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Sample records for chinese bayberry fruit

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Chinese bayberry extract for the preservation of surimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianrong; Han, Qiang; Chen, Wei; Ye, Libin

    2012-08-30

    Chemical preservatives such as sodium nitrite and potassium sorbate have been widely used to keep surimi products fresh. However, the potential harmfulness to human health cannot be ignored. This study was conducted to develop natural preservatives for the storage of Collichthys surimi. Among the eight Chinese traditional herbs and fruits, Chinese bayberry extract showed the greatest inhibitory effect against surimi spoilage bacteria Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, N-butanol phase extract of bayberry (NB) showed the greatest activity among the different phases of bayberry extract. When Chinese bayberry extract was combined with tea polyphenol, an additive inhibitory effect was observed on growth of Hansenula anomala, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Our results further indicated that the shelf life of surimi products stored at room temperature can be extended when supplemented with Chinese bayberry extract. Our results suggest that Chinese bayberry extract can be used as a natural preservative for the storage of Collichthys surimi. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Biological activities of extracts from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.): a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chongde; Huang, Huizhong; Xu, Changjie; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-06-01

    Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is a subtropical fruit tree native to China and other Asian countries, and culture of this Myricaceae plant has been recorded in Chinese history for more than 2000 years. Bayberry fruit is delicious with attractive color, flavor, and high economic value. Compared with other berries, bayberry fruit is a rich source of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, e.g., 64.8 mg/100 g fresh weight in 'Biqi' cultivar), which accounts for at least 85 % of the anthocyanins in the fruit. Bayberry is also a plant with high medicinal value since different organs have been used historically as folk medicines. Research efforts suggest bayberry extracts contain antioxidants that exhibit bioactivities counteracting inflammation, allergens, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, diarrhea and other health issues. Bayberry compounds have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of bayberry extracts and to elaborate the structure-activity relationships. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism and bioavailability as well as potential toxicity of bayberry extracts in animal models are receiving more attention. In addition, breeding and genetic studies of bayberry with high accumulation of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the bayberry research and industry. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different bayberry extracts.

  3. Cyanidin-3-glucoside-rich extract from Chinese bayberry fruit protects pancreatic β cells and ameliorates hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong-De; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jiu-Kai; Xu, Chang-Jie; Wu, Yu-Lian; Li, Xian; Chen, Kun-Song

    2012-03-01

    Chinese bayberry fruit is a rich source of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). The present study investigated the protective effects of C3G-rich bayberry fruit extract (CRBFE) against pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced injury as well as its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice. Bayberry extract from "Biqi" was used for both in vitro and in vivo testing because of its high C3G content and high antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of β cells with CRBFE (containing 0.5 μmol/L C3G) prevented cell death, increased cellular viability, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cell necrosis induced by 800 or 1,200 μmol/L H₂O₂. CRBFE dose-dependently up-regulated pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 gene expression, contributing to increased insulin-like growth factor II gene transcript levels and insulin protein in INS-1 cells. In addition, administration of CRBFE (150 μg of C3G/10 g of body weight twice per day) significantly reduced blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ICR mice and increased the glucose tolerance in an oral glucose tolerance test (P<.05). Such results indicated that CRBFE might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications.

  4. Cyanidin-3-Glucoside-Rich Extract from Chinese Bayberry Fruit Protects Pancreatic β Cells and Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chong-De; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jiu-Kai; Xu, Chang-Jie; Wu, Yu-Lian; Chen, Kun-Song

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chinese bayberry fruit is a rich source of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). The present study investigated the protective effects of C3G-rich bayberry fruit extract (CRBFE) against pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress–induced injury as well as its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice. Bayberry extract from “Biqi” was used for both in vitro and in vivo testing because of its high C3G content and high antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of β cells with CRBFE (containing 0.5 μmol/L C3G) prevented cell death, increased cellular viability, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cell necrosis induced by 800 or 1,200 μmol/L H2O2. CRBFE dose-dependently up-regulated pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 gene expression, contributing to increased insulin-like growth factor II gene transcript levels and insulin protein in INS-1 cells. In addition, administration of CRBFE (150 μg of C3G/10 g of body weight twice per day) significantly reduced blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ICR mice and increased the glucose tolerance in an oral glucose tolerance test (P<.05). Such results indicated that CRBFE might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications. PMID:22181073

  5. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  6. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  7. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from a genome survey of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is a subtropical evergreen tree originating in China. It has been cultivated in southern China for several thousand years, and annual production has reached 1.1 million tons. The taste and high level of health promoting characters identified in the fruit in recent years has stimulated its extension in China and introduction to Australia. A limited number of co-dominant markers have been developed and applied in genetic diversity and identity studies. Here we report, for the first time, a survey of whole genome shotgun data to develop a large number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the genetic diversity of the common cultivated Chinese bayberry and the relationship with three other Myrica species. Results The whole genome shotgun survey of Chinese bayberry produced 9.01Gb of sequence data, about 26x coverage of the estimated genome size of 323 Mb. The genome sequences were highly heterozygous, but with little duplication. From the initial assembled scaffold covering 255 Mb sequence data, 28,602 SSRs (≥5 repeats) were identified. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 84.73%, followed by 13.78% trinucleotide, 1.34% tetranucleotide, 0.12% pentanucleotide and 0.04% hexanucleotide. From 600 primer pairs, 186 polymorphic SSRs were developed. Of these, 158 were used to screen 29 Chinese bayberry accessions and three other Myrica species: 91.14%, 89.87% and 46.84% SSRs could be used in Myrica adenophora, Myrica nana and Myrica cerifera, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram tree showed that cultivated Myrica rubra is closely related to Myrica adenophora and Myrica nana, originating in southwest China, and very distantly related to Myrica cerifera, originating in America. These markers can be used in the construction of a linkage map and for genetic diversity studies in Myrica species. Conclusion Myrica rubra has a small genome of about 323 Mb with a high level of

  8. How did nature engineer the highest surface lipid accumulation among plants? Exceptional expression of acyl-lipid-associated genes for the assembly of extracellular triacylglycerol by Bayberry ( Myrica pensylvanica ) fruits

    DOE PAGES

    Simpson, Jeffrey P.; Thrower, Nicholas; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-02-09

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits are covered with a remarkably thick layer of crystalline wax consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) esterified exclusively with saturated fatty acids. As the only plant known to accumulate soluble glycerolipids as a major component of surface waxes, Bayberry represents a novel system to investigate neutral lipid biosynthesis and lipid secretion by vegetative plant cells. The assembly of Bayberry wax is distinct from conventional TAG and other surface waxes, and instead proceeds through a pathway related to cutin synthesis (Simpson and Ohlrogge, 2016). In this study, microscopic examination revealed that the fruit tissue that producesmore » and secretes wax (Bayberry knobs) is fully developed before wax accumulates and that wax is secreted to the surface without cell disruption. Comparison of transcript expression to genetically related tissues (Bayberry leaves, M. rubra fruits), cutin-rich tomato and cherry fruit epidermis, and to oil-rich mesocarp and seeds, revealed exceptionally high expression of 13 transcripts for acyl-lipid metabolism together with down-regulation of fatty acid oxidases and desaturases. The predicted protein sequences of the most highly expressed lipid-related enzyme-encoding transcripts in Bayberry knobs are 100% identical to the sequences from Bayberry leaves,which do not produce surface DAG or TAG. Together, these results indicate that TAG biosynthesis and secretion in Bayberry is achieved by both up and down-regulation of a small subset of genes related to the biosynthesis of cutin and saturated fatty acids, and also implies that modifications in gene expression, rather than evolution of new gene functions, was the major mechanism by which Bayberry evolved its specialized lipid metabolism.« less

  9. A novel controlled release ethanol emitter: preparation and effect on some postharvest quality parameters of Chinese bayberry during storage.

    PubMed

    Mu, Honglei; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Han, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Reducing spoilage and prolonging the shelf-life of food materials are both critically important in the food industry. Among the many available preservatives, ethanol has been widely used for the storage of fruits and vegetables. Although a few ethanol emitters are available in the form of antimicrobial packaging, these ethanol emitters demonstrate high volatility, uncontrolled release and other disadvantages, and so the practical applications are limited. A novel ethanol gel with a controlled release rate was prepared by a gelatification reaction between ethanol and sodium stearate to overcome the disadvantage of conventional ethanol emitters. The hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of developed ethanol gels increased, whereas the springiness decreased along with an increase in the sodium stearate concentration. The release rate of ethanol in the gels was controlled by the concentration of sodium stearate, in which a first-order release kinetic was observed. The release rate constant (k) of the gels with 12.5, 37.5, 62.5 g kg -1 of sodium stearate was 0.58 ± 0.029, 0.49 ± 0.035 and 0.41 ± 0.021 h -1 , respectively, at 25 °C. The application of the controlled release ethanol emitter with respect to the storage of Chinese bayberry fruit demonstrated its ability to reduce the decay rate, maintain firmness and inhibit increased malondialdehyde content at 4 °C. In terms of practical applications, an appropriate sodium stearate content can be selected in accordance with the storage period, aiming to achieve precise storage goals. Therefore, the ethanol emitter has potential application prospects as an active packaging for Chinese bayberry fruit, as well as for other perishable products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. How did nature engineer the highest surface lipid accumulation among plants? Exceptional expression of acyl-lipid-associated genes for the assembly of extracellular triacylglycerol by Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jeffrey P; Thrower, Nicholas; Ohlrogge, John B

    2016-09-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits are covered with a remarkably thick layer of crystalline wax consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) esterified exclusively with saturated fatty acids. As the only plant known to accumulate soluble glycerolipids as a major component of surface waxes, Bayberry represents a novel system to investigate neutral lipid biosynthesis and lipid secretion by vegetative plant cells. The assembly of Bayberry wax is distinct from conventional TAG and other surface waxes, and instead proceeds through a pathway related to cutin synthesis (Simpson and Ohlrogge, 2016). In this study, microscopic examination revealed that the fruit tissue that produces and secretes wax (Bayberry knobs) is fully developed before wax accumulates and that wax is secreted to the surface without cell disruption. Comparison of transcript expression to genetically related tissues (Bayberry leaves, M. rubra fruits), cutin-rich tomato and cherry fruit epidermis, and to oil-rich mesocarp and seeds, revealed exceptionally high expression of 13 transcripts for acyl-lipid metabolism together with down-regulation of fatty acid oxidases and desaturases. The predicted protein sequences of the most highly expressed lipid-related enzyme-encoding transcripts in Bayberry knobs are 100% identical to the sequences from Bayberry leaves, which do not produce surface DAG or TAG. Together, these results indicate that TAG biosynthesis and secretion in Bayberry is achieved by both up and down-regulation of a small subset of genes related to the biosynthesis of cutin and saturated fatty acids, and also implies that modifications in gene expression, rather than evolution of new gene functions, was the major mechanism by which Bayberry evolved its specialized lipid metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Elucidation and Antioxidant Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu; Qiao, Liping; Cao, Yuming; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xingqian

    2014-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins in Chinese bayberry leaves (PCBLs) were qualitatively analyzed. NMR data suggest that PCBLs are mostly composed of (epi)gallocatechin gallate units. Matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight MS data indicate 95 possible prodelphinidin structures, ranging from dimers to tridecamers. Preparative normal-phase HPLC and further analysis by reverse-phase HPLC together with electrospray ionization MS enabled detection of 20 compounds, including seven newly identified compounds in Chinese bayberry leaves. The antioxidant capacity of PCBLs was evaluated by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorption capacity assays. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities (as 50% decrease in the initial DPPH concentration) were 7.60 µg. The FRAP and ORAC values were 8859.33±978.39 and 12991.61±1553.34 µmol Trolox equivalents per gram, respectively. The results indicate the high antioxidant potency of PCBLs. PMID:24805126

  12. New clamshells to decrease moisture loss and extend storage life of small fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A humidity efficient one-pound clamshell was designed for small fruit packaging. Quality attributes and shelf-life of lychee, sweet cherry, strawberry, blueberry, Chinese bayberry, and loquat fruits packaged in the new clamshells and commercial clamshells were compared during storage at 0, 5, 10 and...

  13. A Novel Pathway for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Is Responsible for the Accumulation of Massive Quantities of Glycerolipids in the Surface Wax of Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Fruit[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits synthesize an extremely thick and unusual layer of crystalline surface wax that accumulates to 32% of fruit dry weight, the highest reported surface lipid accumulation in plants. The composition is also striking, consisting of completely saturated triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol with palmitate and myristate acyl chains. To gain insight into the unique properties of Bayberry wax synthesis, we examined the chemical and morphological development of the wax layer, monitored wax biosynthesis through [14C]-radiolabeling, and sequenced the transcriptome. Radiolabeling identified sn-2 monoacylglycerol as an initial glycerolipid intermediate. The kinetics of [14C]-DAG and [14C]-TAG accumulation and the regiospecificity of their [14C]-acyl chains indicated distinct pools of acyl donors and that final TAG assembly occurs outside of cells. The most highly expressed lipid-related genes were associated with production of cutin, whereas transcripts for conventional TAG synthesis were >50-fold less abundant. The biochemical and expression data together indicate that Bayberry surface glycerolipids are synthesized by a pathway for TAG synthesis that is related to cutin biosynthesis. The combination of a unique surface wax and massive accumulation may aid understanding of how plants produce and secrete non-membrane glycerolipids and also how to engineer alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seeds. PMID:26744217

  14. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-Nan; Xie, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Cao, Jin-Ping; Cao, Pei-Rang; Chen, Qing-Jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-09-27

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit ( Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.

  15. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-nan; Xie, Wen-hua; Zheng, Yi-xiong; Cao, Jin-ping; Cao, Pei-rang; Chen, Qing-jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo. PMID:27690088

  16. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xu; Xie, Zhongwen; Wang, Wen; Xu, Junfeng; Liu, Yuanjing; Gao, Haiyan; Zhou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH), 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC), and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC)] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold) on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison. PMID:29259594

  17. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xu; Xie, Zhongwen; Wang, Wen; Xu, Junfeng; Liu, Yuanjing; Gao, Haiyan; Zhou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH), 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC), and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC)] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20-2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold) on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  18. Effects of Date and Frequency of Burning on Southern Bayberry (Myrica cerifera) in Central Louisiana

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Henry A. Pearson; Harold E. Grelen; Thomas W. Popham

    2000-01-01

    Myrica cerifera (southern bayberry or waxmyrtle) is one of the most common shrubs in the longleaf pine/bluestem forest type in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. During controlled burns, individual plants can burn intensely because the wax coated foliage and fruits are very flammable. However, Myrica cerifera can survive tires on...

  19. Effect of electron irradiation and bayberry polyphenols on the quality change of yellowfin tuna fillets during refrigerated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Tingting; Jin, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jinjie; Xu, Dalun; Yang, Wenge; Lou, Qiaoming

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic effect of bayberry polyphenols and electron irradiation in controlling the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of raw yellowfin tuna fillets at 4 °C for 7 days. The results indicated that the initial values of each index were dose-dependent. The dose of 5 kGy notably accelerated adenosine triphosphate degradation and lipid oxidation, while the doses of 1 and 3 kGy had acceptable sensory quality and yielded a shelf-life of 5 days. The addition of bayberry polyphenols had evident effect in inhibiting freshness breakdown, bacteria growth, histamine formation, and discoloration of tuna fillets. Bayberry polyphenols, as an antioxidant, could inhibit lipid oxidation and sensory side-effects made by irradiation up to 3 kGy. The dose of 1-3 kGy coupled with bayberry polyphenols was optimum to preserve tuna fillets which prolonged the shelf-life to 7 days.

  20. [Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Chinese adults from 2010 to 2012].

    PubMed

    He, Yuna; Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Dongmei; Fang, Hongyun; Yu, Wentao; Guo, Qiya; Wang, Xun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults. Data were collected from 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Information on fruits and vegetables consumption was collected by using the 24 h recall method for 3 consecutive days. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. The participants selected were more than 18 years old of 150 counties from 31 provinces in China. Age and sex standardization was performed based on the China 2009 population published by National Statistics Bureau. The average consumption of vegetables or fruits after weight adjustment for complex sampling was reported to analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults (x ± Sx). The average daily consumptions of vegetables and fruits for Chinese residents were (255 ± 6) and (36 ± 3)g/d, respectively. The total consumptions of fruits and vegetables were (291 ± 7)g/d, (295 ± 8)g/d for male, (286 ± 7)g/d for female. Rates on intake of vegetables in Chinese adults during the three survey days were 99.0%-99.8%.Rates on intake of fruits of urban and rural residents were 36.9%-51.5% and 21.3%-30.3%,respectively.The proportion of people whose total amount of vegetables and fruits intake reached 400 g/d were 24%-28% and 13%-23% in urban and rural areas, respectively. In urban and rural areas, the proportion of adults whose consumption reached Chinese dietary guidelines recommended level were 22%-26% and 14%-19% in vegetables, 2%-5% and 1%-2% in fruit, respectively. The consumptions of vegetables and fruits were inadequate in Chinese adults.

  1. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of the Chinese wolfberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maosheng; Ding, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    The conventional methods of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits cause loss of active ingredients and the drying time is very long. In order to explore and investigate the new method of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying system was used to drying for Chinese wolfberry fruits with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on five levels alternating voltage at 0, 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV and a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on a level direct voltage at 28 kV. The drying rate, the moisture rate, shrinkage rate, rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry were measured. Ten different mathematical drying models were also determined and compared to simulate drying curves based on the root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and the coefficient of correlation. Each drying treatment was carried out at (25 ± 2) °C, the drying relative humidity was (30 ± 5) % and all samples were dehydrated until they reached the final moisture content (17 ± 1)/100 g. The results showed that the drying rate of Chinese wolfberry was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and improved by 1.8777, 2.0017, 2.3676 and 2.6608 times, respectively, at 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV, compared to that of the control in the 5 h. The drying rate with multiple needles-to-plate electrode under AC electric field is faster than that with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode under DC electric field and the mass transfer enhancement factor heightened with the increase of voltage. The EHD drying treatments have a significant effect on rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry, but no significant differences was observed in shrinkage rate of Chinese wolfberry. The specific energy consumption of EHD drying (kJ·kg(-1) water) were significantly influenced by the alternating voltage, it heightened with the increase of voltage. The Parabolic model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of

  2. Polyphenolic profile and biological activity of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) fruits.

    PubMed

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Mlcek, Jiri; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-06

    Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid)--active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  3. Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yongni; He Yong; Mao Jingyuan

    Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters,such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) ofmore » 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.« less

  4. SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Jeffrey P.; Thrower, Nicholas; Ohlrogge, John B.

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits are covered with a remarkably thick layer of crystalline wax consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) esterified exclusively with saturated fatty acids. As the only plant known to accumulate soluble glycerolipids as a major component of surface waxes, Bayberry represents a novel system to investigate neutral lipid biosynthesis and lipid secretion by vegetative plant cells. The assembly of Bayberry wax is distinct from conventional TAG and other surface waxes, and instead proceeds through a pathway related to cutin synthesis (Simpson and Ohlrogge, 2016). In this study, microscopic examination revealed that the fruit tissue that producesmore » and secretes wax (Bayberry knobs) is fully developed before wax accumulates and that wax is secreted to the surface without cell disruption. Comparison of transcript expression to genetically related tissues (Bayberry leaves, M. rubra fruits), cutin-rich tomato and cherry fruit epidermis, and to oil-rich mesocarp and seeds, revealed exceptionally high expression of 13 transcripts for acyl-lipid metabolism together with down-regulation of fatty acid oxidases and desaturases. The predicted protein sequences of the most highly expressed lipid-related enzyme-encoding transcripts in Bayberry knobs are 100% identical to the sequences from Bayberry leaves,which do not produce surface DAG or TAG. Together, these results indicate that TAG biosynthesis and secretion in Bayberry is achieved by both up and down-regulation of a small subset of genes related to the biosynthesis of cutin and saturated fatty acids, and also implies that modifications in gene expression, rather than evolution of new gene functions, was the major mechanism by which Bayberry evolved its specialized lipid metabolism.« less

  5. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  6. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabricating a graphene oxide—bayberry tannin sponge for effective radionuclide removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiaonan; Duan, Tao; Zhu, Wenkun; Yi, Zao; Yao, Weitang

    2016-05-01

    Bayberry tannin (BT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sponges have been prepared by self-assembly, with bayberry tannin serving as both reductant and surface functionalization agent. The synthetic method is based on the self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO) sheets into porous hydrogel structures. By varying the weight ratio of GO to BT, a series of sorbents with different densities of organic molecules have been obtained and applied to remove Sr2+ from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and kinetics (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order) have been investigated to discuss the sorption performance of rGO/BT sponges. The rGO/BT (w/w 1:1) sponge shows excellent adsorption properties for Sr2+, with maximum capacities of 67.98 mg g-1. The adsorption capacity is much higher than those in classic Sr2+ adsorbents, such as hydrous manganese dioxide, Egyptian soils, Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sodium hexa-titanate nanofibers, Graphene oxide, artificially altered phlogopite(Ca-Phl), and PB/Fe3O4/GO. Adsorption mechanisms have been examined using the x-ray photoelectron spectra of sorbents before and after Sr2+ adsorption, and the results indicate that the sorption of Sr2+ on GO and GO/BT 1.0 is largely depended on oxygen functional groups. The results show that the GO/BT sponge is a promising candidate for adsorbing Sr2+ ion.

