The intraseasonal variability of the anticyclonic circulation is intense as a result of advection with the flanking northern cyclone, which accompanies the gyre on average about 60% of the time. The vertical structure of the anticyclonic circulation in 1998 (1999) penetrated much deeper, and its horizontal scope became wider in June (July) than in April. The anticyclonic circulation shows some difference between 1998 and 1999, displaying earlier appearance, more northward position, and non-dipole pattern in 1998, suggesting that the interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The effect of Sverdrup balance via westward propagating Rossby wave on the seasonal development of the anticyclonic circulation has been discussed.

  11. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-01-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography. PMID:27075644

  12. Interannual sea level variability in the Eastern Indian Ocean and Southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. S.; Vethamony, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sea level anomalies (SLAs) derived from satellite observations (over a period of 21 years) and tide gauge data compiled from 24 stations from the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) and southern South China Sea (SCS) have been analysed to study the inter-annual variability of SLAs in the EIO and southern SCS. To examine the seasonality in interannual variability, 3 months to 7 years band pass filtered non-seasonal SLAs were considered. A large fraction of interannual SLA variability in the south eastern SCS is linked to ENSO and rest of the region is characterized by small scale interannual variations. Analysis of both tide gauge and altimetry data confirms that interannual sea level anomalies in the SCS shows seasonality with pronounced variation occurring during winter and fall seasons. Both tide gauge and altimetry data show that 40% of interannual SLAs at Malacca Strait and southeastern SCS and 50% at Java Sea could be explained by both ENSO and IOD. Malacca Strait and Java Sea SLAs at interannual scale show coherent variability with that of eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Regional correlation pattern and Wavelet power spectrum of SLAs at Java Sea shows similar dominant periodicities as in the Malacca Strait. Strong oscillations associated with climate modes are centered at 2-5 year period. Interannual SLAs at southeastern SCS show the importance of western Pacific on sea level modulation through the Luzon and Mindoro Straits. Wind variations largely explain the interannual SLA variation in the EIO and southern SCS. Interannual zonal wind variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean induce SLA variations in the Malacca Strait and Java Sea. Remote and local winds that drive interannual variability of SLAs in the EIO and southeastern SCS are associated with both ENSO and IOD events.

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  15. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  16. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  17. The epidemiology of cranio-facial injuries caused by animals in southern-central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Bi; Zhang, Zhao-Qiang; Chen, Qing

    2012-09-01

    A clinical investigation was conducted to demonstrate the epidemiology of cranio-facial injuries inflicted by animals in southern-central part of China-the World's most populous eastern country. It consisted of a retrospective study of 149 patients and was carried out in our department. All the patients were attacked by animals, such as buffalo, cattle, donkey, horse, dog, cat, and rat. There were 91 males and 58 females patients, aged from 5 to 65 years. 113 patients were from rural areas, and 36 from urban districts. Dogs, cattle, donkeys and buffalo, were the most common animals involved in this study. Bite was the predominant mechanism of injury, followed by kick, fall, trample, knock and scratch. The lip, chin and cheek were the commonest sites of soft tissue injury; Condylar process, symphysis, parasymphysis, and angle of mandible were the sites of fractures. Regarding the severity of injury, nearly half of the patients belonged to I and II classifications. The treatment results were satisfactory except for obvious scar formation, facial nerve palsy, and dysocclusion in a few patients. Facial injuries caused by animals are common in China, especially in rural areas. Timely treatment should be performed as soon as possible. Special attention should be paid to the prescription of antibiotics and vaccines. Psychotherapy may also be considered when necessary. It is suggested that adequate protective measures should be taken when animals are used for agricultural activities or kept as pets to minimize the incidence of facial injury.

  18. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  19. Multi-scale streamflow variability responses to precipitation over the headwater catchments in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Wang, Keyi; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the multi-scale streamflow variability responses to precipitation over 16 headwater catchments in the Pearl River basin, South China. The long-term daily streamflow data (1952-2000), obtained using a macro-scale hydrological model, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and a routing scheme, are studied. Temporal features of streamflow variability at 10 different timescales, ranging from 6 days to 8.4 years, are revealed with the Haar wavelet transform. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to categorize the headwater catchments with the coherent modes of multi-scale wavelet spectra. The results indicate that three distinct modes, with different variability distributions at small timescales and seasonal scales, can explain 95% of the streamflow variability. A large majority of the catchments (i.e. 12 out of 16) exhibit consistent mode feature on multi-scale variability throughout three sub-periods (1952-1968, 1969-1984, and 1985-2000). The multi-scale streamflow variability responses to precipitation are identified to be associated with the regional flood and drought tendency over the headwater catchments in southern China.

  20. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-07

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39-53% of the annual net carbon sink of China's terrestrial ecosystems (190-260 Tg C yr(-1)). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yue Li; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-06-01

    As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, IGS, atpD, glnII and recA) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC). The results defined the L. purpureus rhizobia as 24 IGS-types within 15 rrs-IGS clusters or genomic species belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Ensifer (synonym of Sinorhizobium) and Mesorhizobium. Bradyrhizobium spp. (81.6%) were the most abundant isolates, half of which were B. elkanii. Most of these rhizobia induced nodules on L. purpureus, but symbiotic genes were only amplified from the Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five lineages corresponding to B. yuanmingense, B. japonicum, B. elkanii, B. jicamae and R. leguminosarum. The coherence of housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies demonstrated that the symbiotic genes of the Lablab rhizobia were maintained mainly through vertical transfer. However, a putative lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was found in the B. liaoningense strain. The results in the present study clearly revealed that L. purpureus was a promiscuous host that formed nodules with diverse rhizobia, mainly Bradyrhizobium species, harboring different symbiotic genes.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of genotypic diversity of Haemophilus parasuis isolates from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianmin; Xu, Chenggang; Guo, Lili; Shen, Haiyan; Deng, Xiaoling; Ke, Changwen; Ke, Bixia; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ang; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    From September 2008 to December 2010, 112 Haemophilus parasuis strains were isolated from 536 pigs with clinical signs of Glässer’s disease in South China, for a frequency of 21%. The 112 strains were subjected to serovar analysis by gel diffusion (GD) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests and to genotype analysis by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). With a combination of the GD and IHA results, serovars 5 and 4 were found to be the most prevalent, at 23% and 17%, respectively, followed by serovars 2 (8%), 15 (7%), 13 (6%), and 12 (5%); 20% of the strains were nontypeable. The 112 strains were genetically diverse, with 85 genotypes identified (discriminatory index 0.992). The 89 typeable isolates belonged to 15 H. parasuis serovars displaying 63 different PFGE profiles. The 23 nontypeable strains displayed 22 different PFGE profiles. These findings confirmed that 15 serovars and diverse genotypes of H. parasuis were widely distributed in southern China. PMID:23277703

  3. Rapid increase of scrub typhus incidence in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Wei, Yue-Hong; Yang, Yang; Ma, Yu; de Vlas, Sake J; Yao, Hong-Wu; Huang, Yong; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liu, Kun; Li, Xiao-Ning; Li, Xin-Lou; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Zhi-Cong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-01-05

    In the last decade, scrub typhus (ST) has been emerging or re-emerging in some areas of Asia, including Guangzhou, one of the most affected endemic areas of ST in China. Based on the data on all cases reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2014, we characterized the epidemiological features, and identified environmental determinants for the spatial distribution of ST using a panel negative binomial model. A total of 4821 scrub typhus cases were reported in Guangzhou during 2006-2014. The annual incidence increased noticeably and the increase was relatively high and rapid in rural townships and among elderly females. The majority of cases (86.8%) occurred during May-October, and farmers constituted the majority of the cases, accounting for 33.9% in urban and 61.6% in rural areas. The number of housekeeper patients had a rapid increment in both rural and urban areas during the study period. Atmospheric pressure and relative humidity with lags of 1 or 2 months, distributions of broadleaved forest and rural township were identified as determinants for the spatiotemporal distribution of scrub typhus. Our results indicate that surveillance and public education need to be focused on the elderly farmers in rural areas covered with broadleaf forest in southern China.

  4. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products.

  5. Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus antibodies in pigs and residents of swine farms, southern China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nan; Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Ye; Tan, Likai; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Zhenpeng; Ke, Changwen; Li, Yugu; Wu, Jie; Qi, Wenbao; Jiao, Peirong; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-12-01

    Since 1997, the H5 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in China have become an international concern. Clade 2.3.2 of H5N1 AIVs is genetically distinct from the viruses isolated before 2007 and antigenically different from the vaccine strains widely used in China. Swine farms in rural China are thought to play an important role in AIVs ecology. A seroepidemiological study was undertaken among swine farm residents and pigs to understand the prevalence of antibodies against H5N1 AIVs in southern China. During the period March 24, 2008 to December 25, 2012,serum samples were collected from 1606 swine farm residents on 40 swine farms in southern China. A total of 1980 pigs' serum samples were collected in the same swine farms where swine workers' serum samples were collected from March 2009 to March 2013. For a control group, 104 serum samples were collected from healthy city residents in Nanchang. All the serum samples were collected to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and (neutralization) NT assays to investigate the prevalence of H5N1 AIV infections in southern China. Sixteen human samples were positive by HI assay and 10 of these were also positive by NT assay against H5N1. No serum samples from human control and pigs were HI positive for H5N1 AIV. Our results demonstrate minimal transmission H5N1 AIV from birds to pigs in the swine farms studied and the risk of poultry-to-human and poultry-to-pig transmission for at least clades 2.3.2 seemed very low. This study provides the first data regarding antibodies against H5N1 AIV in humans and pigs on swine farms in China. The findings of this study can serve as a baseline for additional serologic studies to assess transmission of H5N1 viruses between avian species, pigs and swine workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Preliminary Study in the Spratly, Southern Part of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2005-12-01

    From 20 June to 1 August (a total of 44 days) this year, a group of 8 scientists conducted a preliminary geological and geophysical study from the Taiping reef island, also called as the Ita Abu, owned by Taiwan. Since the Taiping Island is the biggest island (1,300 m in length, 400 m in width) in these some 102 reef islands, atolls, and sand bars in the southern part of the South China Sea. It is also the only island having the ground water and a hospital in a radius of 1,000 km of this tropical reef islands. Before the cruise, we requested the satellite images from the Taiwan-owned FORMOSA satellite in this region. During the survey, we acquired the echo sounding and side scan sonar data in the lagoon in order to give us a first topographical expression of the seafloor and to identify the dredge sites. Inside the wave break reef and beach site, we drilled several series of 30-cm cores, about 30 sites. Outside the wave break, we had a wonderful time to conduct many underwater photography and investigations. All of these efforts are aiming to get a better understanding of early rifting of the South China Sea and the evolution of reef growth in this tropical environment. Since the corals are the doctors of their living ecological system; they record the temperature, salinity, storm events, and El Nino. Our preliminary survey will provide a first glance of the last hundred and thousand years of our climate change. We will continue with our adventures. We also understand the political conflicts in this region. However, the Spratly islands hold the major key to reveal the sciences of the South China Sea, such as the early continental rifting, reef evolution, coral ecosystem, fishery resource and possible energy resource. We intend to open the Taiping Island as an International Marine Science Observatory.

  7. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Prehypertension and Hypertension in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of prehypertension and hypertension in Jiangxi Province, China. Individuals with prehypertension frequently progress into hypertension and are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and stroke. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 15,296 participants (15 years or older) was conducted in Jiangxi Province, China, in 2013, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. Results The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 32.3% (39.2% in men and 27.6% in women) and 29.0% (30.1% in men and 28.2% in women), respectively. The awareness, treatment, and control rates among all hypertensive participants were 64.8%, 27.1%, and 12.6%, respectively. The prevalence of prehypertension in males declined with age, but the prevalence of hypertension increased in different genders. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension increased with increasing body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of prehypertension decreased, in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension, with increasing waist circumference (WC). A combination of WC and BMI was superior to individual indices in identifying hypertension. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing age, high BMI, high visceral adipose index, and high heart rate were risk factors for prehypertension and hypertension. The high body fat percentage was significantly associated with prehypertension. Living in an urban area, male sex, abdominal obesity, and menopause were correlated with hypertension. Conclusions Prehypertension and hypertension are epidemic in southern China. Further studies are needed to explore an indicator that can represent the visceral fat accurately and has a close relationship with cardiovascular disease. PMID:28095471

  9. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  10. Monitoring hearing loss at United Airlines.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J H; Harper, R

    1981-08-01

    The airlines are a highly diversified industry. Their major concerns are in the safe transportation of passengers and cargo with on time arrival and departure of its aircraft at various locations throughout the world. The challenge the airlines face is in the development and administration of an effective hearing conservation program that will produce valid audiometry at all of its logistic operations and yet be economically feasible and practical. The methods and techniques used by United Airlines to develop and administer an effective hearing conservation program are presented here. Guidelines employing the OSHA Noise Exposure Standard were incorporated in the program requirements as set forth by the medical department.

  11. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  12. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Extremity Chronic Osteomyelitis in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Ma, Yun-fei; Jiang, Yi; Zhao, Xing-qi; Xie, Guo-ping; Hu, Yan-jun; Qin, Cheng-he; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although extremity chronic osteomyelitis is common in China, updated data were still limited regarding its characterizations. The present study aimed to review clinical features of extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Southern China. A retrospective analysis was conducted in the patients who had sought medical attention from January 2010 to April 2015 for extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Nanfang Hospital in Southern China. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. A total of 394 patients (307 males and 87 females) were included, giving a gender ratio of 3.53. The median age at first diagnosis was 42 years for all. The most frequent type was traumatic osteomyelitis (262 cases, 66.50%), which was mainly caused by open injury (166 cases, 63.36%) and during a road accident (91 cases, 34.73%). Single-site infection accounted for 81.98% (323 cases), with tibia (126 cases), femur (79 cases), calcaneus (37 cases), and toes (37 cases) as the top sites. The positive rate of intraoperative culture was 70.63% (214/303), 78.97% (169/214) of which was monomicrobial infection. Staphylococcus aureus (59 cases) was the most frequent bacteria for monomicrobial infection, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29 cases) and Escherichia coli (11 cases). The positive ratios of preoperative serum white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were 21.63%, 64.92%, 53.27%, 42.25%, 72.82%, and 66.67%, respectively. The most frequently used intravenous antibiotic was cephalosporins. The overall cure rate was 77.74%, with a total amputation rate of 16.75%. In this representative Chinese cohort, extremity chronic osteomyelitis was mostly caused by open injury and during a road accident, predominated in males and favored the tibia. S. aureus was the most frequent pathogenic organism. Preoperative elevated levels of serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ESR may be helpful

  13. Boston Keratoprosthesis Outcomes in Severe Ocular Chemical Burns in Southern China: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianjun; Zhai, Jiajie; Zhou, Sheng; Chen, Jiaqi

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to report clinical outcomes (functional and anatomic) of Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) after severe chemical burns in Southern China. Nineteen patients (19 eyes) that sustained severe chemical injuries in Southern China were enrolled in this retrospective study in our hospital between May 2009 and June 2015. KPro implantation in these patients was performed by a single experienced surgeon (Jiaqi Chen). The parameters evaluated in this study included diagnosis, comorbidity, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), complications, KPro retention, histological and immunohistochemical results of retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) and mucous membrane over the optic cylinder. The mean age of the patients was 42.7 ± 11.3 years (range 29-62 years). All patients were male. Of the 19 included eyes, nine had acid burns, and 10 had alkali burns. Ten patients had previously undergone failed penetrating keratoplasty. The mean follow-up time was 41.3 ± 5.5 months (range 36-56 months). Preoperatively, the VA of the patients ranged from hand movement to light perception. Postoperatively, 17 patients (89.4%) achieved at least 20/200 once, and 7 patients (36.8%) achieved at least 20/200 and maintained this acuity until the last follow-up. The initial KPro was retained in 14 (73.6%) eyes and successfully replaced in one eye. Postoperative complications included RPM in 10 eyes, glaucoma in 6 eyes, retinal detachment in 2 eyes, corneal melting in 5 eyes, ischemic optic neuropathy in 1 eye, and overgrowth of the mucous membrane over the optical cylinder in 2 eyes. The histological and immunohistochemical results of the RPM showed granulomatous disorders and mucous membrane over the optic cylinder of conjunctival origin. KPro surgery can restore useful vision in patients suffering from severe chemical burns. However, postoperative VA declined with the development of complications, and ocular surface disorders caused by the chemical burns

  14. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Wang, Zengwu; Gao, Runlin; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) and visceral adipose index (VAI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females), while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001). Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI), 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity. This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover, there

  15. Airline Disaster Highlights Need for Ethical Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kate

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Syracuse University professor/reporter's experiences covering the airline disaster that killed 35 Syracuse students. Discusses the problems of ethically covering a story where a lot of grief is involved. (MS)

  16. Perspectives of those impacted: airline pilot's perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, G C; Nicholas, J; Lackland, D T; Friedberg, W

    2000-11-01

    The airline pilot operates within an environment that consists of circadian dysrhythmia, reduced atmospheric pressure, mild hypoxia, low humidity, and exposure to sound, vibration, cosmic-radiation, and magnetic-field exposure. These occupational exposures present physiological challenges to the long term health of the airline pilot. In particular, exposure to cosmic radiation and its carcinogenic potential have recently received considerable attention. Given the complexity of the environment and possible synergistic exposures, there is an immediate requirement for comprehensive research into both cosmic-radiation and magnetic-field exposures in airline pilots. In response, the Airline Pilots Association International in conjunction with the Medical University of South Carolina (Department of Biometry and Epidemiology) has initiated an extensive research program into these occupational exposures. These investigations include ground based calculations, flight-dose estimates, epidemiological survey and exposure assessment, and biological marker analysis.

  17. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  18. Measles epidemic from 1951 to 2012 and vaccine effectiveness in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhicong; Xu, Jianxiong; Wang, Ming; Di, Biao; Tan, Huifeng; He, Qing; Cai, Yanshan; Liang, Jianhua; Hu, Wensui; Dong, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yunqing; Fu, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the National Expanded Program on Immunization was implemented in China, considerable progress has been made in reducing the incidence of measles. However, the incidence of measles increased again in 2004. Few post-marketing studies on measles vaccine effectiveness were reported in China. In this study, we aimed to describe the measles epidemic and to evaluate the effectiveness of the measles vaccine in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Based on the surveillance data for measles, we investigated the epidemiology during different periods between 1951 and 2012. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed cases of measles between 2009 and 2012 and conducted a case-control study using test-negative cases as controls. We determined the protective effect of measles vaccine. Results The highest annual incidence in Guangzhou was 2187.15/100 000 in 1964, and the lowest was 0.32/100 000 in 2011. The average incidence of measles from 1951 to 2012 was 306.27/100 000. There was a significant tendency of decline in recent years. From 2009 to 2012, there are 700 laboratory-confirmed cases reported with an average onset age of 2.5 (median) years. The non-vaccinated target population (age <8 months and ≥15 years) accounted for 56.7% of the cases. The transient (non-resident) population accounted for 51.3% of the cases. Fewer cases were observed in the population targeted for measles vaccine (aged 8 months to 14 years). The effectiveness of a single dose of the measles vaccine was 89.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 44.5–97.9), and the effectiveness of ≥2 doses of the measles vaccine was 97.8% (95% CI, 88.3–99.6) in children aged 8 months to 14 years old. Conclusions There is a significant overall decline in the incidence of measles (including clinical and laboratory confirmed cases) in the measles vaccine targeted population in Guangzhou. Two doses of measles vaccine are more effective than one dose in preventing measles in China

  19. Southern Appalachia, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    In this oblique view of the Georgia and South Carolina coast, the southern most Appalachians (32.0N, 83.0W) dominate the foreground. Contrails criss cross over Atlanta, a major airline hub. The coastal plain which wraps around the southern Appalachians, is well delineated. Faintly visible under the haze toward Earth's limb are the Great lakes (Lake Michigan near center), the folded belts of the central Appalachians and Long Island, New York.

  20. NASA Research to Support the Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation that was a review of NASA projects that support airline operations. It covered NASA tasks that have provided new tools to the airline operations center and flight deck including the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  1. Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

    2013-04-01

    The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ɛNd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with

  2. Clinicopathological features and trend changes of gastric carcinoma in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Jun; Xiao, Ping; Xu, Jian-Bo; Song, Wu; Liao, Bing; He, Yu-Long

    2014-04-21

    To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma in southern China and disease trends changes over the last 18 years. We designed a retrospective study in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the first affiliated hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. A total of 2100 adult patients with definitely diagnosed, histologically proven gastric carcinomas treated with radical gastrectomy from 1994 to 2013 were examined retrospectively. In all cases patient age, gender, tumor location, Borrmann type, histopathological type and grade, and pTNM stage were identified and recorded. The information was obtained from hospital records. The data were analyzed with Stata12.0 software. In this study, the mean age of patients was 57 years with a range from 19-89 years. A higher incidence was found in patients over 60 years of age. In the study population, 67.38% of patients were male and 32.62% were female. Women had a higher disease incidence than men in patients less than 40 years of age (P < 0.001). No obvious change of patient age and gender was observed in the last 18 years. The rates of disease by location were the following: antrum (44.57%), followed by fundus/ body (24.95%) and cardia/gastroesophageal junction (23.00%). The mean tumor diameter was 5.57 cm, and advanced gross type Borrmann III was most common. Most patients were at advanced stages when first diagnosed, and patients with early stage disease were relatively rare. More early stage patients were detected in recent years, especially after 2000 (P < 0.001). Gastric carcinoma has different features in young and old patients. The young patients had the following features: more frequently female, tumors in the antrum, larger tumor size, poorly differentiated carcinoma, high rate of metastasis to other sites and advanced stages (P < 0.05). In southern China, gastric carcinoma was more frequent in old men and young women. Young and old patients should be treated differently for having different

  3. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  4. Wavelet Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of Saltwater Intrusion in the Beibu Gulf, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Nanliujiang Waterway (NW), a major outlet of the Beibu gulf, is a crucial source of water supply for Beihai City in Southern China. This waterway is frequently affected by saltwater intrusion from the Beibu Gulf of southern China, which has caused serious water shortage in recent years. For the planning and management of water supply at this waterway it is necessary to understand the characteristics of saltwater intrusion particularly in the low flow period of the year. However, as a result of multiple impacts from tide, river discharge, wind, topography, channel bathometry, and some other factors, the saltwater intrusion into this waterway is highly non-linear. In order to account for the non-linear characteristics, the wavelet method was used to analyse the period characteristics of tidal range, river discharge, and salinity and the impact of tidal range and river discharge on the salinity. Results show that the tidal range at Bailong station and the salinity at Beihai-port station both exhibit a stable 13.5-day period and the salinity in the NW is largely impacted by the tidal range during low stream flow periods. River flows from upstream of the waterway don't show any stable period characteristic. It, however, is critical in mitigating the salinity for water supply during saltwater intrusion. A minimum total flow of 2600 m3/s from upstream at Daguangsha and Yinpang stations has been practiced as a threshold for safe water supply. This study has found that the present time when salinity is below the maximum permissible salinity of 238 ml/g for water supply increases as the river discharge from upstream increases and up to 40-60% of the time the salinity at water supply pumping station is below 238 mg/l when the upstream flow is greater than 2600 m3/s. Planning and management of water supply operation at the NW is politically, economically and mostly importantly technically challenging, findings from this study can provide some guidance for operation and

  5. Complete genome sequence of an H10N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a live bird market in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Wei, Liangmeng; Song, Yafen; Shen, Dan; Gong, Lang; Luo, Kaijian; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2012-07-01

    An H10N8 avian influenza virus (AIV), designated A/Duck/Guangdong/E1/2012 (H10N8), was isolated from a duck in January 2012. This is first report that this subtype of AIV was isolated from a live bird market (LBM) in Guangdong Province in southern China. Furthermore, the complete genome of this strain was analyzed. The availability of genome sequences is helpful to further investigations of epidemiology and molecular characteristics of AIV in southern China.

  6. Novel hepatitis B virus subgenotype in the southern Yunnan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Gao, Jian-mei; Zou, Yun-Lian; Dong, Hong; Yan, Xin-Min

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent in China. To identify the genotypes of HBV in the southern Yunnan Province of China, full-length HBV genomes were extracted from 1 Dai and 4 Hani HBV carriers and linked with the pMD T-18 vector. For each patient, 3-10 clones were sequenced directly and a consensus sequence was created. Genotypic and serotypic analysis revealed 4 HBV/B (2 B2 with adw2 and 2 new subgenotypes with ayw1) and 1 HBV/C (C1 with adrq+) genotypes. The divergences of the entire genome sequences of the new subgenotype were 0-0.9% and 2.99-6.48% between other known HBV/B. Divergences in other coding regions revealed that it was more similar to B3 and B4 in the precore/core gene (2.02 and 2.09%, respectively), and similar to B3 and B5 in the preS1/S2/S gene (2.24 and 2.78%, respectively). Phylogenetic trees using the precore/core and X genes both revealed a new clad separating from the major trunk of genotype B with a 99% bootstrap value. These results show that the 2 consensus isolates are a mosaic of B3-B5, which we designated to subgenotype B6. Considering the geographical distances, the relationship between B6 and other HBV/B subgenotypes (B3-B5) and HBV evolution needs to be further studied.