  8. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  9. [Trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingting; Su, Chang; Ouyang, Yifei; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011. Twenty four hour dietary recall data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011) were used to identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese between 18 and 44 years old. From 1991 to 2011, the proportion of daily consumption of vegetables rarely varied, while the vegetables intake declined significantly; and the proportion of daily consumption and intake of fruits kept increasing as follows. By 2011, the proportion of daily consumption and intake of vegetables and fruits among the respondents were 99.7%, 48.0%, 321.6 g/d, and 90.1 g/d respectively. A significant drop was found in the vegetables intake among the respondents against the vegetables intake as recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, up to 50.2% in 2011; a significant rise was found in the fruits intake of the respondents against the fruits intake as recommended by the said guidelines, up to 17.4% in 2011. The average daily intake of vegetables and fruits of young and middle-aged residents (18-44 age group) in nine provinces in China was found lower than that recommended in the Chinese dietary guidelines; in view of the high proportion of people having less vegetables and fruits intake that those recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, further measures are expected to encourage their vegetables and fruits intake.

  10. Pattern recognition of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy from bayberry juice by use of partial least squares and a backpropagation neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Haiyan; Bao Yidan; He Yong

    2006-10-10

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance (visible-NIR) spectroscopy is applied to discriminate different varieties of bayberry juices. The discrimination of visible-NIR spectra from samples is a matter of pattern recognition. By partial least squares (PLS), the spectrum is reduced to certain factors, which are then taken as the input of the backpropagation neural network (BPNN). Through training and prediction, three different varieties of bayberry juice are classified based on the output of the BPNN. In addition, a mathematical model is built and the algorithm is optimized. With proper parameters in the training set,100% accuracy is obtained by the BPNN. Thus it ismore » concluded that the PLS analysis combined with the BPNN is an alternative for pattern recognition based on visible and NIR spectroscopy.« less

  11. Structural characterization of Chinese quince fruit lignin pretreated with enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Wang, Xue-De; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Dong-Min; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2018-08-01

    Lignin is an increasingly valuable raw material for industrial, pharmaceutical and the food industries; natural antioxidants are also being used more and more widely. The Chinese quince fruits have an abundance of lignins with antioxidant properties; however, the lignins cannot be isolated by the methods conventionally used on other sources (e.g., wood, straw). In this investigation, multi-enzymatic hydrolytic pretreatments were used to isolate lignins from Chinese quince fruit, and the structures of these multi-enzyme mixture lignin (EML) fractions were then analyzed and compared with conventional cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL). EML fractions are structurally similar to CEL fractions except for an increased S/G ratio, greater number of β-O-4 linkages, higher average molecular weight and decreased thermal stability. The EML-2 fraction in particular seemed most representative of the lignins isolated, and it exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in comparison with CEL and other EML fractions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption associated with reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Su, Dada; Binns, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. A case-control study was undertaken in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, between 2006 and 2008. Participants were 500 incident ovarian cancer patients and 500 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fruit and vegetable intakes and the ovarian cancer risk. The mean fruit and vegetable daily intakes of ovarian cancer patients (324.2g (SD 161.9) and 582.7 g (SD 250.2)) were significantly lower (p<0.001) than those of controls (477.3g (SD 362.1) and 983.3g (SD 739.9)). The adjusted odds ratios were 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.44) and 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.12) for more than 490 g of fruits and 970 g of vegetables per day, relative to at most 320 g and 690 g per day, respectively. With the exception of lycopene, substantial risk reductions were evident for a variety of nutrients derived from fruits and vegetables. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. © 2013.

  14. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China.

  15. Investigating the underlying mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress employing RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoyun; Xiong, Guotong; Yuan, Shukun; Wu, Zufang; Miao, Yingjie; Weng, Peifang

    2017-11-03

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used for wine fermentation and bio-fuels production. A S. cerevisiae strain Sc131 isolated from tropical fruit shows good fermentation properties and ethanol tolerance, exhibiting significant potential in Chinese bayberry wine fermentation. In this study, RNA-sequence and RT-qPCR was used to investigate the transcriptome profile of Sc131 in response to ethanol stress. Scanning Electron Microscopy were carried out to observe surface morphology of yeast cells. Totally, 937 genes were identified differential expressed, including 587 up-regulated and 350 down-regulated genes, after 4-h ethanol stress (10% v/v). Transcriptomic analysis revealed that, most genes involved in regulating filamentous growth or pseudohyphal growth were significantly up-regulated in response to ethanol stress. The complex protein quality control machineries, Hsp90/Hsp70 and Hsp104/Hsp70/Hsp40 based chaperone system combining with ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway were both activated to recognize and degrade misfolding proteins. Genes related to biosynthesis and metabolism of two well-known stress-responsive substances trehalose and ergosterol were generally up-regulated, while genes associated with amino acids biosynthesis and metabolism processes were differentially expressed. Moreover, thiamine was also important in response to ethanol stress. This research may promote the potential applications of Sc131 in the fermentation of Chinese bayberry wine.

  16. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  17. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  18. Structural analysis of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn with potent antityrosinase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Gao, Yu-Sen; Feng, Hui-Ling; Ding, Yu-Mei; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-08

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.). Their structures were analyzed and elucidated by methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that these compounds are complicated mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers consisting of procyanidin/procyanidin gallate and prodelphinidin. They possessed structural heterogeneity in monomer units, polymer length, and interflavan linkage (A-type and B-type). Their antityrosinase and antioxidant activity were then investigated. The results revealed that they can inhibit tyrosinase activities, including the monophenolase activity and the diphenolase activity. In addition, proanthocyanidins possessed potent antioxidant activity. Our studies revealed that proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn may be applied in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  19. Myrica faya: a new source of antioxidant phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Vítor; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Gouveia, Sandra; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-08

    Myrica faya is a fruit tree endemic of the Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira, and Canary Island), and its edible fruits are known as "amorinhos" (little loves), bright red to purple berries, used fresh and in jams and liquors. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of leaves and berries from M. faya are presented here for the first time. The screening of phytochemical compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with online UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). There were 55 compounds characterized, mostly galloyl esters of flavonoids and phenolic acids; 26 of the identified compounds (anthocyanins, isoflavonoids, lignans, terpenes, fatty acids, and phenylethanoids) have not been reported in Myrica genus so far. From the data presented here, it can be concluded that faya berries represent a rich source of cyanidin-3-glucoside, flavonoids, and vitamin C. In fact, higher antioxidant activity than that of the well-known Myrica rubra berries (Chinese bayberry) has been observed.

  20. Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xie, H-L; Wu, B-H; Xue, W-Q; He, M-G; Fan, F; Ouyang, W-F; Tu, S-L; Zhu, H-L; Chen, Y-M

    2013-11-01

    In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of osteoporotic fractures remains controversial due to limited published evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming fruits and vegetables has a protective effect against hip fractures. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 646 (162 males, 484 females) incident cases (70.9 ± 6.8 years) of hip fractures were enrolled from five hospitals, with 646 sex- and age-matched (±3 years) controls (70.7 ± 6.8 years) from hospitals or the community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intakes using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates by structured questionnaires. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed dose-dependent inverse correlations between the intake of total fruit (p-trend = 0.014), total vegetables (p-trend <0.001), fruits and vegetables combined (p-trend < 0.001) and the risk of hip fractures after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors and other potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for hip fractures in the top quartiles (vs. the lowest quartiles) for the intake of fruits, vegetables and the combination of fruits and vegetables were 0.53 (0.32-0.87), 0.37 (0.23-0.60) and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the benefits remained significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.210) (p-interaction 0.045). Among the subcategories of fruits and vegetables, similar associations were observed for all subgroups except light

  1. Physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake and health-related quality of life in Chinese breast cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-Huan; Wang, Ji-Wei; Li, Jiang; Chen, Xue-Fen; Sun, Li; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer has long-term effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of cancer survivors after treatment. Few research studies have focused on the association between health behaviors and HRQOL of Chinese breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined influence of physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake on health-related quality of life of BCS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among BCS from April to July 2013, in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire, which included questions about basic socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions and treatments, health behaviors and HRQOL. HRQOL was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) simplified Chinese V3.0 version and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) simplified Chinese 4th version. Multiple linear regression models were performed to estimate the effects of physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake as well as the effects of health behavior patterns on HRQOL adjusting for potential confounding variables. Exercisers reported significantly higher scores in most HRQOL dimensions than non-exercisers. Participants who ate more than 250 g of vegetables reported significantly higher scores in most HRQOL dimensions than participants who ate equal or less than 250 g of vegetables. Participants who ate fruit every day reported significantly higher scores in all HRQOL dimensions than those who did not eat fruit every day (P Adjusted  ≤ 0.032), except symptom subscales. All subscale scores and total scores of HRQOL, except symptom subscales, were positively associated with the number of adopted healthy lifestyle behaviors (P Trend  ≤ 0.003). Compared to participants who adopted only one healthy behavior, participants who adopted two or three healthy behaviors both reported significantly higher

  2. Greater fruit intake was associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women: results of Hong Kong Mr. Os and Ms. Os studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-min; Leung, Jason; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although studies in white populations have reported the beneficial effects of intakes of fruit and vegetables (F&V) on bone mass, limited data are available in Asians, especially among the elderly population. We examined the association of F&V intakes and bone mineral status in Chinese elderly adults and explored the potential mechanisms. The study was a population-based cross-sectional study among 4000 Hong Kong Chinese men and women aged 65 years and older. Habitual F&V intakes were ascertained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral measurements of the whole body, hip, lumber spine, and femoral neck were made by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Information on demographic, health, and lifestyles factors was obtained by standardized questionnaire. Relations between F&V intakes and bone mass at various sites were assessed by regression models. Whole-body and femoral neck bone mineral density and content were significantly and positively associated with fruit intake in both men and women, even when adjustment for a range of potential confounders was made. A daily increase of 100 g/kcal total fruit intake was associated with 4.5% and 6.4% increase of BMD at whole body, and 3.9% and 4.8% increase at the femoral neck in men and women, respectively. No significant association was found between vegetable intake and bone mass. The adjustment for vitamin C intake, but not dietary acid load, attenuated the association between fruit intake and bone mass. Greater fruit intake was independently associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women. The association is probably modified by dietary vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  4. Lower risk of incident dementia among Chinese older adults having three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits a day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-09-01

    dietary modification can potentially reduce dementia risk, but the importance of fruits and the amount of vegetables and fruits required for cognitive maintenance are uncertain. We examined whether the minimal daily requirement of vegetables and fruits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) would independently lower dementia risk. in this population-based observational study, we examined the diet of 17,700 community-living dementia-free Chinese older adults who attended the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong at baseline and followed their cognitive status for 6 years. In line with the WHO recommendation, we defined the cutoff for minimal intake of vegetables and fruits as at least three and two servings per day, respectively. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1-3. multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the estimated odds ratios for incident dementia were 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.06; P = 0.17) for those consuming at least three servings of vegetables per day, 0.86 (0.74-0.99; P < 0.05) for those consuming at least two servings of fruits per day and 0.75 (0.60-0.95; P = 0.02) for those consuming at least these amounts of both at baseline, after adjusting for age, gender, education, major chronic diseases, physical exercise and smoking. having at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits daily might help prevent dementia in older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Yang, Baoru

    2011-08-01

    Eleven major phenolic compounds (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, ideain, epicatechin, two procyanidin (PA) dimers, three PA trimers and a PA dimer-hexoside) were quantified in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of the Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) by HPLC-ESI-MS-SIR. Hyperoside (0.1-0.8mg/g dry mass [DM]), isoquercitrin (0.1-0.3mg/g DM), chlorogenic acid (0.2-1.6mg/g DM), epicatechin (0.9-11.7mg/g DM), PA B2 (0.7-12.4mg/g DM), PA dimer II (0.1-1.5mg/g DM), PA trimer I (0.1-2.7mg/g DM), PA trimer II (0.7-6.9mg/g DM), PA trimer III (0.01-1.2mg/g DM) and a PA dimer-hexoside (trace-1.1mg/g DM) were detected in all the samples. Ideain (0.0-0.7mg/g DM) was found in all the samples except Crataegus scabrifolia. Significant correlations between the contents of individual PA aglycons were observed (r>0.9, P<0.01). A strong correlation between flavonols was also shown (r=0.71, P<0.01). Fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major had higher contents of PAs but lower contents of flavonols compared with Crataegus brettschneideri. The fruits of C. scabrifolia contained the highest level of PA dimer-hexoside, which was present in trace amounts in the fruits of C. pinnatifida. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of MicroRNAs and Target Genes in the Fruit and Shoot Tip of Lycium chinense: A Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Khaldun, A. B. M.; Huang, Wenjun; Liao, Sihong; Lv, Haiyan; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Although Lycium chinense (goji berry) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, little genome information is available for this plant, particularly at the small-RNA level. Recent findings indicate that the evolutionary role of miRNAs is very important for a better understanding of gene regulation in different plant species. To elucidate small RNAs and their potential target genes in fruit and shoot tissues, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used followed by qRT-PCR and RLM 5’-RACE experiments. A total of 60 conserved miRNAs belonging to 31 families and 30 putative novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 62 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 15 (14 known and 1 novel) were shoot-specific, and 12 (7 known and 5 novel) were fruit-specific. Additionally, 28 differentially expressed miRNAs were recorded as up-regulated in fruit tissues. The predicted potential targets were involved in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory pathways. GO (Gene Ontology) enrichment analysis and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database revealed that “metabolic pathways” is the most significant pathway with respect to the rich factor and gene numbers. Moreover, five miRNAs were related to fruit maturation, lycopene biosynthesis and signaling pathways, which might be important for the further study of fruit molecular biology. This study is the first, to detect known and novel miRNAs, and their potential targets, of L. chinense. The data and findings that are presented here might be a good source for the functional genomic study of medicinal plants and for understanding the links among diversified biological pathways. PMID:25587984

  7. Electrochemical Determination of the Antioxidant Potential of Some Less Common Fruit Species

    PubMed Central

    Gazdik, Zbynek; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Saloun, Jan; Pokorna, Tunde; Reznicek, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Various berries and fruit types of less common fruit species are known to contain antioxidants. Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, which display a variety of biological properties, including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, may have a positive impact on human health, particularly for the prevention of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. In these studies, based on the hypothesis that the fruit extract with the highest content would possess significantly higher health benefits, flavonoid-rich extracts were obtained from some less common fruit species – Blue Honeysuckles (Lonicera Kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) and Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) – grown from germplasm held at the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic and then characterized in terms of biological value based on the results from a relative antioxidant capacity assessment. The antioxidant content evaluation was based on the total flavonoid amount, determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). A DPPH• test was applied as a reference. The antioxidant content measured in Chinese Hawthorn fruit extract identified it as a potent source of flavonoid antioxidants, with a content 9-fold higher than that seen in Amelanchier fruit. The multifunctional HPLC-ED array method coupled with a DPPH• reference appears to be the optimal analytical progress, accurately reflecting the nutritive-therapeutic properties of a fruit. PMID:27873945

  8. Evaluation of Low-Temperature Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly in Loquat Fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Baishu; Zhan, Guoping; Wang, Yuejin

    2018-05-28

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel; Diptera: Tephritidae), is recognized as a quarantine pest and a threat to Chinese loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit exports. Since loquat fruit is very sensitive to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation and cold treatment, in this study, low-temperature phosphine (PH3) fumigation was investigated to develop an alternative phytosanitary treatment method. Tolerance tests showed that the third instar was the most tolerant of all life stages of B dorsalis to PH3 gas at 8°C. Toxicity assay with 500-3000 ppm PH3 and subsequent probit analysis showed that 2000 ppm PH3 was optimal for fumigation and 152.75 h of treatment duration were required to achieve 99.9968% mortality. In the verification test, 144 and 168 h of treatment duration with 2000 ppm PH3 completely killed 35,277 and 35,134 B. dorsalis third instars, respectively. However, 13 live larvae were found after 120 h of treatment. Furthermore, these treatments reduced fruit respiration rates while causing no adverse effects on other fruit quality parameters, including firmness, soluble solid content, and titratable acidity over 192 h storage at 8°C. The results strongly suggest that low-temperature PH3 fumigation could be used for the postharvest control of B. dorsalis in loquat fruit.

  9. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0007] RIN 0579-AD42 Importation of Chinese Sand... Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of entry, sand... of fruit, safeguarding, labeling, and importation in commercial consignments. Sand pears from areas...

  10. Deep Sequencing of the Fruit Transcriptome and Lipid Accumulation in a Non-Seed Tissue of Chinese Tallow, a Potential Biofuel Crop.

    PubMed

    Divi, Uday K; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Penghao; Butlin, Jamie; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Qing; Vanhercke, Thomas; Petrie, James R; Talbot, Mark; White, Rosemary G; Taylor, Jennifer M; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder P

    2016-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is a valuable oilseed-producing tree that can grow in a variety of conditions without competing for food production, and is a promising biofuel feedstock candidate. The fruits are unique in that they contain both saturated and unsaturated fat present in the tallow and seed layer, respectively. The tallow layer is poorly studied and is considered only as an external fatty deposition secreted from the seed. In this study we show that tallow is in fact a non-seed cellular tissue capable of triglyceride synthesis. Knowledge of lipid synthesis and storage mechanisms in tissues other than seed is limited but essential to generate oil-rich biomass crops. Here, we describe the annotated transcriptome assembly generated from the fruit coat, tallow and seed tissues of Chinese tallow. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of candidate genes and reconstruction of lipid pathways. A tallow tissue-specific paralog for the transcription factor gene WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and lipid droplet-associated protein genes, distinct from those expressed in seed tissue, were found to be active in tallow, underpinning the mode of oil synthesis and packaging in this tissue. Our data have established an excellent knowledge base that can provide genetic and biochemical insights for engineering non-seed tissues to accumulate large amounts of oil. In addition to the large data set of annotated transcripts, the study also provides gene-based simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  12. Genetic Diversity and Domestication Footprints of Chinese Cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] as Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Luo, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Haoru; Wang, Xiaorong

    2018-01-01

    Chinese cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] is a commercially important fruit crop in China, but its structure patterns and domestication history remain imprecise. To address these questions, we estimated the genetic structure and domestication history of Chinese cherry using 19 nuclear microsatellite markers and 650 representative accessions (including 118 Cerasus relatives) selected throughout their natural eco-geographical distributions. Our structure analyses detected no genetic contribution from Cerasus relatives to the evolution history of Chinese cherry. A separate genetic structure was detected in wild Chinese cherries and rough geographical structures were observed in cultivated Chinese cherries. One wild (wild Chinese cherry, WC) and two cultivated (cultivated Chinese cherry, CC1 and CC2) genetic clusters were defined. Our approximate Bayesian computation analyses supported an independent domestication history with two domestication events for CC1 and CC2, happening about 3900 and 2200 years ago, respectively. Moderate loss of genetic diversity, over 1000-year domestication bottlenecks and divergent domestication in fruit traits were also detected in cultivated Chinese cherries, which is highly correlated to long-term clonal propagation and different domestication trends and preferences. Our study is the first to comprehensively and systematically investigate the structure patterns and domestication history for Chinese cherry, providing important references for revealing the evolution and domestication history of perennial woody fruit trees. PMID:29535750

  13. [Comparison of morphological and microscopical diagnostic characters of Hawthorn fruits (Crataegus species)].

    PubMed

    Gao, G Y; Feng, Y X

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with studies on morphological and microscopical diagnostic characters of Chinese Hawthorn fruits. Their similarities and differences in morphological and microscopical characters among eight species of Crataegus (C. pinnatifida Bge., C. pinnatifida var. major NE Br., C. cuneata sieb. & Zuce., C. scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd., C. hupehensis Sarg., C. kansuensis Wils, C. maximowiczii Schneid. and C. sanguinea Pall.) fruits are compared and illustrated with diagrams.

  14. Application and Characteristics of Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Schisandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Schisandra is the dried and ripe fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, which has the functions of protecting the liver and gallbladder, lowering blood sugar, antibacterial and antiaging. Schisandra contains biological activity is very high. As a commonly used blind Chinese herbal medicine, Schisandra often appear in the treatment of vertigo, palpitations, insomnia in the proprietary Chinese medicine, play a nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing the nerves and so on. Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains a total of 102 kinds of Chinese medicine containing Schisandra, according to the dosage form will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into pills, tablets, granules and other 8 categories, according to the compatibility of Schisandra application, will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine functional Class 9. In this paper, the main clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Schisandra chinensis was analyzed by analyzing the classification and functional treatment of Chinese medicinal constituents containing Schisandra in pharmacopoeia, and then providing the basis for the analysis of Schisandra in proprietary Chinese medicine and The study is conducted to give guidance.

  15. Nutritional, Medicinal and Toxicological Attributes of Star-Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Narmataa; Lee, Su Yin; Phua, Kia Kien; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-01-01

    Plants are very complex organisms that produce medicinally important natural products. The Star-fruit producing plant (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a species of woody plant in the family Oxalidaceae native to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; but, cultivated in many parts of the world. Star-fruits are popular tropical fruits and used commonly in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in India, China, and Brazil to relieve ailments such as chronic headache, fever, cough, gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, ringworm infections, and skin inflammations. However, this fruit contains high amount of oxalate, which is hazardous for uremic patients, and caramboxin (CBX), which is neurotoxic. The aim of this review is to highlight the nutritional, medicinal and toxicological traits of the star-fruits. PMID:28405126

  16. Nutritional, Medicinal and Toxicological Attributes of Star-Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.): A Review.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Narmataa; Lee, Su Yin; Phua, Kia Kien; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-01-01

    Plants are very complex organisms that produce medicinally important natural products. The Star-fruit producing plant (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a species of woody plant in the family Oxalidaceae native to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; but, cultivated in many parts of the world. Star-fruits are popular tropical fruits and used commonly in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in India, China, and Brazil to relieve ailments such as chronic headache, fever, cough, gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, ringworm infections, and skin inflammations. However, this fruit contains high amount of oxalate, which is hazardous for uremic patients, and caramboxin (CBX), which is neurotoxic. The aim of this review is to highlight the nutritional, medicinal and toxicological traits of the star-fruits.

  17. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  18. Physical Activity, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Chinese, Hispanics, and Blacks in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Kranick, Julie A.; Islam, Nadia S.; Devia, Carlos; Horowitz, Carol; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and adequate physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake among racial/ethnic minority groups aged 60 years or older living in New York City (NYC). Methods. Survey data from 2009 to 2012 targeted minority groups in NYC ethnic enclaves; we analyzed 3594 individuals (Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese) aged 60 years or older. Descriptive statistics were run; unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression evaluated the relationship of HRQOL with PA and F&V intake. Results. Hispanics were most likely to engage in sufficient PA and eat recommended F&Vs and had significantly worse HRQOL. After multivariable adjustment, significant associations were found between PA and self-reported health, activity limitation and physical health days for all groups, and PA and mental health days for Hispanics. Significant associations were found between F&V intake and physical health days for Hispanics and F&V intake and self-reported health for Chinese. Conclusions. Findings indicated variations between HRQOL and PA by racial/ethnic subgroup. Despite being highly insured, recommendations for PA and F&V intake were not met. There is a need to promote healthy living behaviors among aging NYC racial/ethnic populations. PMID:25905844

  19. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  20. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  1. Psychometrics of the "Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables Scale" in African American women.

    PubMed

    Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B

    2017-08-01

    Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of Kiwifruit Grades Based on Fruit Shape Using a Single Camera

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Longsheng; Sun, Shipeng; Li, Rui; Wang, Shaojin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility for classifying kiwifruit into shape grades by adding a single camera to current Chinese sorting lines equipped with weight sensors. Image processing methods are employed to calculate fruit length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section, and projected area. A stepwise multiple linear regression method is applied to select significant variables for predicting minimum diameter of the equatorial section and volume and to establish corresponding estimation models. Results show that length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section and weight are selected to predict the minimum diameter of the equatorial section, with the coefficient of determination of only 0.82 when compared to manual measurements. Weight and length are then selected to estimate the volume, which is in good agreement with the measured one with the coefficient of determination of 0.98. Fruit classification based on the estimated minimum diameter of the equatorial section achieves a low success rate of 84.6%, which is significantly improved using a linear combination of the length/maximum diameter of the equatorial section and projected area/length ratios, reaching 98.3%. Thus, it is possible for Chinese kiwifruit sorting lines to reach international standards of grading kiwifruit on fruit shape classification by adding a single camera. PMID:27376292

  3. Diet and self-rated health among oldest-old Chinese.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Liu, Junyi; Guan, Chenghua

    Dietary behavior is a central modifiable risk factor for human health. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary habits and self-rated health among the oldest-old Chinese. Participants aged 80 years and above (N = 7273) were first interviewed in 1998 and followed in subsequent waves 2-3 years apart till 2011-2012 in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the effects of dietary habits on poor self-rated health, adjusting for various individual characteristics. Compared to those who rarely/never consumed fruit, vegetable, meat, egg, and soybean-derived product, participants consuming such products almost every day were 28%, 20%, 32%, 16%, and 16% less likely to report poor self-rated health during follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who rarely/never consumed fruit, meat, fish, soybean-derived product, and tea, participants consuming such products occasionally were 12%, 24%, 11%, 15%, and 14% less likely to report poor self-rated health during follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who rarely/never consumed sugar, participants consuming sugar almost every day were 14% more likely to report poor self-rated health during follow-up. The effects of dietary habits on self-rated health to some extent differed by sex. Oldest-old Chinese could gain health benefit from regular consumption of fruit, vegetable, meat, fish, egg, soybean-derived product, and tea; whereas their sugar consumption may need to be reduced. Future research is warranted to establish the recommended daily nutrient allowances for the oldest-old adults and better address the nutritional needs of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Levitan, Emily B; Yang, Gong; Waterbor, John W; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Xie, Li; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-11-01

    The observed associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men. 61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai. Follow-up for diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer was available through 31 December 2010. Dietary intakes were analyzed both as categorical and continuous variables. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers using Cox proportional hazards models. After 390,688 person-years of follow-up, 398 cases of colorectal cancer (236 colon and 162 rectal) were observed in the cohort. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk. The associations for subgroups of fruits and legumes, but not other vegetable categories, were generally inversely associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancers. Fruit intake was generally inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas vegetable consumption was largely unrelated to risk among middle-aged and older Chinese men.

  5. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  6. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  7. Deviation of Chinese Adults' Diet from the Chinese Food Pagoda 2016 and Its Association with Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xu; Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-08

    Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20-59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004-2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p < 0.05). Meanwhile, great disparity was detected between real consumption and recommended intake in CFP. In particular, a deficient intake was found for milk and milk products, eggs, and fruit, while over-consumption was observed for cereal, potatoes and beans, meat and poultry, legumes and nuts, oil, and salt. In addition, over-consumption of cereal, legumes and nuts, and salt, as well as under-consumption of vegetables, and meat and poultry, were associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns.

  8. Association between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and a reduction in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanlei; Xue, Aili; Sun, Jianping; Song, Xin; Xue, Bai; Ji, Fuling; Gao, Weiguo; He, Liang; Pang, Zengchang; Qiao, Qing; Ning, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this relationship is unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and type 2 diabetes prevalence in a Chinese population. A total of 4,343 individuals aged 35-74 years participated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Qingdao, China. The frequency and quantity of fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake were determined using a standard food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was classified according to the WHO/IDF 2006 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate odds ratio (OR) for type 2 diabetes in relation to fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake in a multivariable model. The multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) for the presence of type 2 diabetes were 0.68 (0.46-0.98), 0.50 (0.37-0.68), and 0.91 (0.66-1.25), respectively, for the highest versus the lowest groups regarding total fruit and vegetable, fruit or vegetable intake in women. The ORs for type 2 diabetes prevalence regarding the quantity of fruit and vegetable, fruit, and yogurt intake were 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and 0.56 (0.32-0.98) in women, but not in men. Seafood consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk in men, but not in women; the corresponding figures were 0.58 (0.35-0.96) and 0.92 (0.63-1.36), respectively. Fruit, vegetable, and yogurt intake in women and seafood intake in men were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes prevalence in this Chinese population. These findings require confirmation in a prospective study.

  9. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-04-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China's stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure and signaling are representative of the recent researches from China at the forefront of the field. These advances are attributable in large part to interdisciplinary studies among scientists from plant science, chemistry, bioinformatics, structural biology, and agronomy. The platforms provided by national facilities facilitate this collaboration. As well, efficient restructuring of the top-down organization of state programs and free exploration of scientists' interests have accelerated achievements by Chinese researchers. Here, we provide a general outline of China's progress in plant R&D to highlight fields in which Chinese research has made significant contributions.

  10. [Fruit and vegetables intake among the Chinese migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in 2012].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Li, Yichong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To describe the intake of fruit and vegetables among employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 year-olds in China. Data from the Migrant Population Survey related to China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that conducted in 170 counties/districts in 31 provinces, 2012, was used. Information on non-communicable diseases and related risk factors among migrant population were collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview, physical measurement and lab tests. A total of 48 704 subjects aged 18 to 59 years old were included in our study. Sample was standardized by age and sex. Information on average daily fruit and vegetables intake, prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake, grouped by sex, age, industries, and education level were analyzed. The average daily intakes of vegetables and fruits were 353.7 (95%CI:351.3-356.2) g and 125.1 (95%CI:123.4-126.9) g respectively, among the employed migrant population aged 18-59 years old in China. Prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was 44.1% (95% CI:43.5%-44.6% ) among employed migrant population, 46.2% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.0%)for males and 41.2% (95% CI:40.3%-42.0%)for females (χ(2) = 82.19, P < 0.05). Among different professions, the prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was the highest among people working in accommodation and restaurants (46.2%, 95%CI:45.0%-47.3%) while the lowest seen among those working in social services (42.5%, 95%CI:41.4%-43.7%,χ(2) = 15.81, P < 0.05). The prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake showed a decrease along with the increase of education levels (χ(2) = 22.29, P < 0.05). In 2012, more than 40% of the employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in China had low fruit and vegetables intake. Being male and with low education level were risk factors linked with the higher prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake.

  11. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and wound healing activity of the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xueling; Diao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shouyu; Jia, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    As the traditional Chinese medicine, the fresh fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L. were applied for the treatment of carbuncle, eczema and burn (Das et al., 2007). However, little is known about the functional roles of the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L. during wound healing progress. In the present study, we evaluated both antimicrobial potential against a wide range of microorganisms and wound healing activity of the seven compounds isolated from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that compounds I (6a,12a-dehydroamorphin), V (dehydrosermundone) and VI (tephrosin) isolated from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L. performed dominant antimicrobial potential against microorganisms. Moreover, these compounds significantly enhanced fibroblasts proliferation and migration, leading to promotion of wound healing. Thus, it could be possible for the therapeutic utilization of Amorpha fruticosa L. for wound healing in the future.

  12. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all). Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05). Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05) and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05) was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05). Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05). NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05). Conclusion Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  13. [Study on ethnic medicine quantitative reference herb,Tibetan medicine fruits of Capsicum frutescens as a case].

    PubMed

    Zan, Ke; Cui, Gan; Guo, Li-Nong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    High price and difficult to get of reference substance have become obstacles to HPLC assay of ethnic medicine. A new method based on quantitative reference herb (QRH) was proposed. Specific chromatograms in fruits of Capsicum frutescens were employed to determine peak positions, and HPLC quantitative reference herb was prepared from fruits of C. frutescens. The content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the quantitative control herb was determined by HPLC. Eleven batches of fruits of C. frutescens were analyzed with quantitative reference herb and reference substance respectively. The results showed no difference. The present method is feasible for quality control of ethnic medicines and quantitative reference herb is suitable to replace reference substances in assay. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P < 0.05). The hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  15. Educational Interventions to Promote Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Among Older Chinese Americans: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Jih, Jane; Le, Gem; Woo, Kent; Tsoh, Janice Y; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Burke, Adam; Wong, Ching; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Yu, Filmer; Pasick, Rena; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an in-language intervention of 2 lectures plus printed materials versus printed materials alone on knowledge and adherence to nutrition and physical activity guidelines among older Chinese Americans in San Francisco, California. From August 2010 to September 2013, we randomized 756 Chinese Americans aged 50 to 75 years to either lectures plus print (n = 361) or print (n = 357). Clusters were the participants recruited by each lay health worker. Intervention outcomes were changes in knowledge of recommended vegetable intake, fruit intake, and physical activity level and adherence to those recommendations from pre- to 6 months postintervention. The retention rate was 99%. At baseline, knowledge and adherence to recommendations were low. Print yielded increases in knowledge of recommended vegetable intake and physical activity level and adherence to fruit intake and physical activity recommendations. Lectures plus print had significant increases in all 6 outcomes. In multivariable models, lectures plus print was superior to print for knowledge of vegetable (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 12.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.50, 24.45) and fruit (AOR = 16.16; 95% CI = 5.61, 46.51) intake recommendations and adherence to vegetable intake recommendations (AOR = 5.53; 95% CI = 1.96, 15.58). In-language print materials, alone and combined with lectures, increased nutrition and physical activity knowledge and behaviors among older Chinese Americans.

  16. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-12-12

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  17. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-03-11

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit.

  18. Chinese chives and garlic in intercropping in strawberry high tunnels for Neopamera bilobata Say (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) control.

    PubMed

    Hata, F T; Ventura, M U; Béga, V L; Camacho, I M; de Paula, M T

    2018-05-08

    Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017. N. bilobata populations on strawberry were also assessed when Chinese chives were grown under the suspended wooden structures in which strawberry plants are grown ('undercropping') (14 samples), in two high tunnels, from November 2016 to March 2017. The number of nymphs and adults on 14 randomly selected fruits per plot were assessed. During the garlic intercropping experiment, the treatments of three densities of garlic reduced N. bilobata populations; however, the 24 GP treatment caused a greater reduction than the 8 GP treatment. Garlic densities reduced N. bilobata populations by 35, 50, and 64% for the 8, 16, and 24 GP treatments, respectively. Chinese chives cultivated under the structures reduced N. bilobata populations by 47%. The results suggest that intercropping garlic or undercropping Chinese chives are suitable tools to be tested in integrated pest management in strawberry crops.

  19. Effects of postharvest salicylic acid dipping on Alternaria rot and disease resistance of jujube fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiankang; Yan, Jiaqi; Zhao, Yumei; Jiang, Weibo

    2013-10-01

    Considerable postharvest losses caused by Alternaria alternata often occur in Chinese jujube fruit, and synthetic fungicides have been widely used to protect the fruit from Alternaria rot. However, the potential harmfulness of fungicide residues to human health and the environment cannot be ignored. This study was conducted to develop an alternative approach for controlling postharvest disease by inducing fruit resistance with salicylic acid (SA) dipping. Disease incidence and lesion area in the jujube fruit inoculated with A. alternata were significantly inhibited by 2 and 2.5 mmol L(-1) SA dipping. Naturally infected decay rate and index in jujubes were also significantly reduced by SA dipping during long-term storage at 0°C. SA enhanced activities of the main defense-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase in the fruit during storage. SA strongly decreased catalase activity but increased superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content in jujubes. The beneficial effects of SA on fruit protection may be due to its ability to activate several highly coordinated defence-related systems in jujubes, instead of its fungicidal activity. The findings indicated that application of SA would offer an alternative approach that helps to control postharvest disease and maintain storage quality in fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit ( n  = 64) or non-food products ( n  = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake ( P  = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas ( P  = 0.015) and mandarins ( P  = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples ( P  > 0.05) and grapes ( P  > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.

  1. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  2. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.

  3. Web-Based Intervention for Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Chinese University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan Ping; Wienert, Julian; Hu, Chun; Si, Gang Yan; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-04-10

    Ample evidence demonstrates that university students are at high risk for sedentary behaviors and inadequate fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). Internet-based interventions for multiple health behavior appear to be promising in changing such unhealthy habits. Limited randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption among Chinese university students. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an 8-week Web-based intervention compared with a control group condition to improve physical activity (PA) and FVI in Chinese university students. The intervention content was based on the health action process approach, and developed on the basis of previous evidence from the Western hemisphere. We evaluated self-reported data including PA and FVI, stages of change for PA and FVI, and motivational (risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy), volitional (action planning, coping planning, social support), and distal (intention, habit) indicators for PA and FVI, as well as perceived mental health outcomes (quality of life, depression). In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited 566 university students from one university in the central region of China during their general physical education class. After random allocation and exclusion of unsuitable participants, we assigned 493 students to 1 of 2 groups: (1) intervention group: first 4 weeks on PA and subsequent 4 weeks on FVI, (2) control group. We conducted 3 Web-based assessments: at the beginning of the intervention (T1, n=493), at the end of the 8-week intervention (T2, n=337), and at a 1-month follow-up after the intervention (T3, n=142). The entire study was conducted throughout the fall semester of 2015. Significant time ⨯ group interactions revealed superior intervention effects on FVI; motivational, volitional, and distal indicators of FVI; and PA behavior changes, with an effect size (η 2 ) ranging from .08 to .20. In addition, the overall intervention effects were significant for stage

  4. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  5. Postharvest color and texture retention in organic Chinese red raspberry and sea-buckthorn fruit during modified atmosphere storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color and texture are among the key quality attributes for small fruit. Postharvest approaches such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) along with cold chain management have been shown to support retention of fruit quality during handling and distribution. The objective of this study was to inves...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

    2006-05-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, β-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  7. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying-Chao; Zheng, Dong; Sun, Jin-Jie; Zou, Zhi-Kang; Ma, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was carried out to summarize published data on the relationship between breast cancer and dietary factors. Methods: Databases in Chinese (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], China Biology Medicine [CBM], WanFang, VIP) and in English (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched for articles analyzing vegetable, fruit, soy food and fat consumption and breast cancer risk published through June 30, 2013. Random effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratios (OR) based on high versus low intake, and subgroup analysis was conducted according to region, study design, paper quality and adjustment for confounding factors to detect the potential source of heterogeneity. Every study was screened according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, evaluated in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RevMan 5.2 software was used for analysis. Results: Of 785 studies retrieved, 22 met inclusion criteria (13 in Chinese and 9 in English), representing 23,201 patients: 10,566 in the experimental group and 12,635 in the control group. Thirteen included studies showed vegetables consumption to be a relevant factor in breast cancer risk, OR = 0.77 (95% CI [confidence interval] 0.62-0.96). Eleven studies showed fruits consumption to be relevant, OR = 0.68 (95% CI 0.49-0.93). Significant differences were also found between those who consumed soy foods, OR = 0.68 (95% CI 0.50-0.93) and those who ate a high-fat diet, OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.01-1.30). Conclusion: This analysis confirms the association between intake of vegetables, fruits, soy foods and fat and the risk of breast cancer from published sources. It’s suggested that high consumption of vegetables, fruits and soy foods may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while increasing fat consumption may increase the risk. PMID:25784976

  8. Fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  9. The origin and meaning of colourful descriptions in Chinese astronomical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Richard G.