  7. Mercury exposure and source tracking in distinct marine-caged fish farm in southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.04‰ to -0.01‰) suggested that mercury in these farms were from coal combustion and industrial inputs. Commercial food pellets and fresh fish viscera provided the major sources of methylmercury to the farmed fish and dominated their mercury isotopic signatures. Non-carnivorous fish presented lower δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values than the carnivorous fish. Using a mixing model, we demonstrated that the majority of mercury in non-carnivorous species came from pellets and in carnivorous fish came from combined diets of pellets and viscera. Meanwhile, methylmercury concentrations and % methylmercury in the fish were positively correlated with δ(202)Hg values but not with Δ(199)Hg values, mainly because fish eating similar feeds maintained similar Δ(199)Hg values. Environmental influences of cage farming such as fish feces and uneaten viscera that continuously provide organic mercury to the environments need to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from wetland rice-duck cultivation systems in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengfang; Cao, Cougui; Wang, Jingping; Zhan, Ming; Yuan, Weiling; Ahmad, Shahrear

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a rice-duck cultivation system in the subtropical region of China and its regulating factors were investigated by using a static chambers technique during rice growth seasons in 2006 and 2007. The experimental field was equally divided into six plots for two different treatments: One was a conventional rice field (CK) and the other was a rice-duck ecosystem (RD). With the same amount of urea applied as basal fertilization, N2O emission fluxes from RD and CK followed a similar seasonal variation trend. During the flooding seasons, the N2O emission flux was not correlated with temperature, but it was significantly related to soil inorganic nitrogen (SIN) (p < 0.01) and soil pH (p < 0.01). After drainage, the N2O emission flux was not correlated with temperature, SIN, and soil pH. Our experimental data showed that peaks of N2O emission flux occurred both in 2 weeks after urea application and after drainage. Compared to CK, RD could significantly increase N2O emission. We evaluated the integrated global warming potentials (GWPs) of a rice-duck cultivation system based on methane (CH4) and N2O emission, which showed that RD could suppress the total amount of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies. Moreover, because the decrease of CH4 emissions from RD compared to CK was far more than the increase of N2O emissions from RD compared to CK, RD greatly reduced integrated GWPs (CH4 + N2O) compared to CK. So, the rice-duck cultivation system is an effective strategy for reducing integrated GWPs of the rice-duck cultivation systems based on CH4 and N2O in southern China and will contribute to alleviating global warming.

  9. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiegang; Yang, Zhicong; Dong, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ming

    2014-03-12

    Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006-2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006-2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI -8.75% to -7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission.

  10. Oxidizing capacity of the rural atmosphere in Hong Kong, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyuan; Xue, Likun; Yang, Xue; Zha, Qiaozhi; Tham, Yee Jun; Yan, Chao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-09-07

    Atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC), dominated by the hydroxyl radical (OH), is an important index of the self-cleaning capacity of atmosphere and plays a vital role in the tropospheric chemistry. To better understand the key processes governing the chemistry of rural atmosphere of southern China, we analyzed the oxidation capacity and radical chemistry at a regional background site in Hong Kong from 23 August to 22 December 2012, which covered the summer, autumn and winter seasons. A chemical box model built on the latest Master Chemical Mechanism (v3.3) was used to elucidate the OH reactivity and sources of ROX radicals (ROX=OH+HO2+RO2). The AOC showed a clear seasonal pattern with stronger intensity in late summer compared to autumn and winter. Reactions with NO2 (30%) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (31%) together dominated the OH loss in summer, while reactions with CO (38% in autumn and 39% in winter) and OVOCs (34% in autumn and 25% in winter) made larger contributions in autumn and winter. Photolysis of O3 (36%-47%) presented the major ROX source during all three seasons. The second largest ROx source was HONO photolysis (25%) in summer compared to HCHO photolysis in autumn (20%) and winter (21%). Besides, photolysis of other OVOCs was another important primary source of ROx radicals with average contributions of 14%, 13% and 20% for the summer, autumn and winter cases, respectively. Overall, the present study evaluates the oxidizing capacity of the rural atmosphere of South China and elucidates the varying characteristics of photochemical processes in different air masses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ chemical composition measurement of individual cloud residue particles at a mountain site, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinhao; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming; Brechtel, Fred J.; Li, Mei; Chen, Duohong; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    To investigate how atmospheric aerosol particles interact with chemical composition of cloud droplets, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) coupled with a real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to assess the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in the Nanling Mountains (1690 m a. s. l. ), southern China, in January 2016. The cloud residues were classified into nine particle types: aged elemental carbon (EC), potassium-rich (K-rich), amine, dust, Pb, Fe, organic carbon (OC), sodium-rich (Na-rich) and Other. The largest fraction of the total cloud residues was the aged EC type (49.3 %), followed by the K-rich type (33.9 %). Abundant aged EC cloud residues that mixed internally with inorganic salts were found in air masses from northerly polluted areas. The number fraction (NF) of the K-rich cloud residues increased within southwesterly air masses from fire activities in Southeast Asia. When air masses changed from northerly polluted areas to southwesterly ocean and livestock areas, the amine particles increased from 0.2 to 15.1 % of the total cloud residues. The dust, Fe, Pb, Na-rich and OC particle types had a low contribution (0.5-4.1 %) to the total cloud residues. Higher fraction of nitrate (88-89 %) was found in the dust and Na-rich cloud residues relative to sulfate (41-42 %) and ammonium (15-23 %). Higher intensity of nitrate was found in the cloud residues relative to the ambient particles. Compared with nonactivated particles, nitrate intensity decreased in all cloud residues except for dust type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on in situ observation of the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in China.

  12. Description of two new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Macropsinae) from Guangxi Province, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the Macropsinae leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) damingshanensis Li, Dai & Li, sp. n. and Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) tishetshkini Li, Dai & Li sp. n., are described and illustrated from Guangxi Province of southern China. A key to males is provided to distinguish the species of the subgenus along with a map showing the distribution of the new species. PMID:23950687

  13. Influence of sea level change on sediment provenance variations since the last glaciation in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwarungrueangkul, T.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clay mineralogy and grain size of 170 sediment samples from Core MD05-2893 located near the Molengraaff paleo-river mouth on the upper Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea were investigated to assess the effect of sea level change on sediment provenance variations. The clay mineral results show high contents of smectite (35-55%), moderate contents of illite (16-31%), kaolinite (11-29%), and chlorite (8-15%). Due to distinction of clay mineral assemblages from each sediment provenance, the Indonesian Archipelago is the majority of smectite source, whereas North Boneo mainly provides illite to the southern South China Sea. Therefore, the smectite/illite ratio is applied to determine the sediment provenance variations. Both the mineralogical ratio and median grain size show consistent sediment source and dynamic variations since the last glaciation, in which case the response of sediment provenance change due to the sea level rise is expected. Our study suggests a three-stage evolution of the sediment provenance variation on the Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea: (1) during the low sea level stand of the last glaciation, the high content of smectite implies that the Indonesian Archipelago provided the majority of sediments to this area through the Molengraaff paleo-river system; (2) during the sea level rise of the deglaciation, the decreasing of smectite content but the increasing of illite indicates that the Indonesian Archipelago reduced in sediments supply due to regression of coastline, whereas North Boneo increased sediment supply; (3) during the high sea level stand of Holocene, the smectite content increases again, implying that the Indonesian Archipelago provides sediments to this area again through the ocean circulation. Consequently, the sea level rise mainly results in sediment provenance change in the southern South China Sea since the last deglaciation.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of HCV Monoinfection and HIV/HCV Coinfection in Injection Drug Users in Liuzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi; Wei, Qi Hou; Chen, Liu Jun; Chan, Pui Chung; Lai, Wen Sheng; He, Ming Liang; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Lee, Shui Shan

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU). Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs) were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96%) were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. Conclusion/Significance The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV. PMID:18974888

  15. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  16. Geochemical dynamics of iodine in marginal seas: the southern East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, George T. F.; Zhang, Ling-Su

    2003-03-01

    The distributions of iodate and iodide were determined in a transect across the southern East China Sea Shelf, the upwelling center at the outer shelf-upper slope, the adjoining Kuroshio to the Okinawa Trough. In the surface waters, the variations in the concentrations of iodate and iodide among the surface waters masses, namely, the Coastal Water, the Taiwan Current Warm Water and the Kuroshio Surface Water, were relatively small. The composition of the upwelling Kuroshio Subsurface Water was distinctly different and it could be readily distinguished from the surface water masses by its elevated concentration of iodate, depressed concentration of iodide, and the resulting elevated concentration ratio of iodate to iodide. In contrast, since the variations in salinity and temperature in the surface water masses and the upwelling water were less systematic, neither salinity nor temperature could be used effectively for distinguishing these two types of water from each other. Thus, the iodine system was a complementary, or even a superior, tracer for the upwelling water. In the subsurface, the upwelling water was depicted as a dome of cold, nitrate-rich, iodate-rich and iodide-poor water, with molar ratios of iodate to iodide exceeding 10 that extended from the outer shelf-upper slope to the middle shelf. The influence of the Coastal Water was manifested as a tongue of fresher, iodide-rich and iodate-poor surface water, with molar ratios of iodate to iodide of <2.5 that extended from the inner shelf into the middle shelf. The oligotrophic Kuroshio Surface Water was also iodide-rich and iodate-poor. A box model calculation revealed that iodate was imported into the East China Sea Shelf system by frontal exchanges with the adjoining Kuroshio and upwelling at the shelf edge. Within the Shelf system, iodate was consumed and iodide was produced. As a result, during frontal exchanges between the Shelf system and the Kuroshio, there was also a net export of iodide from the

  17. Simultaneous modulations of precipitation and temperature extremes in Southern parts of China by the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-01-01

    The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO), including a 30-60 day component (BSISO1) and a quasi-biweekly component (BSISO2), is the most prominent form of subtropical intraseasonal variability. Influences of BSISOs on summertime precipitation and temperature extremes in China are examined. Results indicate that BSISOs can simultaneously facilitate precipitation extremes in central-eastern China and extreme high temperatures in South China-Southeast China. During phase 2-4 of active BSISO1, accompanying precipitation extremes in central-eastern China, there is a fourfold-fivefold increase in probability of extreme high temperatures in Southeast China. About 50% of such simultaneous extremes fall into phase 2-3. BSISO2's influences are pronounced from phase 6 to the next phase 2, with about 58% simultaneous extremes clustered within phase 7 to the next phase 1. It is the BSISO-induced vertical cell, with ascending motion in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley and descending motion in the south, that contributes to simultaneous extremes. Enhanced low-level southwesterlies convey moist and warm air towards southern parts of China. Strengthened ascending branch loaded by anomalously abundant moisture produces precipitation extremes in the north. Concurrently, combined effects of warm advection and descent-triggered adiabatic heating anchors extreme high temperatures well located in South China. The northeastward propagation of the BSISO1 confines influenced regions to eastern-southeastern parts of China, with gradually narrowing spatial extents. The BSISO2-induced simultaneous extremes sweep much broader areas, from southeast coasts to the central inlands. Above analyses on BSISOs-simultaneous extremes relationship lay a crucial scientific basis for predicting these high-impact events on sub-seasonal to seasonal scales.

  18. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissolved organic sulfur in streams draining forested catchments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Bingwen; Vogt, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) is an important fraction for sulfur mobilization in ecosystem. In this work stream waters were sampled in 25 forested sites in southern China to study the dissolved sulfur fractions. Dissolved sulfur was fractionated into dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) and inorganic sulfate (SO4(2-)) for 95 stream water samples. The results showed that the concentration of DOS ranged from 0 to 13.1 mg/L (average 1.3 mg/L) in all the streams. High concentrations of DOS in stream waters were found in the sites with high concentrations of sulfate. DOS constituted less than 60.1% of dissolved sulfur (average 17.9%). Statistical analysis showed that DOS concentration was correlated with SO4(2-) in streams waters and total sulfur in surface layer soils. The results also showed that DOS concentration in stream waters had a seasonal variation, but no trends were found with it. The implication was that the long term sulfur deposition had led the increase of the concentration and fraction of DOS in stream waters in acid rain prevailing regions

  20. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; ...

    2016-01-07

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg Cmore » in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. As a result, in light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.« less

  1. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-22

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  2. A New Oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleoecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang

    2013-01-01

    A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233

  3. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tiejun; Yu, Zhengrong; Zhang, Xihui; Au, Doris W T

    2011-11-01

    Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water was investigated in southern China. Fifteen and twelve PPCPs were detected with concentrations of 0-36 ng L(-1) in source water and of 0-20 ng L(-1) in treated water, respectively. Four PPCPs were detected with concentrations of approximately 1 ng L(-1) in drinking water of distribution network. Conventional water treatment processes removed the types and average concentrations of PPCPs by 30% and above 50%, respectively. Advanced water treatment processes were more efficient in the removal of most PPCPs, with the types and concentrations reduced by 50% and approximately 90%, respectively. Molecular properties of PPCPs had an important influence on their behaviors during water treatment. pK(a) (acidity coefficient) and K(oc) (organic carbon partition coefficient) of PPCPs appeared to have a combined effect on PPCPs removal during coagulation and oxidation. Adsorption and biodegradation were two possible mechanisms responsible for PPCPs removal during sand filtration.

  4. Developing an action-based health and safety training project in southern China.

    PubMed

    Szudy, Betty; O'Rourke, Dara; Brown, Garrett D

    2003-01-01

    A project brought together international footwear manufacturers, labor rights groups, local contract factories, and occupational health professionals to strengthen factory health and safety programs in southern China. Steps involved in the two-year project, including needs assessment, interviews and focus groups with workers and supervisors; design and development of a participatory workshop; development of plant-wide health and safety committees in three footwear factories; and evaluation project impact, are discussed. The project significantly increased occupational safety and health knowledge, and hazards in the factories were identified and corrected. Successes and challenges faced by three functioning worker-management health and safety committees are discussed. Key elements to create effective programs with meaningful participation by workers include: 1) developing clear guidelines that enable multi-stakeholder groups to collaborate; 2) obtaining top-level management support; 3) building workers' knowledge and capacity to fully participate; 4) involving local labor rights groups and occupational professionals in support and technical assistance; and 5) connecting project goals to larger issues within a country and the global economy.

  5. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'An; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in Wenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Du, Jia; Cao, Jianming; Shen, Lizhen; Bi, Wenzi; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Haiyang; Lu, Hong; Zhou, Tieli

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major challenge worldwide. In this study, we characterized the phenotypes and genetic features of nine XDR K. pneumoniae isolates from an integrated hospital in Zhejiang province, China, from September to October 2014. These XDR K. pneumoniae possessed at least five resistance determinants which contribute to highly resistant to β-lactam, β-lactam/inhibitor combinations, aminoglycosides, quinolones, carbapenems, chloroamphenicol and fosfomycin. All isolates carried blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-11 and rmtB, and several isolates also harboured blaTEM-1 and qnrS. Southern blot experiments confirmed that blaKPC-2, rmtB and blaCTX-M-9 were located on the same ~54.2 kb plasmid. Conjugative plasmids were obtained from all K. pneumoniae isolates, further proving the transferable characteristic of the resistance determinants. The OmpK36 sequences showed various deletions and insertions that indicated additional amino acid residues and a deleted phenotype of OmpK36. PFGE demonstrated that all the isolates belonged to the same genotype. Multilocus sequence typing was concordant with PFGE results and revealed that ST11 was the most predominant clone. Our study revealed a high incidence and endemic spread of XDR K. pneumoniae in the hospital. Thus, effective infection control measures should be adopted to monitor and control the spread of multidrug-resistant isolates.

  7. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P < 0.001). Results of the two linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P < 0.001). Boars aged 5 and 6 months at herd entry (44.6%) showed shorter BHLM than those aged 8 and 9 months at herd entry (P < 0.05). Approximately 95% boars were culled for different reasons other than old age, and the BHLM of these boars was at least 12.3 months longer than that of boars culled for other reasons (P < 0.001). In conclusion, abnormal elimination in boars is serious and it had a negative effect on boar BHLM. Boar removal reason and BHLM can be affected by breed, housing type, and seed stock herd. Importantly, 8 months is suggested as the most suitable age for boar introduction.

  8. Two typical boundary layer structures in sea fog on the coast of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Huang, J.; Mao, W.; Bi, X.

    2013-12-01

    Two kinds of sea fog exist on the coast of southern China according to our observations. The predominant one is advection fog. This kind of sea fog has the typical feature that the surface air temperature (SAT) is higher than the sea surface temperature (SST). The formation mechanism is that the eddy diffusion (mechanical turbulence) transports the upper saturation air and liquid water content to the sea surface. The maintain factor is the warm and moist transportation along the thermal turbulence interface. The other kind is the advection-radiative fog, is familiar to the sea fog on the west coast of USA and the Haar. In this kind of fog, the SAT is lower than the SST. This kind of sea fog is initially cooled by contact with the cold sea via advection, and then the mainly maintain mechanism is the radiation from the top of the sea fog and the evaporation from the sea. These two kinds of sea fog are interacted with the low cloud, and could transform from one to the other kind under certain conditions.

  9. Cadmium phytoextraction from loam soil in tropical southern China by Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-06-03

    The cadmium (Cd) uptake characteristics by Sorghum bicolor cv. Nengsi 2# and Cowley from the acidic sandy loam soil (pH = 6.1) during the entire growth period (100 days) were investigated in pot outdoors in a tropical district of southern China, Hainan Island. The Cd-spiked levels in soil were set as 3 and 15 mg/kg. Correspondingly, the available Cd levels in soil extracted by Mehlich III solution were 2.71 and 9.41 mg/kg, respectively. Basically, two varieties in a full growth period (100 days) did not show a significant difference in their growth and Cd uptake. Under high Cd stress, the plant growth was inhibited and its biomass weight and height decreased by 38.7-51.5% and 27.6-28.5%, respectively. However, S. bicolor showed higher bioaccumulation capability of Cd from soil to plant [bioconcentration factor (BCF)>4], and higher transfer capability of Cd from roots to shoots [translocation factor (TF)>1] under high Cd stress; Cd contents in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. bicolor reached 43.79-46.07, 63.28-70.60, and 63.10-66.06 mg/kg, respectively. S. bicolor exhibited the potential phytoextraction capability for low or moderate Cd-contamination in acidic sandy loam soil.

  10. Cassiterite exsolution with ilmenite lamellae in magnetite from the Huashan metaluminous tin granite in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ru Cheng; Yu, A.-Peng; Chen, Jun; Xie, Lei; Lu, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jin-Chu

    2012-05-01

    Sn4+ is generally the dominant form of tin in magnetite-series granites as shown by the presence of cassiterite or its incorporation into Ti-bearing minerals such as biotite and titanite. Little is known about the behavior of tin in magnetite. The Huashan granite is an oxidized tin granite in the Nanling Range, southern China, where it contains magnetite as the dominant Fe oxide mineral. It is included in biotite as an early phase and also as interstitial grains spatially associated with ilmenite, cassiterite, Sn-rich titanite (SnO2 up to 5.9 wt.%), fluorite and apatite. This association indicates that tin enrichment occurred during the late stage of magma crystallization. Ilmenite lamellae display a trellis structure consistent with features of the "oxy-exsolution" process of Sn-bearing titanomagnetite precursor. Micro-inclusions of cassiterite (<1 μm in size) are found only within ilmenite lamellae. This suggests that magnetite with cassiterite inclusions is likely an indicator mineral of oxidized tin granites. Although rare in nature, Sn-bearing magnetite from weathered granites where concentrated in stream sediments, may serve as a strategic tracer for tin exploration in granite districts and in placer deposits, in general.

  11. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr−1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26739761

  12. Evaluation and Integration of Genetic Signature for Prediction Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Cheryl A.; Li, Ji; Guan, Li; Tang, Minzhong; Liao, Jian; Deng, Hong; de Thé, Guy; Zeng, Yi; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors, as well as environmental factors, play a role in development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with NPC. To confirm these genetic associations with NPC, two independent case-control studies from Southern China comprising 1166 NPC cases and 2340 controls were conducted. Seven SNPs in ITGA9 at 3p21.3 and 9 SNPs within the 6p21.3 HLA region were genotyped. To explore the potential clinical application of these genetic markers in NPC, we further evaluate the predictive/diagnostic role of significant SNPs by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Results. The reported associations between ITGA9 variants and NPC were not replicated. Multiple loci of GABBR1, HLA-F, HLA-A, and HCG9 were statistically significant in both cohorts (P combined range from 5.96 × 10−17 to 0.02). We show for the first time that these factors influence NPC development independent of environmental risk factors. This study also indicated that the SNP alone cannot serve as a predictive/diagnostic marker for NPC. Integrating the most significant SNP with IgA antibodies status to EBV, which is presently used as screening/diagnostic marker for NPC in Chinese populations, did not improve the AUC estimate for diagnosis of NPC. PMID:25180181

  13. A new oviraptorid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Sun, Chengkai; Sullivan, Corwin; Xu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new oviraptorid dinosaur taxon, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Nankang County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, southern China. This new taxon is distinguishable from other oviraptorids based on the following unique combination of primitive and derived features: relatively shallow dentary; absence of fossa or pneumatopore on lateral surface of dentary; weakly downturned anterior mandibular end; shallow depression immediately surrounding anterior margin of external mandibular fenestra; external mandibular fenestra subdivided by anterior process of surangular; dentary posteroventral process slightly twisted and positioned on mandibular ventrolateral surface; shallow longitudinal groove along medial surface of dentary posteroventral process; angular anterior process wider transversely than deep dorsoventrally; sharp groove along ventrolateral surface of angular anterior process; ventral border of external mandibular fenestra formed mainly by angular; ventral flange along distal half of metatarsal II; and arctometatarsal condition absent. Phylogenetic analysis places Ganzhousaurus nankangensis gen. et sp. nov. in the clade Oviraptoridae, together with Oviraptor, Citipati, Rinchenia and the unnamed Zamyn Khondt oviraptorid.

  14. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuehong; Huang, Yong; Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei; Yang, Zhicong

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8-12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24-36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus.

  15. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Li nationality of southern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yipeng; He, Ping; He, Na; Li, Quanni; Sun, Juan; Yao, Jinjian; Yi, Shengyang; Xu, Heping; Wu, Duoyi; Wang, Xiang; Jin, Tianbo

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to screen members of the Li nationality in southern China for genotype frequencies of VIP variants and to determine differences between the Li ethnicity and global human population samples in HapMap. In this study, we genotyped 77 very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants selected from the pharmacogenomics knowledge base (PharmGKB) in members of the Li population and compared our data with other eleven populations from the HapMap data set. Our results showed that VDR rs1540339, VKORC1 rs9934438, and MTHFR rs1801133 were most different in Li compared with most of the eleven populations from the HapMap data set. Furthermore, population structure and F-statistics (Fst) analysis also showed differences between the Li and other HapMap populations, and the results suggest that the Li are most genetically similar to the CHD population, and the least similar to the YRI in HapMap. The findings of our study complement the pharmacogenomics database with information on members of the Li ethnicity and provide a stronger scientific basis for safer drug administration, which may help clinicians to predict individual drug responses, thereby avoiding the risk of adverse effects and optimizing efficacy in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. Methods We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Results Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8–12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24–36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus. PMID:28273079

  18. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  19. The significant reduction of precipitation in Southern China during the Chinese Spring Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term observational data from 2001 to 2012 over 339 stations were used to analyze the precipitation in southern China during the Chinese Spring Festival (CSF). It reveals both the precipitation frequency and precipitation intensity have a significant reduction around CSF holiday. From the second day to the sixth day after the Lunar New Year's Day, the daily mean precipitation frequency anomaly is -9%. At the same time, more than 90% stations in the study area have negative anomalies. The precipitation intensity has a continuous reduction from day 2 to day 4, which is up to 2mm in day 3. Other relevant variables, such as relative humidity and sunshine duration, have corresponding results to the precipitation's reduction during CSF. Atmospheric water vapor field's change leads to the reduction phenomenon. We analyzed the circulation configuration using the ERA-interim reanalysis data. It shows the anomalous north wind decrease the vapor and further affects the precipitation during the CSF period. The pollutants' concentration decreased around CSF, which may influence the meteorological field and lead to the anomalous north wind. Based on the S2S (sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction project) data, we calculated the circulation forecast difference to CSF period between clean days and polluted days. The result proves the north wind's existence and suggests that the aerosol decrease because of human activity may be partly responsible for the precipitation reduction during CSF.