    2008-07-01

    Oriental, especially Chinese, observations of transient celestial events are often compared with mundane objects: fruits, birds and containers are typical. The comparison is sometimes thought to indicate brightness of the heavenly object in question (for night-time apparitions). Here, the matter is examined in some detail. There is evidence that the earliest descriptions referred to form and/or colour (in particular, black for sunspots). Containers probably trace back to beidou, the northern (big) dipper, which was a potent symbol in Chinese astrological correspondences. It is noted that many of the comparison objects were round, and that Chinese thinking considered the Sun, Moon, planets and stars as round also. It is shown that the comparison objects used were not constant in time, but changed, with certain ones preferred for centuries. A notable period coincides with much of the Song and Yuan Dynasties (1075-1360), when sunspots were almost exclusively compared with the dark plum and jujube (Chinese date) fruits, while night-time comparisons were often with stars and planets. After 1375, night-time comparisons with bullets abruptly appear, and little else was used for two hundred years. I suggest that this was inspired by contemporary military events. Although the main purpose of the observations recorded in ancient annals was astrological, there is no concrete link between the comparison objects and prognostications. A passage dating back to the Latter Han Dynasty notes that stars have their “distant connections”, and goes on to say, “In the wilderness stars denote articles and objects”, while elsewhere they may relate to government or society. By coupling the transient (and hence shockingly inauspicious) events to mundane objects, the imperial astronomers may have sought to distance the state from their appearance. With the possible exception of comparisons with stars and planets, it seems highly unlikely that the objects were chosen to reflect the

  10. Story Immersion May Be Effective in Promoting Diet and Physical Activity in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Buday, Richard; Gao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of playing a health video game embedded with story immersion, Escape from Diab (Diab), on children's diet and physical activity (PA) and to explore whether children immersed in Diab had greater positive outcomes. Two groups, nonrandomized; 3 outcome assessments: at baseline, immediately after the game (post 1), and 8-10 weeks after the game (post 2). A total of 179 Chinese children aged 8-12 years. The treatment group played Diab; the control group received no intervention. Motivation; self-efficacy; preference for fruit, vegetables, water, and PA; as well as PA behavior. Adjusted changes to post 1 and post 2 by ANCOVA controlling for demographic and baseline variables. Children who played Diab had increased intrinsic motivation for fruit and water, self-efficacy for PA, and self-reported PA scores at post 1 (all P < .05). Children with higher immersion scores (above the median) had increased intrinsic motivation for fruit and water, and autonomous and controlled motivation for PA at post 1 (all P < .05). However, these were not significant at post 2. Diab provides a promising innovative medium for promoting Chinese children's psychological correlates of diet and PA and PA behavior. However, its maintenance of effectiveness needs to be enhanced and mechanisms of change need to be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from Morus alba L. leaves, stems and fruits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts (leaves, stems and fruits) from Morus alba L., a traditional Chinese medicine, were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts showed higher contents of both total phenolics and flavonoids than aqueous extracts. The total phenolic content was in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts, whereas the total flavonoids was: leaf extracts > stem extracts > fruit extracts. Using DPPH assays, the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of aqueous extracts from leaves, stems and fruits were 7.11 ± 1.45 mg/ml, 86.78 ± 3.21 mg/ml and 14.38 ± 2.83 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC(50) values of ethanolic extracts were 3.11 ± 0.86 mg/ml, 14.62 ± 2.45 mg/ml and 12.42 ± 2.76 mg/ml, respectively. In sum, the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from M. alba L. were stronger than the aqueous extracts, and in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts. The ethanolic extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities, whereas the aqueous extracts showed poor antimicrobial properties in our test system. This study validated the medicinal potential of M. alba L.

  12. Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Lampe, Johanna W; Shannon, Jackilen; Gao, Dao L; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Chen, Chu; King, Irena B; Thomas, David B

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes. Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion. Shanghai, China. Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case-control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064) Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.

  13. Molecular Analysis of Chinese Celastrus and Tripterygium and Implications in Medicinal and Pharmacological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Celastrus and Tripterygium species, which are used in traditional Chinese medicine, have attracted much attention due to their anti-tumor promoting and neuroprotective activities, in addition to their applications in autoimmune disorders. However, systematic relationships between them and among species are unclear, and it may disturb their further medicinal utilization. In the present study, the molecular analysis of combined chloroplast and nuclear markers of all Chinese Celastrus and Tripterygium was performed, and clear inter- and intra-genus relationships were presented. The result suggests that Tripterygium constitute a natural monophyletic clade within Celastrus with strong support value. Fruit and seed type are better than inflorescence in subgeneric classification. Chinese Celastrus are classified for three sections: Sect. Sempervirentes (Maxim.) CY Cheng & TC Kao, Sect. Lunatus XY Mu & ZX Zhang, sect. nov., and Sect. Ellipticus XY Mu & ZX Zhang, sect. nov. The phylogenetic data was consistent with their chemical components reported previously. Owing to the close relationship, several evergreen Celastrus species are recommended for chemical and pharmacological studies. Our results also provide reference for molecular identification of Chinese Celastrus and Tripterygium. PMID:28081198

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicines in Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weidong; Zhao, Yunan; Zhang, Yaou

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs in 95% of the diabetic populations. Management of T2DM is a challenge. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually served as adjuvants used to improve diabetic syndromes in combination of routine antidiabetic drugs. For single-herb prescriptions, Ginseng, Bitter melon, Golden Thread, Fenugreek, Garlic, and Cinnamon might have antidiabetic effects in T2DM patients. Among 30 antidiabetic formulas approved by the State Food and Drugs Administrator of China, top 10 of the most frequently prescribed herbs are Membranous Milkvetch Root, Rehmannia Root, Mongolian Snakegourd Root, Ginseng, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, Kudzuvine Root, Dwarf Lilyturf Tuber, Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, Barbary Wolfberry Fruit, and India Bread, which mainly guided by the theory of TCM. Their action mechanisms are related to improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion, protect pancreatic islets, and even inhibit intake of intestinal carbohydrates. However, it is very difficult to determine antihyperglycemic components of TCM. Nevertheless, TCM are becoming popular complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of syndromes of T2DM. In the future, it requires further validation of phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical natures of TCM in T2DM in the future studies, especially for those herbs with a high prescription frequency. PMID:21584252

  15. Classification and phylogenetic analysis of Chinese hawthorn assessed by plant and pollen morphology.

    PubMed

    Ma, S L Y; Lu, Y M

    2016-09-19

    The Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) is uniquely originated in northern China. The ecological and horticultural importance of Chinese hawthorn is considerable and some varieties are valued for their fruit or medicine extracts. Its taxonomy and phylogeny remain poorly understood. Apart from general plant morphological traits, pollen is an important trait for the classification of plants and their evolutionary origin. However, few studies have investigated the pollen of Chinese hawthorn. Here, an analysis of plant and pollen morphological characteristics was conducted in 57 cultivars from the Shenyang region. Thirty plant morphological characters and nine pollen grain characters were investigated. The plant morphological analysis revealed that the coefficient of variation for 13 traits was >20%, which indicates a high degree of variability. We also found that the pollen grains varied greatly in size, shape (from prolate to perprolate), and exine pattern (striate-perforate predominantly). The number of apertures was typically three. Based on these findings, we suggest that pollen morphology associated with plant morphological traits can be used for classification and phylogenetic analysis of Chinese hawthorn cultivars. In sum, our results provide new insights and constitute a scientific basis for future studies on the classification and evolution of Chinese hawthorn.

  16. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fred Fangyu

    This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…

  17. PbrmiR397a regulates lignification during stone cell development in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Yao, Jia-Long; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Ming-Yue; Allan, Andrew C; Wang, De-Fu; Wu, Jun

    2018-05-13

    Lignified stone cells substantially reduce fruit quality. Therefore, it is desirable to inhibit stone cell development by using genetic technologies. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating lignification are poorly understood in fruit stone cells. In this study, we have shown that microRNA (miR) miR397a regulates fruit cell lignification by inhibiting laccase (LAC) genes that encode key lignin biosynthesis enzymes. Transient overexpression of PbrmiR397a, which is the miR397a of Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and simultaneous silencing of three LAC genes reduced the lignin content and stone cell number in pear fruit. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified in the promoter of the PbrmiR397a gene was found to associate with low levels of fruit lignin, after analysis of the genome sequences of sixty pear varieties. This SNP created a TCA-element that responded to salicylic acid (SA) to induce gene expression as confirmed using a cell-based assay system. Furthermore, stable overexpression of PbrmiR397a in transgenic tobacco plants reduced the expression of target LAC genes and decreased the content of lignin but did not change the ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin monomers. Consistent with reduction of lignin content, the transgenic plants showed fewer numbers of vessel elements and thinner secondary walls in the remaining elements compared to wild-type control plants. This study has advanced our understanding of the regulation of lignin biosynthesis and provided useful molecular genetic information for improving pear fruit quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS).

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C; Taylor, Anne W

    2015-09-09

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77-0.92), and 0.74 (0.66-0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death.

  19. An axenic culture system for fruiting body formation by an edible bolete phylogenetically related to culinary-medicinal penny bun mushroom, Boletus edulis Bull.:Fr. strains from China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao Chun; Zhang, Mei Yan; Shang, Xiao Dong; Chen, Ming Jie; Tan, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The ability of two freshly isolated Boletus stains to fruit under axenic conditions was tested using different solid and liquid nutrient media. One strain (YNCX04) produced numerous primordia from which fruiting bodies, 12 mm and 10 mm in length, with grey, convex pilei, and yellow-white, clavate stipes developed between 15 and 30 d after inoculation of fungal mycelium onto a solid medium consisting of mineral salts, thiamine, glucose, potato, an extract of Cunninghamia lanceolata root, and agar. The other strain (YNB200) produced numerous primordia but no sporophores. Strain YNCX04 lost the ability to form fruiting bodies in axenic culture 6 mo after initial isolation but retained the ability to form primordia for up to 18 mo. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequencing data, strains YNB200 and YNCX04 formed a sub-cluster together with four previously designated Boletus edulis strains from China. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Chinese strains closer to B. aestivalis than to European and North American strains of B. edulis, although a 29-bp fragment specific to all the B. aestivalis strains was absent from all the Chinese strains. Furthermore, partial 18S rDNA sequences from strains YNB200 and YNCX04 exhibited 98% similarity with an 18S rDNA sequence from B. edulis strain Be3. Further molecular studies are indicated to more accurately establish the taxonomic positions ofF3 and F4-3, as well as the Chinese strains designated as B. edulis.

  20. Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Francisca; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions, and that, for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physico-chemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g fruit(-1) . Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and four organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (nine were aldehydes, three terpenes, one ester, one ketone and one linear hydrocarbon). The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, and they have a low content of Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was GAL; the GAL fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavour a long after-taste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  2. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  3. Application of Toxic Chinese Medicine in Chinese Pharmacopoeia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that [2], toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine [3].

  4. [Active ingredients and efficacies of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated on non-medicinal parts of Chinese medicinal herbs].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yaohui; Luo, Xia; Yu, Mengyao; Zheng, Linyong

    2011-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum was cultivated on non-medicinal parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Ptatycodgn grandlfiorum, as all are Chinese traditional herbal medicines. We studied the changes of active ingredients and efficacies of the Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. The agronomic characters, polysaccharide and terpene contents, acute toxicity and efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum grown on the non-medicinal part of the three materials were compared with that grown on the ordinary formula group (OF. G) which was composed of corn cob, cotton seed shell. Biological conversion efficiencies of the Ganoderma lucidum fruit body using non-medicinal parts were higher than that of using the ordinary formula group (OF. G), though growth periods became longer; Contents of active ingredients were all improved except that the terpene content of the Salvia miltiorrhiza group was decreased. Both polysaccharide and terpene from the Chrysanthemum morifolium group were the highest, contents of which were respectively 2.47% and 0.79%; Acute toxicity test showed that Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies were all with low toxicities. Mice maximum tolerance dose were 100 g/kg weight. In hemolysin test and sleeping promotion test, the Chrysanthemum morifolium group showed better effect than the ordinary formula group (OF. G). In anti-fatigue test, only the ordinary formula group (OF. G) proved to be more effective. It's feasible to cultivate Ganoderma lucidum and active ingredients and efficacies of Ganoderma lucidum have been changed using the non-medicinal parts of Chinese medicinal herbs.

  5. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  6. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis.

  7. Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.

    PubMed Central

    D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

    1999-01-01

    The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development. PMID:10590167

  8. Identification of evodiamine as the bioactive compound in evodia (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth.) fruit extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    PubMed

    Rebhun, John F; Roloff, Samantha J; Velliquette, Rodney A; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    The dried unripe fruit from Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., known as Wu zhu yu in China, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that evodia fruit extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, the activating phytochemical is evodiamine. Evodiamine was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Who are eating and not eating fruits and vegetables in Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Yen, Steven T; Tan, Andrew K G

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the roles of sociodemographic factors in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in Malaysia. Data are obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. Logistic regressions are conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,447 observations to examine the factors affecting individual decisions to consume FV on a daily basis. Based on the binary outcomes of whether individuals consumed FV daily, results indicate that work hours, education, age ethnicity, income, gender, smoking status, and location of residence are significantly correlated with daily fruit consumption. Daily vegetable consumption is significantly correlated with income, gender, health condition, and location of residence. Our results imply the need for programs to educate and motivate consumers to make healthier dietary choices. Interventions to increase FV consumption by changing behaviors should be considered, as should those that increase public awareness of the dietary benefits of FV. These intervention programs should be targeted at and tailored toward individuals who are less educated, younger, less affluent, males, smokers, and metropolitan dwellers.

  10. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  11. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  12. Dietary Habits and Cognitive Impairment Risk Among Oldest-Old Chinese.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Liu, Gordon; Khan, Naiman; Yan, Hai; Wang, Youfa

    2017-02-10

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment among the oldest-old Chinese. Cognitively intact adults aged 80 or older (N = 4,749) came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Cognitive impairment was assessed by Mini-mental State Examination. Cox regressions were performed to examine the relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment onset during follow-up period of 1998-2012, adjusting for various time-variant and time-invariant individual characteristics. Compared with those who rarely/never consumed fruit, vegetables, meat, and soybean-derived products, participants consuming such products almost every day were 21%, 25%, 17%, and 20% less likely to develop cognitive impairment during follow-up, respectively. Compared with those who rarely/never consumed sugar, participants consuming sugar almost every day were 17% more likely to develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Consumption of fish, egg, salt-preserved vegetable, tea, and garlic was not found to be associated with cognitive impairment. Dietary habits might profoundly impact cognitive functioning among the oldest-old Chinese. This work has limitations pertaining to study design and measure. Future work adopting experimental design and refined dietary measures is warranted to confirm these findings and inform public nutrition practices aiming at preventing cognitive decline among the oldest-old Chinese population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Health and Safety Concerns over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    of imported dolls, toys, and games ; these totaled $14.6 billion and accounted for 86% of total U.S. imports of these products. China was the largest...Product Imports From China As a % of Total U.S. Imports (%) Dolls, toys, and games 14,593 1 86.0 Fish and other marine products (fresh, chilled, or...importers. They further counter that some imported U.S. products (such as soybeans, meats , and fruit) have failed to meet Chinese standards. However

  14. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  15. Competition for Assimilates and Fruit Position Affect Fruit Set in Indeterminate Greenhouse Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, N.

    1995-01-01

    Localization and characterization of fruit set in winter tomato crops was investigated to determine the main internal and external controlling factors and to establish a quantitative relationship between fruit set and competition for assimilates. Individual fruit growth and development was assessed on a beef tomato cultivar during the reproductive period (first nine inflorescences). A non-destructive photograph technique was used to measure fruit growth from very early stages of their development and then calliper measurements were made on big fruits. From these measurements we determined the precise developmental stage at which fruit growth stopped. Fruit potential growth, which is defined as the growth achieved in non-limiting conditions for assimilate supply, was also assessed by this method on plants thinned to one flower per inflorescence. The latter was used to calculate the ratio between actual and potential growth, which was found to be a good index of the competition for assimilates. Time lags of fruit set were observed mainly on distal organs. When more than three flowers were left on each inflorescence, distal organs developed at the same time as proximal organs of the following inflorescence. Consequently they were submitted to a double competition within one inflorescence and among inflorescences. It was shown that, what is commonly named ‘fruit set failure’, is not an irreversible death of the organ and that a small fruit could resume growth after a delay of several weeks as soon as the first fruits ripened and thus ceased to compete for assimilates. In that case proximal fruits resumed growth before distal ones. The delayed fruits contained only few seeds but a germination test confirmed that fertilization took place before fruit set failed. Competition for assimilates was calculated during plant development by the ratio between actual and potential fruit growth. Potential growth of proximal fruits was strongly dependent on the position of the

  16. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

    2014-01-01

    While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

  17. Methods to optimize recruitment and retention to an exercise study in Chinese immigrants.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2007-01-01

    To counter pervasive disparities in healthcare and guide public health prevention programs, culturally sensitive recruitment and retention strategies for Chinese immigrants participating in health-related research studies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop and implement recruitment and retention strategies with Chinese immigrants in a Tai Chi exercise study. After substantial project planning and incorporating community-based research principles, a multidimensional approach was used to ensure minimal loss to follow-up. Recruitment strategies included partnering with a community-based agency, distributing study information using a multimedia approach, communicating in the native language, and demonstrating cultural sensitivity. Retention strategies included establishing a tracking method during recruitment, providing personalized feedback, maintaining the same location for all aspects of the study, eliminating potential linguistic barriers, providing personal attention and encouragement, monitoring attendance, utilizing a charismatic Tai Chi instructor, respecting Chinese culture, providing appropriate incentives, and maintaining good communication. Sixty persons showed interest in the study, 52 persons were screened, and 39 persons were enrolled. Recruitment was completed within 3 weeks. An advertisement in the Chinese newspaper was the most fruitful recruitment source, yielding approximately 60% of the study participants. Retention in the study was also very high (97%, n = 38). The successful recruitment and retention of Chinese immigrants in this Tai Chi exercise study are due to a variety of factors on many levels, including the participants, study investigator, and community-based agency.

  18. A precisely targeted application strategy of dipping young cucumber fruit in fungicide to control cucumber gray mold.

    PubMed

    He, Leiming; Cui, Kaidi; Song, Yufei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Li, Beixing; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2018-04-27

    Gray mold is a ubiquitous destructive plant disease worldwide. To avoid the shortcomings of conventional spraying systems for controlling this disease, such as high selection pressure on Botrytis cinerea for resistance and fungicide waste resulting from spray drift, a precisely targeted application strategy of dipping young cucumber fruit in a mixture of fungicide and forchlorfenuron (plant growth regulator, PGR) during the bloom period to control cucumber gray mold was developed in the current study. Without leaving above-limit residues in cucumber fruits, dipping in fludioxonil at 30 mg liter -1 provided a greater efficacy (85.4%) against cucumber gray mold than did spraying at 100 mg liter -1 (76.4%). Importantly, fludioxonil mixed with forchlorfenuron from 25 to 35 mg liter -1 increased the yield of cucumbers by 26.2%-36.7% compared to dipping fruit only in forchlorfenuron. The increased yield may be a benefit of controlling gray mold. Dipping fruit in fungicides and PGRs seems to be a potential precisely targeted application strategy to not only control cucumber gray mold effectively but also, through the action of PGRs, to increase the cucumber yield. This novel application method is believed to have a bright prospect in cucumber production in Chinese solar greenhouses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chen; Luo, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-03-01

    The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on breast cancer prognosis is controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was carried out to explore their associations. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, OVID, ProQuest and Chinese databases from inception to April 2016. The summary hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were estimated using a random effects model if substantial heterogeneity existed and using a fixed effects model if not. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. In total, twelve studies comprising 41 185 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest, the summary HR for all-cause mortality were 1·01 (95 % CI 0·72, 1·42) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·12) for total vegetable intake, 0·99 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·11) for cruciferous vegetable intake and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·05) for fruit intake; those for breast cancer-specific mortality were 1·05 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·43) for total vegetable intake and 0·94 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·26) for fruit intake; and those for breast cancer recurrence were 0·89 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·50) for total vegetable intake and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·26) for cruciferous vegetable intake. This meta-analysis found no significant associations between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer prognosis.

  20. Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Qian, Ye-Fei; Yang, Nian-Yun; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Da-Wei

    2010-10-13

    The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba , named dazao in Chinese, has been utilized as food as well as crude drugs in China for thousands of years. To explore the profiles of the nucleosides and nucleobases in this fruit, an ultraperformance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer method (UPLC-DAD-MS) has been established and validated in this paper. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous characterization and quantitation of 9 nucleosides and nucleobases in 49 dazao samples, which comprised 43 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to classify the samples on the basis of the contents of the nine analyzed compounds. The results showed that almost all of these dazao samples were rich in nucleosides and nucleobases, although their contents were obviously various, and the proposed method could serve as a prerequisite for quality control of jujube products.