  20. Investigation of sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Mount Lushan in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Zhu, Chen; Mao, Huiting; Yang, Minmin; Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous and particulate samples of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at the summit of Mount Lushan (29.58°N, 115.98°E, 1165 m asl) in southern China from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012 except special meteorological conditions such as rainy or very foggy days. The concentration of PAHs in total (gaseous and particulate PAHs) ranged from 15.79 to 160.53 ng m-3 (mean 41.67 ng m-3). Observed logarithmic values of particulate mass fraction (log θ) and partitioning coefficient (log Kp) were all higher than values calculated by the three gas-particle partitioning models, presenting higher fraction of particulate PAHs, indicating continual contribution of gaseous PAHs to particulate PAHs concentrations during long-range transport of air masses. Identified potential source regions using potential source contribution function analysis suggested significant contributions of emissions from coking, thermal power, and steel plants. The sources of PAHs levels at Mount Lushan that were identified using positive matrix factorization included diesel vehicles (43%), coal-fired boiler combustion (33%), coke oven source (17%), and incineration source (7%).

  1. Prevalence of HIV infection and predictors for syphilis infection among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Western blot confirmation) infections. Of the 362 eligible participants, 81.7% were non-local residents (60.5% from other parts of Guangxi and 21.2% were non-Guangxi residents); 58.0% belonged to non-Han minority ethnic groups; 37.5% reported inconsistent condom use with their clients and 71.2% reported inconsistent condom use with their regular sex partners during the past month. Nearly 10% reported having had sex with drug users. The prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis infections were 2.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Almost half (46.6%) of participants reported having had STD symptoms. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the past month (AOR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.8-13.8), less education (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-7.4), and HIV infection (AOR = 8.1; 95% CI = 1.1-68.5) were independently associated with syphilis infection.

  2. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  3. Environmental radionuclides in a coastal wetland of the Southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidong; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Cao, Lei

    2015-08-15

    The radioactivity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in soil samples collected in a coastal wetland of the Southern Laizhou Bay, China were measured. Mean activity concentrations were 54.4±11.7, 57.9±9.7, 28.6±4.3, 542±21, and 10.2±2.9Bqkg(-1) dry weight for (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. Statistical analyses suggested significant correlations between clay content and (40)K as well as (137)Cs. The radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate in the air at 1m above the ground surface, and the external hazard index were calculated. The result showed that the radioactivity level in the wetland was in normal range. But sites along the river tended to have higher radiological hazard indexes. The vertical distributions of radionuclides in profiles illustrated some phenomena, such as vertical transport of (238)U, disequilibrium between (238)U and (226)Ra, and change in material sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic nitrogen deposition in precipitation in metropolitan Guangzhou city of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiong; Fang, Yunting; Yoh, Muneoki; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Zhiyong; Kuang, Yuanwen; Wen, Dazhi

    2012-09-01

    Organic nitrogen (N) has been shown to be an important component of atmospheric N deposition. However, its contribution to total N deposition and its sources have not been well investigated under severe air N pollution. We quantified dissolved inorganic and organic N deposition in bulk precipitation over two years in Guangzhou, a city suffering from long-term acid rain in southern China, and linked organic N to other atmospheric components to explore the potential sources. We found that dissolved organic N (DON) in precipitation contributed a considerable amount of N (8.1 and 8.4 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 in 2008 and 2009, respectively) to total N deposition in the study city, although the percentage to total dissolved N (17-21%) was lower than often reported (approximately 30%). Including DON, precipitation N deposition in the study city reached 39-49 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, suggesting an important N source to natural ecosystems. We also found that DON concentration was positively correlated with both ammonium and nitrate concentrations, indicating their anthropogenic sources. The anthropogenic source of DON was further supported by close correlations of DON with precipitation non-sea-salt sulfate concentration and with air concentration of nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Our results suggest that atmospheric DON deposition may also be considerable in many other cities.

  5. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-Ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate.

  6. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  7. Biostability in distribution systems in one city in southern China: characteristics, modeling and control strategy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pinpin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Zhang, Chiqian; Niu, Zhangbin; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems receiving finished water from an advanced drinking water treatment plant in one city in southern China. Thirteen nodes in two water supply zones with different aged pipelines were selected to monitor water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloramine residual, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). Regression and principal component analyses indicated that HPC had a strong correlation with chloramine residual. Based on Chick-Watson's Law and the Monod equation, biostability curves under different conditions were developed to achieve the goal of HPC < or = 100 CFU/mL. The biostability curves could interpret the scenario under various AOC concentrations and predict the required chloramine residual concentration under the condition of high AOC level. The simulation was also carried out to predict the scenario with a stricter HPC goal (< or = 50 CFU/mL) and determine the required chloramine residual. The biological regrowth control strategy was assessed using biostability curve analysis. The results indicated that maintaining high chloramine residual concentration was the most practical way to achieve the goal of HPC < or = 100 CFU/mL. Biostability curves could be a very useful tool for biostability control in distribution systems. This work could provide some new insights towards biostability control in real distribution systems.

  8. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance. PMID:25738329

  9. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-03-02

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100-200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  10. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-07

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. As a result, in light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Risk of introducing exotic fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae), into southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Wu, Jiajiao; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Runjie

    2010-08-01

    Exotic fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) are often serious agricultural pests. Here, we used, pathway analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the risk of introduction of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch, into southern China with fruit consignments and incoming travelers. Historical data, expert opinions, relevant literature, and archives were used to set appropriate parameters in the pathway analysis. Based on the ongoing quarantine/ inspection strategies of China, as well as the interception records, we estimated the annual number of each fruit fly species entering Guangdong province undetected with commercially imported fruit, and the associated risk. We also estimated the gross number of pests arriving at Guangdong ports with incoming travelers and the associated risk. Sensitivity analysis also was performed to test the impact of parameter changes and to assess how the risk could be reduced. Results showed that the risk of introduction of the three fruit fly species into southern China with fruit consignments, which are mostly transported by ship, exists but is relatively low. In contrast, the risk of introduction with incoming travelers is high and hence deserves intensive attention. Sensitivity analysis indicated that either ensuring all shipments meet current phytosanitary requirements or increasing the proportion of fruit imports sampled for inspection could substantially reduce the risk associated with commercial imports. Sensitivity analysis also provided justification for banning importation of fresh fruit by international travelers. Thus, inspection and quarantine in conjunction with intensive detection were important mitigation measures to reduce the risk of Ceratitis spp. introduced into China.

  12. Genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Peng; Zhai, Shao-Lun; He, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Peng-Ju; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Man-Lin; Chen, Rui-Ai; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013, the second outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has spread over more than 20 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China, resulting in major economic losses for livestock industry. In 2014, we encountered a clinical PPR case on a goat farm in Guangdong province, southern China. The complete genome of this PPRV strain, named CH/GDDG/2014, was sequenced to determine its similarities and differences with other strains. The CH/GDDG/2014 genome comprised 15,954 nucleotides (six nucleotides more than classical PPRVs identified before 2013, but complying with the rule of six) with six open reading frames encoding nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, fusion protein, hemagglutinin, and large polymerase protein, respectively. The whole-genome-based alignment analysis indicated that CH/GDDG/2014 had the most proximate consensus (99.8 %) to China/XJYL/2013 and the least consensus (87.2 %) to KN5/2011. The phylogenetic analysis showed that CH/GDDG/2014 was clustered in one branch (lineage IV) with other emerging strains during the second outbreak. This study is the first report describing the whole-genome sequence of PPRV in Guangdong province, southern China and also suggests the PPR outbreak may be closely related to illegal cross-regional importation of goats.

  13. Airline policy for passengers requiring supplemental in-flight oxygen.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jacqueline; Kelly, Paul T; Beckert, Lutz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current Australian/New Zealand airline policy on supplemental in-flight oxygen for passengers with lung disease. Fifty-four commercial airlines servicing international routes were surveyed. Information was gathered from airline call centres and web sites. The survey documented individual airline policy on in-flight oxygen delivery, approval schemes, equipment and cost. Of the 54 airlines contacted, 43 (81%) were able to support passengers requiring in-flight oxygen. The majority (88%) of airlines provided a cylinder for passengers to use. Airline policy for calculating the cost of in-flight oxygen differed considerably between carriers. Six (14%) airlines supplied oxygen to passengers free of charge; however, three of these airlines charged for an extra seat. Fifteen airlines (35%) charged on the basis of oxygen supplied, that is, per cylinder. Fourteen airlines (33%) had a flat rate charge per sector. This study confirmed that most airlines can accommodate passengers requiring supplemental oxygen. However, the findings highlight inconsistencies in airline policies and substantial cost differences for supplemental in-flight oxygen. We advocate an industry standardization of policy and cost of in-flight oxygen.

  14. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  15. Sublittoral meiofauna with particular reference to nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Shou; Zhang, Zhi-Nan; Huang, Yong

    2007-02-01

    Densities of major meiofaunal taxa were investigated at 34 sampling stations during six cruises by R/V Beidou to the southern Yellow Sea, China from 2000 to 2004, and the community structure of free-living marine nematodes was studied during one of the cruises in 2003. Meiofauna abundance ranged from 487.4 to 1655.3 individuals per 10 cm 2. Nematodes and harpacticoid copepods were the two most dominant groups, contributing 73.8-92.8% and 3.5-18.7%, respectively, to the total meiofauna abundance. One-way ANOVA showed no significant annual fluctuation of meiofauna and nematode abundances from 2000 to 2004 in the southern Yellow Sea. However, two-way ANOVA based on six stations sampled in 4 years (2001-2004) showed that there were significant differences among the six stations and the 4 sampling years for meiofauna, nematode and copepod abundance. Correlation analysis demonstrated that meiofauna abundance was mainly linked to chloroplastic pigments. Other environmental factors could not be ruled out, however. A total of 232 free-living marine nematode species, belonging to 149 genera, 35 families and 4 orders, were identified. The dominant species in the sampling area were the following: Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Microlaimus sp.1, Prochromadorella sp., Promonohystera sp., Cobbia sp.1, Daptonema sp.1, Leptolaimus sp.1, Halalaimus sp.2, Aegialoalaimus sp., Chromadorita sp., Parodontophora marina, Parasphaerolaimus paradoxus, Quadricoma sp.1, Campylaimus sp.1, Halalaimus gracilis, Paramesacanthion sp.1, Paramonohystera sp.1, and Metalinhomoeus longiseta. CLUSTER and SIMPROF analyses revealed three main types of nematode community (or station groups) in the sampling area, including I: coastal community, II: transitory community between coastal and YSCWM (Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass), and III: YSCWM community. Each community was indicated by a number of dominant nematode species. Bio-Env correlation analysis between the nematode community and environmental variables showed

  16. The Future of Regulation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherington, P. W.; Hill, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal regulation of airlines is analyzed to predict the amount of regulation to be expected in the future. It is stated that the regulatory powers will increase because of the advantages that such regulation provides to the airlines. Six propositions are submitted as guidelines for future airlines regulation. The loss of revenue experienced by the airlines is examined and methods for improving the economic situation are defined.

  17. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  18. The model of crustal structure in Southern China and the relationship with earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Marangoni, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the study area, some serious earthquakes were happened, i.e. an Ms8.0 earthquake happened in 2008 at (103.36 degree, 30.99 degree) and 69227 people were dead; in 2013, another Ms7.0 earthquake happened at (103.00 degree, 30.30 degree) and 196 people were dead. Usually the earthquakes are associated with the faults. In this study, we use the gravity anomaly to analysis the fault structure and inverse the crustal density in Southern China. Based on comparison with the earthquakes happened, we try to show the relationship between the earthquake and the crustal structure. We use the tilt angle method and its total horizontal derivative to process the gravity anomaly to detect the faults. The crustal density structure is obtained by the Parker inversion. Results show a strong correlation between mapped faults and anomaly edges resulted from tilt angle and horizontal derivatives. The faults mark the edge of the blocks resulted from the analysis of gravity data. Earthquakes epicenters in the region (from 2003 to 2013) are correlated with the same mapped faults. Moho depth in the area varies from 35 km at the SE to 62 km at the NW corner. The density inversion of the crust based on the Moho depth resulted in densities varying from 2.62 g/cm3 to 2.72 g/cm3. In an unexpected way two basins, SiChuan and HengYang presented high density values. Moho depth at SiChuan basin shows lower depth, almost 40 km, compared with surrounding basement of 45 km, this may be responsible for the high residual density. Another possible reason is the basements with high density. The JiangNan uplift area also shows high density in the NE direction. The earthquake epicenters are mostly located on the low density areas, and /or at the density contrast places, but show no correlation with Moho depth. Project supported by FAPESP (2012/00593-9), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China University of Geosciences (CUG120815). HZ acknowledges Dr. Ravat of University of

  19. Influence of urbanization on radon potential in Zhongshan City in the southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.

    2015-12-01

    Radon and radon progeny are the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for the public. Radon potential map is an essential approach for radon risk assessment. The radon potential map is based on the measured data of soil gas radon concentration and soil air permeability, combined with GIS technology, in Zhongshan City in the Southern China. The preliminary radon survey in ZC was conducted using a portable semiconductor radon monitor RAD-7 and soil air permeability instrument Rad-jok, covering a total area of 1800 km2. The sampling depth for soil gas radon measurement in the field was at the depth of 80 cm below the ground. 222Rn activity concentrations varyed between 0.74 and 158 kBq/m3, and 220Rn between 0.02 and 235 kBq/m3 in soil gas. The average value of 222Rn and 220Rn was 67.6 and 74.8 kBq/m3, respectively. The results show that: (1) the characteristics and distributions of 222Rn/220Rn concentration from soil gas in ZC are obviously related with local lithology (the Middle and the Late Jurassic and the Cretaceous biotitic-granite) and geological formation. High 222Rn/220Rn concentrations were observed in soil gas in the outcrops of weathered granite or filled back granite sands. (2) The distribution model of 220Rn is as same as that of 222Rn. The Wuguishan Mountain areas and in the south-east areas of ZC, covering with granite rocks, are high radon risk districts; the central zones in ZC are low radon potential areas, and part of the northern districts are medium radon potential areas. (3) Urbanization has increased local radon risk in some districts in the west and the north of ZC, where now covering several meters depth weathered granite products, but deposited the Quaternary sediments near surface before. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41474107, No.41274133 and 41074096).

  20. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    PubMed

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers.

  1. Study of liver cirrhosis over ten consecutive years in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Lin, Shang-Xiong; Tao, Jin; Wei, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Yu-Ming; Wu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the etiology and complications of liver cirrhosis (LC) in Southern China. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified cases of liver cirrhosis admitted between January 2001 to December 2010 and reviewed the medical records. Patient demographics, etiologies and complications were collected, and etiological changes were illustrated by consecutive years and within two time periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). All results were expressed as the mean ± SD or as a percentage. The χ2 test or Student’s t-test was used to analyze the differences in age, gender, and etiological distribution, and one-way analysis of variance was applied to estimate the trends in etiological changes. We analyzed the relationship between the etiologies and complications using unconditioned logistic regression, and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the major etiological groups was evaluated as ORs. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical computation was performed using SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 6719 (83.16%) male patients and 1361 (16.84%) female patients. The average age of all of the patients was 50.5 years at the time of diagnosis. The distribution of etiological agents was as follows: viral hepatitis, 80.62% [hepatitis B virus (HBV) 77.22%, hepatitis C virus (HCV) 2.80%, (HBV + HCV) 0.58%]; alcohol, 5.68%; mixed etiology, 4.95%; cryptogenic, 2.93%; and autoimmune hepatitis, 2.03%; whereas the other included etiologies accounted for less than 4% of the total. Infantile hepatitis syndrome LC patients were the youngest (2.5 years of age), followed by the metabolic LC group (27.2 years of age). Viral hepatitis, alcohol, and mixed etiology were more prevalent in the male group, whereas autoimmune diseases, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and metabolic diseases were more prevalent in the female group. When comparing the etiological distribution in

  2. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and ship...

  3. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and ship...

  4. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and ship...

  5. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  6. Water footprint of crop production for different crop structures in the Hebei southern plain, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian

    2017-06-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.

  7. Manganese Toxicity in Sugarcane Plantlets Grown on Acidic Soils of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Lan; Yang, Shu; Long, Guang Xia; Zhao, Zun Kang; Li, Xiao Feng; Gu, Ming Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ratoon sugarcane plantlets in southern China have suffered a serious chlorosis problem in recent years. To reveal the causes of chlorosis, plant nutrition in chlorotic sugarcane plantlets and the role of manganese (Mn) in this condition were investigated. The study results showed that the pH of soils growing chlorotic plantlets ranged from 3.74 to 4.84. The symptoms of chlorosis were similar to those of iron (Fe) deficiency while the chlorotic and non-chlorotic plantlets contained similar amount of Fe. Chlorotic plantlets had 6.4-times more Mn in their leaf tissues compared to the control plants. There was a significantly positive correlation between Mn concentration in the leaves and the exchangeable Mn concentration in the soils. Moreover, leaf Mn concentration was related to both seasonal changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration and to the occurrence of chlorosis. Basal stalks of mature sugarcanes contained up to 564.36 mg·kg(-1) DW Mn. Excess Mn in the parent stalks resulted in a depress of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of sugarcanes as indicated by lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of plantlets emerged from basal stalks. Ratoon sugarcane plantlets were susceptible to chlorosis due to high Mn accumulation in their leaves (456.90-1626.95 mg·kg(-1) DW), while in planted canes chlorosis did not occur because of low Mn accumulation (94.64-313.41mg·kg(-1) DW). On the other hand, active Fe content in chlorotic plantlets (3.39 mg kg(-1) FW) was only equivalent to 28.2% of the concentration found in the control. These results indicate that chlorosis in ratoon sugarcane plantlets results from excessive Mn accumulated in parent stalks of planted cane sugarcanes grown on excessive Mn acidic soils, while active Fe deficiency in plantlets may play a secondary role in the chlorosis.

  8. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  9. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease and weather factors in Guangzhou, southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Yang, Z; DI, B; Wang, M

    2014-08-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is becoming one of the common airborne and contact transmission diseases in Guangzhou, southern China, leading public health authorities to be concerned about its increased incidence. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of HFMD in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2009-2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. A negative binomial multivariable regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and HFMD. During the study period, a total of 166,770 HFMD-confirmed cases were reported, of which 11 died, yielding a fatality rate of 0·66/10,000. Annual incidence rates from 2009 to 2012 were 132·44, 311·40, 402·76, and 468·59/100,000 respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 9·38% (95% CI 8·17-10·51) in the weekly number of HFMD cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 6·80% (95% CI -6·99 to -6·65), having an opposite effect. Similarly, a 1% rise in relative humidity corresponded to an increase of 0·67% or 0·51%, a 1 m/h rise in wind velocity corresponded to an increase of 4·01% or 2·65%, and a 1 day addition in the number of windy days corresponded to an increase of 24·73% or 25·87%, in the weekly number of HFMD cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Our findings revealed that the epidemic status of HFMD in Guangzhou is characterized by high morbidity but low fatality. Weather factors had a significant influence on occurrence and transmission of HFMD.

  10. Spatial patterns of methane oxidation and methanotrophic diversity in landfill cover soils of southern China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zi-Fang; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation is an important CH4 sink in landfills. To investigate the distribution and community diversity of methanotrophs and link with soil characteristics and operational parameters (e.g., concentrations of O2, CH4), cover soil samples were collected at different locations and depths from the Mengzi semi-aerobic landfill (SAL) in Yunnan Province of southern China. Specific PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and realtime PCR were used to examine methanotrophs in the landfill cover soils. The results showed that different locations did harbor distinct methanotroph communities. Methanotrophs were more abundant in areas near the venting pipes because of the higher O2 concentrations. The depth of 20-25 cm, where the ratio of the CH4 to O2 was within the range from 1.3 to 8.6, was more conducive to the growth of CH4-oxidizing bacteria. Type II methanotrophs dominated in all samples compared with Type I methanotrophs, as evidenced by the high ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers (from 1.76 to 11.60). The total copy numbers of methanotrophs detected were similar to other ecosystems, although the CH4 concentration was much higher in SAL cover soil. Methylobacter and Methylocystis were the most abundant Type I and Type II methanotrophs genera, respectively, in the Mengzi SAL. The results suggested that SALs could provide a special environment with both high concentrations of CH4 and O2 for methanotrophs, especially around the vertical venting pipes.

  11. [Soil organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization along a forest successional gradient in Southern China].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xue-Jun; Zhou, Guo-Yi; Wei, Shi-Guang; Huang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Jiong; Zhang, De-Qiang

    2007-08-01

    With incubation test, this paper studied the characteristics of organic C and N mineralization in 0-10 cm soil layer under three forest types, i. e., pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF), which were in a successional series in Dinghushan Mountain of Southern China. The results showed that after incubation for 52 weeks, the cumulative emission of CO2-C from PMF, PBMF and MEBF soil was 30.66 +/- 3.36, 58.17 +/- 7.25 and 59.31 +/- 13.58 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and 64.12%, 64.41% and 65.12% of which were released in the first 9 weeks. The cumulative emission of CO2-C was always significantly smaller from PMF soil than from PBMF and MEBF soils, and its change pattern over time fitted well with a two-pool kinetic model. The parameters based on the model implicated that the mineralization rates of soil labile and recalcitrant organic carbon tended to decrease with the forest type changing from PMF to PBMF and MEBF. The cumulative amount of CH4 after 52 weeks incubation and the net production of available N and nitrate after 20 weeks incubation were significantly higher in MEBF soil than in PBMF soil, and also, in PBMF soil than in PMF soil. NO3(-) -N was the dominant form in net available N production. The change in soil organic carbon mineralization rate caused by forest type change was an inherent way to affect soil organic carbon content.

  12. [Nutrient leaching and acidification of Southern China coniferous forest red soil under stimulated N deposition].

    PubMed

    Sun, Benhua; Hu, Zhengyi; Lü, Jialong; Zhou, Lina; Xu, Chengkai

    2006-10-01

    In an eight months interval leaching experiment with soil column (10 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height) at 20 degrees C, this paper studied the effects of N deposition on the leaching losses of soil NO -, NH4+ , H+, Ca2+, Mg2+ , K+, and Na+ , and on soil acidification. Soil columns were taken from the coniferous forest experimental plot at the Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Southern China, and the N deposition loads were 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column (-1) , respectively. The results indicated that the leaching losses of total exchangeable cations, Ca2+ , and Mg2+ increased with increasing N deposition loads, but K+ and Na+ were little affected. The proportion of net cations leaching loss (difference of cations in eluate and leachate) to total exchangeable cations was 13.9% , 18.6% , 31.8% and 57.9% under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) column (-1) deposition loads, respectively, and that for exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ was 19. 6%, 25.8% , 45. 3% and 84.8% , and 4.4% , 6.1% , 10. 9% and 17.1% , respectively. The leaching losses of inorganic N, NO3- and H+ also increased with increasing N deposition loads. Topsoil pH decreased with increasing N deposition loads, being 3.85, 3.84, 3.80 and 3.75 under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column(-1) N deposition loads, respectively. N deposition could increase the apparent mineralization rate of soil organic nitrogen, and accelerate the nutrient losses and acidification of coniferous forest red soil.

  13. Water and heat transport in hilly red soil of southern China: II. Modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Huang, Zhi-Zhen; Han, Xiao-Fei

    2005-05-01

    Simulation models of heat and water transport have not been rigorously tested for the red soils of southern China. Based on the theory of nonisothermal water-heat coupled transfer, a simulation model, programmed in Visual Basic 6.0, was developed to predict the coupled transfer of water and heat in hilly red soil. A series of soil column experiments for soil water and heat transfer, including soil columns with closed and evaporating top end, were used to test the simulation model. Results showed that in the closed columns, the temporal and spatial distribution of moisture and heat could be very well predicted by the model, while in the evaporating columns, the simulated soil water contents were somewhat different from the observed ones. In the heat flow equation from Taylor and Lary (1964), the effects of soil water evaporation on the heat flow is not involved, which may be the main reason for the differences between simulated and observed results. The predicted temperatures were not in agreement with the observed one with thermal conductivities calculated by de Vries and Wierenga equations, so that it is suggested that K(h), soil heat conductivity, be multiplied by 8.0 for the first 6.5 h and by 1.2 later on. Sensitivity analysis of soil water and heat coefficients showed that the saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(S), and the water diffusivity, D(theta), had great effects on soil water transport; the variation of soil porosity led to the difference of soil thermal properties, and accordingly changed temperature redistribution, which would affect water redistribution.

  14. Water and heat transport in hilly red soil of southern China: I. Experiment and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Huang, Zhi-Zhen; Han, Xiao-Fei

    2005-05-01

    Studies on coupled transfer of soil moisture and heat have been widely carried out for decades. However, little work has been done on red soils, widespread in southern China. The simultaneous transfer of soil moisture and heat depended on soil physical properties and the climate conditions. Red soil is heavy clay and high content of free iron and aluminum oxide. The climate conditions are characterized by the clear four seasons and the serious seasonal drought. The great air temperature differences annually and diurnally result in significant fluctuation in soil temperature in top layer. The closed and evaporating columns experiments with red soil were conducted to simulate the coupled transfer of soil water and heat under the overlaying and opening fields' conditions, and to analyze the effects of soil temperature gradient on the water transfer and the effects of initial soil water contents on the transfer of soil water and heat. The closed and evaporating columns were designed similarly with about 18 degrees C temperatures differences between the top and bottom boundary, except of the upper end closed or exposed to the air, respectively. Results showed that in the closed column, water moved towards the cold end driven by temperature gradient, while the transported water decreased with the increasing initial soil water content until the initial soil water content reached to field capacity equivalent, when almost no changes for the soil moisture profile. In the evaporating column, the net transport of soil water was simultaneously driven by evaporation and temperature gradients, and the drier soil was more influenced by temperature gradient than by evaporation. In drier soil, it took a longer time for the temperature to reach equilibrium, because of more net amount of transported water.

  15. Shear wave velocity structure of Reed Bank, southern continental margin of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodong; Ruan, Aiguo; Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Wu, Zhenli; Niu, Xiongwei

    2015-03-01

    The shear wave velocity structure of a wide angle seismic profile (OBS973-2) across Reed Bank in the southern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS) is simulated by 2-D ray-tracing method, based on its previous P-wave model. This profile is 369-km-long and consists of fifteen three-component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS). The main results are as follows.(1) The model consists of seven layers and the shear wave velocity increases from 0.7 km/s at the top of sediment layer to 4.0 km/s in the lower crust. (2) The Moho depth decreases from 20-22 km at the Reed Bank to 9-11 km at the deep oceanic basin with the shear wave velocity of 4.2 km/s below the Moho. (3) The Vp/Vs ratio decreases with depth through the sedimentary layers, attributed to increased compaction and consolidation of the rocks. (4) In the continental upper crust (at model distance 90-170 km), S-wave velocity (2.5-3.2 km/s) is relatively low and Vp/Vs ratio (1.75-1.82) is relatively high compared with the other parts of the crust, corresponding to the lower P-wave velocity in the previous P-wave model and normal faults revealed by MCS data, indicating that a strong regional extensional movement had occurred during the formation process of the SCS at the Reed Bank area. (5) The S-wave structures indicate that Reed Bank crust has different rock compositions from that in the east section of the northern margin, denying the presence of conjugate relationship of Reed Bank with Dongsha islands. According to P-wave models and other data, we inferred that Reed Bank and Macclesfield were separated from the same continental crust during the rifting and break-up process.

  16. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in enamel of healthy and carious teeth in southern Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zixia; He, Maoyong; Peng, Bin; Jin, Zhangdong

    2013-09-15

    As the trace element strontium (Sr) plays a significant role in dental health, it is important to determine the Sr concentration and isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of teeth and whether these values are related to caries formation, age and sex. A total of 160 permanent teeth were collected from 7- to 79-year-old people from the southern Shaanxi area of China, including 100 healthy teeth and 60 carious teeth (men and women each accounted for half of the samples). The concentration and isotope composition of Sr elements in the dental enamel of the teeth were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). A significantly lower Sr concentration was found in the enamel of the carious teeth than in that of the healthy teeth for individuals of varying ages and sex. The Sr concentration in human carious teeth ranged between 79.70 µg/g and 85.80 µg/g; while the Sr concentration in healthy teeth ranged between 128 µg/g and 156.77 µg/g. Our results also demonstrated that the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio did not appear to be affected by the caries formation, age or sex. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in the enamel of the healthy and carious teeth of individuals of varying ages and genders ranged between 0.710935 and 0.711037, which falls into the range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios found in the local, naturally occurring water, soils and rocks. Sr plays a significant role in dental health, and there is a negative correlation between Sr and the occurrence of dental caries. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio of teeth reflects the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio of the associated environment, and there is no significant relationship with the frequency of dental caries, age or sex. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na(+) but decreased K(+) concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K(+) concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na(+) concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na(+) and retain K(+) in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  18. Manganese Toxicity in Sugarcane Plantlets Grown on Acidic Soils of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu Lan; Yang, Shu; Long, Guang Xia; Zhao, Zun Kang; Li, Xiao Feng; Gu, Ming Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ratoon sugarcane plantlets in southern China have suffered a serious chlorosis problem in recent years. To reveal the causes of chlorosis, plant nutrition in chlorotic sugarcane plantlets and the role of manganese (Mn) in this condition were investigated. The study results showed that the pH of soils growing chlorotic plantlets ranged from 3.74 to 4.84. The symptoms of chlorosis were similar to those of iron (Fe) deficiency while the chlorotic and non-chlorotic plantlets contained similar amount of Fe. Chlorotic plantlets had 6.4-times more Mn in their leaf tissues compared to the control plants. There was a significantly positive correlation between Mn concentration in the leaves and the exchangeable Mn concentration in the soils. Moreover, leaf Mn concentration was related to both seasonal changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration and to the occurrence of chlorosis. Basal stalks of mature sugarcanes contained up to 564.36 mg·kg-1 DW Mn. Excess Mn in the parent stalks resulted in a depress of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of sugarcanes as indicated by lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of plantlets emerged from basal stalks. Ratoon sugarcane plantlets were susceptible to chlorosis due to high Mn accumulation in their leaves (456.90–1626.95 mg·kg-1 DW), while in planted canes chlorosis did not occur because of low Mn accumulation (94.64–313.41mg·kg-1 DW). On the other hand, active Fe content in chlorotic plantlets (3.39 mg kg-1 FW) was only equivalent to 28.2% of the concentration found in the control. These results indicate that chlorosis in ratoon sugarcane plantlets results from excessive Mn accumulated in parent stalks of planted cane sugarcanes grown on excessive Mn acidic soils, while active Fe deficiency in plantlets may play a secondary role in the chlorosis. PMID:27023702

  19. Coral communities of the remote atoll reefs in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G

    2013-09-01

    During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding coral reef communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian coral check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, coral cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average coral cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive corals were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole coral community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total coral cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, coral communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and coral cover. Spatial pattern of coral communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean coral cover was highest in the patch reef within the lagoon, followed by the fore reef slope, reef flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total coral cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the reef flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch reef. Coral cover in the fore reef revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore reef slope had higher coral cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (< 10 %). The coral communities of the inner reef flat were characterized by higher coral cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora corals, while lower coral cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer reef flat. Destructive fishing and coral bleaching were two major threats to

  20. Risk factors for visual impairment associated with corneal diseases in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sarah C; Chow, Jessica; Liu, Ji; Li, Liang; Maslin, Jessica S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Baihua; Teng, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the most common etiologies of corneal disease and the risk factors associated with worse visual outcomes in Changsha, Hunan, located in southern China. Methods This observational, cross-sectional study evaluated 100 consecutive patients seen at the cornea clinic of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Ocular history, demographic information, and ocular use of traditional Chinese medicine were recorded and analyzed. Causes of infectious keratitis were diagnosed clinically. Fungal and acanthamoeba keratitis were confirmed by confocal microscopy. Visual impairment was categorized based on visual acuity according to World Health Organization recommendations. A binary logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR). Results One hundred consecutive patients were evaluated. Sixty patients (60%) had noninfectious corneal diseases, most commonly dry eye syndrome (26.7%, n=16), followed by corneal abrasion (18.3%, n=11). Forty-five patients had infectious keratitis, five of whom had both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Of the patients with infectious keratitis, viral keratitis was the most frequent cause (57.8%, n=26), followed by fungal (20%, n=9) and bacterial (20%, n=9). Older age (OR =5.08, P=0.048), male sex (OR =3.37, P=0.035), and rural residence (OR =3.11, P=0.017) had increased odds of having worse visual impairment. Rural residence was also associated with infectious keratitis (P=0.005), particularly bacterial and fungal keratitis (P=0.046), and a history of ocular trauma (P=0.003). Occupation was not a significant risk factor in this population. Fourteen patients reported use of traditional Chinese medicine, with no association with visual outcomes found. Conclusion Older age, male sex, and rural residence were associated with worse visual impairment. Prevalence and outcome of corneal diseases may be improved with an increased awareness in these populations. PMID:27194904

  1. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  2. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  3. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  4. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  5. 76 FR 51119 - Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific... directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding California-Palomar Airlines, Inc. d/b/a California Pacific Airlines fit, willing, and able, and awarding to it a...

  6. Epidemiology of multimorbidity in China and implications for the healthcare system: cross-sectional survey among 162,464 community household residents in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Harry H X; Wang, Jia Ji; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Li, Fang Jian; Wang, Pei Xi; Zhou, Zhi Heng; Zhu, Chun Yan; Griffiths, Sian M; Mercer, Stewart W

    2014-10-23

    China, like other countries, is facing a growing burden of chronic disease but the prevalence of multimorbidity and implications for the healthcare system have been little researched. We examined the epidemiology of multimorbidity in southern China in a large representative sample. The effects of multimorbidity and other factors on usual source of healthcare were also examined. We conducted a large cross-sectional survey among approximately 5% (N = 162,464) of the resident population in three prefectures in Guangdong province, southern China in 2011. A multistage, stratified random sampling was adopted. The study population had many similar characteristics to the national census population. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect self-report data on demographics, socio-economics, lifestyles, healthcare use, and health characteristics from paper-based medical reports. More than one in ten of the total study population (11.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6 to 11.6) had two or more chronic conditions from a selection of 40 morbidities. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.38 per five years). Female gender (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.64 to 1.76), low education (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.29), lack of medical insurance (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.89), and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were independent predictors of multimorbidity. Multimorbidity was associated with the regular use of secondary outpatient care in preference to primary care. Multimorbidity is now common in China. The reported preferential use of secondary care over primary care by patients with multimorbidity has many major implications. There is an urgent need to further develop a strong and equitable primary care system.

  7. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  8. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are “mixing vessels,” and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses. PMID:27458456

  9. Imprint of the ENSO on rainfall and latent heating variability over the Southern South China Sea from TRMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets revealed a prominent interannual variation in the convective-stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern South China Sea (SCS) during the winter monsoon between 1998 and 2010. Although the height of maximum latent heating remained nearly constant at around 7 km in all of the years, the year-to-year changes in the magnitudes of maximum latent heating over the region were noticeable. The interannual variations of the convective- stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern SCS were highly anti-correlated with the Niño-3 index, with more (less) rainfall and latent heating during La Niña (El Niño) years. Analysis of the large-scale environment revealed that years of active rainfall and latent heating corresponded to years of large deep convergence and relative humidity at 600 hPa. The moisture budget diagnosis indicated that the interannual variation of humidity at 600 hPa was largely modulated by the vertical moisture advection. The year-to-year changes in rainfall over the southern SCS were mainly caused by the interannual variations of the dynamic component associated with anomalous upward motions in the middle troposphere, while the interannual variations of the thermodynamic component associated with changes in surface specific humidity played a minor role. Larger latent heating over the southern SCS during La Niña years may possibly further enhance the local Hadley circulation over the SCS in the wintertime.

  10. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The Σ15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of thrust compression systems with a multisource geoscientific data processing in the southern margin of Ordos basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yongjie, T.; Genderen, J.L. van

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, the multisource geoscientific data, such as TM data, NOAA data, the data of Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic anomaly, the multisource geophysical processing methods, such as upward continuations, vertical derivative and gradient image, and synthetic image processing method - remote sensing image processing and geophysical image processing under I{sup 2}S600, are used to study the reverse faults or thrusts in the southern margin of Ordos basin, China. On the basis of these results and with geological investigation in the field, the authors have determined three thrust compression systems, named EW thrust compression system, NE thrust compression system and NW thrust compression system. These three systems reveal the regularity of geological structural evolution in the southern margin of Ordos basis and in the north side of Qinling Orogenic Belt.

  12. Geologic events coupled with Pleistocene climatic oscillations drove genetic variation of Omei treefrog (Rhacophorus omeimontis) in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Mian; Wei, Shichao; Luo, Zhenhua; Wu, Hua

    2015-12-21

    Pleistocene climatic oscillations and historical geological events may both influence current patterns of genetic variation, and the species in southern China that faced unique climatic and topographical events have complex evolutionary histories. However, the relative contributions of climatic oscillations and geographical events to the genetic variation of these species remain undetermined. To investigate patterns of genetic variation and to test the hypotheses about the factors that shaped the distribution of this genetic variation in species of southern China, mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) and nine microsatellite loci of the Omei tree frog (Rhacophorus omeimontis) were amplified in this study. The genetic diversity in the populations of R. omeimontis was high. The phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and the Bayesian genetic clustering analysis based on microsatellite data both revealed that all populations were divided into three lineages (SC, HG and YN). The two most recent splitting events among the lineages coincided with recent geological events (including the intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, QTP and the subsequent movements of the Yun-Gui Plateau, YGP) and the Pleistocene glaciations. Significant expansion signals were not detected in mismatch analyses or neutrality tests. And the effective population size of each lineage was stable during the Pleistocene. Based on the results of this study, complex geological events (the recent dramatic uplift of the QTP and the subsequent movements of the YGP) and the Pleistocene glaciations were apparent drivers of the rapid divergence of the R. omeimontis lineages. Each diverged lineages survived in situ with limited gene exchanges, and the stable demographics of lineages indicate that the Pleistocene climatic oscillations were inconsequential for this species. The analysis of genetic variation in populations of R. omeimontis

  13. Identification and characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from tuberculosis suspects in Southern-central China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-li; Lu, Lian; Chen, Gao-zhan; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lei, Hang; Song, Yan-zheng; Zhang, Shu-lin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-related death has increased globally recently. To obtain information of the species and characterization of pathogens involved in NTM pulmonary infection in Southern-central China, we identified 160 non-tuberculous infection cases from 3995 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive tuberculous suspects. We then randomly selected 101 non-tuberculous patients, isolated bacteria from their sputa and genotyped the pathogens using the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. M. intracellulare (32.67%, 33/101), M. abscessus (32.67%, 33/101) and M. fortuitum (7.92%, 8/101) are identified in these isolates. Surprisingly, non-mycobacteria including Gordonia (8.91%, 9/101), Nocardia (5.94%, 6/101) and Tsukamurella (0.99%, 1/101) are also discovered, and the case of Tsukamurella pulmonis infection is first discovered in Southern-central China. Moreover, species of M. mucogenicum group, M. chubuense, M. kansasii, M. gastri, M. avium, M. porcinum and M. smegmatis are identified. In addition, nine immune compromised cases (8.91%, 9/101), including type two diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS are found to be infected with non-tuberculous bacteria. This study revealed the distribution and characteristics of non-tuberculous AFB pathogen infection occurred in Southern-central China, and suggested that physicians should be alert of the emerging of NTM and non-mycobacteria infection in AFB positive cases and take caution when choosing chemotherapy for tuberculosis-like pulmonary infections. Generally, this study may help with the development of new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infection.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Tuberculosis Suspects in Southern-Central China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-li; Lu, Lian; Chen, Gao-zhan; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lei, Hang; Song, Yan-zheng; Zhang, Shu-lin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-related death has increased globally recently. To obtain information of the species and characterization of pathogens involved in NTM pulmonary infection in Southern-central China, we identified 160 non-tuberculous infection cases from 3995 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive tuberculous suspects. We then randomly selected 101 non-tuberculous patients, isolated bacteria from their sputa and genotyped the pathogens using the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. M. intracellulare (32.67%, 33/101), M. abscessus (32.67%, 33/101) and M. fortuitum (7.92%, 8/101) are identified in these isolates. Surprisingly, non-mycobacteria including Gordonia (8.91%, 9/101), Nocardia (5.94%, 6/101) and Tsukamurella (0.99%, 1/101) are also discovered, and the case of Tsukamurella pulmonis infection is first discovered in Southern-central China. Moreover, species of M. mucogenicum group, M. chubuense, M. kansasii, M. gastri, M. avium, M. porcinum and M. smegmatis are identified. In addition, nine immune compromised cases (8.91%, 9/101), including type two diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS are found to be infected with non-tuberculous bacteria. This study revealed the distribution and characteristics of non-tuberculous AFB pathogen infection occurred in Southern-central China, and suggested that physicians should be alert of the emerging of NTM and non-mycobacteria infection in AFB positive cases and take caution when choosing chemotherapy for tuberculosis-like pulmonary infections. Generally, this study may help with the development of new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infection. PMID:25463697

  15. Spectrum of α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia mutations in the Guilin Region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjun; Zhang, Chonglin; Lu, Fangfang; Tang, Juan; Lu, Yu; Cui, Xiu; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2015-11-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most frequent hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorders in southern China. Accurate population frequency data are needed for planning the control of thalassemia in the high-risk Guilin, the southern region of China. Anemia patients (n=11,143) from the Guilin Region of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China were analyzed by Gap-PCR, PCR-based reverse dot blot (RDB), and direct sequencing methods. Of these patients, 4365 (39.17%) were diagnosed with α-thalassemia (α-thal), 2643 (23.72%) with β-thalassemia (β-thal), and 263 (2.36%) as carriers of both α- and β-thal. The diagnosed α-thal anomalies were related to 6 gene mutations and 27 genotypes, with the most common α-thal mutations being -(SEA) (61.37%), -α(3.7) (18.52%), -α(4.2) (6.80%), and α(CS)α (6.64%). The β-thal anomalies were related to 14 gene mutations and 30 genotypes, with the seven most common mutations [CD41-42 (-TTCT) (52.02%), CD17 (A>T) (22.12%), IVS-II-654 (C>T) (11.29%), -28 (A>G) (5.01%), CD71-72 (4.04%), CD26 (2.28%), and -29 (1.83%)] accounting for 98.58% of the β-globin gene mutations. In addition, CD37 (TGG→TAG) and CD 30 (A→G) were two particularly rare dominant β-thal mutations in Chinese populations. Our data suggested that the population in Guilin are at high risk of α- and β-thalassemia. The results of this study will be useful for genetic counseling and the prevention of severe thalassemia in the Guilin Region. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Both temperature fluctuations and East Asian monsoons have driven plant diversification in the karst ecosystems from southern China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hanghui; Condamine, Fabien L; Harris, A J; Chen, Junlin; Pan, Bo; Möller, Michael; Hoang, Van Sam; Kang, Ming

    2017-09-28

    Karst ecosystems in southern China are species-rich and have high levels of endemism, yet little is known regarding the evolutionary processes responsible for the origin and diversification of karst biodiversity. The genus Primulina (Gesneriaceae) comprises ca. 170 species endemic to southern China with high levels of ecological (edaphic) specialization, providing an exceptional model to study the plant diversification in karsts. We used molecular data from nine chloroplast and 11 nuclear regions and macroevolutionary analyses to assess the origin and cause of species diversification due to paleoenvironmental changes and edaphic specialization in Primulina. We found that speciation was positively associated with changes in past temperatures and East Asian monsoons through the evolutionary history of Primulina. Climatic change around the mid-Miocene triggered an early burst followed by a slowdown of diversification rate towards the present with the climate cooling. We detected different speciation rates among edaphic types, and transitions among soil types were infrequently and did not impact the overall speciation rate. Our findings suggest that both global temperature changes and East Asian monsoons have played crucial roles in floristic diversification within the karst ecosystems in southern China, such that speciation was higher when climate was warmer and wetter. This is the first study to directly demonstrate that past monsoon activity is positively correlated with speciation rate in East Asia. This case study could motivate further investigations to assess the impacts of past environmental changes on the origin and diversification of biodiversity in global karst ecosystems, most of which are under threat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  18. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; ...

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  19. Influencing factors on compliance of timely visits among patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in southern China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Xiang; Congdon, Nathan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Qianyun; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiulan; Yu, Chengpu; Liu, Yizhi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify the reasons for low adherence among patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in southern China using a qualitative method. Methods Exploratory indepth interviews were conducted in 27 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy who required vitrectomy surgery at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, from March to August 2015. Qualitative data analysis and research software (ATLAS.ti7) was used for data processing and analysis. Results Factors influencing the occurrence of timely visits included lack of DR related knowledge, fear and worries about insulin, interactions between patients and society combined with the complexity of emotions and social culture, and the economic burden of treatment. Conclusions Although the reasons for low adherence involved social, emotional, cultural and economic factors, the key issue was the lack of awareness and knowledge of DR. Our findings have several practical implications for health policymakers and programme planners in China. PMID:28348188

  20. Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jidang; Fu, Xinliang; Chen, Ye; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Cao, Zhenpeng; Yu, Wenxin; Zhou, Han; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, four H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated from nasal swabs of four pigs (800 nasal swabs were collected from pigs showing influenza-like symptoms) in Guangdong province, China. Four different genotypes of H3N2 appeared among pigs in southern China, including wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, intermediate (1975) double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses (resulting from reassortment between an early human lineage and a recent human lineage), recent double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses, and avian-like H3N2 viruses. Because pigs can support the reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses, our surveillance should be enhanced as a part of an overall pandemic preparedness plan.

  1. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  2. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  3. Fatigue Factors in Regional Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Weldon, Keri J.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Smith, Roy M.; Johnson, Julie M.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes human sleep and circadian physiology regarding their role as contributors to fatigue engendered by flight operations. The demands of regional airline operations are then examined for potential areas where these physiological factors will be affected. Finally, approaches to systematically investigate these issues scientifically will be described.

  4. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Wenzel, E M; Tran, L L; Anderson, M R

    1998-02-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  5. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  6. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  7. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  8. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  9. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  10. Forensic Pathological Study of 1656 Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiuping; Zhang, Liyong; Zheng, Jinxiang; Zhao, Qianhao; Wu, Yeda; Yin, Kun; Huang, Lei; Tang, Shuangbo; Cheng, Jianding

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is progressively threatening the lives of young people throughout the world. We conducted a retrospective study of SCD cases identified among sudden death cases based on comprehensive autopsies and pathological examinations in the Center for Medicolegal Expertise of Sun Yat-Sen University to investigate the exact etiological distribution and epidemiological features of SCD. One thousand six hundred fifty-six cases were identified, and SCD accounted for 43.0% of these sudden death cases. The mean age of the SCD cases—where the data of definite ages were accessible—was 38.2 years, and the highest incidence occurred among the 31- to 40-year-old cases (25.6%). The male-to-female ratio among SCD cases was 4.3:1, and this ratio peaked in the 41- to 50-year-old group (7.7:1). The places of death were confirmed in 1411 cases, and predominantly in hospitals (46.3%) and at home (33.8%). SCD occurred throughout the year with a marginally increase in April and May. The major causes of SCD were coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD, 41.6%), unexplained sudden death (15.1%), and myocarditis (11.8%). Our data indicated that in the age group of younger affected persons (below 35 years old), sudden unexplained death and myocarditis were much more prevalent than CAD. According to anatomical examinations of the CAD-related SCD cases, the proportion of cases with coronary artery stenosis exceeding 75% (grade IV) was 67.2%. Moreover, the percentages of higher grades of coronary atherosclerosis increased with age. Among all branches of the coronary arteries, the left anterior descending branch was the most prone to atherosclerosis; atherosclerosis was present in this branch in 95.4% of the cases with atherosclerosis. Additionally, lesions of multiple branches of the coronary artery were associated with ageing. This is the first study to report the causes of death and basic epidemiological data related to SCD in Southern China. PMID:26844513

  11. Petrogenesis of two types of Late Triassic granite from the Guandimiao Complex, southern Hunan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zengxia; Miao, Baihu; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Jianjun; Liu, Lei; Zuo, Changhu; Lu, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Two types of Late Triassic granite are found in the Guandimiao Complex of the South China Block (SCB). Here, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in order to elucidate the genesis of these granites. The Guandimiao Complex, located in southern Hunan Province, consists dominantly of the Shizhuqiao two-mica alkali feldspar granite and the Jingtou hornblende-bearing biotite monzogranite. The latter contains abundant microgranular enclaves. Zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses show that the microgranular enclaves and the two types of granite were all emplaced during the Late Triassic (226-220 Ma). The Shizhuqiao peraluminous granite has high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.72173-0.72485), enriched εNd(t) and εHf(t) values (-9.6 to -9.4 and -10.5 to -5.5, respectively), and Pb isotopic compositions similar to those of the metamorphic basement of the Cathaysia Block (part of the SCB), implying derivation from the crust. The granite's low molar CaO/(MgO + FeOT) ratios and high molar Al2O3/(MgO + FeOT) ratios indicate a metasedimentary source. The Jingtou metaluminous granite exhibits εHf(t) values (-10.0 to -5.6) that are similar to those of the Shizhuqiao granite, but it has lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.71326-0.71454) and higher εNd(t) values (-7.2 to -6.6). Its high ratios of molar CaO/(MgO + FeOT) and low ratios of molar Al2O3/(MgO + FeOT) suggest an amphibolitic source. The microgranular enclaves contain acicular apatite and are more mafic than their hosts. The combined textural, geochemical, and isotopic data indicate that the enclaves in the Jingtou granite originated from a more mafic crust-derived melt that was injected into the host felsic melt. The geochemical signatures indicate that the microgranular enclaves and the two types of coeval granite that constitute the Guandimiao Complex were derived from different source rocks. The Late Triassic granites in the SCB were emplaced in an extensional post-orogenic setting

  12. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  13. New species of Thinophilus Wahlberg (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from mangroves in southern China (Shenzhen).