  1. Phenolic contents and cellular antioxidant activity of Chinese hawthorn "Crataegus pinnatifida".

    PubMed

    Wen, Lingrong; Guo, Xingbo; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Lijun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    It is evident from various epidemiological studies that consumption of fruits and vegetables is essential to maintain health and in the disease prevention. Present study was designed to examine phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of three varieties of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn). Shanlihong variety exhibited elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid contents, including free and bond phenolics. Procyanidin B2 was most abundant phenolic compound in all samples, followed by epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin. The free ORAC values, and free hydro-PSC values were 398.3-555.8 μmol TE/g DW, and 299.1-370.9 μmol VCE/g DW, respectively. Moreover, the free cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) values were 678-1200 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the no PBS wash protocol, and 345.9-532.9 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the PBS wash protocol. C. pinnatifida fruit could be valuable to promote consumer health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice.

  3. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  4. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So W.; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H.; Min, Cheol W.; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B.; Jo, Ick H.; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K.; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H.; Kim, Sun T.

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  5. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  6. Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qunying; Long, Liangkun; Wu, Liangliang; Zhang, Fenglun; Wu, Shuling; Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), cereal grains are usually utilized as cultivation substrates. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low-cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control. CS and CCP were suitable for fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 and 20 g per bottle respectively. Fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine, up to 9.45 and 5.86 mg g -1 respectively. The content of d-mannitol in fruit bodies obtained on CS was 120 mg g -1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g -1 . Fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g -1 , which was the closest to that of the control group (34.5 mg g -1 ). CS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit bodies and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach to decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  8. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  9. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  10. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  11. Regulation of tomato fruit ascorbate content is more highly dependent on fruit irradiance than leaf irradiance.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Hélène; Massot, Capucine; Stevens, Rebecca; Sérino, Sylvie; Génard, Michel

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms involving light control of vitamin C content in fruits are not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of fruit and leaf shading on ascorbate (AsA) accumulation in tomato fruit and to determine how fruit sugar content (as an AsA precursor) affected AsA content. Cherry tomato plants were grown in a glasshouse. The control treatment (normally irradiated fruits and irradiated leaves) was compared with the whole-plant shading treatment and with leaf or fruit shading treatments in fruits harvested at breaker stage. In a second experiment, the correlation between sugars and AsA was studied during ripening. Fruit shading was the most effective treatment in reducing fruit AsA content. Under normal conditions, AsA and sugar content were correlated and increased with the ripening stage. Reducing fruit irradiance strongly decreased the reduced AsA content (-74 %), without affecting sugars, so that sugar and reduced AsA were no longer correlated. Leaf shading delayed fruit ripening: it increased the accumulation of oxidized AsA in green fruits (+98 %), whereas it decreased the reduced AsA content in orange fruits (-19 %), suggesting that fruit AsA metabolism also depends on leaf irradiance. Under fruit shading only, the absence of a correlation between sugars and reduced AsA content indicated that fruit AsA content was not limited by leaf photosynthesis or sugar substrate, but strongly depended on fruit irradiance. Leaf shading most probably affected fruit AsA content by delaying fruit ripening, and suggested a complex regulation of AsA metabolism which depends on both fruit and leaf irradiance and fruit ripening stage.

  12. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Chinese Therapeutic Food on Regulating Female Reproductive Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lulu; Xu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese therapeutic food on female reproductive hormones in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Chinese kiwi fruit extract (Hong En No. 1) was provided for Australian peri-menopausal women for one month. Chinese medical assessment and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE) tests were conducted. Twenty-six urinary samples (pre and post-trial) which met the requirement of testing were analysed, the ratio 2-OHE:16alpha-OHE of pre-trial (1.18 ± 0.34) and post-trial (0.97 ± 0.29) in the control group (n = 6) decreased but showed no significant change, this ratio of pre-trial (1.44 ± 0.16) and post-trial (1.65 ± 0.21) in the treatment group (n = 7) indicated an improvement (P = 0.066), which results in beneficial hormone regulation. The Chinese medicine assessment indicated that the patterns of disharmony mainly include Liver Qi stagnation and Liver-Kidney Yin deficiency patterns. No significant change observed in the control group, significant score reduction of the patterns of disharmony was achieved at post-trial in the treatment group, which indicates an improvement of general health condition. PMID:21614163

  13. Linking Fruit Ca Uptake Capacity to Fruit Growth and Pedicel Anatomy, a Cross-Species Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenpei; Yi, Junwen; Kurniadinata, Odit F.; Wang, Huicong; Huang, Xuming

    2018-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) in flesh fruits is important for quality formation and maintenance. Most studies on fruit Ca focus on one species. This study attempted to understand some universal relations to fruit Ca uptake across species. Calcium contents in fruit tissues were analyzed in different fruits, including three cultivars of litchi, two cultivars each of grape and citrus, and one cultivar each of loquat, apple, pear, Indian jujube, and longan. In situ Ca distribution was revealed with electron probe and xylem functionality visualized by dye tracing. Fruit Ca uptake rate and activity were calculated and correlated with fruit growth and pedicel anatomy. The results showed that fruit Ca uptake rate was the highest in pomes (loquat, apple, and pear), followed by Indian jujube drupe, arillate fruits (litchis and longan) and citrus, while grape berries were the lowest. Fruit Ca uptake rate showed a strong positive correlation to growth rate. However, Ca uptake activity, reflecting Ca uptake rate relative to growth, was the highest in arillate fruits and loquat and lowest in grape berries, and had a poor correlation with fruit growth rate. In all fruits, Ca concentration in the pedicel was higher than in the fruit, and they displayed a good positive correlation. In the pedicel, Ca was most abundant in the phloem. Dye tracing showed that xylem function loss occurred with maturation in all species/varieties. Apple had the poorest xylem functionality with the least development of secondary xylem, but its Ca uptake rate was among the highest. Vessel density, size and area in the pedicel showed no correlation with fruit Ca uptake rate. It is concluded that: (1) fruit growth may be a key determinant of Ca uptake; (2) the universal pattern of Ca being higher in the pedicel than in the fruit indicates existence of a pedicel-fruit “bottleneck” effect in Ca transport across species; (3) xylem functionality loss with fruit maturation is also a universal event; (4) in the pedicel, Ca

  14. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-08-03

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  15. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0.807 to 0.838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  16. Regulation of tomato fruit ascorbate content is more highly dependent on fruit irradiance than leaf irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Hélène; Massot, Capucine; Stevens, Rebecca; Sérino, Sylvie; Génard, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms involving light control of vitamin C content in fruits are not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of fruit and leaf shading on ascorbate (AsA) accumulation in tomato fruit and to determine how fruit sugar content (as an AsA precursor) affected AsA content. Methods Cherry tomato plants were grown in a glasshouse. The control treatment (normally irradiated fruits and irradiated leaves) was compared with the whole-plant shading treatment and with leaf or fruit shading treatments in fruits harvested at breaker stage. In a second experiment, the correlation between sugars and AsA was studied during ripening. Key Results Fruit shading was the most effective treatment in reducing fruit AsA content. Under normal conditions, AsA and sugar content were correlated and increased with the ripening stage. Reducing fruit irradiance strongly decreased the reduced AsA content (−74 %), without affecting sugars, so that sugar and reduced AsA were no longer correlated. Leaf shading delayed fruit ripening: it increased the accumulation of oxidized AsA in green fruits (+98 %), whereas it decreased the reduced AsA content in orange fruits (−19 %), suggesting that fruit AsA metabolism also depends on leaf irradiance. Conclusions Under fruit shading only, the absence of a correlation between sugars and reduced AsA content indicated that fruit AsA content was not limited by leaf photosynthesis or sugar substrate, but strongly depended on fruit irradiance. Leaf shading most probably affected fruit AsA content by delaying fruit ripening, and suggested a complex regulation of AsA metabolism which depends on both fruit and leaf irradiance and fruit ripening stage. PMID:19033285

  17. Comparison of fruit syndromes between the Egyptian fruit-bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) and birds in East Mediterranean habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korine, Carmi; Izhaki, Ido; Arad, Zeev

    1998-04-01

    This study analyses the fruit syndrome of the Egyptian fruit-bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, the only fruit-bat found in East Mediterranean habitats. Two different sets of bat-fruit syndromes were revealed. One follows the general bat-fruit syndrome and one represents a special case of bat-dispersed fruit syndrome only found in East Mediterranean habitats. The latter syndrome is characterized by dry fruits with a relatively high protein content. Fruit species that belong to this syndrome are available mostly in winter (when the fruit-bat faces a severe shortage in fruit availability and inadequate fruit quality). The fruit syndromes and dietary overlap between frugivorous birds (based on the literature) and the fruit-bat were also studied. Features associated with each set of fruit species generally follow the known bat and bird syndromes. Bird-dispersed fruits tend to be small, with a high seed mass to pulp mass, variable in fat content and characterized by a high ash content. However, when the shared fruit species were included in the analysis, no significant differences were found in fruit features between the bird-dispersed and bat-dispersed fruit syndromes. A limited and asymmetrical dietary overlap was observed between these two taxa, mainly between introduced and cultivated fruits.

  18. Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100% fruit juice among US children and adults.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2015-01-05

    The consumption of fruit is generally associated with better health, but also higher socioeconomic status (SES). Most previous studies evaluating consumption of fruits have not separated 100% fruit juice and whole fruit, which may conceal interesting patterns in consumption. To estimate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of whole fruit versus 100% juice consumption among children and adults in the United States. Secondary analyses of two cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007-2010, by gender, age group, race/ethnicity and SES among 16,628 children and adults. Total fruit consumption (population average of 1.06 cup equivalents/d) fell far short of national goals. Overall, whole fruit provided about 65% of total fruit, while 100% juice provided the remainder. Whereas 100% juice consumption was highest among children and declined sharply with age, whole fruit consumption was highest among older adults. Total fruit and whole fruit consumption was generally higher among those with higher incomes or more education. By contrast, the highest 100% juice consumption was found among children, racial/ethnic minorities and lower-income groups. Consumption patterns for whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice showed different gradients by race/ethnicity, education, and income. The advice to replace 100% juice with whole fruit may pose a challenge for the economically disadvantaged and some minority groups, whose fruit consumption falls short of national goals.

  19. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  20. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  1. [Associations between vegetables and fruit intake and quality of life in breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaohuan; Wang, Jiwei; Chen, Xuefen; Shi, Changhong; Sun, Li; Zhang, Qingyun; Yuan, Zhengping; Yu, Jinming

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the associations between vegetables and fruit intake and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A total of 3 344 community breast cancer patients were selected through cluster sampling method between April and July 2013, in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic situation, cancer survival and health behaviors(i.e. vegetables or fruit intake, exercise), European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) QLQ-C30 Simplified Chinese version(3rd edition) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale (FACT-G) Simplified Chinese version(4th edition) were used to evaluate the quality of life. Crude quality of life scores were compared between groups. Multiple linear models were used to calculate and compare adjusted means of quality of life between groups, controlling relevant factors. After adjusting relevant factors, breast cancer patients who ate more than 250 g vegetables reported higher EORTC physical functioning scores, cognitive functioning scores, emotional functioning scores, global health scores than patients who ate equal or less than 250 g vegetables(respectively (80.79 ± 0.85) vs (79.34 ± 0.82), (80.07 ± 1.03) vs (77.84 ± 0.99), (84.17 ± 0.95) vs (82.76 ± 0.92), (65.75 ± 1.50) vs (62.92 ± 1.45)), t values respectively were 2.76, 3.54, 2.40, 3.17, all P values were <0.05; and breast cancer patients who ate more than 250 g vegetables reported higher FACT-G social well-being scores, function well-being scores, FACT-G total scores than patients who ate equal or less than 250 g vegetables (respectively (17.92 ± 0.40) vs (17.31 ± 0.39), (14.86 ± 0.42) vs (14.34 ± 0.40), (74.78 ± 1.01) vs (73.05 ± 0.97)), t values respectively were 2.49, 2.05, 2.90, all P values were <0.05. After adjusting relevant factors, breast cancer patients who ate fruit everyday reported higher EORTC physical functioning scores, role functioning scores, cognitive functioning scores, emotional

  2. Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less

  3. Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population123

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians. Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45–74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993–1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999–2004) and follow-up 2 (2006–2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk. Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with <1 serving/wk (P-trend = 0.17); women: HR of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.11) (P-trend = 0.008); P-interaction = 0.003]. The direct association in men was observed for higher–glycemic index (GI) fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P-trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P-trend = 0.006]. Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may

  4. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  5. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  6. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in somemore » of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.« less

  8. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  9. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  10. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  11. Monosodium Glutamate Intake, Dietary Patterns and Asthma in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Wittert, Gary A.; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. Methods Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. Results Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between ‘traditional’ (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable) food pattern and asthma. No association between ’macho’ (rich in meat and alcohol), ‘sweet tooth’ (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt) ‘vegetable rich’ (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable) food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. Conclusion While a ‘Traditional’ food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma. PMID:23240044

  12. Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2011-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms.

  13. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  14. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  15. Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine by older Chinese immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel; Chappell, Neena

    2007-02-01

    Research is needed about the usage of complementary and alternative medicines within culturally diverse groups because of a growing number of people who use these remedies. To understand the prevalence and predictors of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) use by older Chinese immigrants in Canada. This is based on the data collected from a representative sample of 2167 elderly Chinese immigrants aged 55 years and above in seven Canadian cities. Logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of using TCM in combination with Western health services (WHS). Use of Chinese herbs, herbal formulas, and TCM practitioners (herbalists) was predicted, based upon the effects of predisposing, enabling and need factors. The response rate was 77%. Over two-thirds of the older Chinese immigrants reported using TCM in combination with WHS. About half (50.3%) of the older Chinese immigrants used Chinese herbs, 48.7% used Chinese herbal formulas, and 23.8% consulted a Chinese herbalist. Although separate analysis was conducted, similar predictors were identified. Country of origin, Chinese health beliefs, social support, city of residency, and health variables were the common predictors of using a form of TCM. The combined use of TCM and WHS is common among elderly Chinese immigrants. Culture-related variables are important in determining use of TCM. The predictors identified should help physicians to recognize who among the elderly Chinese immigrants are more likely to use TCM so that a more in-depth understanding toward their health practices and needs can be achieved.

  16. Greater Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Lower Osteoporosis Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hui-yuan; He, Juan; Chen, Geng-dong; Chen, Yu-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective A few studies have suggested that the consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) may benefit bone health, but limited data are available in Asian subjects. We examined the association between FV intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Chinese adults. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study involved 2083 women and 1006 men aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary data was collected from a 79-item food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The BMD was measured for the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femur neck (FN) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results After adjustment for potential covariates, we observed dose-dependent associations between total FV intake and BMD and osteoporosis risk. The mean BMD was higher in tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 by 1.33% (TH) and 1.31% (FN) for FV, and 1.10% (WB), 1.57% (TH), and 2.05% (FN) for fruit (all P-trends < 0.05). Significant beneficial associations with BMD at some sites were also found in most fruit categories but not in total vegetables or their subgroups. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −2.5) in tertile 3 (vs. 1) were 0.73 (0.58–0.92), 0.37 (0.22–0.60), and 0.71 (0.52–0.97) for FV; 0.82 (0.66–1.03), 0.48 (0.30–0.77) and 0.89 (0.61–1.12) for fruit; and 0.80 (0.64–1.01), 0.57 (0.35–0.92) and 0.76 (0.55–1.05) for vegetables at the LS, TH, and FN, respectively. The favorable association between FV intake and the occurrence of osteoporosis was evident only in subjects with lower BMI (<24.0 kg/m2, P-trends < 0.05). Conclusions Greater intake of FV was independently associated with a higher BMD and a lower presence of osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects with lower BMI. Fruit tended to have more contribution to the favorable association than vegetables. PMID:28045945

  17. Fruit ripening using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ., Swetha; Chidangil, Santhosh; Karpate, Tanvi; Asundi, Anand

    2017-06-01

    The ripening of fruits is associated with changes, in some cases subtle, in the color of the fruit. Traditionally spectroscopy used to measure these subtle changes and infer the ripeness of fruits. Spectrometers provides high-resolution but only measure a small area of the fruit. That might not be a good indicator of the overall ripeness. In this paper, we propose a compact tunable LED based hyper spectral imaging system that scans through a set of wavelengths and images, the reflectance from the whole fruit. Based on the type of fruit, only specific wavelengths need to be scanned. Following a validation using a Rubik's cube, an example banana going through its ripening cycles is used to demonstrate the system.

  18. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  19. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-01-01

    Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

  20. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-02-17

    Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45-55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  1. Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2011-10-26

    Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species.

  2. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I.

  3. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  4. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Writing Chinese and mathematics achievement: A study with Chinese-American undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-04-01

    Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.

  6. Leadership Studies of Chinese and Chinese-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Study suggests that Chinese-Americans can adapt either to authoritarian or to democratic leadership, while Chinese adapt more successfully to authoritarian leadership. These differences are considered a reflection of cultural adaptations. (DM)

  7. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m(2)) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students.

  8. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  9. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Izalpinin from fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla with antagonistic activity against the rat bladder contractility.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tan, Yin-Feng; Xu, Peng; Li, Hailong; Li, Yong-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ya; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Chen, Feng; Huang, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae), an herbaceous perennial plant, its capsular fruit is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different urinary incontinence symptoms including frequency, urgency and nocturia. These symptoms are similar to the overactive bladder syndrome. In our lab, we found that the 95% ethanol extract of the capsular fruits exhibited significant anti-muscarinic activity. Some constituents in capsular fruits including flavonoids (e.g., izalpinin and tectochrysin), diarylheptanoids (e.g., yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., nootkatone), are regarded as representative chemicals with putative pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antagonistic actions of izalpinin on carbachol-induced contraction of the rat detrusor muscle. In vitro inhibition of rat detrusor contractile response to carbachol was used to study the functional activity of izalpinin. The isolated detrusor strips of rats were mounted in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs' solution. The cumulative consecutive concentration-response curves to carbachol-evoked contractions in strips of rat bladder were obtained. Carbachol induced concentration-dependent contractions of isolated rat bladder detrusor strips. The vehicle DMSO had no impact on the contraction response. The contraction effects were concentration-dependently antagonized by izalpinin, with a mean EC50 value of 0.35 µM. The corresponding cumulative agonist concentration-response curves shifted right-ward. Izalpinin exhibits inhibitory role of muscarinic receptor-related detrusor contractile activity, and it may be a promising lead compound to treat overactive bladder.

  11. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  12. The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

    2014-09-01

    Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages.

  13. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  14. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. CaGLK2 regulates natural variation of chlorophyll content and fruit color in pepper fruit.

    PubMed

    Brand, Arnon; Borovsky, Yelena; Hill, Theresa; Rahman, Khalis Afnan Abdul; Bellalou, Aharon; Van Deynze, Allen; Paran, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    We provide multiple evidences that CaGLK2 underlies a quantitative trait locus controlling natural variation in chlorophyll content and immature fruit color of pepper via modulating chloroplast compartment size. Pepper fruit quality is attributed to a variety of traits, affecting visual appearance, flavor, chemical composition and nutritional value. Among the quality traits, fruit color is of primary importance because the pigments that confer color are associated with nutrition, health and flavor. Although gene models have been proposed for qualitative aspects of fruit color, large natural variation in quantitative pigment content and fruit color exists in pepper. However, its genetic basis is largely unknown which hampers its utilization for plant improvement. We studied the role of GLK2, a GOLDEN2-like transcription factor that regulates chloroplast development in controlling natural variation for chlorophyll content and immature fruit color of pepper. The role of GLK2 in regulating fruit development has been studied previously in tomato using ectopic expression and the uniform ripening mutant analyses. However, pepper provides a unique opportunity to further study the function of this gene because of the wide natural variation of fruit colors in this species. Segregation, sequencing and expression analyses indicated that pepper GLK2 (CaGLK2) corresponds to the recently reported pc10 QTL that controls chloroplast development and chlorophyll content in pepper. CaGLK2 exerts its effect on chloroplast compartment size predominantly during immature fruit development. We show that the genetic background, sequence variation and expression pattern confer a complex and multi-level regulation of CaGLK2 and fruit color in Capsicum. The positive effect on fruit quality predominantly at the green stage conferred by CaGLK2 can be utilized to breed green pepper varieties with improved nutritional values and taste.

  16. Hot-water immersion quarantine treatment against Mediterranean fruit fly and Oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and larvae in litchi and longan fruit exported from Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John W; Follett, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49 degrees C water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 +/- 4 degrees C) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, eggs or larvae in Hawaiian litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonnerat. The 49 degrees C hot-water immersion of litchi provided probit 9 (99.9968% mortality with >95% confidence) quarantine security against eggs and first instars. There were no survivors from 15,000 each feeding and nonfeeding Mediterranean fruit fly or oriental fruit fly third instars immersed in a computer-controlled water bath that simulated the litchi seed-surface temperature profile during the 49 degrees C hot-water immersion treatment. Litchi served as the model for longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour., a closely related fruit that is smaller and also has commercial potential for Hawaii. Modified fruit infestation and holding techniques used to obtain adequate estimated treated populations from poor host fruit, such as litchi and longan, are described. Data from these experiments were used to obtain approval of a hot-water immersion quarantine treatment against fruit flies for litchi and longan exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland.

  17. Temperate Tree Fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North America has four native temperate tree fruit genera that have each played key cultural roles due to their edible fruit, medicinal uses, as well as their value as hardwood: Malus (apple), Prunus (cherry, plum, peach, etc.), Diospyros (persimmon), and Asimina (paw paw). Native North American spe...

  18. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenmöller, Doenja L; Gasevic, Danijela; Seidell, Jaap; Lear, Scott A

    2011-05-18

    Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15), dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85), and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01). Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after immigration. However, an increase in portion size, an increased

  19. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  2. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  3. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  4. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Objective: Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results: Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. Conclusion: The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. SUMMARY Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I PMID

  5. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.140 Fruit jelly. (a) The jellies for which... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0...

  6. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.140 Fruit jelly. (a) The jellies for which... Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5 Apricot 7.0 Blackberry (other than dewberry) 10.0 Black raspberry 9.0...

  7. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  8. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  9. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (−1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.88, −0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271. PMID:23553162

  10. Advance in quality assessment of Chinese materia medica using microscopic and morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiao-Su; Cui, Qing-Yu; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Na; Zhao, An-Bang; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Quality evaluation plays a vital role in ensuring safety and effectiveness of Chinese materia medica (CMM). Microscopic and morphological technologies can be used to distinguish CMM's characteristics, such as shape, size, texture, section, and smell, for authenticity and quality control of CMM. The microscopic and morphological applications of novel micro-technology, colorimeter, and texture analyzer for CMM identification are summarized and the future prospect is discussed in this paper. Various styles and complex sources of CMM are systemically reviewed, including cormophyte medicinal materials, fruit and seeds, pollen grain, and spore materials. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Discourse Markers among Mandarin Chinese Teachers, and Chinese as a Second Language and Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shu; Chu, Wo-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the use of discourse markers reflects speaking fluency in Chinese learners. In this study, 220 min of online Chinese courses were transcribed, with 17 Chinese learners and 5 native Chinese teachers as participants. Half of the transcribed data were drawn from students living in Taipei, Taiwan, a Chinese-speaking…

  12. A comparison of Chinese and non-Chinese Canadian patients hospitalized with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canadians of Chinese descent, represent one of the fastest growing visible minority groups in Canada, (as well as the second largest), but relatively little is known about the clinical features of heart failure (HF) in Chinese-Canadian versus non-Chinese Canadian patients. Methods We conducted a population-based analysis of urban patients hospitalized in Ontario, Canada for the first time with a most responsible diagnosis of HF between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2008. Among the 99,278 patients, 1,339 (1.3%) were classified as Chinese using a previously validated list of Chinese surnames. Through linkage to other administrative databases, we compared the clinical characteristics, pharmacological management, and outcomes of Chinese versus non-Chinese HF patients. Results Ischemic heart disease was identified as the possible etiology of HF in a greater proportion of non-Chinese patients (47.7% vs. 35.3%; p < 0.001) whereas hypertension (26.1% vs. 16.1%; p < 0.001) and valvular heart disease (11.6% vs. 7.2%; p < 0.001) were relatively more common in Chinese patients. Chinese patients were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors less frequently (57.5% vs. 66.4%, p < 0.001) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) more frequently (17.4% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.001) compared to non-Chinese patients. They were also less likely to be adherent to ACE inhibitors over a 1-year follow up period. However, the 1-year case-fatality rates were comparable between the Chinese (31.7%) and non-Chinese (30.2%) subjects (p = 0.24). Conclusion There are important differences in the causes and medical management of HF in Chinese and non-Chinese patients residing in Canada. Despite these differences, the long-term outcomes of HF patients were similar. PMID:24325765

  13. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  14. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  15. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  16. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  17. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart.

  18. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  19. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  20. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and shall...

  1. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  2. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  4. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  5. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  6. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados imported...

  7. [Consumption of fruit juices and fruit drinks: impact on the health of children and teenagers, the dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Catteau, C; Trentesaux, T; Delfosse, C; Rousset, M-M

    2012-02-01

    The French dietary guidelines published in 2001 recommend daily consumption of 5 portions of fruit or vegetable. Despite this advice, the consumption of fruit in France, especially in the north of France, is low, whereas sale of 100% fruit juices, fruit drinks, and fruit-flavored beverages is increasing. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns on dental caries has received less attention than the impact on childhood obesity. Nevertheless, the cariogenic potential of soft drinks is known. Drinking fruit juices, fruit drinks, or fruit-flavored beverages over a long period of time and continuous sipping could therefore be harmful for the teeth. The aim of this study was to examine the sugar content of such beverages. Four different major supermarkets were visited to select a representative sample of beverages for sale. Fruit juices, nectars, fruit drinks (water and fruit juices) and fruit-flavored waters were included. Lemonades, teas, and drinks containing artificial sweetener were not included. The data were collected in April 2010 by reading nutrition labels. The variables studied were the sugar content (g/100mL), the presence of added sugar, and the percentage of fruit juices. A descriptive analysis of the variables studied was conducted. The mean sugar content of the French population's favorite juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, apple, and grape) was compared to the sugar content of a corresponding 100-g portion of fresh fruit. The data were processed using Microsoft Excel. Hundred and eighty-seven different beverages were analyzed: 89 fruit juices, 26 nectars, 51 fruit drinks (sparkling or flat), and 21 fruit-flavored waters. Unlike fruit-flavored waters, nectars and fruit drinks contained fruit juices. Nectars and fruit drinks contained an average of 44.5% (± 10.7%) and 10.5% (± 3.8%) fruit juice, respectively. The sugar content varied from 0 g/100mL to 17.5 g/100mL. The average sugar content was 2.4 (± 2.1) g/100mL, 8.8 (± 2.3) g/100m

  8. Fruit Consumption by Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Branum, Amy M; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the contribution of whole fruit, including discrete types of fruit, to total fruit consumption and to investigate differences in consumption by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from 3129 youth aged 2–19 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) and the What We Eat in America 150 food groups (WWEIA 150), we calculated the contribution of whole fruit, 100% fruit juices, mixed fruit dishes, and 12 discrete fruit and fruit juices to total fruit consumption. We examined differences by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status. Results Nearly 90% of total fruit intake came from whole fruits (53%) and 100% fruit juices (34%) among youth aged 2–19 y. Apples, apple juice, citrus juice and bananas were responsible for almost half of total fruit consumption. Apples accounted for 18.9% of fruit intake. Differences by age were predominantly between youth aged 2–5 y and 6–11 y. For example, apples contributed a larger percentage of total fruit intake among youth 6–11 y (22.4%) than among youth 2–5 y (14.6%), but apple juice contributed a smaller percentage (8.8% v 16.8%), p<0.05. There were race/Hispanic origin differences in intake of citrus fruits, berries, melons, dried fruit, and citrus juices and other fruit juices. Conclusion These findings provide insight into what fruits U.S. youth are consuming and demographic factors that may influence consumption. PMID:26391940

  9. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  10. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  11. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  12. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation.

  13. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  14. Comparison of White and Chinese perception of esthetic Chinese lip position.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hui Theng; Thea, Kim Wei; Descallar, Joseph; Chen, Yong; Dalci, Oyku; Wong, Ricky; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2014-03-01

    To compare the esthetic preference of White and Chinese judges with regard to Chinese lip position. The profile images of a dental and skeletal Class I Chinese adult male and female were digitally adjusted to Chinese mean values. The lip profile was adjusted with the upper and lower lip at the mean distance from the Ricketts' E-line. These images were used as baseline images and were further digitally manipulated to generate six additional images with the upper and lower lip such that they lay 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 standard deviations (SDs) in front of or behind the E-line. An additional image was modified based on a White mean value. The images were viewed and ranked by 251 White and Chinese judges (dentists and laypersons) in Australia and China. Significantly more Chinese judges ranked the retrusive profiles higher than the White judges. The White judges also ranked the profile image adjusted to -0.5 SD as the most esthetic for both the female and male, while the Chinese judges ranked the -1.0 SD profile as the most esthetic. The ethnicity of the judges is a significant factor influencing the perception of esthetic lip position. The Chinese judges prefer a more retrusive profile and are more likely to rate a protrusive profile as unacceptable, compared with the White judges.

  15. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  16. Relationship between dietary intake and the development of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population: the Hong Kong Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean; Chan, Ruth; Sham, Aprille; Ho, Suzanne; Tso, Annette; Cheung, Bernard; Lam, Tai Hing; Lam, Karen

    2011-07-01

    To study the relationship between dietary intake and the development of type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults. A prospective cohort study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated FFQ. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Dietary glycaemic load and variety of snacks were also calculated. A hospital-based centre at the Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong SAR, China. A total of 1010 Chinese adults aged 25-74 years who participated in a territory-wide dietary and cardiovascular risk factor prevalence survey in 1995-1996 were followed up for 9-14 years for the development of diabetes. A total of 690 (68·3 %) individuals completed follow-up during 2005-2008 and seventy-four cases of diabetes were identified over the follow-up period. Four dietary patterns were identified ('more snacks and drinks', 'more vegetables, fruits and fish', 'more meat and milk products' and 'more refined grains'). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, alcohol intake, participation in exercise/sports and family history of diabetes, the more vegetables, fruits and fish pattern was associated with a 14 % lower risk (OR per 1 sd increase in score = 0·76; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·99), whereas the more meat and milk products pattern was associated with a 39 % greater risk of diabetes (OR per 1 sd increase in score = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·84). Dietary glycaemic load, rice intake, snack intake and variety of snacks were not independently associated with diabetes. The more vegetables, fruits and fish pattern was associated with reduced risk and the more meat and milk products pattern was associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

  17. The Chinese in Houston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodell, Thomas M.

    There are between seven and eight thousand Chinese Americans living in Houston, but there has never been a predominantly Chinese neighborhood in the city. This lack of geographical focus has prevented the development of easily identifiable aspects of ethnic concentration, such as a Chinese school or a Chinese business district. Apart from the…

  18. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  19. Anti-emetic principles of Inula linariaefolia flowers and Forsythia suspensa fruits.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kawai, T; Imaizumi, T; Akita, Y; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1996-05-01

    The anti-emetic effects of 40 extracts made from 12 traditional Chinese herbal drugs were examined. Ten extracts inhibited emesis induced by copper sulfate pentahydrate; all were administered orally, and one extract inhibited emesis induced by apomorphine hydrochloride given to leopard and ranid frogs. Taraxasteryl palmitate and acetate, bigelovin and dihydrobigelovin were isolated from the CHCl(3) extract of Inula linariaefolia flowers, and identified as the active antiemetic agents when emesis was induced by copper sulfate. In addition, chlorogenic acid was isolated from the MeOH extract as an anti-emetic principle for the emesis induced by apomorphine hydrochloride. Rengyol, phillyrin and rutin were isolated from the MeOH extract of Forsythia suspensa fruits and identified as the inhibitors of emesis induced by copper sulfate pentahydrate. Copyright © 1996 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  1. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b . Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs

  2. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  3. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions

  4. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan

    2011-12-01

    The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Why fruits go to the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  6. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  7. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  8. Two Conferences on Chinese Linguistics. 1966: Computers and Chinese Linguistic Research; 1967: Problems of Content and Form in the Teaching of Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mote, F.W., Ed.

    The two Chinese Linguistics Conferences held at Princeton in October 1966 and 1967 treated respectively (1) the relevance and specific application of computer methods to the problems of Chinese Linguistics and (2) a series of interrelated problems in teaching Chinese--dictionaries, courses in classical Chinese, and methods of teaching and…

  9. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  10. Involvement in Preschools: Comparing Chinese Immigrant and Non-Chinese Parents in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Keown, Louise; Farruggia, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study compared 120 Chinese immigrant parents and 127 non-Chinese parents from New Zealand preschools on their level of involvement in preschool-based activities, as well as key predictors of parental involvement. Results showed that Chinese immigrant parents had a lower level of involvement than non-Chinese parents across three forms of…

  11. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  12. [Association between fruit availability at home and fruit-related eating behavior among sixth-grade schoolchildren in Sakado City, Japan].

    PubMed

    Takamura, Miho; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takemi, Yukari

    2010-03-01

    The recommended daily intake of fruits in Japan is 200 g, but average actual intake is much lower. We examined associations between self-reported fruit availability at home and fruit-related eating behavior among sixth-grade schoolchildren in Sakado City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As part of a larger study of school children in Sakado City, 659 sixth-grade from all 13 primary schools in the city completed a survey in their classroom in October 2007 (valid respondent rate 92%). Dietary intake over the previous 1-month period was assessed with a brief, self-administered diet history questionnaires for 10-year-olds. A second questionnaire also assessed health, dietary knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and perceived food availability at home. Children reported fruit availability at home using the four options of always, often, sometimes, or never. Associations between fruit availability at home and fruit-related eating behaviors were statistically tested, including perception of the importance of and self-efficacy in eating fruits for health as well as the frequency of eating fruit by children and their family, with all analyses conducted separately by gender. Mean fruit intake was the highest among those children who reported that fruits were always available at home (boys 54 g/1,000 kcal, girls 65 g/1,000 kcal), followed by those reporting availability as often (31 g/1,000 kcal, 37 g/1,000 kcal), sometimes (16 g/1,000 kcal, 13 g/1,000 kcal), or never (9 g/1,000 kcal, 12 g/1,000 kcal). Availability was positively associated with intake (P for trend < 0.001). Additionally, it was positively associated with childrens' perception of the importance of eating fruit for better health (boys only, P < 0.001), self-efficacy in eating more fruit (P < 0.001), and the family frequency of eating fruit (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that fruit availability at home is a significant factor in fruit-related eating behavior, consistent with results of similar studies in western

  13. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  15. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors.

  16. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  17. Characterization of nucleobases and nucleosides in the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla collected from different cultivation regions.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Zeyou; Zhang, Junqing

    2014-03-01

    The fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla, known as Yizhi, Yakuchi and Ikji in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, respectively, has been utilized as an important drug for the treatment of diarrhea, dyspepsia, spermatorrhea, kidney asthenia and abdominal pain in East Asian traditional medicine for thousands of years. Since the therapeutic effects of A. oxyphylla are attributed to multiple components and nucleobases and nucleosides exhibit various bioactivities, it is necessary to explore the chemical characterization of nucleobases and nucleosides in this herb. Herein, 10 common nucleobases and nucleosides, including cytidine, adenosine, thymidine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, guanine, adenine, cytosine, and hypoxanthine, were quantified simultaneously in the fruit of A. oxyphylla collected from different geographical regions. Changes in their contents were discussed, and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to classify all samples on the basis of the contents of the investigated analytes. The results indicated that there was a large variation in the contents of nucleobases and nucleosides among the herbs from different regions, and the samples collected from the same cultivation region were mostly classified in one cluster. The method can be used for comprehensive quality evaluation of A. oxyphylla. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  20. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  2. Chinese-Cantonese Dictionary of Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This dictionary contains 1,500 Chinese-Cantonese characters (selected from three frequency lists), and more than 6,000 Chinese-Cantonese terms (selected from three Cantonese-English dictionaries). The characters are arranged alphabetically according to the U.S. Army Language School System of Romanization, which is described in the…

  3. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

  4. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005.

  5. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  6. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  7. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic…

  8. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  9. Anthocyanin Management in Fruits by Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Mareike; Zörb, Christian; Merkt, Nikolaus; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2018-01-31

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar plant pigments that are mainly synthesized in epidermal layers and the flesh of fruits such as apples, cherries, grapes, and other berries. Because of their attractive red to purple coloration and their health-promoting potential, anthocyanins are significant determinants for the quality and market value of fruits and fruit-derived products. In crops, anthocyanin accumulation in leaves can be caused by nutrient deficiency which is usually ascribed to insufficient nitrogen or phosphorus fertilization. However, it is a little-known fact that the plant's nutrient status also impacts anthocyanin synthesis in fruits. Hence, strategic nutrient supply can be a powerful tool to modify the anthocyanin content and consequently the quality and market value of important agricultural commodities. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the influence of plant nutrients on anthocyanin synthesis in fruits of major global market value and discuss the underlying cellular processes that integrate nutrient signaling with fruit anthocyanin formation. It is highlighted that fertilization that is finely tuned in amount and timing has the potential to positively influence the fruit quality by regulating anthocyanin levels. We outline new approaches to enrich plant based foods with health-promoting anthocyanins.

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  11. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  12. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  13. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados imported from the...

  14. Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jennifer H; Clark, Suzanne J; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L

    2009-12-01

    In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows.

  15. Ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initiated in calyx and modulated by water loss from the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production.

  16. Bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food: A review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2016-11-01

    There is an urgent treat of numerous chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, which have a significant influence on the health of people worldwide. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug treatments, important advances have been achieved in the identification of bioactive peptides that may contribute to long-term health. Although bioactive peptides with various biological activities received unprecedented attention, as a new source of bioactive peptides, the significant role of bioactive peptides from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food has not fully appreciated compared to other bioactive components. Hence, identification and bioactivity assessment of these peptides could benefit the pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the functional properties of bioactive peptides help to demystify drug properties and health benefits of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. This paper reviews the generation and biofunctional properties of various bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. Mechanisms of digestion, bioavailability of bioactive peptides and interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food are also summarized in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification and purification of mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars and its protective effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells under H(2)O(2)-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  18. Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:23109851

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  1. Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition. PMID:19520701

  2. [Determination and principal component analysis of mineral elements based on ICP-OES in Nitraria roborowskii fruits from different regions].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Yu-Bi; Sun, Jing; Deng, Juan; Bai, Ying; Wang, Jie; Lu, Xue-Feng

    2017-06-01

    The content of elements in fifteen different regions of Nitraria roborowskii samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-OES), and its elemental characteristics were analyzed by principal component analysis. The results indicated that 18 mineral elements were detected in N. roborowskii of which V cannot be detected. In addition, contents of Na, K and Ca showed high concentration. Ti showed maximum content variance, while K is minimum. Four principal components were gained from the original data. The cumulative variance contribution rate is 81.542% and the variance contribution of the first principal component was 44.997%, indicating that Cr, Fe, P and Ca were the characteristic elements of N. roborowskii.Thus, the established method was simple, precise and can be used for determination of mineral elements in N.roborowskii Kom. fruits. The elemental distribution characteristics among N.roborowskii fruits are related to geographical origins which were clearly revealed by PCA. All the results will provide good basis for comprehensive utilization of N.roborowskii. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  4. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  5. Teaching Business Chinese Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive approach to teaching business Chinese online that is beng developed in the language learning laboratory at the University of Illinois. The courseware consists of two complementary parts: a business Chinese workbook and a business Chinese simulation. (Author/VWL)

  6. Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastián F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic

  7. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation.

  8. Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). Methods The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. Key Results The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Conclusions Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows. PMID:19770165

  9. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  11. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  12. Polyribosomes from Aging Apple and Cherry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Alain; Nivet, Claude; Hartmann, Claude

    1983-01-01

    The sequence of events which occurs during the ripening of the Passe-Crassane pear fruit have been previously studied. In this work, we have investigated the ripening of another climacteric fruit (Pyrus malus L. cv Golden Delicious) and of a nonclimacteric fruit (Prunus avium L. cv Bigarreau Napoléon). We show that both climacteric fruits exhibit the same preclimacteric sequence of events. Differences exist, however, between the Golden Delicious apple and the Passe-Crassane pear in that the protein synthesis capacity of the two fruits is not the same during the over-ripening period. On the other hand, a nonclimacteric fruit, the Bigarreau Napoléon cherry, does not show an increase in its protein synthesis capacity during the over-ripening period. PMID:16663295

  13. Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Tomoko; Kuze, Noko; Bernard, Henry; Malim, Titol Peter; Kohshima, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km 2 and the mean population density was 1.3 ind/km 2  ± SE 0.1 (n = 56). The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods. A significant positive correlation was observed between the population density and fruit availability in the study period (Spearman, R = 0.3, P < 0.01, n = 56). During non-fruiting periods, however, no significant correlation was observed between them. These results suggest that the spatial difference in fruit availability during mast and peak fruiting periods was larger than during non-fruiting periods, and many orangutans temporarily moved to the study site from the surrounding areas seeking fruit.