    PubMed

    Grootaert, Patrick; Tang, Chufei; Yang, Ding

    2015-05-12

    Three species of Thinophilus Wahlberg are recorded from mangroves near Shenzhen (China). Two species new to science are described and illustrated: T. dongae sp. nov. and T. zhuae sp. nov. In addition, Thinophilus lamellaris Zhu, Yang & Masunaga originally described from Hainan (China) is reported here. Females of this species are described for the first time and variability in male characters is given. These three species plus 6 additional Thinophilus and three Nanothinophilus species from South China Sea mangroves were COI barcoded and compared to species known from the northern part of the South China Sea.

  14. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  15. Habitat suitability modeling of amphibian species in southern and central China: environmental correlates and potential richness mapping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua

    2013-05-01

    Successful wildlife management must take into account suitable habitat areas. Information on the correlation between distribution ranges and environmental conditions would, therefore, improve the efficacy of in-situ conservation of wildlife. In this contribution, correlations between environmental factors and the distribution of 51 amphibians in southern and central China were investigated. Ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude×1° longitude identified a mixture of climatic and habitat factors as important predictors of the occurrence of individual species. The aims of the present work were (i) to evaluate potential distributions of amphibians based on the suitability of areas; (ii) to identify the major environmental descriptors upon which they depend; and (iii) to identify areas of potential high richness that have been overlooked in available inventories. Most of the predicted species ranges of species covered the majority of southern and central China. Six richness hotspots were predicted, of which four have been described previously, but two overlooked (SE Fujian and SE Qinghai). The prediction model was considered to be relatively accurate and it is recommended that these two new potential hotspots should be subjected to further evaluation and sampling efforts. Amphibians have high ecological preference for high humidity and precipitation, and low annual frost days. ENFA is a useful tool in wildlife conservation assessment because it is able to identify potential hotspots where studies on the correlations between environmental descriptors and the occurrence of particular species could be focused.

  16. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-06-30

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m(-2) a(-2) (standardized), 0.057 °C a(-1) (standardized) and 0.067 d a(-1) (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China.

  17. Sleep duration, daytime napping, markers of obstructive sleep apnea and stroke in a population of southern China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ye; Pi, Fu-Hua; Guo, Pi; Dong, Wen-Ya; Xie, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Xia, Fang-Fang; Pang, Shao-Jie; Wu, Yan-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Ying

    2016-10-04

    Sleep habits are associated with stroke in western populations, but this relation has been rarely investigated in China. Moreover, the differences among stroke subtypes remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the associations of total stroke, including ischemic and hemorrhagic type, with sleep habits of a population in southern China. We performed a case-control study in patients admitted to the hospital with first stroke and community control subjects. A total of 333 patients (n = 223, 67.0%, with ischemic stroke; n = 110, 23.0%, with hemorrhagic stroke) and 547 controls were enrolled in the study. Participants completed a structured questionnaire to identify sleep habits and other stroke risk factors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors of disease. Incidence of stroke, and its subtypes, was significantly associated with snorting/gasping, snoring, sleep duration, and daytime napping. Snorting/gasping was identified as an important risk factor in the Lasso logistic regression model (Lasso' β = 0.84), and the result was proven to be robust. This study showed the association between stroke and sleep habits in the southern Chinese population and might help in better detecting important sleep-related factors for stroke risk.

  18. Sleep duration, daytime napping, markers of obstructive sleep apnea and stroke in a population of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ye; Pi, Fu-Hua; Guo, Pi; Dong, Wen-Ya; Xie, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Xia, Fang-Fang; Pang, Shao-Jie; Wu, Yan-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sleep habits are associated with stroke in western populations, but this relation has been rarely investigated in China. Moreover, the differences among stroke subtypes remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the associations of total stroke, including ischemic and hemorrhagic type, with sleep habits of a population in southern China. We performed a case-control study in patients admitted to the hospital with first stroke and community control subjects. A total of 333 patients (n = 223, 67.0%, with ischemic stroke; n = 110, 23.0%, with hemorrhagic stroke) and 547 controls were enrolled in the study. Participants completed a structured questionnaire to identify sleep habits and other stroke risk factors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors of disease. Incidence of stroke, and its subtypes, was significantly associated with snorting/gasping, snoring, sleep duration, and daytime napping. Snorting/gasping was identified as an important risk factor in the Lasso logistic regression model (Lasso’ β = 0.84), and the result was proven to be robust. This study showed the association between stroke and sleep habits in the southern Chinese population and might help in better detecting important sleep-related factors for stroke risk. PMID:27698374

  19. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-06-01

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m‑2 a‑2 (standardized), 0.057 °C a‑1 (standardized) and 0.067 d a‑1 (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China.

  20. A contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis to the biogenic coal bed methane reserves of Southern Qinshui Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Thompson, Ian P; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-11-01

    The activity of methanogens and related bacteria which inhabit the coal beds is essential for stimulating new biogenic coal bed methane (CBM) production from the coal matrix. In this study, the microbial community structure and methanogenesis were investigated in Southern Qinshui Basin in China, and the composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM were also determined. Although geochemical analysis suggested a mainly thermogenic origin for CBM, the microbial community structure and activities strongly implied the presence of methanogens in situ. 454 pyrosequencing analysis combined with methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene clone library analysis revealed that the archaeal communities in the water samples from both coal seams were similar, with the dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium. The activity and potential of these populations to produce methane were confirmed by the observation of methane production in enrichments supplemented with H2 + CO2 and formate, and the only archaea successfully propagated in the tested water samples was from the genus Methanobacterium. 454 pyrosequencing analysis also recovered the diverse bacterial communities in the water samples, which have the potential to play a role in the coal biodegradation fueling methanogens. These results suggest that the biogenic CBM was generated by coal degradation via the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and related bacteria, which also contribute to the huge CBM reserves in Southern Qinshui Basin, China.

  1. Asian dust storm observed at a rural mountain site in southern China: chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Xue, L. K.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, X. F.; Gao, X. M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Y. C.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, Z. S.; Gao, R.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, Y.; Fan, S. J.; Poon, S.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneous processes on dust particles are important for understanding the chemistry and radiative balance of the atmosphere. This paper investigates an intense Asian dust storm episode observed at Mount Heng (1269 m a.s.l.) in southern China on 24-26 April 2009. A set of aerosol and trace gas data collected during the study was analyzed to investigate their chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry as the dust traveled to southern China. Results show that the mineral dust arriving at Mt. Heng experienced significant modifications during transport, with large enrichments in secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) compared with the dust composition collected at an upwind mountain top site (Mount Hua). A photochemical age "clock" (-Log10(NOx/NOy)) was employed to quantify the atmospheric processing time. The result indicates an obvious increase in the abundance of secondary water-soluble ions in dust particles with the air mass atmospheric processing time. Based on the observations, a 4-stage evolution process is proposed for carbonate-containing Asian dust, starting from fresh dust to particles coated with hydrophilic and acidic materials. Daytime-enhanced nitrite formation on the dust particles was also observed, which indicates the recent laboratory result of the TiO2 photocatalysis of NO2 as a potential source of nitrite and nitrous acid.

  2. Asian dust storm observed at a rural mountain site in Southern China: chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Xue, L. K.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, X. F.; Gao, X. M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Y. C.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, Z. S.; Gao, R.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, Y.; Fan, S. J.; Poon, C. N.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2012-08-01

    Heterogeneous processes on dust particles are important for understanding the chemistry and radiative balance of the atmosphere. This paper investigates an intense Asian dust storm episode observed at Mount Heng (1250 m a.s.l.) in Southern China on 24-26 April 2009. A set of aerosol and trace gas data collected during the study was analyzed to investigate their chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry as the dust traveled to Southern China. Results show that the mineral dust arriving at Mt. Heng experienced significant modifications during transport, with large enrichments in secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) compared with the dust composition collected at an upwind mountain top site (Mount Hua). A photochemical age "clock" (-log10(NOx/NOy)) was employed to quantify the atmospheric processing time. The result indicates an obvious increase in the abundance of secondary water-soluble ions in dust particles with the air mass' photochemical age. Based on the observations, a 4-stage evolution process is proposed for carbonate-rich Asian dust, starting from fresh dust to particles coated with hydrophilic and acidic materials. Daytime-enhanced nitrite formation on the dust particles was also observed, which indicates the recent laboratory result of the TiO2 photocatalysis of NO2 as a potential source of nitrite and nitrous acid.

  3. Novel ISCR1-linked resistance genes found in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengping; Wu, Kuihai; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Qian; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Rui, Yongyu

    2012-11-01

    Non-duplicate multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (n=1329) isolated from southern China between January 2008 and December 2009 were investigated for the presence of ISCR1 as well as characterisation of ISCR1-linked resistance genes. Of 433 ISCR1-positive strains, 151 appeared to carry ISCR1-linked resistance genes. Seven different ISCR1-linked resistance gene arrays were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing analysis. Many of these arrays are reported in some species for the first time. A total of 12 genes, including a novel ABC transporter (GenBank accession no. GU944725), qnrA1, qnrB2, qnrB6, bla(DHA-1), ampR, bla(CTX-M-9), bla(PER-1), insB, sapA-like peptide transport periplasmic protein, putative glutathione S-transferase and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, were detected. This study was the first to employ PCR-RFLP using HinfI and RsaI to analyse ISCR1-linked genes. ISCR1 was widely disseminated among MDR Gram-negative bacteria and was in close association with quinolone resistance and β-lactamase genes (class A and class C) in southern China.

  4. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m−2 a−2 (standardized), 0.057 °C a−1 (standardized) and 0.067 d a−1 (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China. PMID:27356766

  5. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" Strains in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the "Ca. Liberibacter" genera.

  6. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Strains in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the “Ca. Liberibacter” genera. PMID:26741827

  7. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  8. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; ...

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. Themore » Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.« less

  9. General practice education and training in southern China: recent development and ongoing challenges under the health care reform.

    PubMed

    Wang, H H X; Wang, J J; Zhou, Z H; Wang, X W; Xu, L

    2013-01-01

    China has launched a general practice (GP)-orientated primary care reform in 2009 to develop a more productive, coordinated, and cost-effective system to maintain and improve the health and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. The restructure of the health care system with a focus on primary care requires practitioners working on GP as gatekeepers for service delivery that is responsive to the needs of people. It is particularly prioritised to establish a sound education and training system to ensure that the competencies of practitioners are aligned with local health care needs. This article aims to provide a brief review of the development of GP, including exemplary model of education and training currently implemented in southern China, as well as the challenges to be addressed in the next step. There is a shortage of well-trained and qualified general practitioners in China where more than half of the licensed clinicians in primary care are educated below the undergraduate level. Although there is a stepwise increase in recognition that the capacity of GP is pivotal to the success of primary care development in China, challenges coming from resource restriction, rural and urban disparity, social attitude, and community involvement are highlighted as major bottlenecks that currently hinder the rapid development of GP in China. Supportive policy and guidelines are necessary to build up strong GP recognition and ensure adequate resources to underpin a robust primary care system to deliver affordable and effective health care services for the world's largest population. It might share some similar experiences with other countries that are struggling to develop a GP-based primary care system.

  10. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  11. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  12. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43−), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43−). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea. PMID:27199215

  13. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3‑), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43‑), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3‑ and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43‑). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea.

  14. Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to diffuse pollution in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Jieyun; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Jinshui

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is currently high and meanwhile diffuse N pollution is also serious in China. The correlation between N deposition and riverine N export and the contribution of N deposition to riverine N export were investigated in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China over a two-year period. N deposition was as high as 26.1 to 55.8kgN/(ha·yr) across different land uses in the studied catchment, while the riverine N exports ranged from 7.2 to 9.6kgN/(ha·yr) in the forest sub-catchment and 27.4 to 30.3kgN/(ha·yr) in the agricultural sub-catchment. The correlations between both wet N deposition and riverine N export and precipitation were highly positive, and so were the correlations between NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N wet deposition and riverine NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N exports except for NH4(+)-N in the agricultural sub-catchment, indicating that N deposition contributed to riverine N export. The monthly export coefficients of atmospheric deposited N from land to river in the forest sub-catchment (with a mean of 14%) presented a significant positive correlation with precipitation, while the monthly contributions of atmospheric deposition to riverine N export (with a mean of 18.7% in the agricultural sub-catchment and a mean of 21.0% in the whole catchment) were significantly and negatively correlated with precipitation. The relatively high contribution of N deposition to diffuse N pollution in the catchment suggests that efforts should be done to control anthropogenic reactive N emissions to the atmosphere in hilly red soil regions in southern China.

  15. Age and provenance constraints on seismically-determined crustal layers beneath the Paleozoic southern Central Asian Orogen, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yaran; Windley, Brian F.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhang, Liqao; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-06-01

    We present 110 ages and 51 in-situ δ18O values for zircon xenocrysts from a post-99 Ma intraplate basaltic rock suite hosted in a subduction-accretion complex of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in order to constrain a seismic profile across the Paleozoic Southern Orogen of Inner Mongolia and the northern margin of the North China Craton. Two zircon populations are recognized, namely a Phanerozoic group of 70 zircons comprising granitoid-derived (ca. 431-99 Ma; n = 31; peak at 256 Ma), meta-granitoid-derived (ca. 449-113 Ma; n = 24; peak at 251 Ma) and gabbro-derived (436-242 Ma; n = 15; peaks at 264 and 244 Ma) grains. Each textural type is characterized by a distinct zircon oxygen isotope composition and is thus endowed with a genetic connotation. The Precambrian population (2605-741 Ma; n = 40) exhibits a prominent age peak at 2520 Ma (granulite-facies metamorphism) and four small peaks at ca. 1900, 1600, and 800 Ma. Our new data, together with literature zircon ages, significantly constrain models of three seismically-determined deep crustal layers beneath the fossil subduction zone-forearc along the active northern margin of the North China Craton, namely: (1) an upper arc crust of early to mid-Paleozoic age, intruded by a major Permian-Triassic composite granitoid-gabbroic pluton (8-20 km depth); (2) a middle crust, predominantly consisting of mid-Meso- to Neoproterozoic felsic and mafic gneisses; and (3) a lower crust composed predominantly of late Archean granulite-facies rocks. We conclude that the Paleozoic orogenic crust is limited to the upper crustal level, and the middle to lower crust has a North China Craton affinity. Furthermore, integrating our data with surface geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, we present a new conceptual model of orogenic uplift, lithospheric delamination and crustal underthrusting for this key ocean-continent convergent margin.

  16. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. Methods A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. Results A total of 80 (8.8%) pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6%) and nervous system (10.7%) symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, age, education, geographic area and the behavioral risk score, farmers without safety training had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.22 (95% CI: 1.86-5.60). The likelihood of acute pesticide poisoning was also significantly associated with number of exposure risk behaviors. A significant "dose-response" relationship between composite behavioral risk scores calculated from 9 pesticides exposure risk behaviors and the log odds of pesticide poisoning prevalence was seen among these Chinese farmers (R2 = 0.9246). Conclusions This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning. PMID:21639910

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of pseudorabies virus variants isolated from Guangdong province of southern China during 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jindai; Zeng, Xiduo; Zhang, Guanqun; Wu, Qiwen; Niu, Jianqiang; Sun, Baoli; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of pseudorabies (PR) have occurred in southern China since late 2011, resulting in significant economic impacts on the swine industry. To identify the cause of PR outbreaks, especially among vaccinated pigs, 11 pseudorabies virus (PRV) field strains were isolated from Guangdong province during 2013–2014. Their major viral genes (gE, TK, gI, PK, gD, 11K, and 28K) were analyzed in this study. Insertions or deletions were observed in gD, gE, gI and PK genes compared with other PRV isolates from all over the world. Furthermore, sequence alignment showed that insertions in gD and gE were unique molecular characteristics of the new prevalent PRV strains in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that our isolates were clustered in an independent branch together with other strains isolated from China in recent years, and that they showed a closer genetic relationship with earlier isolates from Asia. Our results suggest that these isolates are novel PRV variants with unique molecular signatures. PMID:26726029

  18. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  19. A study of airline pilot morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Adrian J; Larsen, Peter D; Griffiths, Robin F; Aldington, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    It has long been believed that airline pilots are healthier than the general population. There are a number of reasons why this should be the case. However, there is very little evidence to support this belief as fact. This study investigates the health of the pilot population of an Oceanic based airline compared to the health of the general population. Pilots who conducted their medical certificate renewal at the airline's medical unit between 1 November 2009 and 31 October 2010 were included. A medical questionnaire was completed by each pilot at the time of their medical certificate renewal. Data from the questionnaire was entered into a database as well as the pilot's BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose level. The comparison population was the population who completed the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) between 2006-2007. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics, and health status data from the pilots was compared to the NZHS using a Chi-squared test. Included in the study were 595 pilots. With respect to most medical conditions, pilots had a lower prevalence when compared to the general population. Pilots had a higher prevalence of kidney disease (3.3% vs 0.6%) and melanoma skin cancer (19 per 1000 vs 0.4 per 1000). This study suggests that pilots in New Zealand are healthier than the general population with respect to most medical conditions. The two medical conditions that were identified as being overrepresented in pilots may be the result of the occupational environment.

  20. Forecast Demand for Pilots by the Airline Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    representative of this group. The two groups are almost exclusively turbojet operators. A regional airline is any remaining Federal Aviation Regulation...through the forecast period and multiply by 6.04. The DOT, through the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), issues a ten year forecast of airline fleet... AIRLINE INDUSTRY AUTHOR(S) MAJOR GEORGE C. MAZZEO, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR MAJOR MARK M. WARNER, ACSC/EDOWC SPONSOR MAJOR WILLIAM S. MORGAN, HG AFMPC/MPCHO

  1. Screening for influenza infection in international airline travelers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alasdair R; Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    We sought the collaboration of an international airline and border control agencies to study the feasibility of entry screening to identify airline travelers at increased risk of influenza infection. Although extensive and lengthy negotiations were required, we successfully developed a multisector collaboration and demonstrated the logistical feasibility of our screening protocol. We also determined the staffing levels required for a larger study to estimate the prevalence of influenza in international airline travelers.

  2. Screening for Influenza Infection in International Airline Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alasdair R.; Jennings, Lance C.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    We sought the collaboration of an international airline and border control agencies to study the feasibility of entry screening to identify airline travelers at increased risk of influenza infection. Although extensive and lengthy negotiations were required, we successfully developed a multisector collaboration and demonstrated the logistical feasibility of our screening protocol. We also determined the staffing levels required for a larger study to estimate the prevalence of influenza in international airline travelers. PMID:19797749

  3. Genetic variation in the invasive weed Mikania micrantha (Asteraceae) suggests highways as corridors for its dispersal in southern China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shi-Lei; Chen, Quan; Cai, Wen-Li; Cao, Ao-Cheng; Ou-Yang, Can-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Roads as corridors of seed or fruit spatial dispersal have major impacts on the establishment and spread of invasive species, but their precise role in population genetic variation remains poorly understood. The South American weed Mikania micrantha has spread rapidly across southern China since its introduction to the Shenzhen area in 1984. This study investigated how its genetic diversity is distributed along highways, and whether highways have acted as corridors for the rapid expansion of M. micrantha METHODS: Twenty-seven roadside populations were sampled along four highways in southern China, and 787 samples were examined using 12 microsatellite markers. Variation in genetic diversity among populations was quantified and patterns of genetic differentiation were analysed. A high level of genetic diversity was found at both the species and the population levels in this self-incompatible plant (expected heterozygosity = 0·497 and 0·477, respectively; allelic richness = 2·580 and 2·521, respectively). The Wright F-statistic value among populations (0·044, P < 0·01) and the analysis of molecular variance (91 % of genetic variation residing within populations, 9 % among populations within highways and 0 % among the four highways) showed a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among populations, while the principal coordinate and cluster analyses also indicated a lack of clear geographical genetic structure among populations. The calculated Nm value of 5·5 signifies strong gene flow. The pattern of genetic variation is consistent with facilitated dispersal along highways. The genetic admixtures among the roadside populations imply the occurrence of multiple population introductions during colonization. The long-distance dispersal of seeds associated with vehicular transportation on highways may have played important roles in shaping the genetic variation. This finding highlights the importance of highways as corridors for the spread of M

  4. High incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer: similarity for 60% of mitochondrial DNA signatures between the Bidayuhs of Borneo and the Bai-yue of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Joseph; Ha, Tarn Cam; Loong, Susan; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Populations in Southern China (Bai-yue) and Borneo (Bidayuh) with high incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) share similar mitochondrial DNA signatures, supporting the hypothesis that these two populations may share the same genetic predisposition for NPC, which may have first appeared in a common ancestral reference population before the sea levels rose after the last ice age. PMID:22943598

  5. High incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer: similarity for 60% of mitochondrial DNA signatures between the Bidayuhs of Borneo and the Bai-yue of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wee, Joseph; Ha, Tam Cam; Loong, Susan; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2012-09-01

    Populations in Southern China (Bai-yue) and Borneo (Bidayuh) with high incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer(NPC) share similar mitochondrial DNA signatures, supporting the hypothesis that these two populations may share the same genetic predisposition for NPC, which may have first appeared in a common ancestral reference population before the sea levels rose after the last ice age.

  6. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  7. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  8. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  9. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  10. Virtual increase or latent loss? A reassessment of mangrove populations and their conservation in Guangdong, southern China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yisheng; Zheng, Mingxuan; Zheng, Zhouxiang; Wu, Guichang; Chen, Yuechao; Xu, Hualin; Tian, Guanghong; Peng, Shenghua; Chen, Guizhu; Lee, Shing Yip

    2016-08-30

    Contrary to the global trend, the area of mangrove in Guangdong Province, southern China, has been increasing over the last two decades. Currently, three exotic mangrove species have been introduced for large-scale afforestation since 1985. A reassessment of the overall status of the mangrove species, habitat change, population of introduced species, was conducted through a comprehensive literature review as well as field investigations covering 96 sites. The success of conservation efforts is also evaluated. Upstream and high intertidal habitats are more vulnerable than downstream and lower intertidal ones, with habitat alteration being the biggest threats. Five mangrove species have narrow distributional extents with small populations, which could incur regional extinction. With the introduced species having naturalized at 42 sites, their role in mangrove management needs to be reconsidered. These findings collectively suggest a need to manage latent species loss and habitat degradation beyond the apparent increase in mangrove area and protection.

  11. Recruitment from an egg bank into the plankton in Baisha Bay, a mariculture base in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Luan, Lei-Lei; Chen, Liang-Dong; Yuan, Dan-Ni; Liu, Sheng; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Yang, Yu-Feng

    2016-11-01

    The potential recruitment of resting eggs of calanoid copepods and rotifers to planktonic populations was investigated in the surface and sub-surface sediments of three mariculture zones: an integrated seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis and shellfish cultivation area (G), a fish cultivation area (F), and a shellfish cultivation area (S), as well as the sediments of a nearby control sea area (C) in a mariculture base in Southern China. The potential recruitment of copepod and rotifer eggs in the sediments of C and G was significantly higher than in F and S. Potential recruitment in the sub-surface sediments of F and S was not observed, suggesting that fish and shellfish mariculture may be responsible for this decrease. The hatching success of resting eggs of copepods and rotifers was affected by mariculture type, and that large-scale seaweed cultivation may offset the adverse effect of fish and shellfish cultivation on the resting eggs if integrated cultivation is adopted.

  12. Investigation of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and quinolone antibiotics in vegetable farmland soil in the Pearl River Delta area, southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Mo, Ce-Hui; Tai, Yi-Ping; Huang, Xian-Pei; Xiang, Lei

    2011-07-13

    Thirteen antibiotics in soil from vegetable farmlands of the Pearl River Delta, southern China, were investigated. At least three antibiotics were detected in each sample. Six antibiotics including four quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were detected in >94% of the samples. The total contents of three tetracyclines, eight sulfonamides, and four quinolones were not detected-242.6, 33.3-321.4, and 27.8-1537.4 μg/kg, respectively. The highest antibiotic concentrations were observed mainly in vegetable farmlands affiliated with livestock farms. Chlortetracycline, sulfameter, and quinolones in some samples exceed the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 μg/kg) set by the Steering Committee of Veterinary International Committee on Harmonization. The composition and concentration of antibiotics in soil were correlated with vegetable species. This study has revealed an alarming condition of antibiotics in vegetable farmland soil. Further investigation including environmental fate, plant uptake, and human exposure to antibiotics by plant-derived food should be conducted.

  13. Fracturing in the Paleozoic carbonate formations of southern China (Guanxi fracture area): Interpretation within the tectonic context of eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, C.