  14. Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Olivas, G I; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2005-01-01

    The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have living tissue, they undergo enzymatic browning, texture decay, microbial contamination, and undesirable volatile production, highly reducing their shelf life if they are in any way wounded. Edible coatings can be used to help in the preservation of minimally processed fruits, providing a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide, improving mechanical handling properties, carrying additives, avoiding volatiles loss, and even contributing to the production of aroma volatiles.

  15. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  16. Ecofriendly Fruit Switches: Graphene Oxide-Based Wrapper for Programmed Fruit Preservative Delivery To Extend Shelf Life.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Biswal, Badal Kumar; Kumari, Divya; Bindra, Pulkit; Kumar, Satish; Stobdan, Tsering; Shanmugam, Vijayakumar

    2018-05-21

    According to Food and Agriculture Organization 2015 report, post-harvest agricultural loss accounts for 20-50% annually; on the other hand, reports about preservatives toxicity are also increasing. Hence, preservative release with response to fruit requirement is desired. In this study, acid synthesized in the overripe fruits was envisaged to cleave acid labile hydrazone to release preservative salicylaldehyde from graphene oxide (GO). To maximize loading and to overcome the challenge of GO reduction by hydrazine, two-step activation with ethylenediamine and 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate respectively, are followed. The final composite shows efficient preservative release with the stimuli of the overripe fruit juice and improves the fruit shelf life. The composite shows less toxicity as compared to the free preservative along with the additional scope to reuse. The composite was vacuum-filtered through a 0.4 μm filter paper, to prepare a robust wrapper for the fruit storage.

  17. [Ecological effects of bagging on actinidia fruits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Znang, Feng; Shi, Yongqiang

    2003-11-01

    Studies on the ecological effects of bagging on actinidia fruits showed that under different types of bagging, the ecological effects on actinidia fruits were different. Bagging with membrane changed the conditions of temperature and humidity. The inside temperature raised by 0.7-0.9 degree C, humidity increased by 10.8%-11.8%, single fruit weight increased by 25.7%-37.7%, commercial fruit rate raised by 20.4%-30.1%, percentage of diseases and pests decreased by 85.7%-90.2%, and storage property was good. Additionally, the application rate of chemical pesticide was reduce by 72.2%, and the concentration of remnant pesticide inside fruits was only 0.31% mg.kg-1, which was decreased by 90.0%. The chemical pesticide pollution in ecological circumstance and actinidia fruits both reduced. It would be a new way for the rgeen fruits production in the future. Bagging with paper has obvious negative effects.

  18. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  19. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Pectin-honey coating as novel dehydrating bioactive agent for cut fruit: Enhancement of the functional properties of coated dried fruits.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Gabriella; Mallardo, Salvatore; Fasulo, Gabriella; Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Di Stasio, Michele; Malinconico, Mario; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2018-08-30

    In this paper, a novel and sustainable process for the fruit dehydration was described. Specifically, edible coatings based on pectin and honey were prepared and used as dehydrating and antimicrobial agents of cut fruit samples, in this way promoting the fruit preservation from irreversible deteriorative processes. Pectin-honey coating was tested on apple, cantaloupe melon, mango and pineapple. The analysis were performed also on uncoated dehydrated fruits (control). The coated fruit evidenced enhanced dehydration percentage, enriched polyphenol and vitamin C contents, improved antioxidant activity and volatile molecules profile. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli was assessed. Finally, morphological analysis performed on fruit fractured surface, highlighted the formation of a non-sticky and homogeneous thin layer. These outcomes suggested that the novel fruit dehydration process, performed by using pectin-honey coating, was able to both preserve the safety and quality of dehydrated fruits, and enhance their authenticity and naturalness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fresh fruit may be added. If it is desired not to restore the moisture content of the dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25...

  2. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fresh fruit may be added. If it is desired not to restore the moisture content of the dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25...

  3. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fresh fruit may be added. If it is desired not to restore the moisture content of the dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25...

  4. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fresh fruit may be added. If it is desired not to restore the moisture content of the dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25...

  5. PRESERVATION OF SOFT FRUIT BY RADIOPASTEURISATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, P.

    Aspects of the problem of soft fruit preservation by radiation are discussed. Particular attention is given to fresh soft fruit treatment techniques, packaging, types of installations, and economic considerations. It is pointed out that the clearest and most consistent results were obtained with soft, thin-skinned fruit such as strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries. (H.M.G.)

  6. [Moderation-integrated-balance presupposition of Chinese medicine compound and pharmacological problems in traditional Chinese drug research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  8. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  9. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  10. Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. PMID:28922898

  11. A fragment substitution in the promoter of CsHDZIV11/CsGL3 is responsible for fruit spine density in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Lina; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Liu, Zezhou; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gao, Zhihui; Cao, Chenxing; Li, Qiang; Ren, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    The indel in the promoter of CsHDZIV11 co-segregates with fruit spine density and could be used for molecular breeding in cucumber. Fruit spine density is an important quality trait for marketing in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). However, the molecular basis of fruit spine density in cucumber remains unclear. In this study, we isolated a mutant, few spines 1 (fs1), from CNS2 (wild type, WT), a North China-type cucumber with a high density of fruit spines. Genetic analysis showed that fs1 was controlled by a single recessive Mendelian factor. Bulked segregant analysis combined with genome resequencing were used for mapping fs1 in the F2 population derived from a cross between the fs1 mutant and WT, and it was located on chromosome 6 through association analysis. To develop more polymorphic markers to locate fs1, another F2 population was constructed from the cross between fs1 and 'Chinese long' 9930. Then, fs1 was narrowed down to a 110.4-kb genomic region containing 25 annotated genes. A fragment substitution was identified in the promoter region of Csa6M514870 between fs1 and WT. This fragment in fs1 was also present in wild cucumber. Csa6M514870 encodes a PDF2-related protein, a homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor (CsHDZIV11/CsGL3) sharing high identity and similarity with proteins related to trichome formation or epidermal cell differentiation. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed a higher expression level of CsHDZIV11 in young fruits from fs1 compared to WT. A molecular marker based on this indel co-segregated with the spine density. This work provides a solid foundation not only for understanding the molecular mechanism of fruit spine density, but also for molecular breeding in cucumber.

  12. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and β-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.

  14. Polysaccharide based edible coating on sapota fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Joslin; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable and have short shelf life at the ambient conditions. The edible coatings have been used on different agricultural products in order to extend their post harvest life. In the present study, the polysaccharide based edible coating made up of sodium alginate and pectin (2%) was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits. The coating of the fruits is done by dipping method with two dipping time (2 and 4 min). The both control and coated sapota fruits were stored at refrigerated temperature (4±1°C). The physico-chemical analysis including acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, weight loss, colour and firmness were measured on 1, 8, 15, 23 and 30th day of storage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in these physico-chemical parameters between control and coated sapota fruits with 2 and 4 min dipping time. The sensory analysis of control and coated sapota fruits showed that, the polysaccharide coating with 2 minutes dipping time was effective in maintaining the organoleptic properties of the fruits.

  15. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    PubMed

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  17. Transcriptomics, Targeted Metabolomics and Gene Expression of Blackberry Leaves and Fruits Indicate Flavonoid Metabolic Flux from Leaf to Red Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Enrique; García-Villaraco, Ana; Lucas, José A.; Gradillas, Ana; Gutierrez-Mañero, F. Javier; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are among the high added value food products relevant for human health due to the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of polyphenols, which are very abundant in these fruits. Interestingly, these compounds also play a role on plant physiology, being especially relevant their role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, we hypothesize that since blackberry fruits have high amounts of flavonols and anthocyanins, leaves would also have high amounts of these compounds, and can be studied as a source of active molecules; furthermore, leaf synthesis would support their high contents in fruits. To explore this hypothesis, the present study reports a de novo transcriptome analysis on field grown blackberry leaves and fruits at the same time point, to establish the metabolic relationship of these compounds in both organs. Transcripts were aligned against Fragaria vesca genome, and genes were identified and annotated in different databases; tissue expression pattern showed 20,463 genes common to leaves and fruits, while 6,604 genes were significantly overexpressed only in fruits, while another 6,599 genes were significantly overexpressed in leaves, among which flavonol-anthocyanin transporter genes were present. Bioactives characterization indicated that total phenolics in leaves were three-fold, and flavonols were six-fold than in fruits, while concentration of anthocyanins was higher in fruits; HPLC-MS analysis indicated different composition in leaves and fruits, with cyanidin-3-glucoside as the only common compound identified. Next, RT-qPCR of the core genes in the flavonol anthocyanin pathway and regulatory MYB genes were carried out. Interestingly, genes in the flavonol-anthocyanin pathway and flavonol-transport families were overexpressed in leaves, consistent with the higher bioactive levels. On the other hand, transcription factors were overexpressed in fruits anticipating an active anthocyanin biosynthesis upon

  18. The effects of human finger and Chinese character on Chinese handwriting performance on mobile touch devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Chen, Cuiling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate Chinese handwriting on mobile touch devices, considering the effects of three characteristics of the human finger (type, length, and width) and three characteristics of Chinese characters (direction of the first stroke, number of strokes, and structure). Due to the popularity of touch devices in recent years, finger input for Chinese characters has attracted more attention from both industry and academia. However, previous studies have no systematical consideration on the effects of human finger and Chinese characters on Chinese handwriting performance. An experiment was reported in this article to illustrate the effects of the human finger and Chinese characters on the Chinese handwriting performance (i.e., input time, accuracy, number of protruding strokes, mental workload, satisfaction, and physical fatigue). The experiment results indicated that all six factors have significant effects on Chinese handwriting performance, especially on the input time, accuracy, and number of protruding strokes. Finger type, finger length, finger width, direction of the first stroke, number of strokes, and character structures are significantly influencing Chinese handwriting performance. These factors should be taken into more consideration in future research and the practical design for Chinese handwriting systems.

  19. Advances in fruit aroma volatile research.

    PubMed

    El Hadi, Muna Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Feng-Jie; Wu, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jun

    2013-07-11

    Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  20. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  1. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  2. 7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved... PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Irradiation Treatments § 305.32 Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. Irradiation, carried out in accordance with the provisions...

  3. Chinese Library Services to a Predominantly Chinese-Speaking Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Stella W.

    The San Francisco Public Library has developed some special services for Chinese-speaking patrons. A collection of Chinese materials at the Chinatown branch now contains 9,000 fiction and non-fiction books, 9 newspapers, 19 periodicals, and over 300 phonograph records. Bilingual citizenship books are provided, as are reference books on China and…

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Intake During Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sonia A.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. METHODS: We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). RESULTS: Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. PMID:25183758

  5. Fruit weight is controlled by Cell Size Regulator encoding a novel protein that is expressed in maturing tomato fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Manohar; Liu, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanping; Ramos, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Increases in fruit weight of cultivated vegetables and fruits accompanied the domestication of these crops. Here we report on the positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling fruit weight in tomato. The derived allele of Cell Size Regulator (CSR-D) increases fruit weight predominantly through enlargement of the pericarp areas. The expanded pericarp tissues result from increased mesocarp cell size and not from increased number of cell layers. The effect of CSR on fruit weight and cell size is found across different genetic backgrounds implying a consistent impact of the locus on the trait. In fruits, CSR expression is undetectable early in development from floral meristems to the rapid cell proliferation stage after anthesis. Expression is low but detectable in growing fruit tissues and in or around vascular bundles coinciding with the cell enlargement stage of the fruit maturation process. CSR encodes an uncharacterized protein whose clade has expanded in the Solanaceae family. The mutant allele is predicted to encode a shorter protein due to a 1.4 kb deletion resulting in a 194 amino-acid truncation. Co-expression analyses and GO term enrichment analyses suggest association of CSR with cell differentiation in fruit tissues and vascular bundles. The derived allele arose in Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme and appears completely fixed in many cultivated tomato’s market classes. This finding suggests that the selection of this allele was critical to the full domestication of tomato from its intermediate ancestors. PMID:28817560

  6. Pollen density on the stigma affects endogenous gibberellin metabolism, seed and fruit set, and fruit quality in Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caixi; Tateishi, Naoya; Tanabe, Kenji

    2010-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between pollen density and gametophytic competition in Pyrus pyrifolia, gametophytic performance, gibberellin metabolism, fruit set, and fruit quality were investigated by modifying P. pyrifolia pollen grain number and density with Lycopodium spores. Higher levels of pollen density improved seed viability, fruit set, and fruit quality. Treatments with the highest pollen density showed a significantly increased fruit growth rate and larger fruit at harvest. High pollen density increased germination rate and gave a faster pollen tube growth, both in vivo and in vitro. Endogenous gibberellin (GA) concentrations increased in pollen tubes soon after germination and the concentration of two growth-active GAs, GA(3), and GA(4), was positively correlated to final fruit size, cell numbers in the mesocarp, and pollen tube growth rate. These two GAs appear to be biosynthesized de novo in pollen tube and are the main pollen-derived bioactive GAs found after pollen germination. GA(1) levels in the pollen tube appear to be related to a pollen-style interaction that occurred after the pollen grains landed on the stigma.

  7. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  10. A Functional Study of "zhi [Chinese character omitted]" in the Chinese Nominal Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Manliang

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, subjects concerned with the Chinese character "zhi [Chinese character omitted]", i.e. grammatical structure, in ancient Chinese language, have been widely explored. This paper conducts a research from a new dimension: the Cardiff Grammar, an integral part of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) which is famous for…

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of plateau iris configuration among American Caucasian, American Chinese and mainland Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Wang, Ye Elaine; Huang, Guofu; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Qiu, Mary; Lin, Shan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence, risk factors and characteristics of plateau iris configuration (PIC) among American Caucasian, American Chinese and mainland Chinese. This multicentre, cross-sectional study of non-glaucomatous subjects (40-80 years) included 111 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese and 110 mainland Chinese. Prevalence of PIC based on ultrasound biomicroscopy imaging was compared among the different ethnic groups. Risk factors and anterior segment optical coherence tomography-measured iris and angle parameters in eyes with PIC were compared. The prevalence of PIC was 25.2% in American Caucasian, 24.1% in American Chinese and 20.9% in mainland Chinese (p=0.73). The presence of PIC was associated with more positive spherical equivalence (OR=1.31, p=0.002) and shorter axial length (OR=0.75, p=0.04). There were significant differences in angle recess area (ARA) (p=0.04), IT750 (p=0.007) and IT2000 (p<0.001) between Chinese and Caucasians who have PIC. The prevalence of PIC did not differ among American Caucasian, American Chinese and mainland Chinese. PIC was associated with non-myopia and shorter axial length. Chinese eyes with PIC had smaller ARA and thicker irides than Caucasian ones. PIC might be a physiological variation of the iris and ciliary body that exists in normal eyes, both in Chinese and Caucasians.

  12. Retrotransposons Control Fruit-Specific, Cold-Dependent Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Blood Oranges[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Butelli, Eugenio; Licciardello, Concetta; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianjun; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Martin, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus. PMID:22427337

  13. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  14. Anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents in comparison with the American norm.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijun; Ang, Rebecca P; Lee, Jiyoon

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing literature base on child and adolescent anxiety. Cross-cultural research on child and adolescent anxiety, however, has been relatively limited. This study examined whether there were similarities and differences in the self reported anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents (12-17 years of age), and whether these similarities or differences were related to gender and/or grade. This study also compared anxiety levels of Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents with the American normative sample (12-17 years of age). The results indicate that the levels of anxieties did not differ based on country (China and Singapore). Gender differences were evident. Gender and grade interaction effects were found on the anxiety scales. Mixed results were found when comparing Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese with the American normative sample on the different anxiety scales.

  15. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-03-05

    Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3) kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (< 3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually > 100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among-population structuring. These effects

  16. Superoxide Dismutase in Ripening Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James Earl

    1976-01-01

    The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN. PMID:16659735

  17. Superoxide dismutase in ripening fruits.

    PubMed

    Baker, J E

    1976-11-01

    The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracts of preclimacteric apple, banana, avocado, and tomato fruits were not greatly different than in extracts of postclimacteric fruits. The results indicate that no major quantitative change in SOD occurs in fruits with or preceding the onset of senescence. Tomato fruit SOD was studied in more detail, and was found largely in the soluble fraction, and to a lesser extent in the mitochondrial and plastid fractions. The soluble fraction was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric focusing separated SOD from contaminating peroxidases. The purified tomato SOD showed an apparent molecular weight of 31,500 determined by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this preparation indicated two SOD components corresponding to two protein bands, one of which stained more intensely than the other. The purified tomato enzyme was inhibited 90% by 1 mm KCN.

  18. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.

  19. [Development and validation of the Chinese version of modified body imgae scale in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Gao, X X; Zhu, L; Yu, S J; Xu, T

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To develop the Chinese version of modified body image scale (MBIS) questionnaires, and to validate them in Chinese population. Methods: The original English MBIS questionnaire was translated into Chinese, following the WHO cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of MBIS questionnaires were evaluated in Chinese population, MRKH syndrome patients. Results: Totally 50 patients with MRKH syndrome completed the MBIS and short-form 12-item health survey (SF-12) questionnaires. The Cronbach's alpha of MBIS was 0.741, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.472-0.815 ( P< 0.01). MBIS scores were positively correlated with SF-12 scores (Spearman correlation coefficient was-0.409, P< 0.01) . Factor analysis showed that MBIS had one common factor. Conclusion: Chinese version of MBIS has high reliability and validity in Chinese population, therefore is suitable for clinic and research.

  20. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  1. Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally utilize and rely on human testers or panels to evaluate fruit quality and aroma characters for assessing fruit salability in fresh markets. We explore the current and potential utilization of electronic-nose devices (with specialized sensor arrays), instruments that are very effective in discriminating complex mixtures of fruit volatiles, as new effective tools for more efficient fruit aroma analyses to replace conventional expensive methods used in fruit aroma assessments. We review the chemical nature of fruit volatiles during all stages of the agro-fruit production process, describe some of the more important applications that electronic nose (e-nose) technologies have provided for fruit aroma characterizations, and summarize recent research providing e-nose data on the effectiveness of these specialized gas-sensing instruments for fruit identifications, cultivar discriminations, ripeness assessments and fruit grading for assuring fruit quality in commercial markets. PMID:25569761

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake during infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Kim, Sonia A; Yaroch, Amy L; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  4. Chinese and Korean Characters Engage the Same Visual Word Form Area in Proficient Early Chinese-Korean Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals. PMID:21818386

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of DkMATE1 involved in proanthocyanidin precursor transport in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sichao; Jiang, Yun; Xu, Liqing; Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Luo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-11-01

    Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in "tannin cells" during development that cause the sensation of astringency due to coagulation of oral proteins. Pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) is a spontaneous mutant persimmon phenotype that loses its astringency naturally on the tree at maturity; while the more common non-PCNA fruits remain rich in PAs until they are fully ripened. Here, we isolated a DkMATE1 gene encoding a Multidrug And Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family protein from the Chinese PCNA (C-PCNA) 'Eshi 1'. Expression patterns of DkMATE1 were positively correlated with the accumulation of PAs in different types of persimmons fruits during fruit development. An analysis of the inferred amino acid sequences and phylogenetic relationships indicated that DkMATE1 is a putative PA precursor transporter, and subcellular localization assays revealed that DkMATE1 is localized in the vacuolar membrane. Ectopic expression of the DkMATE1 in Arabidopsis tt12 mutant supported that DkMATE1 could complement its biological function in transporting epicatechin 3'-O-glucoside as a PAs precursor from the cytoplasm to vacuole. Furthermore, the transient over-expression and silencing of DkMATE1 in 'Mopanshi' persimmon leaves resulted in a significant increase and a decrease in PA content, respectively. The analysis of cis-elements in DkMATE1 promoter regions indicated that DkMATE1 might be regulated by DkMYB4, another well-known structural gene in persimmon. Overall, our results show that DkMATE1 may be an essential PA precursor membrane transporter that plays an important role in PA biosynthesis in persimmon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Item response modeling: A psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups ...