    1986-01-01

    This tectonic study deals with the fracturing of Paleozoic carbonate series of the southern China block. In addition to the E-W shortening, with its reverse faults, which is known to be of Mesozoic age, two other deformation episodes stand out clearly. The chronology of the episodes is as follows: Compression with a sub-meridian strike, with an horizontal extension subsequently stretching N130° with normal faults. This latter episode could be equivalent to the stretching dating back to the Cenozoic that is generally spread over most of eastern and southeastern Asia. The organisation of this fracturing is characterised by two dominant types of strike, which show up in an almost identical fashion on field surveys and on ERTS (satellite) imagery. The organisation of fractures surveyed in the field is characterized by two major orientation classes (N000°-N020° and N060°-N080°) which appear almost identical on satellite photos.

  14. Effects of Litter Manipulation on Litter Decomposition in a Successional Gradients of Tropical Forests in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem. PMID:24901698

  15. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem.

  16. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in southern China: identification of early childhood as the critical period for acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H M; Li, Y Y; Hu, P J; Liu, Q; Chen, M; Du, G G; Wang, Z J; Lee, A; Hazell, S L

    1992-07-01

    A large cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence and possible modes of transmission of Helicobacter pylori was done in southern China. Serum samples (1727) were collected from Guangzhou city and three rural areas of Guangdong Province, and the prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using an ELISA. Each subject completed a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 44.2%; a significantly higher prevalence was found in Guangzhou (52.4%) than in the rural areas (38.6%). This difference was generally reflected in the group 0-5 years old, but the rate of increase in seroprevalence for H. pylori over 5 years of age was similar (1%/year). This study provides important new data on the acquisition of H. pylori, particularly in the early years of life, and shows that density of living conditions is a prime determinant in the acquisition of H. pylori.

  17. Impacts of metal contamination and eutrophication on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages along the Guangdong coast of southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Zhaohui; Guo, Xin; Gu, Yangguang; Liang, Weibiao; Liu, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Fifty-one surface sediment samples were collected from eleven sea areas along the Guangdong coast in southern China. Biogenic elements, metals and dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed. Twenty-one cyst taxa in 12 genera were identified. The cyst concentrations ranged between 14 and 250 cysts/g, with an average of 69 cysts/g. The low cyst production was caused by coarse sediments, high sedimentation rates, and high anthropogenic disturbances. Biogenic elements were comparable with those reported. However, the metal concentrations were far lower than the sediment quality guidelines. Both biogenic elements and metals were higher in the Mid Coast and lower in the Western Coast. Eutrophication slightly enhanced the productivity of autotrophic dinocysts, and cysts of Scrippsiella indicated eutrophication. Cd had inhibitory effects on cyst production. Alexandrium and Diplopsalis cysts were sensitive to metal contamination; however, Gyrodinium, Pheopolykrikos, and Lingulodinium cysts had high resistance to metal contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Genetic data of nine non-CODIS STRs in Chinese Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, De-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ling; Zhao, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Nine non-combined DNA index system tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) loci D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, and GATA198B05 were amplified in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction system. The distribution of alleles of the nine STRs was reported from a Chinese Han population in Guangdong Province, Southern China. The combined power of exclusion in trios and duos for the nine loci was 0.999981 and 0.999025, respectively. Mutation rates range from 0 to 0.005618. Pairwise analysis of linkage disequilibrium, which included PowerPlex 16 System loci, did show statistically significant deviation from independence even though loci locate on the same chromosomes. The nine STRs are highly informative and suitable to extend the results obtained with other STRs commonly analyzed for difficult paternity and kinship analysis.

  19. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration... Desk Officer. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041 Title: Airline Service Quality...

  20. The effect of Kuroshio Current on nitrate dynamics in the southern East China Sea revealed by nitrate isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua

    2016-09-01

    In spring 2014 (May-June), in the southern East China Sea (ECS) and east of Taiwan, nutrient and isotope samples were collected and analyzed. Also, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, and physical parameters were determined. The Kuroshio subsurface water intruded into the ECS and separated into two branches on the continental shelf: the nearshore Kuroshio branch current (NKBC) and the offshore Kuroshio branch current (OKBC). Nitrate concentration in the Kuroshio subsurface water slightly decreased east of Taiwan by assimilation and was supplied by upwelling currents northeast of Taiwan. The variations of DO, nitrate, and nitrogen isotopes in the bottom water showed that continuous nitrification occurred in the NKBC after intrusion into the ECS. This process might contribute to the hypoxia zone near the coast of Zhejiang Province, China. Our results also indicated that internal nitrogen cycles appeared in NKBC since the isotope fractionation ratio of oxygen and nitrogen (18ɛ:15ɛ) in NO3- was 1.40. The NO3- flux and budget were calculated in the NKBC via numerical simulations. It demonstrated that at least ˜0.52 kmol NO3-·s-1 was produced by nitrification from DH9 to DH5 transect, and ˜0.11 kmol NO3-·s-1 was consumed in the DH4 transect. Moreover, according to the Rayleigh model, primary production in most of southern ECS was supported by the intrusion of the Kuroshio subsurface water, causing 5‰ isotope fractionation. In some of nearshore stations which located in the northern investigated area, the assimilated nitrate was contributed from both the NKBC and coastal currents originated from the Changjiang diluted water.

  1. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  2. A remarkable new Awas Löbl from southern China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Shen, Jia-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new distinctive species of the rare Oriental goniacerine genus Awas Löbl, Awas gigas sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on three males and fourteen females taken at the Daoyao Shan Natural Reserve in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi. All specimens were collected from colonies of the ant genus Pachycondyla F. Smith nesting in decomposing woods. PMID:26448721

  3. Understanding haze pollution over the southern Hebei area of China using the CMAQ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Xu, Jing; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Xiujuan; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Dandan; Pan, Xuemei; Su, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Haze has been one of the major air pollution problems in Chinese cities, and the southern Hebei area has attracted particular attention because of its high frequency of haze weather and the rapid deterioration in visibility in recent years. This study is aimed at understanding the characteristics and sources of the serious haze pollution in the southern Hebei area using the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The haze frequencies in the cities of southern Hebei, including Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and five other urban centers in the surrounding regions, are analyzed for a ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, which shows a very similar and clear seasonal variation. The contributions of the local and regional anthropogenic emissions to the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodiameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm) and the light extinction coefficient (Bext) are estimated by conducting simulations of seven scenarios. The results show that approximately 65% of the PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang and Xingtai originated from the local emissions of the southern Hebei area, followed by Shanxi Province and the northern area of Hebei (13.8% and 7.3% to Shijiazhuang and 10.4% and 5.2% to Xingtai, respectively). The contributions of the emissions from the local area, Shanxi Province and the northern Hebei area to Bext are approximately 59.4%, 13.8% and 6.8% for Shijiazhuang and 58.2%, 10.1% and 5.0% for Xingtai, respectively. Moreover, an analysis of a typical pollution episode indicates that the contributions from the Shandong and Henan provinces are also significant. Further investigations are still required because of the complexity of the haze pollution over the southern Hebei area.

  4. Unprecedented warming revealed from multi-proxy reconstruction of temperature in southern China for the past 160 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Jingyun; Hao, Zhixin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-08-01

    Using the southern limit of snowfall recorded in Chinese documents, chronologies of tree-ring width, and tree-ring stable oxygen isotope (δ18O), the annual temperature anomaly in southern China during 1850-2009 is reconstructed using the method of signal decomposition and synthesis. The results show that the linear trend was 0.47°C (100 yr)-1 over 1871-2009, and the two most rapid warming intervals occurred in 1877-1938 and 1968-2007, at rates of 0.125°C (10 yr)-1 and 0.258°C (10 yr)-1, respectively. The decadal variation shows that the temperature in the moderate warm interval of the 1910s-1930s was notably lower than that of the 1980s-2000s, which suggests that the warming since the 1980s was unprecedented for the past 160 years, though a warming hiatus existed in the 2000s. Additionally, there was a rapid cooling starting from the 1860s, followed by a cold interval until the early 1890s, with the coldest years in 1892 and 1893. A slight temperature decline was also found from the 1940s to the late 1960s. This study provides an independent case to validate the global warming for the past 160 years and its hiatus recently, because the proxy data are not affected by urbanization.

  5. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  6. Fatty acid composition of surface sediments in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent shelf, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianfang; Zhang, Hongbo; Peng, Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments (10 cm) of the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent shelf, Southern China were collected. Fatty acids and compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses were determined to infer their sources and biogeochemical cycle of this lipid in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS). The total concentrations of fatty acids ranged from ˜1.28 to ˜42.25 μg g -1 dry weight. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were low (0.2-4.8% of total fatty acids), suggesting that fatty acids derived from algae were effectively recycled during the whole settling and depositing process. Bacterial fatty acids were significantly high and terrigenous fatty acids were low in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data also indicates that a clear separation of the biogeochemical sources can be seen. The δ13C values of bacterial fatty acids, i.e., i/ aiC 15 (-22.9‰ to -29.4‰) suggest that bacteria within the sediments mainly utilize a labile pool of organic matter derived from algae for their growth in the subtropical Pearl River estuary system.

  7. Dust sources in arid and semiarid China and southern Mongolia: Impacts of geomorphological setting and surface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xunming; Xia, Dunsheng; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Li, Jinchang

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of the geomorphological settings and surface materials in arid and semiarid China and southern Mongolia revealed that the dominant dust sources are 'Gobi' deserts and alluvial fans adjacent to Gobi deserts in the piedmonts of the Kunlun, Qilian, Helan, and Gobi Altai mountains. These areas have persistent supplies of dust-sized particles, deposited by intermittent floods from the mountains, and fine materials are also generated by weathering and aeolian processes acting on the coarse fractions of Gobi surfaces. Clear spatial differences in mineral types and contents and in the salt contents of surface materials also strongly affected the intensity of dust emissions. Inconsistencies in monitoring, simulation, and calculation of dust emissions in previous studies of Northern China and Mongolia may have been caused by insufficiently detailed considerations of variations in the geomorphological setting. Where the geomorphological settings in these areas are not considered in sufficient detail, deviations arise in the estimation and prediction of dust using current models. Although the present study did not quantify the persistence and replenishment of dust sources in the study area, our conclusions about the importance of geomorphology can improve future studies of dust sources and controlling factors, improve assessments of the effects of climate change on dust emissions, and facilitate the interpretation of paleoclimate records.

  8. Impacts of temperature on rice yields of different rice cultivation systems in southern China over the past 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui; Boken, Vijendra

    The impact of climate change on rice yield in China remains highly uncertain. We examined the impact of the change of maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) on rice yields in southern China from 1967 to 2007. The rice yields were simulated by using the DSSAT3.5 (Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer)-Rice model. The change of Tmax and Tmin in rice growing seasons and simulated rice yields as well as their correlations were analyzed. The simulated yields of middle rice and early rice had a decreasing trend, but late rice yields showed a weak rise trend. There was significant negative correlation between Tmax and the early rice yields, as well as the late rice yields in most stations, but non-significant negative correlation for the middle rice yields. An obviously negative relationship was found between Tmin and the early and middle rice yields, and a significant positive relationship was found between Tmin and the late rice yields. It indicated that under the recent climate warming, the increased Tmax brought strong negative impacts on early rice yields and late rice yields, but a weak negative impact on the middle rice yields; the increased Tmin had a strong negative impact on the middle rice yields and the early rice yields, but a significant positive impact on the late rice yields. It suggested that it is necessary to adjust rice planting date and adapt to higher Tmin.

  9. Late paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China. Sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Graham, S.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Ying, D.; Zhou, D.

    1995-05-01

    This study focuses on areas adjacent to the Tian Shan (shan is Chinese for mountains) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, and provides new field data on Carboniferous and Permian outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks of the southern Junggar, northwestern Turpan, and northern Tarim basins that bear directly on the history of late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation. We present here a multifaceted sedimentary basin analysis, including sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, and sandstone provenance analyses, and reconstructions of late Paleozoic basin subsidence. These data provide a unique record not only of the basins themselves, but also of the evolution of the adjacent orogenic belts. This study is based on fieldwork during the summers of 1987, 1988, 1991, and 1992 by workers from Stanford University, the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, and the Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Although reconnaissance in nature, the data presented here provide a basis for evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of northwestern China and provide a starting point for more comprehensive future studies. 72 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Morphological and chemical variation of Stemona tuberosa from southern China - Evidence for heterogeneity of this medicinal plant species.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Brecker, L; Felsinger, S; Cai, X-H; Kongkiatpaiboon, S; Schinnerl, J

    2017-09-01

    The occurrence of bioactive alkaloids and tocopherols was studied in 15 different provenances of Stemona tuberosa Lour. collected in southern China, to examine chemical variation of individuals that show notable differences in flower characteristics. Morphological variations stimulated examination of chemical characteristics of these individuals. Methanolic root extracts of 15 individuals of S. tuberosa were comparatively assessed with HPLC-UV-DAD/ELSD. Five of seven compounds were co-chromatographically identified. Two compounds were isolated and their structure elucidated using NMR and MS. Amounts of alkaloids and tocopherols were determined using HPLC-UV-DAD/ELSD with the external standard method. Five alkaloids, tuberostemonine (1), tuberostemonine A (2), neotuberostemonine (3), tuberostemonine N (4), stemoninine (5) and two 3,4-dehydrotocopherol derivatives were identified. Within S. tuberosa alkaloid accumulation tends either towards tuberostemonine (1) or stemoninine (5). All individuals show a notable co-occurrence of compounds 1 or 5 and 3,4-dehydro-δ-tocopherol (6). These results coincide with differences in flower morphology of S. tuberosa. Stemona tuberosa, as defined in the Flora of China, shows a remarkable variation in flower morphology and additionally in the accumulation of alkaloids. The obtained data show the need for future species delimitation to either species or subspecies level. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities

    PubMed Central

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. Methodology/Principal Findings During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China. PMID:23166751

  12. Live poultry trade in Southern China provinces and HPAIV H5N1 infection in humans and poultry: the role of Chinese New Year festivities.

    PubMed

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT's) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China.

  13. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  14. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  15. Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust in multiple microenvironments of southern China and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Jing; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Jun-Zhi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are important alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but information on their contamination of the environment in China is rare. We examined the occurrence of 12 OPFRs in indoor dust in four microenvironments of southern China, including a rural electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, a rural non-e-waste area, urban homes, and urban college dormitory rooms. The OPFR concentrations (with a median of 25.0 μg g(-1)) were highest in the e-waste area, and the concentrations in other three areas were lower and comparable (7.48-11.0 μg g(-1)). The levels of OPFRs in the present study were generally relatively lower than the levels of OPFRs found in Europe, Canada, and Japan because BFRs are still widely used as the major FRs in China. The composition profile of OPFRs in the e-waste area was dominated by tricresyl phosphate (TCP) (accounting for 40.7%, on average), while tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the most abundant OPFR (64.4%) in the urban areas (homes and college dormitories). These two distribution patterns represent two OPFR sources (i.e., emissions from past e-waste and from current household products and building materials). The difference in the OPFR profiles in the rural area relative to the OPFR profiles in the urban and e-waste areas suggests that the occurrence of OPFRs is due mainly to emissions from characteristic household products in rural homes. Although human exposures to all the OPFRs were under the reference doses, the health risk for residents in the e-waste area is a concern, considering the poor sanitary conditions in this area and exposure from other sources.

  16. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  17. Fare Deals from Scheduled Airlines: A Primer for Migratory Geographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Airline travel provides those interested in geography with opportunities to see and photograph rural and urban scenes. Author describes circuitous routing, joint fares, and stopover techniques that maximize domestic and international air travel experiences. Defines various airline and travel agent terminology. (Author/BC)

  18. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  19. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Extremity Chronic Osteomyelitis in Southern China: A Retrospective Analysis of 394 Consecutive Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Ma, Yun-Fei; Jiang, Yi; Zhao, Xing-Qi; Xie, Guo-Ping; Hu, Yan-Jun; Qin, Cheng-He; Yu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Although extremity chronic osteomyelitis is common in China, updated data were still limited regarding its characterizations. The present study aimed to review clinical features of extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Southern China.A retrospective analysis was conducted in the patients who had sought medical attention from January 2010 to April 2015 for extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Nanfang Hospital in Southern China. Clinical data were collected and analyzed.A total of 394 patients (307 males and 87 females) were included, giving a gender ratio of 3.53. The median age at first diagnosis was 42 years for all. The most frequent type was traumatic osteomyelitis (262 cases, 66.50%), which was mainly caused by open injury (166 cases, 63.36%) and during a road accident (91 cases, 34.73%). Single-site infection accounted for 81.98% (323 cases), with tibia (126 cases), femur (79 cases), calcaneus (37 cases), and toes (37 cases) as the top sites. The positive rate of intraoperative culture was 70.63% (214/303), 78.97% (169/214) of which was monomicrobial infection. Staphylococcus aureus (59 cases) was the most frequent bacteria for monomicrobial infection, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29 cases) and Escherichia coli (11 cases). The positive ratios of preoperative serum white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were 21.63%, 64.92%, 53.27%, 42.25%, 72.82%, and 66.67%, respectively. The most frequently used intravenous antibiotic was cephalosporins. The overall cure rate was 77.74%, with a total amputation rate of 16.75%.In this representative Chinese cohort, extremity chronic osteomyelitis was mostly caused by open injury and during a road accident, predominated in males and favored the tibia. S. aureus was the most frequent pathogenic organism. Preoperative elevated levels of serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ESR may be helpful diagnostic

  20. Selenium in Paleozoic stone coal (carbonaceous shale) as a significant source of environmental contamination in rural southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, H. E.; Luo, K.

    2012-04-01

    Selenium occurs in high concentrations (typically > 10 and up to 700 ppm) in organic-rich Paleozoic shales and cherts (called "stone coal" - shíméi), in southern China. Stone coals are black shales that formed in anoxic to euxinic environments and typically contain high concentrations of organic carbon, are enriched in various metals such as V, Mo, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Se, etc., and are distinguished from "humic" coal in the Chinese literature. We have examined stone coal from Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou Provinces, People's Republic of China and have focused our study on the mode of occurrence of Se and other elements (e.g. As, Pb, etc.) hazardous to human health. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive analysis and electron microprobe wave-length dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify and determine the composition of host phases observed in the stone coals. Native selenium, Se-bearing pyrite and other sulfides are the hosts for Se, although we cannot preclude an organic or clay-mineral association. Stone coals are an important source of fuel (reserves over 1 billion tonnes), both domestically and in small industry, in some rural parts of southern China and present significant environmental problems for the indigenous population. The stone coals create three main environmental problems related to Se pollution. First, the residual soils formed on stone coal are enriched in Se and other metals contained in the stone coals and, depending on the speciation and bioavailability of the metals, may enrich crops and vegetation grown on them. Second, weathering and leaching of the stone coal contaminates the local ground water and/or surface waters with Se and other metals. Third, the local population uses the stone coal as a source of fuel, which releases the more volatile elements (Se and As) into the atmosphere in the homes. The ash will be extremely enriched with the balance of the heavy metal suite. Disposal of the ash on agricultural lands or near water

  1. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  2. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  3. Application of a new model using productivity coupled with hydrothermal factors (PCH) for evaluating net primary productivity of grassland in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zheng-Guo; Liu, Jie; Tang, Hai-Yang

    2017-04-01

    Grassland ecosystems play important roles in the global carbon cycle. The net primary productivity (NPP) of grassland ecosystems has become the hot spot of terrestrial ecosystems. To simulate grassland NPP in southern China, a new model using productivity coupled with hydrothermal factors (PCH) was built and validated based on data recorded from 2003 to 2014. The results show a logarithmic correlation between grassland NPP and mean annual temperature and a linear positive correlation between grassland NPP and mean annual precipitation in southern China, both highly significant relationships. There was a highly significant correlation between simulated and measured NPP (R2 = 0. 8027). Both RMSE and relative root mean square error (RRMSE) were relatively low, showing that the simulation results of the model were reliable. The NPP values in the study area had a decreasing trend from east to west and south to north. Mean NPP was 471.62 g C m-2 from 2003 to 2014. Additionally, the mean annual NPP of southern grassland presented a rising trend, increasing 3.49 g C m-2 yr-1 during the past 12 years. These results document performance and use of a new method to estimate the grassland NPP in southern China.

  4. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  5. The Qiqinaer mafic-ultramafic complex: A newly identified ophiolitic suite in the southern Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Encarncion, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, D.; Huang, H.; Dong, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB) is a major accretionary belt, and is a natural laboratory to study Phanerozoic continental growth. The southern Tianshan orogen is the southern boundary of the CAOB. It resulted from the closure of the south Tianshan ocean following collision of the Tarim and Kazakhstan-Yili blocks. We have identified a new ophiolitic complex in the forearc of the southern Tianshan: The Qiqinaer mafic-ultramafic complex, which is inferred to be thrust on to the northern passive margin of the Tarim continental block. The complex consists of an upper sedimentary sequence of interbedded chert, mudstone, limestone, and mafic volcaniclastics, partly interbedded with pillowed and massive lavas. Diabase dikes, coarse to fine-grained gabbro and some possible silicic volcanics are usually in fault contact with the volcano-sedimentary units. These rocks are distributed over 6 km along an almost N-S-trending valley located about 130 km west of the nearest county named Aheqi (within latitudes 40°54'38″ and 40°56'39″ and longitudes 77°10'44″ to 77°11'02″). There is also an area of serpentinite, which is about 140 m wide and 750 m long in an adjacent valley. This suite of rocks is tentatively interpreted as a relatively complete ophiolite. We name this suite of rocks the “Qiqinaer ophiolite” after the valleys in which it is exposed. The ophiolite is relatively unmetamorphosed; most basalts are spilitic, but some contain fresh olivine. Samples from the Qiqinaer Valley are in the process of being analyzed for biostratigraphy, U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry. Previous samples from chert associated with pillow lava a few 10s of km from Qiqinaer Valley, thought to be part of the same sequence, yielded Devonian to Carboniferous radiolaria. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd errorchrons from the pillow lavas are broadly consistent with these paleontological ages. These pillow lavas exhibit OIB-like trace element geochemistry. Other ophiolitic complexes

  6. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  7. Studies of the Development of Cyclones over Southern China Coastal Areas and Adjacent Seas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    east part of the Tsinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Altai Mountain Ranaes. To its east, there lies a long coastal line with warm ocean currents coming from... Mountain Ranges east of them, there are favorable regions for cyclogenesis in China. One is Inner Mongolia and the Northeast Provinces in the North; the...The integration was done numerically for a period of one year. Then another simulation for cases without any " mountains in the region was run for a

  8. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) from Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menglin; Bourgoin, Thierry; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-13

    A new genus Tetricodissus gen. nov. with one new species Tetricodissus pandlineus sp. nov. from Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated in the tribe Parahiraciini of planthopper family Issidae. Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 is transferred into the genus Bardunia Stål, 1863. A key to genera of the tribe Parahiraciini is provided and the taxonomic position of the new genus in Parahiraciini is discussed.

  9. Two subtypes of HIV-1 among injection-drug users in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X F; Chen, J; Shao, Y; Beyrer, C; Lai, S

    1998-04-25

    The rate of HIV-1 infection has increased steadily in China by about 80% annually and by the end of September 1997, 8277 HIV-1 cases had been reported, of whom more than 75% were IV drug users (IVDUs). UNAIDS, however, has estimated that up to 200,000 people could actually be infected with HIV-1 in China. Guangxi Province borders Yunnan province in the west and Vietnam to the south, and is a major transit area for heroin trafficking from the opium-growing region of Laos and Myanmar. Phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences (C2-V3) obtained from 14 IVDUs found that 9 subjects from Pingxiang City were infected with subtype E and 5 from Baise City with subtype C. The 9 subtype E and 5 subtype C HIV-1 sequences were clustered together within each group, with significant bootstrap values of 100% and 95%, respectively. The subtype E sequences were more closely related to HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand than to those from Africa, and the subtype C sequences were clustered more closely to those from India than to those from Africa. Study results suggest 2 epidemiologically unrelated epidemics and 2 different sources; subtype C probably transmitted from Yunnan to Baise City through drug trafficking and IVDU interaction, and subtype E coming into China from Vietnam.

  10. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  11. Synthetic Vision for Airliners and General Aviaion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Video News Release'(?) for AWIN, the Aviation Weather Information Network. Includes animations. Narration: Bad weather and poor visibility can be potentially hazardous to aircraft and flight crews. Both can contribute to deadly accidents. The NASA Aviation Safety Program is working on innovative cockpit technologies that could help pilots avoid flying into rough weather, terrain or obstacles. Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) - a 'weather channel' in the sky - would give flight crews, air-traffic controllers and airline dispatchers timely moving map displays to help them make better re-routing decisions. 'Synthetic vision' would offer pilots a clear electronic picture including topography, traffic, even airport runways. Sensors, sattellites and terrain databases would create a kind of virtual-reality of what's outside - no matter what the weather or time of day. NASA isn't working alone to make air travel safer, it is teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry to develop new systems for airliners and general aviation aircraft. Their partnership is expected to make a difference worldwide and ensure many safe and smooth landings

  12. Cruise observation of Ulva prolifera bloom in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangqing; Li, Yan; Wang, Zongling; Zhang, Qingchun; Cai, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-01

    Four cruises were carried out in the southern Yellow Sea from May to June of 2012 with the aim of observing the development of green tides. Free-floating patches of green algae dominated by Ulva prolifera occurred in early May in coastal waters of the southern Yellow Sea with an average biomass of 0.05 g m-2. The average biomass of free-floating green algae developed rapidly and reached 3.20 gm-2 in mid-May, and the affected area reached 8.7 × 103 km2 with a total biomass of 1.37 × 105 tons. In late May, the average biomass reached 5.81 gm-2, and the affected area reached 3.2 × 104 km2 with a total biomass of 2.5 × 105 tons. In early June, the average biomass reached 8.47 gm-2, the affected area covered 3.6 × 104 km2, and the total biomass of floating green algae was 3.64 × 105 tons. The affected areas of green tide in our observed data were higher than those estimated from remote sensing images in the early two cruises, and basically matched the remote sensing data in the last two cruises. With the increased biomass and the expansion of the affected area, the free-floating algal patches moved progressively northward. They first appeared in coastal water of middle Jiangsu province, gradually reached 35°N in early May, and finally drifted to the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula (36°N) after one month. This work can offer help for the early prediction and warning of a green algal bloom and provide decision-making bases for governmental departments.

  13. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-12-08

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed.

  14. Late Mesozoic development of the southern Qinling-Dabieshan foreland fold-thrust belt, Central China, and its role in continent-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaofeng; Li, Wangpeng; Wang, Kai; Qian, Tao; Jiang, Chengxin

    2015-03-01

    The southern Qinling-Dabieshan foreland fold-thrust belt is a key region in which to investigate the continental-continental collision between North China and South China. We provide structural evidence of a diachronous dextral strike-slip thrusting deformation from the Middle Triassic in the east to the late Late Triassic in the west, which indicates a northwestward oblique subduction and suturing of the South China plate under the North China-Qinling-Dabieshan plate. We also identify a later phase of intracontinental deformation that included an orthogonal intracontinental collision and south-vergent thrusting during the Early and Middle Jurassic, indentation of South China into the Qinling-Dabieshan Orogen and arc-shaped extrusions of the southern Qinling-Dabieshan foreland fold-thrust belt from the Late Jurassic to the Cretaceous. Our results reveal that the long-term intracontinental collision rotated clockwise in a northwest-southeast-vergent direction in the Late Triassic to northeast-east-southwest-west-vergent in the Late Cretaceous. This collision may have been driven by a north-vergent subduction of the Meso-Tethys Ocean in the south, west-vergent subduction of the Izanagi plate in the east, and south-vergent compression of the Eurasia plate in the north.

  15. Trace Element Accumulation and Tissue Distribution in the Purpleback Flying Squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis from the Central and Southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan Yan; Shen, Yu; Huang, Hui; Yang, Xian Qing; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Cen, Jian Wei; Qi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis is a species of cephalopod that is becoming economically important in the South China Sea. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined in the mantle, arms, and digestive gland of S. oualaniensis from 31 oceanographic survey stations in the central and southern South China Sea. Intraspecific and interspecific comparisons with previous studies were made. Mean concentrations of trace elements analyzed in arms and mantle were in the following orders: Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > As > Hg. In digestive gland, the concentrations of Cd and Cu exceed that of Zn. All the Pb concentrations were under the detected limit.

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.105 - What are the basic requirements for using airlines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for using airlines? 301-10.105 Section 301-10.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline § 301-10.105 What are the basic requirements for using airlines? The requirements for using airlines fall into three categories: (a) Using contract...

  17. Proposed Alliance Between American Airlines and British Airways Raises Competition Concerns and Public Interest Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-21

    GAO-02-293R American Airlines /Brtish Airways Alliance United States General Accounting...Commerce, Science, and Transportation United States Senate Subject: Proposed Alliance Between American Airlines and British Airways Raises Competition...Concerns and Public Interest Issues In August 2001, two of the world’s largest airlines , American Airlines (AA) and British Airways (BA), announced

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to by airlines as “tourist class,” “economy class,” or as “single class” when the airline offers only one...

  19. MAX-DOAS measurements in southern China: 1. automated aerosol profile retrieval using oxygen dimers absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Brauers, T.; Shao, M.; Garland, R. M.; Wagner, T.; Deutschmann, T.; Wahner, A.

    2008-09-01

    We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRiDe-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region 50 km north of Guangzhou, China, for 4 weeks in June 2006. We used an instrument which simultaneously sampled the wavelength range from 292 nm to 443 nm at 7 different elevation angles between 3° and 90°. Here we show that the O4 (O2 dimer) absorption at 360 nm can be used to retrieve the aerosol extinction and the height of the boundary layer. A comparison with simultaneously recorded, ground based nephelometer data shows an excellent agreement.

  20. Sequence-based typing of HLA-A gene in 930 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hunan province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, W; Zhu, F-M; Wang, W-Y; Cai, J-H; Zhang, W; Li, L-X; Liu, K-L; Jin, H-K; Wang, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we typed 930 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 1134 normal controls recruited from Hunan province, southern China for human leukocyte antigen-A (HLA-A) locus by sequencing exons 2-4. Very significant associations between HLA-A*02:07, HLA-A*11:01 and NPC were established [25.7% vs 16.18%; odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI) = 1.79 (1.54-2.09), P < 0.0001 and 21.1% vs 30.42%, OR (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.53-0.70), P<0.0001, respectively]. Further analysis of the molecular basis underlying these associations suggests that cysteine (C) at codon 99 of α2-helix of HLA-A protein is probably deleterious and confers risk to NPC. Convincing evidence was uncovered for negative association of a rare allele in southern Chinese populations, HLA-A*31:01, with NPC [0.22% vs 2.12%, OR (95% CI) = 0.1 (0.04-0.28), P < 0.0001]. rs1059449-A, which encodes arginine (R) at codon 56 of α1-helix of HLA-A protein, was postulated to be crucial for such a pattern of negative association with NPC. A subset of NPC cases (N = 632) and normal controls (N=712) were tested for anti-virus capsid antigen (anti-VCA) immunoglobulin A (IgA), very significant difference in seropositivity for anti-VCA IgA was observed between the two groups [67.56% vs 6.46%, OR (95% CI) = 30.16 (21.42-42.46), P < 0.0001]. However, seropositivity for anti-VCA IgA did not correlate with HLA-A allelic typing in both groups.

  1. Co-sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 inhalant allergens among allergic patients in Guangzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoqing; Zheng, Peiyan; Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens.

  2. Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

  3. Population genetic structure in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers in southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Chen, Xuesen; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-11-01

    Population-wide genetic structure was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers on 85 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars collected from Kuche, Kashi, Hetian in the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different eco-geographical populations. Based on the results from this study, 8 pairs of fluorescent-AFLP primers showed clear electrophoregram and high polymorphism amongst the 64 pairs of EcoR|/Mse|(Mse|--a FAM fluorescent marked primer) primers screened. There was a significant polymorphic difference for the same primer pair in different populations and for the same population with different primer pairs. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) at species level was higher than Kuche, Hetian, Kashi population levels, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) at species level were higher than those of Kuche, Hetian, and Kashi at population level, respectively. H and I of Kuche population were the highest amongst the three populations. Apricot population genetic diversity was found mainly within the population. Genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.0882. Gene flow Nm between the populations was 5.1689. Population genetic identity was between 0.9772-0.9811 and genetic distance was between 0.0191-0.0232. These results further indicated that the similarity between populations was higher and the genetic distance between populations was smaller. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicates that the geographical populations at Kuche, Kashi, Hetian were relatively independent Mendelian populations. Concurrently, there was also partial gene exchange between the populations. All the evidences indicated that the genetic diversity in Kuche population was the highest, suggesting that it could be a transition population from wild apricot to cultivated apricot. There were abundant genetic

  4. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  5. Association of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer in the Han population of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yongheng; Yu, Yaping; Yu, Bin; Ge, Jianrong; Ji, Jingzhang; Lu, Hong; Wei, Jia; Weng, Zhiliang; Tao, Zhihua; Lu, Jianxin

    2009-12-04

    Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that gene polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) are associated with prostate cancer risks. However, previous results from many molecular studies remain inconsistent. Blood samples were collected from 122 prostate cancer patients and 130 age-matched control subjects in the Han population of Southern China. The differences of VDR gene polymorphism between cancer cases and controls were determined by PCR-RFLP, examiming FokI (exon 2), BsmI, Tru9I, ApaI (intron 9), and TaqI (exon 9). Associations between the VDR gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk were calculated in an unconditional logistic regression model. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes were analyzed with the SHEsis software. Of five polymorphisms, BsmI was shown to associate with prostate cancer, while FokI, Tru9I, ApaI, and TaqI did not show any significant association. After adjustment for age, the BsmI 'B' allele was associated with an almost 1/3-fold risk (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.15-0.80) of the occurrence of prostate cancer, a 1/5-fold risk (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.68) of poorly differentiated prostate cancer, and a 1/10-fold risk (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.78) of aggressive prostate cancer compared with the 'b' allele, especially among older men (>71 years). In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that the 'F-b-U-A-T' was more frequent found in cases than in controls (3.4% vs 0.0%, P = 0.0035), while the frequency of haplotype 'F-B-U-a-T' was 0.8% in cases, significantly lower than in controls (3.9%, P = 0.019). Our experiments provide evidences that genetic polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be potential risk factors for prostate cancer in the Han population of southern China and the susceptibility to prostate cancer is associated with ethnicity and geographic location.

  6. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  7. Multi-locus sequence typing of Laribacter hongkongensis isolates from freshwater animals, environment and diarrhea patients in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyun; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Liu, Youzhao; Zheng, Nancai; Feng, Mei; Chen, Qing; Yu, Weijun; Jiang, Lina; Hu, Jing

    2017-03-20

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a novel emerging bacterium associated with gastroenteritis and invasive bacteremic infections. Freshwater fish and edible frogs have been identified as major reservoirs of L. hongkongensis. Currently one of the main challenges in L. hongkongensis research is to identify their sources and possible transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness of these L. hongkongensis isolates to their hosts in the hope of shedding light on these issues. In this study, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic characteristics of 114 L. hongkongensis strains, including 113 isolated from humans, fish, frogs, Amazonian snails and water sample in Guangzhou and Jiangmen, Southern China, and one reference isolate HZ242, recovered from a diarrhea patient in Hangzhou. The relationships among the STs and the relatedness among the isolates were assessed by phylogenetic and eBURST analysis. A total of 72 different sequence types (STs) from 114 isolates of L. hongkongensis were identified by MLST analysis, and ST99-ST161were novel. Significant difference of the prevalence of different STs between fish isolates (41.8%, 23/55) and frog isolates (82.4%, 42/51) was revealed (p=0.000). The most frequent ST (ST45) was identified 28 times and only found in fish isolates. In addition, 10 groups were identified by eBURST in this study. Combined the MLST data from Hong Kong and the present study, there were eight eBRUST lineages (group A-H) included the isolates (49.2%, 128/260) from either numerous hosts or multiple geographic origins, which contained 33.1% (53/160) of all the STs. Group A (n=57, STs=20) consisted exclusively of isolates from fish and 92.9% (39/42) of isolates in group B (n=42, STs=16) were only from fish. Group C-F (n=22, STs=14) were found to be associated with human, apart from other hosts. In this study, extensive genetic heterogeneity among the L. hongkongensis isolates from

  8. Soil Atterberg limits of different weathering profiles of the collapsing gullies in the hilly granitic region of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yusong; Cai, Chongfa; Xia, Dong; Ding, Shuwen; Chen, Jiazhou; Wang, Tianwei

    2017-04-01

    Collapsing gullies are one of the most serious soil erosion problems in the tropical and subtropical areas of southern China. However, few studies have been performed on the relationship of soil Atterberg limits with soil profiles of the collapsing gullies. Soil Atterberg limits, which include plastic limit and liquid limit, have been proposed as indicators for soil vulnerability to degradation. Here, the soil Atterberg limits within different weathering profiles and their relationships with soil physicochemical properties were investigated by characterizing four collapsing gullies in four counties in the hilly granitic region of southern China. The results showed that with the fall of weathering degree, there was a sharp decrease in plastic limit, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity and free iron oxide. Additionally, there was a gradual increase in liquidity index, a sharp increase in particle density and bulk density followed by a slight decline, a decrease in the finer soil particles, a noticeable decline in the clay contents, and a considerable increase in the gravel and sand contents. The plastic limit varied from 19.43 to 35.93 % in TC, 19.51 to 33.82 % in GX, 19.32 to 35.58 % in AX and 18.91 to 36.56 % in WH, while the liquid limit varied from 30.91 to 62.68 % in TC, 30.89 to 57.70 % in GX, 32.48 to 65.71 % in AX and 30.77 to 62.70 % in WH, respectively. The soil Atterberg limits in the sandy soil layers and detritus layers were lower than those in the surface layers and red soil layers, which results in higher vulnerability of the sandy soil layers and detritus layers to erosion and finally the formation of the collapsing gully. The regression analyses showed that soil Atterberg limits had significant and positive correlation with SOM, clay content, cationic exchange capacity and Fed, significant and negative correlation with sand content and no obvious correlation with other properties. The results of this study

  9. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  10. Mineral-leaching chemical transport with runoff and sediment from severely eroded rare-earth tailings in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huizhong; Cao, Longxi; Liang, Yin; Yuan, Jiuqin; Zhu, Yayun; Wang, Yi; Gu, Yalan; Zhao, Qiguo

    2017-08-01

    Rare-earth mining has led to severe soil erosion in southern China. Furthermore, the presence of the mineral-leaching chemical ammonium sulfate in runoff and sediment poses a serious environmental threat to downstream water bodies. In this paper, the characteristics of mineral-leaching chemicals in surface soil samples collected in the field were studied. In addition, NH4+ and SO42- transport via soil erosion was monitored using runoff and sediment samples collected during natural rainfall processes. The results demonstrated that the NH4+ contents in the surface sediment deposits increased from the top of the heap (6.56 mg kg-1) to the gully (8.23 mg kg-1) and outside the tailing heap (13.03 mg kg-1). The contents of SO42- in the different locations of the tailing heaps ranged from 27.71 to 40.33 mg kg-1. During typical rainfall events, the absorbed NH4+ concentrations (2.05, 1.26 mg L-1) in runoff were significantly higher than the dissolved concentrations (0.93, 1.04 mg L-1), while the absorbed SO42- concentrations (2.87, 1.92 mg L-1) were significantly lower than the dissolved concentrations (6.55, 7.51 mg L-1). The dissolved NH4+ and SO42- concentrations in runoff displayed an exponentially decreasing tendency with increasing transport distance (Y = 1. 02 ṡ exp( - 0. 00312X); Y = 3. 34 ṡ exp( - 0. 0185X)). No clear trend with increasing distance was observed for the absorbed NH4+ and SO42- contents in transported sediment. The NH4+ and SO42- contents had positive correlations with the silt and clay ratio in transported sediment but negative correlations with the sand ratio. These results provide a better understanding of the transport processes and can be used to develop equations to predict the transport of mineral-leaching chemicals in rare-earth tailings, which can provide a scientific foundation for erosion control and soil management in rare-earth tailing regions in southern China.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza A Virus Isolated in Farmed Dogs in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Cao, Nan; Chen, Jidang; Zhao, Furong; Li, Huatao; Zhao, Mingxi; Wang, Yanjing; Huang, Zhen; Yuan, Liguo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza A virus containing multiple mutations in farmed dogs in southern China. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the Asia lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian H3N2 influenza virus to domestic farm dogs under natural conditions in Southern China. The amino acid information provided herein suggests that continued study is required to determine if this virus could be established in the farm dog population and pose potential threats to public health. PMID:22923798

  12. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Results A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). Conclusions The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future. PMID:22397530

  13. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed

    Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future.

  14. A Novel Complex A/C/G Intergenotypic Recombinant of Hepatitis B Virus Isolated in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Heling; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhihui; Cheng, Shuquan; Ye, Haiyan; Xu, Qing; Liu, Qingbo; Tan, Shuhong; Xu, Dongping; Liu, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes may vary in geographical distribution and virological features. Previous investigations, including ours, showed that HBV genotypes B and C were respectively predominant in South and North China, while genotypes A and D were infrequently detected and genotype G was not found. In this study, a novel A/C/G intergenotype was identified in patients with chronic HBV infection in Guilin, a city in southern China. Initial phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene suggested the HBV recombinant to be genotype G. However, extended genotyping based on the entire HBV genome indicated it to be an A/C/G intergenotype with a closer relation to genotype C. Breakpoint analysis using the SIMPLOT program revealed that the recombinant had a recombination with a arrangement of genotypes A, G, A and C fragments. Compared with the HBV recombinants harboring one or two genotype G fragments found in Asian countries, this Guilin recombinant was highly similar to the Vietnam (98–99%) and Long An recombinants (96–99%), but had a relatively low similarity to the Thailand one (89%). Unlike those with the typical genotype G of HBV, the patients with the Guilin recombinant were seropositive for HBeAg. Moreover, a relatively high HBV DNA viral load (>2×106 IU/ml) was detected in the patients, and the analysis of viral replication capacity showed that the Guilin recombinant strains had a competent replication capacity similar to genotypes B and C strains. These findings can aid in not only the clarification of the phylogenetic origin of the HBV recombinants with the genotype G fragment found in Asian countries, but also the understanding of the virological properties of these complicated HBV recombinants. PMID:24475029

  15. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  17. UK‧37 temperature estimates from Eemian marine sediments in the southern coast of Hainan Island, tropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengyuan; Zheng, Zhuo; Huang, Kangyou; Zong, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhonghui; Peng, Zhuolun; Shi, Suhua

    2016-09-01

    This study concerns high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) changes for the Eemian interglacial period reconstructed from the southern coast of Hainan Island, China. The lower marine unit in the sediment core is composed of monotonous mud (31 m thick), dated to be from the Eemian interglacial period or lower part of marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5), determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The high sedimentation rate and the richness of organic matter and marine fossils provide good opportunity for the study of palaeo-environments in the northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Sediment grain-size, foraminifer, sediment color index and long-chain alkenone were used to reveal the near-shore sedimentary environments and temperature at millennial-scale. Specifically, a high-resolution UK‧37-SST record was reconstructed for the Eemian interglacial period. The new evidence in northwestern margin of SCS shows that the maximum value of SST during the Eemian interglacial is approximately 29 °C and the lowest is 26.5 °C. The trend of decreasing SST from 29 °C throughout the marine sequence is consistent with the variations in sediment grain size, reflecting the cooling trend of SST and sea-level lowering tendency during the last interglacial period. This new Eemian SST result agrees with other records in the region of SCS, showing a coherent descending trend, but spatial heterogeneity exists in timing and amplitude. The insolation changes might be the main force for initiating the SST evolution during the penultimate interglacial period.

  18. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  19. Impact of aerosols on regional climate in southern and northern China during strong/weak East Asian summer monsoon years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Solmon, Fabien; Zhuang, Bingliang; Wu, Hao; Xie, Min; Han, Yong; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we mainly simulate the effects of aerosols on regional climate in southern China (SC) and northern China (NC) and compare the differences of aerosol climatic effects in strong/weak summer monsoon years with a modified regional climate model RegCM4. The results show that the total climatic effects of aerosols cause the decline of averaged air temperature and precipitation of SC and NC in summer. In NC, the strength of temperature drop in strong summer monsoon years is higher than that in weak summer monsoon years, indicating the possible impact from the different changes of radiation, circulation, and precipitation. The decrease of precipitation is more significant in NC in weak summer monsoon years, while it is stronger in SC in strong summer monsoon years due to the difference of aerosol distribution as well as the effects on circulation and cloud microphysics processes. Besides, aerosol effects also cause a decrease of zonal wind at 850 hPa in SC and an increase in NC. The cooling center is more northerly and stronger in strong monsoon year, while it is more southerly and weaker in weak summer monsoon years, which results in the differences of vertical circulation anomaly and meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa. In weak summer monsoon years, meridional wind at 850 hPa is increased in NC, while it is found to be decreased in SC. In strong summer monsoon years, meridional winds at 850 hPa in both NC and SC are weakened. However, the decrease in SC is much more distinct and clear.

  20. Serological survey of canine dirofilariosis in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Nanning in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingfei; Zhuo, Wenchao; Guo, Shining; Liao, Shenquan; Shi, Dayou; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Yongxia; Niu, Xudong; Wang, Shujing; Yang, Dubao

    2012-04-30

    The present study conducts a serological survey on the presence of canine dirofilariosis in domestic dogs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. A total of 310 household dogs (166 females and 144 males) in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Nanning in Southern China were examined. Of the 310 dogs, 42 (13.5%) were seropositive for dirofilariosis. No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of sex in the seroprevalence of dirofilariosis using the ELISA kit. The positive rates for dirofilariosis were 6.6% in the 0-1-year-old group, 13.8% in the 1-4-year-old group, and 21.6% in the less than 4-year-old group. The statistical analysis revealed that significant differences were observed in the 1-4-year-old group (P=0.037, OR=0.441, 95% CI=0.170-1.144) and less than 4-year-old group (P<0.001, OR=0.256, 95% CI=0.095-0.693). In the regional comparison, the shoreline city Shenzhen (18.8%) had a significantly higher prevalence than urban and mountain areas (P<0.05, OR=0.310, 95% CI=0.066-1.445). In conclusion, Dirofilaria immitis infection in domestic dogs was present in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Nanning. Therefore, heartworm treatment and/or chemoprophylaxis for the captured domestic dogs are necessary in these areas. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first using serological methods to examine D. immitis infection in domestic dogs in Mainland China in the recent years. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination of tower-, cockpit-, and non-karst landforms in Guilin, Southern China, based on morphometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fuyuan; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Depressions are well developed in certain types of karst landform assemblages. These natural depressions should not be simply filled and removed during the preparation of DEMs. This study presents a research to distinguish karst landform assemblages which tend to have natural depressions from other karst landform assemblages and non-karst landforms in the Guilin area of China, by examining their morphometric characteristics derived from a 30-m resolution DEM. The variations in the morphometric characteristics are examined at neighborhood level instead of pixel level. The DEM is divided into square tiles with a specific spatial scale. Statistical indicators of typical morphometric characteristics such as the area ratio, elevation, slope, and curvature are calculated for each tile. Discriminant analysis (DA) is then performed to discriminate tower karst, cockpit karst, and non-karst landforms. These procedures are repeated at the scales of 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.6 km. Comparison of the mapping results with a reference geomorphic map shows that the DA works best for the 2.7 km tiles with an overall accuracy of 80.06%. The resulting map can be used to guide whether depressions should be retained or removed during DEM preparation. This method, with appropriate modifications and improvements, can also be used to map the karst landforms of the whole of southern China. With such a comprehensive map, geomorphologists would be able to examine the development of karst landform assemblages at a broader view to unveil their genesis and evolution processes.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  4. Serological evidence for exposure to avian influenza viruses within poultry workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, E; Zhang, X; Ke, C; Sikkema, R; Koopmans, M

    2017-02-20

    The risk of infection with avian influenza viruses for poultry workers is relatively unknown in China, and study results are often biased by the notification of only the severe human cases. Protein microarray was used to detect binding antibodies to 13 different haemagglutinin (HA1-part) antigens of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N7), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, in serum samples from poultry workers and healthy blood donors collected in the course of 3 years in Guangdong Province, China. Significantly higher antibody titre levels were detected in poultry workers when compared to blood donors for the most recent H5 and H9 strains tested. These differences were most pronounced in younger age groups for antigens from older strains, but were observed in all age groups for the recent H5 and H9 antigens. For the H7 strains tested, only poultry workers from two retail live poultry markets had significantly higher antibody titres compared to blood donors.

  5. The spectral and image characteristics of vegetation in the presence of heavy metals in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengjie; Li, Na; Zhou, Guangzhu; Song, Cuiyu; Li, Qingting

    2008-10-01

    The principle and methodology to monitor the heavy metal pollution using hyperspectral remote sensing are put forward based on the study areas, copper mine in De-Xing and tin ore in GeJiu, and selected plants, China Sumac, Sweet Wormwood Herb, and Nephrolepis Cordifolia. In the areas defined by former information, vegetation samples and corresponding spectral data are gathered. The samples are then analyzed in chemical lab, telling us to what extent the vegetation is polluted by heavy metal. The spectral curves are also processed, and some spectral parameters are extracted, such as reflectance, blue-shift extent, position of red-edge, vegetation index, band-depth. Then the regression model from spectral characteristic parameters to heavy metal content can be built. At last, the conclusion can be attained. In copper mine area, the vegetation is polluted by seven kinds of heavy metals. As far as China Sumac, the reflectance of red band correlates the Pb content well. The reflectance of all study plants at 1240nm and 725/675(nm) correlates heavy metal content well. The reflectance of 450nm, 550nm, 670nm, 760nm, and 1240nm can be liner combined as a parameter to monitor heavy metal pollution. Besides, some band-depth can also be combined as parameters using "Enter". In a word, as an advanced technique to monitor environmental pollution, hyperspectral remote sensing has wild perspective.

  6. Continued spread of HIV among injecting drug users in southern Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Qin, Guangming; Qian, Han-Zhu; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Li; Chen, Kanglin; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Shizhu; Zhou, Feng; Xing, Hui; Ruan, Yuhua; Wang, Ning; Shao, Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in a drug trafficking city in southwest Sichuan Province, China. Methods A total of 314 IDUs was invited to participate in the cross-sectional survey in 2004 through community outreach recruitment and peer referrals. Blood sample was taken for HIV antibody testing and a structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on socio-demographics, drug using and sexual behaviors. Results HIV prevalence among IDUs was 17.8% (56/314), about one half higher than that in previous survey in 2002 (11.3%, 43/379). Yi and other minority ethnicity (Odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–5.8; P < 0.001), and total times of sharing injecting equipments 1–9 times versus none, OR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.2–6.2; P = 0.02; and ≥10 times versus none, OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 3.2–17.7; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for HIV infection. Conclusion IDUs with high prevalence rates of HIV and equipment sharing behavior in the drug trafficking city may serve a source for further spread of HIV to other areas in China. The increasing trend of HIV epidemic among IDUs underscores the urgency of scaling up interventions. PMID:17286871

  7. Fertile structures with in situ spores of a dipterid fern from the Triassic in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongdong; Li, Liqin; Guignard, Gaëtan; Dilcher, David L; Xie, Xiaoping; Tian, Ning; Zhou, Ning; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clathropteris was a typical dipterid fern with well documented fossil record and was widely dispersed during the Mesozoic; however, our knowledge of fertile structures including in situ spores for this genus is still very limited. Here we report well-preserved compression specimens of Clathropteris obovata Oishi from the Late Triassic of Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China. The specimens show round to oval and exindusiate sori, vertical to oblique annuli in sporangia, and in situ trilete spores with verrucate and baculate sculptures, which are comparable to dispersed spore genera of Converrucosisporites and Conbaculatisporites. Comparisons of relevant fossil taxa suggest that specimens of C. obovata from Triassic of China provide for the first time in Asia the detailed fertile structures with in situ spore characters of dipterid fossil Clathropteris. Unlike living Dipteris, Mesozoic fossils of Dipteridaceae show a high diversity and a range of complex morphology of in situ spores, thus are significant for the evolutionary links between Dipteridaceae and other related fern clade, including Gleicheniaceae and Matoniaceae of the Gleicheniales.

  8. Lessons from emergence of A/goose/Guangdong/1996-like H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and recent influenza surveillance efforts in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wan, X F

    2012-09-01

    Southern China is proposed as an influenza epicentre. At least two of the three pandemics in the last century, including 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, originated from this area. In 1996, A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1), the precursor of currently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) was identified in farmed geese in southern China. These H5N1 HPAIVs have been spread across Asia, Europe and Africa and poses a continuous threat to both animal and human health. However, how and where this H5N1 HPAIV emerged are not fully understood. In the past decade, many influenza surveillance efforts have been carried out in southern China, and our understanding of the genetic diversity of non-human influenza A viruses in this area has been much better than ever. Here, the historical and first-hand experimental data on A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996(H5N1)-like HPAIVs are reviewed within the context of the findings from recent surveillance efforts on H5N1 HPAIVs and other non-human influenza A viruses. Such a retrospective recapitulation suggests that long-term and systematic surveillance programmes should continue to be implemented in southern China that the wet markets on the animal-human interface shall be the priority area and that the surveillance on the animal species bridging the interface between wildlife and domestic animal populations and the interface between the aquatics and territories shall be the strengthened.

  9. Notes on the genus Conchapelopia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from southern China, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Hiromi; Tang, Hongqu

    2017-02-22

    Two interesting species, Conchapelopia togamaculosa Sasa & Okazawa and a new species, Conchapelopia brachiata sp. n., were collected from southern China. The male, pupa and larva of the new species are described, and new distributions of the former species are noted. Although the male of the new species is very distinct from that of the former in the hypopygial median volsella, the pupa and larva stunningly resemble those of the former.

  10. Crustal structure north of the Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island), southern margin of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jih-Hsin; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsiang; Mirza, Arif; Chang, Sung-Ping; Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang; Chiu, Ying-Hui; Hung, Hau-Ting; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2017-07-01

    Based on the multi-channel seismic (MCS) and gravity data offshore north of Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island) in the Spratly Islands (Nansha Islands), we revisited the crustal structures in the northern part of the southern margin of the Southwest (SW) Sub-basin of the South China Sea (SCS). The MCS data suggest that the basement structural highs in the southwest margin of the SCS are dominated by both fault blocks and volcanic basement structures that probably formed along with the basement faults. The gravity modeling results reveal that these volcanic basement structures were probably associated with the high velocity or density lower crust (HVDLC), suggesting that the southern margin of the SW Sub-basin serves as an intermediate margin. Based on the tectonic features in the SCS margins, including (1) the transition between the magma-poor margins of the Northwest (NW) Sub-basin and intermediate margins of the East and SW Sub-basins; (2) the cessation of the seafloor spreading in the NW Sub-basin being succeeded by a major ridge jump event, which was very likely to reflect an active mantle upwelling event; (3) the extensive distribution of the HVDLC beneath in the well-investigated northern margin of the East Sub-basin and as explored in the SW Sub-basin in this study; and (4) basement faulting and volcanism shown in this study that may be related to the HVDLC and hyper-extension, we proposed a conceptual model to interpret the origin of the HVDLC in the southern margin of the SW Sub-basin. The margin of the SCS basin was magma-poor at the time it occurred. An active mantle upwelling event caused by small-scale mantle convection, possibly related to the influence of the nascent Hainan mantle plume, was formed subsequently, resulting in a southward ridge jump and the HVDLC beneath the current margins of the East and SW Sub-basins. The East and SW Sub-basins continued to spread, latitudinally dividing their HVDLCs as the margins separated accordingly. Afterwards, the

  11. Origin and character of loesslike silt in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pewe, T.L.; Tungsheng, Liu; Slatt, R.M.; Bingyuan, Li

    1995-01-01

    Retransported, tan, loesslike silt is widespread in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. The silt occurs mainly in the lowlands and lower slopes and is absent on steep slopes and active flood plains. The silt covers most alluvial fans and is interbedded with the sand and gravel of the fans. It is well exposed in the agricultural fields on low terraces in the valleys and in the steep-walled scarps of dissected valley fill. The silt is primary loess on the low hill tops; however, the poorly to well-stratified loesslike silt on the lower slopes and in valley bottoms of the major river valleys is retransported loess. It probably was originally deposited by winds blowing across broad vegetation-free flood plains.

  12. Changes of hydrological environment and their influences on coastal wetlands in the southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Sun, Hongxia; Xia, Dongxing

    2006-08-01

    The structure and function of the coastal wetland ecosystem in the southern Laizhou Bay have been changed greatly and influenced by regional hydrological changes. The coastal wetlands have degraded significantly during the latest 30 years due to successive drought, decreasing of runoff, pollution, underground saline water intrusion, and aggravating marine disasters such as storm tides and sea level rising. Most archaic lakes have vanished, while artificial wetlands have been extending since natural coastal wetlands replaced by salt areas and ponds of shrimps and crabs. The pollution of sediments in inter-tidal wetlands and the pollution of water quality in sub-tidal wetlands are getting worse and therefore "red tides" happen more often than before. The biodiversity in the study area has been decreased. Further studies are still needed to protect the degraded coastal wetlands in the area.

  13. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  14. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  15. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  16. STATUS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF DOMESTIC FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN AIRLINES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Morichi, Shigeru

    As a regional strategy, it is very important for local cities that international flights are put into service to local airports and to increase tourists. It is problemati c for the airlines that their international flights are put into service directly between the local airport and the international airport since it is difficult for them to secure the number of passengers needed to operate the aircraft. Co ncerning 1-stop flights, there is a good possibility of securing number of passengers. Therefore, the study illustrated the possibilities of domestic airline flights by foreign airlines as international flights.

  17. Numerical study of summertime dynamical and physical changes in the southern South China Sea due to the monsoons and its impacts on primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Abu Samah, Azizan; Hai Ooi, See

    2016-04-01

    The ecosystem off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is controlled by multiple physical processes during the monsoons (winter and summer) , including the air-sea interaction (such as net heat and surface freshwater fluxes), the small-scale eddies off the southern South China Sea (SSCS), and the monsoon wind induced coastal upwelling. Using high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), in-situ observations and remote sensing data, this paper attempts to study the hydrodynamics of the shelf and coastal processes as well as thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological seasonal cycle especially in the summer monsoon. In addition, we investigate its impacts on the spatial patterns of chlorophyll biomass which acts as a proxy for primary productivity in the SSCS. This study looks into not only the detailed small-scale-circulation such as localized eddies but also the link between the southern South China Sea and the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Malacca and the Java Sea. The flow through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea is not only important for navigational purpose but also has an influence on the seasonal spatial and temporal variations of primary productivity in the region. Keywords: southern South China Sea; summer monsoon; coastal upwelling; primary productivity

  18. Impact of Assimilating Wind Profiling Radar Observations on Convection-permitting Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts during the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    To improve prediction of heavy rainfall in Southern China during the pre-rainy season, horizontal wind data from wind profiling radar (WPR) were assimilated in the partial-cycle data assimilation (DA) system based on a three-dimensional variational method. The analyses from the DA system are used as initial conditions for the convection-permitting global/regional assimilation and prediction system (GRAPES) model. The impact of assimilating WPR data on the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) in Southern China was evaluated over the period of the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SCMREX) in May 2014, by comparing the results of a control experiment with WPR data assimilated and a denial experiment without WPR data. The positive impact of WPR DA was significant on the forecasts of atmospheric variables in the vertical and diagnostic fields at the surface, especially those of surface wind fields in the 0-6 h range. The inclusion of WPR data also improved the QPF skill of light and heavy rainfall throughout the 12-h forecast period by reducing the predicted spurious precipitation (thereby alleviating overestimations and false alarms), with the largest improvement in 6-h heavy rainfall forecasts. WPR DA considerably alleviated the spin-up problem, remarkably improving the QPF of heavy rainfall (especially extreme rainfall). The improved representation of wind and moisture at lower levels in the analyses due to WPR DA was the physical cause of the QPF improvement, as illustrated using a case study.

  19. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  20. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Singh, Purnima; Liu, Ying; Pan, Shenquan; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment.

  1. Airline Transport Pilot Preferences for Predictive Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed certain issues about the usefulness of predictive information: (1) the relative time criticality of failures, (2) the subjective utility of predictive information for different parameters or sensors, and (3) the preferred form and prediction time for displaying predictive information. To address these issues, three separate tasks were administered to 22 airline pilots. As shown by the data, these pilots preferred predictive information on parameters they considered vital to the safety of the flight. These parameters were related to the checklists performed first for alert messages. These pilots also preferred to know whether a parameter was changing abnormally and the time to a certain value being reached. Furthermore, they considered this information most useful during the cruise, the climb, and the descent phases of flight. Lastly, these pilots preferred the information to predict as far ahead as possible.

  2. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  3. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  4. Promoting female condoms in the sex industry in 4 towns of Southern China: context matters.

    PubMed

    Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual and contextual reasons need to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multitime users, 1-time users, and nonusers among women in the sex industry of 4 study sites in China. A standardized 1-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two 6-month intervention phases. A total of 445, 437, and 290 eligible women were interviewed at 3 cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second postintervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than nonusers in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second postintervention survey, P < 0.01). Polytomous logistic regression showed that both 1-time and multitime users were more likely to come from one particular site (approximately 3 times more than the reference site). Higher intervention scores (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8-4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4) were associated with FC use. Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments.

  5. Risk Factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection in a Southern Coastal Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuxue; Li, Yinghui; Wu, Shuyu; Mou, Jin; Xu, Zengkang; Cui, Rilin; Klena, John D.; Shi, Xiaolu; Lu, Yan; Qiu, Yaqun; Lin, Yiman; Xie, Xu; Ma, Hanwu; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Varma, Jay K.; Ran, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Cheng, Jinquan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to identify dietary and medical risk factors for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) infection in the coastal city Shenzhen in China. Methods In April–October 2012, we conducted a case–control study in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Laboratory-confirmed VP cases (N = 83) were matched on age, sex, and other social factors to healthy controls (N = 249). Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire on medical history; contact with seawater; clinical symptoms and outcome; travel history over the past week; and dietary history 3 days prior to onset. Laboratory tests were used to culture, serotype, and genotype VP strains. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios for the association of VP infection with potential risk factors. Results In multivariate analysis, VP infection was associated with having pre-existing chronic disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–23.7), eating undercooked seafood (aOR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.3–50.4), eating undercooked meat (aOR, 29.1; 95% CI, 3.0–278.2), eating food from a street food vendor (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3–17.6), and eating vegetable salad (aOR, 12.1; 95% CI, 5.2–28.2). Conclusions Eating raw (undercooked) seafood and meat is an important source of VP infection among the study population. Cross-contamination of VP in other food (e.g., vegetables and undercooked meat) likely plays a more important role. Intervention should be taken to lower the risks of cross-contamination with undercooked seafood/meat, especially targeted at people with low income, transient workers, and people with medical risk factors. PMID:26287765

  6. Promoting Female Condoms in the Sex Industry in Four Towns of Southern China: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R.; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual as well as contextual reasons need to be explored. Objective To compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multi-time users, one-time users and non-users among women in the sex industry of four study sites in China. Methods A standardized one-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two six-month intervention phases. Results A total of 445, 437 and 290 eligible women were interviewed at three cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second post-intervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than non-users in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second post-intervention survey, p<0.01). Polytomous logistic regression showed that both one-time and multi-time users were more likely to come from one particular site (about 3 times more than the reference site). Higher intervention scores (adjusted OR 1.8–4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted OR 3.4) were associated with FC use. Conclusions Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure, but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments. PMID:23403607

  7. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-Long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21472077

  9. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-07-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

  10. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-07-02

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

  11. Genetic diversity of three classes of integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from Jiulong River in southern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao; Liang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xian; Wu, Xiaomei; Yan, Qingpi; Luo, Zhuanxi

    2015-08-01

    We identified antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates from the surface waters of Jiulong River basin in southern China and determined their extent of resistance, as well as the prevalence and characterization of three classes of integrons. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences showed that 20 genera were sampled from a total of 191 strains and the most common genus was Acinetobacter. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that the 191 isolates were all multiresistant and there were high levels of resistance to 19 antimicrobials that were tested, particularly the β-lactam, sulfonamide, amphenicol, macrolide, and rifamycin classes. Moreover, class 1 integrons were ubiquitous while only five out of 191 strains harbored class 2 integrons and no class 3 integrons were detected. The variable region of the class 1 integrons contained 30 different gene cassette arrays. Nine novel arrays were found in 65 strains, and seven strains had empty integrons. Among these 30 arrays, there were 34 different gene cassettes that included 25 resistance genes, six genes with unknown functions, two mutant transposase genes, and a new gene. The unique array dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 was detected in all five isolates carrying the class 2 integron. We found that antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates from Jiulong River were diverse and antibiotic resistance genes associated with integrons were widespread.

  12. Distribution of geoacoustic properties and related influencing factors of surface sediments in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingqiang; Guo, Changsheng; Liu, Baohua; Hou, Zhengyu; Han, Guozhong

    2016-12-01

    In order to characterize and map the seafloor sediments in the southern South China Sea, the physical and geoacoustic properties of the sediments were measured and analyzed at 21 stations. Sound speeds were measured using the coaxial differential distance measurement method on deck, and were corrected to in situ sound speeds using the correction-to-laboratory-velocity method. The results show that the distributions of sound speed ratio and acoustic impedance are closely related to the sediments physical properties. The study area can be divided into 3 geoacoustic provinces: the highest speed zone on the Sunda Shelf, and the intermediate and lowest speed zones on the continental slope and Nansha Trough. The correlations between the sound speed ratio and physical parameters fit linear relationships similarly or even better than the quadratic relationships derived in previous studies. This good fit may however be due to the limited range of data samples used in this study. Compared with the predicted sound speeds from Hamilton and Bachman's or Anderson's empirical equations, the measured values are smaller, which is probably due to different sedimentary environments and measurement methods.

  13. Distribution and risk assessment of quinolone antibiotics in the soils from organic vegetable farms of a subtropical city, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Lian; Xiang, Lei; Yan, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Neng; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2014-07-15

    Organic fertilizer or manure containing antibiotics has been widely used in organic farms, but the distribution and potential impacts of antibiotics to the local environment are not well understood. In this study, four quinolone antibiotics in soil samples (n=69) from five organic vegetable farms in a subtropical city, Southern China, were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that quinolone compounds were ubiquitous in soil samples (detection frequency>97% for all compounds), and their concentrations ranged from not detectable to 42.0 μg/kg. Among the targets, enrofloxacin (ENR) was the dominant compound, followed by ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR). The average total concentrations of four compounds in the soils were affected by vegetable types and species cultivated, decreasing in the order of fruit>rhizome>leaf vegetables. Moreover, the average concentrations of quinolone compounds (except ENR) in open-field soils were higher than those in greenhouse soils. The concentrations of quinolone antibiotics in this study were lower than the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 μg/kg) proposed by the Veterinary Medicine International Coordination commission. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients indicated that NOR, CIP, and ENR posed mainly medium to low risks to bacteria.

  14. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Niu; Silong, Wang; Zhiyun, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range. To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species, we measured the above- and below-ground biomass accumulation in 22 years, as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation. Results indicated that M. macclurei plantation significantly stored more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C. lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2). Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M. macclurei plantation, 55.2% in C. lanceolata plantation). Tree and soil component of M. macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of C. lanceolata plantation (p <0.05). No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor. These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M. macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C. lanceolata) in southern China.

  15. Comparison of mercury bioaccumulation between wild and mariculture food chains from a subtropical bay of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury (Hg) both in the natural marine ecosystem and the mariculture ecosystem were studied at Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in Southern China. Averaged Hg concentrations in sediment, phytoplankton, macrophyte, shrimp, crab, shellfish, planktivorous fish, carnivorous fish, farmed pompano, farmed snapper, compound feed and trash fish were 0.074, 0.054, 0.044, 0.098, 0.116, 0.171, 0.088, 0.121, 0.210, 0.125, 0.038 and 0.106 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. These Hg levels were at the low-middle ends of the global range. Positive correlation between Hg concentrations in farmed fish and fish weights/sizes was observed, whereas no clear correlation between Hg concentrations and lipid contents was found. Hg concentrations followed macrophyte < phytoplankton < sediment < planktivorous fish < shrimp < crab < carnivorous fish < shellfish, and commercial feed < trash fish < farmed fish. Hg was biomagnified along the marine food chain in the ecosystem of Daya Bay. Hg levels in the farmed fish were higher than those in the wild fish primarily because of the higher Hg level in fish feed and the smaller size of marine wild fish.

  16. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  17. Morphology and Phylogenetic Placement of Three New Zoothamnium species (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from Coastal Waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhuo; Ji, Daode; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    The morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system of three peritrichous ciliates, Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., Zoothamnium florens sp. n., and Zoothamnium zhanjiangense sp. n., were investigated based on both living and silver-stained specimens. Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., collected from coastal waters (salinity 30‰) off Zhanjiang, southern China, can be distinguished by the following characters: dichotomously branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, contractile vacuole apically positioned, 32-49 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band, 15-26 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula; two kineties in peniculus 3, not parallel to each other. Zoothamnium florens sp. n., collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity 13‰) off Zhanjiang, is characterized by its large conical zooid, tuberculate peristomial lip, asymmetrical dichotomously branched colony, 59-81 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band and 29-36 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula. Zoothamnium zhanjiangense, collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity about 9.5‰) off Zhanjiang, differs from its congeners by the alternately branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, 40-63 silverlines from the peristomial area to the aboral trochal band and 13-24 from the aboral trochal band to the scopula. The comparison and analysis of SSU rDNA sequences also support present identifications.

  18. Establishment and application of a new diagnostic definition of metabolic syndrome in the Shantou region of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zan; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Shengchao; Dong, Wenya; Wen, Ye; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Qingying

    2016-01-01

    The existing definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) may not be fully appropriate for the Shantou population because of ethnic and regional differences. We sought to establish a 95% multivariate medical reference range (MMRR) model for diagnosing MetS in Shantou adults and to evaluate the prevalence of MetS by the MMRR, JCDCG (the Chinese Guidelines), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. A total of 4,580 participants were recruited in Shantou, southern China. We developed a MMRR model based on the combinatorial indicatrixes method for three categorized indicatrixes. According to the developed MMRR criteria, men (women) in Shantou have MetS by meeting 3 or more of the following: waist circumference ≥89 (81) cm; triglycerides level ≥1.73 (1.64) mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ≤1.07 (1.05) mmol/L; blood pressure ≥138/89 (136/85) mmHg; and fasting plasma glucose ≥5.8 (5.7) mmol/L. The agreement of the MMRR with JCDCG and IDF criteria was “substantial” (both κ > 0.68), but the recommended reference values and proportion of individual components of MetS defined by the 3 criteria differed. The population-based MMRR criteria may be appropriate for diagnosing MetS in Shantou population and the model might be useful for generalization to other geographic regions. PMID:26902456

  19. Wet Season Upwelling and Dry Season Chlorophyll-a Describe Interannual Growth Rates of Porites in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng Teng; Goodkin, Nathalie Fairbank

    2014-01-01

    Southern China hosts coral communities in marginal environments that are characterized by low linear extension rates, low coral cover and/or no reef formation, thus providing natural laboratories to study coral communities with below average growth rates. Here we compare the annual linear extension rates over 10 years (range 1.2 to 11.4 mm yr−1) of six Porites sp. coral cores collected from Hong Kong with monthly hydrographic data from the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. At all sites, low-density, dry season extension were more variable than high-density, wet season extension and on average, was lower at two of the three sites. We applied multi-variate linear regressions that revealed high-density, wet season band extension to inversely correlate most significantly to temperature (r = −0.39, p<0.01). In contrast, low-density, dry season band extension was more variable and correlated most significantly with dry season chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (r = 0.64, p<0.001). Additionally, we find that corals at the site with highest dry season Chl-a have the highest dry season extension lengths. Our findings indicate that relative mixing of fresh and salt water in the wet season and primary productivity in the dry season, and their influences on aragonite saturation, are likely to impact interannual coral extension variability in marginal environments. PMID:24901939

  20. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  1. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as "ocean acidification". The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C. nobilis and P. viridis. The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P. fucata and P. viridis. In contrast, the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C. nobilis. The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species. The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves. Different species respond differently to seawater acidification. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechamsms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  2. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y. H.; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature. PMID:27468803

  3. Spatial and temporal effects on seed dispersal and seed predation of Musa acuminata in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzeng; Gao, Xiuxia; Chen, Jin; Martin, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Wild bananas are abundant in tropical areas and many ecologists have observed that the succession process is quicker following increased disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze animal-seed interactions and their effects on the seed fate of a wild banana species (Musa acuminata) in tropical southern Yunnan (China) through experiments considering spatial (site and habitat) and temporal (seasons) variation. The largest proportion of fruits (81%) was removed by frugivorous seed dispersers, especially by bats at nighttime. Only 13% of the fruits were removed by climbing seed predators (different species of rats). In the exclosure treatment, rodents accounted for a significantly higher total artificially exposed seed removal number than ants, but with spatial and temporal differences. The highest seed predation rate by rodents (70%) was found in forest with wild banana stands, corresponding with the highest rodent diversity (species numbers and abundance) among the habitat types. In contrast, the seed removal number by ants (57%) was highest in the open land habitats, but there was no close correlation with ant diversity. Seed removal numbers by ants were significantly higher in the dry compared to the rainy season, but rodent activity showed no differences between seasons. The overall results suggest that the largest proportion of seeds produced by wild banana are primarily dispersed by bats. Primary seed dispersal by bats at nighttime is essential for wild banana seeds to escape seed predation. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Clinical features of myasthenia gravis in southern China: a retrospective review of 2,154 cases over 22 years.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Liu, W B; Men, L N; Feng, H Y; Li, Y; Luo, C M; Qiu, L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the study are to study the clinical features of myasthenia gravis in southern China. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who were diagnosed with myasthenia gravis at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University during 1987-2009. Of the 2,154 myasthenia gravis patients, the gender ratio (male:female) was 1:1.15. The median age at onset was 18 years. There was a single peak distribution of age at onset, and 44.8 % were children (≤ 14 years) at first onset. 1,766 patients (82.0 %) only had