  8. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  9. Seasonal Distributions of the Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Among Host and Nonhost Fruit Trees

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) ( Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R . indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  10. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  11. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  12. Overexpression of plum auxin receptor PslTIR1 in tomato alters plant growth, fruit development and fruit shelf-life characteristics.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, I; Sherif, S; El Kayal, W; Jones, B; Li, Z; Sullivan, A J; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2016-02-29

    TIR1-like proteins are F-box auxin receptors. Auxin binding to the F-box receptor proteins promotes the formation of SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the auxin repressors, Aux/IAAs, for degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway. The release of auxin response factors (ARFs) from their Aux/IAA partners allows ARFs to mediate auxin-responsive changes in downstream gene transcription. In an attempt to understand the potential role of auxin during fruit development, a plum auxin receptor, PslTIR1, has previously been characterized at the cellular, biochemical and molecular levels, but the biological significance of this protein is still lacking. In the present study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used as a model to investigate the phenotypic and molecular changes associated with the overexpression of PslTIR1. The findings of the present study highlighted the critical role of PslTIR1 as positive regulator of auxin-signalling in coordinating the development of leaves and fruits. This was manifested by the entire leaf morphology of transgenic tomato plants compared to the wild-type compound leaf patterning. Moreover, transgenic plants produced parthenocarpic fruits, a characteristic property of auxin hypersensitivity. The autocatalytic ethylene production associated with the ripening of climacteric fruits was not significantly altered in transgenic tomato fruits. Nevertheless, the fruit shelf-life characteristics were affected by transgene presence, mainly through enhancing fruit softening rate. The short shelf-life of transgenic tomatoes was associated with dramatic upregulation of several genes encoding proteins involved in cell-wall degradation, which determine fruit softening and subsequent fruit shelf-life. The present study sheds light into the involvement of PslTIR1 in regulating leaf morphology, fruit development and fruit softening-associated ripening, but not autocatalytic ethylene production. The results demonstrate that auxin

  13. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  14. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  15. The complex character of photosynthesis in cucumber fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xiaolei; Shan, Nan; Hu, Liping; Yu, Changqing; Ren, Huazhong; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The surface area of a mature green cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) fruit is comparable with that of a functional leaf, but the characteristics of fruit photosynthesis and its contribution to growth are poorly understood. Here, the photosynthetic properties of two genotypes of cucumber (dark green and light green fruits) were studied using a combination of electron microscopy, immunogold enzyme localization, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, isotope tracer, and fruit darkening techniques. Chlorophyll content of the exocarp is similar to that of leaves, but there are no distinctive palisade and spongy tissues. The efficiency of PSII is similar to that in leaves, but with lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is found mainly in the exocarp, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is primarily localized to vascular bundles and placenta tissue. Rubisco and PEPC expression at both transcriptional and translational levels increases concurrently during fruit growth. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis in exocarp to its own C accumulation is 9.4%, while ~88% of respiratory CO2 in fruit was captured and re-fixed. Photosynthesis by cucumber fruits, through direct fixation of atmospheric CO2 and recapture of respired CO2, as verified by 14CO2 uptake and gas exchange, makes an important contribution to fruit growth. PMID:28369547

  16. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  17. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any person of gift packages of fruit individually addressed to such person, in quantities...

  18. Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

  19. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  20. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  1. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  2. Lifestyle Behaviors, Subjective Health, and Quality of Life Among Chinese Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Tang, Shangfeng; Yaya, Sanni; He, Zhifei; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between self-reported health (SRH) and quality of life (QoL) with five lifestyle-related behaviors including tobacco smoking, drinking alcohol, physical activity status, consumption of fruits, and consumption of vegetables among men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Participants were 786 Chinese men older than 40 years and living in urban households. Cross-sectional data on self-rated health, associated sociodemographics, and health-related behaviors were collected from the Study on Global AGEing and Health (Wave 1) of World Health Organization. Results of multivariable regression reported significant association with adherence to healthy lifestyle behavior and SRH but not QoL. According to the results, percentage of men who reported being in good SRH was overwhelmingly high (95.9%) compared with good QoL (5%). Adherence to healthy behavior was strongly associated with SRH in both bivariate and multivariate analysis, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of good SRH for nonsmokers: 1.276 [1.055, 2.773], nondrinkers:1.351 [1.066, 3.923], taking physical exercise: 1.267 [1.117, 3.109], consuming at least five servings of fruits: 1.238 [1.034, 6.552], and vegetables: 1.365 [1.032, 3.885]. The current findings suggest that abstention from tobacco and alcohol, optimum consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular physical exercise could have marked impact on the health status of diabetic men.

  3. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Activities of Spray-dried Pitaya Fruit Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yangyang; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Pitaya commonly known as dragon fruit is very popular in China due to its intense color, constituent minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant properties. In the present study, physiochemical properties and antioxidant activities of fruit powder from two pitaya cultivars (namely red flesh and white flesh) and fruit peel were observed. Compared with the fruit powder of fruit flesh, the fruit powder made from fruit peel showed a higher antioxidant activity. The current study provides insights to produce spray-dried pitaya fruit powders that could potentially be used as functional food ingredients in various food fields.

  4. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  6. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Learning from the Fruit Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…

  8. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  9. [Key points of poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry and classification of recommended Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian

    2017-11-01

    To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine

  10. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [Four properties law of nature data of Chinese materia medica in "Chinese herbal medicine (CHM)"].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Duan-Yi; Lai, Xin-Mei; Chen, Mei-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-05-01

    In order to provide theoretical clues and data support for the use of Chinese medicine clinical drug, experimental study of Chinese materia medica and development of new resources of Chinese materia medica, the four properties as the core, the relationships of property, flavor, channel tropism and toxicity in nature data of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. The spearman rank correlation method was employed to analyze 8 356 Chinese drugs with characteristic of four properties from " Chinese Herbal Medicine" based on data level coding. It was discovered that four properties showed significant positive correlations with tastes of "pungent and sweet" , channels of "spleen" , "stomach" , "kidney" and "toxicity" , but also showed significant negative correlations with tastes of "bitter" and "light" and six channels such as "large intestine" , "heart", "bladder" , "gallbladder" , "small intestine" and "lung" (in descending order of correlation ) (P <0. 01). It was indicated that the more hot the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained "toxicity" , tastes of "pungent" and "sweet" , and the more possible it was belong to channels of "spleen" , "stomach" and "kidney". As well, the more cold the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained tastes of "bitter" and "light", and the more possible it was belong to six channels such as "large intestine", etc.

  12. Risk factors of early proximal gastric carcinoma in Chinese diagnosed using WHO criteria.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Huang, Qin; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jiong; Sun, Qi; Xu, Gui Fang; Gold, Jason; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Zou, Xiao Ping

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of proximal gastric carcinoma (PGC) is rising worldwide for unknown reasons. Herein we compare the risk factors of early PGC with distal gastric carcinoma (DGC) in patients treated at a single tertiary hospital in China. Risk factors of 379 consecutive surgically resected early gastric carcinoma (EGC) diagnosed according to the 2010 World Health Organization criteria were studied by reviewing their medical records and esophagogastroduodenoscopy/biopsy findings and interviewing patients and family members for the patients' history of environmental toxin exposure (ETE), dietary habits, family (FCH) and personal cancer history (PCH) and survival. Differences between PGC (n = 115), DGC (n = 264) and age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 225) were compared. Proportion of early PGC in all EGC patients was increased significantly (P < 0.05). The independent risk factors for both PGC and DGC identified by multivariate analysis were intake of preserved food and little fruit, and gastric mucosal intestinal metaplasia and atrophy (all P < 0.05). Advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 9.83, P < 0.01), PCH (OR 5.09, P < 0.05), a high body mass index (>24 kg/m(2) ) (OR 2.79, P < 0.01) and ETE (OR 2.31, P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for PGC, but not male gender, tobacco or alcohol abuse, hiatus hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease or columnar-lined esophagus. In contrast, FCH (OR 2.34, P < 0.01) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR 2.81, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for DGC. Independent risk factors for PGC in Chinese patients differ from those of DGC or esophageal adenocarcinoma, supporting the classification of PGC as a separate gastric carcinoma entity in the Chinese populations. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Improvement of flavor profiles in Chinese rice wine by creating fermenting yeast with superior ethanol tolerance and fermentation activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yijin; Xia, Yongjun; Lin, Xiangna; Wang, Guangqiang; Zhang, Hui; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Yu, Haiyan; Yu, Jianshen; Ai, Lianzhong

    2018-06-01

    Producing alcoholic beverages with novel flavor are desirable for winemakers. We created fermenting yeast with superior ethanol tolerance and fermentation activity to improve the flavor profiles of Chinese rice wine. Strategies of ethanol domestication, ultraviolet mutagenesis (UV) and protoplast fusion were conducted to create yeast hybrids with excellent oenological characteristic. The obtained diploid hybrid F23 showed a cell viability of 6.2% under 25% ethanol, whereas its diploid parental strains could not survive under 20% ethanol. During Chinese rice wine-making, compared to diploid parents, F23 produced 7.07%-12.44% higher yield of ethanol. Flavor analysis indicated that the total content of flavor compounds in F23 wine was 19.99-26.55% higher than that of parent wines. Specifically, F23 exhibited higher capacity in producing 2-phenylethanol, short-chain and long-chain fatty-acid ethyl-ester than diploid parents. Compared to diploid parents, F23 introduced more flavor contributors with odor activity values (OAVs) above one to Chinese rice wine, and those contributors were found with higher OAVs. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the flavor characteristic of F23 wine was similar to each of parent wine. Additionally, sensory evaluation showed that F23 wine was highly assessed for its intensive levels in fruit-aroma, alcohol-aroma and mouthfeel. Hybrid F23 not only displayed superior flavor production and oenological performance in making Chinese rice wine, but also could act as potential "mixed-like" starter to enrich wine style and differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    PubMed

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  15. Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Laimer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes. PMID:22253972

  16. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  17. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the... as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary; and (c) All varieties of pears except...

  18. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  19. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  20. FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

    2014-01-01

    Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

  1. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  2. Prevalence of Postharvest Diseases of Mandarin Fruit in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, storing mandarin fruit in cold facilities has become a common practice to retain fruit quality and expand the marketing window, but postharvest diseases can limit the storage of the fruit. To determine major postharvest diseases affecting mandarins, decayed fruit were collected from...

  3. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  5. Effects of Previous Fruit Intake, Descriptive Majority Norms, and Message Framing on Fruit Intake Intentions and Behaviors in Dutch Adults Across a 1-Week Period.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Ilse; Mollen, Saar

    2015-01-01

    To test the effects of descriptive norm and message framing on fruit intake (intentions) in Dutch adults. Randomized pretest-posttest study using a 2 × 2 design. Internet-based. Dutch adults recruited via leaflets and announcements on intranet and Internet and who provided immediate intention (n = 294) and 1-week follow-up intention and fruit intake data (n = 177). Messages combining information on intake of others (low vs high intake) with information about positive or negative outcomes of (in)sufficient fruit intake. Fruit intake intentions and fruit intake. Analyses of covariance. Those already consuming sufficient fruit and receiving negative information about insufficient fruit intake increased their motivation to consume sufficient fruit immediately (P = .03), but not at 1-week follow-up. Those who read positive information about sufficient fruit intake reported higher fruit consumption than those who read negative information about insufficient fruit intake (P = .03). This was stronger in those already consuming sufficient fruit. There were no effects of descriptive norm information (P > .19). Information about outcomes was more persuasive than descriptive majority norm information. Effects were generally stronger in those already consuming sufficient fruit. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinese-English 2,000 Selected Chinese Common Sayings (Yale Romanization).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, C.K.; Wu, K.S.

    Compiled here for the first time in Yale romanization are 2,000 common Chinese sayings, idioms, proverbs, and other figures of speech. The entries are arranged in two series: once in alphabetic order according to the Yale romanization and then again by the stroke-count of the Chinese characters. The romanized entries are accompanied by several…

  7. Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Wu, Han; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Chen, Jing-Si; He, Geng-Sheng; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2018-01-24

    The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)-2011, including 3-day-24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test, the Spearman's correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA), the Cronbach's coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8), adult women (99.7), and the healthy elderly (99.1), but not for young children (91.2). The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers ( P < 0.0001), people with higher and lower education levels ( P < 0.0001), and people living in urban and rural areas ( P < 0.0001). Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01) supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach's coefficient α was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients ( P < 0.001), but also a more nutrient-dense diet ( P < 0.001). Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day-24-h recalls.

  8. Hepatotoxicity of kaurene glycosides from Xanthium strumarium L. fruits in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Han, Ting; Xue, Li-Ming; Han, Ping; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Huang, Bao-Kang; Zhang, Hong; Ming, Qian-Liang; Peng, Wei; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2011-06-01

    The fruit of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cang-Er-Zi) is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used in curing nasal diseases and headache according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, clinical utilization of Xanthium strumarium is relatively limited because of its toxicity. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects on acute liver injury in mice of the two kaurene glycosides (atractyloside and carbxyatractyloside), which are main toxic constituents isolated from Fructus Xanthii on acute liver injury in mice. Histopathological examinations revealed that there were not obviously visible injury in lungs, heart, spleen, and the central nervous system in the mice by intraperitoneal injection of atractyloside (ATR, at the doses 50,125 and 200 mg/kg) and carbxyatractyloside (CATR, at the doses 50,100 and 150 mg/kg) for 5 days. However, it revealed extensive liver injuries compared with the normal group. In the determination of enzyme levels in serum, intraperitoneal injection of ATR and CATR resulted in significantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities compared to controls. In the hepatic oxidative stress level, antioxidant-related enzyme activity assays showed that ATR and CATR administration significantly increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) concentration, and this was in good agreement with the results of serum aminotransferase activity and histopathological examinations. Taken together, our results demonstrate that kaurene glycosides induce hepatotoxicity in mice by way of its induction of oxidative stress as lipid peroxidation in liver, which merited further studies. Therefore, these toxic constituents explain, at least in part, the hepatotoxicity of X. strumarium L. in traditional medicine.

  9. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used... juice(s) and water”; or “slightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the case may be. (b) When the density of...

  10. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used... juice(s) and water”; or “slightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the case may be. (b) When the density of...

  11. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used... juice(s) and water”; or “slightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the case may be. (b) When the density of...

  12. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used... juice(s) and water”; or “slightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the case may be. (b) When the density of...

  13. Pesticide residues in imported, organic, and "suspect" fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Winter, Carl K

    2012-05-09

    Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms.

  14. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) management practices in deciduous fruit growing areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia

    2014-04-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are important fruit fly pests of deciduous fruit in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The main techniques used for fruit fly control in the Western Cape are the sterile insect technique (SIT) targeting C. capitata and the bait application technique (BAT). We determined the relative success of SIT by comparing adult fly-trap catches and fruit infestation in commercial orchards between three regions under SIT and two regions under BAT in the Western Cape, from 2006 to 2008. Ceratitis capitata was predominant in all regions. In commercial orchards, C. capitata catches peaked towards the end of the fruiting season (March to May) and were low between July and January. During the late season, C. capitata catches were significantly higher in two of the regions under SIT. The sterile to wild male ratio in those regions was found to be mostly <1. SIT is not being properly applied in some regions. SIT should be implemented when the pest population is low. The sterile to wild fly ratios should be increased. Alternatively, BAT should be used to lower the pest population before SIT application. Control methods should be more integrated and applied area-wide. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Brookie, Kate L.; Best, Georgia I.; Conner, Tamlin S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned) fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18–25 (66.1% female) living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs. cooked/canned/processed fruits and vegetables, negative and positive mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative mood, positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing), and covariates (including socio-economic status, body mass index, sleep, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use). Results: Controlling for covariates, raw fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) predicted reduced depressive symptoms and higher positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing; processed FVI only predicted higher positive mood. The top 10 raw foods related to better mental health were carrots, bananas, apples, dark leafy greens like spinach, grapefruit, lettuce, citrus fruits, fresh berries, cucumber, and kiwifruit. Conclusions: Raw FVI, but not processed FVI, significantly predicted higher mental health outcomes when controlling for the covariates. Applications include recommending the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables to maximize mental health benefits. PMID:29692750

  17. Identification of New Diterpenes as Putative Marker Compounds Distinguishing Agnus Castus Fruit (Chaste Tree) from Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit (Viticis Fructus).

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Masada, Sayaka; Suzuki, Ryuta; Yagi, Kanae; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Emi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yahara, Shoji; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Agnus Castus Fruit is defined in the European Pharmacopoeia as the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. In Europe it is used as a medicine targeting premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorder. In Japan, Agnus Castus Fruit is becoming popular as a raw material for over-the-counter drugs and health food products, though its congenic species, Vitex rotundifolia and Vitex trifolia, have been used as Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit in traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important to discriminate these Vitex plants from the viewpoint of regulatory science. Here we tried to identify putative marker compounds that distinguish between Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit. We analyzed extracts of each crude drug by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and performed differential analysis by comparison of each chromatogram to find one or more peaks characteristic of Agnus Castus Fruit. A peak was isolated and identified as an equilibrium mixture of new compounds named chastol (1) and epichastol (1a). The planar structures of 1 and 1a were determined spectroscopically. Their relative configurations were revealed by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and differential nuclear Overhauser effect-NMR data. Since avoiding contamination from closely related species is needed for the quality control of natural pharmaceuticals, this information will be valuable to establish a method for the quality control of both, Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  19. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  20. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A risk assessment approach for fresh fruits.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J; McClure, P

    2008-04-01

    To describe the approach used in conducting a fit-for-purpose risk assessment of microbiological human pathogens associated with fresh fruit and the risk management recommendations made. A qualitative risk assessment for microbiological hazards in fresh fruit was carried out based on the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) framework, modified to consider multiple hazards and all fresh (whole) fruits. The assessment determines 14 significant bacterial, viral, protozoal and nematodal hazards associated with fresh produce, assesses the probable level of exposure from fresh fruit, concludes on the risk from each hazard, and considers and recommends risk management actions. A review of potential risk management options allowed the comparison of effectiveness with the potential exposure to each hazard. Washing to a recommended protocol is an appropriate risk management action for the vast majority of consumption events, particularly when good agricultural and hygienic practices are followed and with the addition of refrigerated storage for low acid fruit. Additional safeguards are recommended for aggregate fruits with respect to the risk from protozoa. The potentially complex process of assessing the risks of multiple hazards in multiple but similar commodities can be simplified in a qualitative assessment approach that employs the Codex methodology.

  2. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  4. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  5. Chinese Mapped America Before 1430

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Siu-Leung

    2018-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative comparison of Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (the 1602 Chinese world map) and contemporaneous world maps by Mercator (1569), Ortelius (1570) , Mercator's Arctic map (1595), and Plancius (1594) in particular, reveals that the Chinese map is not an adapted copy from European maps. The Chinese world map includes geography of a pre-Renaissance Europe and American geography unknown to Europeans until more than 200 years after Ricci's death. Approximately 50 % of the place names, including those of America, have no equivalents on European maps. Chinese names descriptive of the geographic feature of California peninsula, Mount Ranier, the fjords of Alaska, Mount Denali, tidal bore near Anchorage are all accurate by latitudes. Chile and Peru are correct by relative longitude. Contrarily, the maps by Plancius and Mercator are erroneous and ambiguous on the geography of North and South America. The geography and text of the Chinese world map are consistent with a completion date of 1430, some sixty years before Christopher Columbus' first voyage. Martino Martini's Novus Atlas Sinensis (1655) is not a survey of his own but translated from Chinese sources, revealing that Ming China was capable of determining longitude/latitude on land and ocean, as well as spherical projection. In conclusion, information about American geography was transferred from China to Europe, not the reverse. The Chinese world map Kunyu Wanguo Quantu is the result of Chinese circumnavigation and survey, pioneering the Age of Exploration, overturning 600 years of misinterpreted history.

  6. Molecular progress in research on fruit astringency.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Tian, Henglu; Luo, Xiaowen; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-15

    Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  7. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  8. Motivation, Motivation Intensity, Use of Chinese and Self-Rated Chinese Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an investigation of the relationships between motivation, motivation intensity, use of Chinese outside of class and self-rated competence in Chinese. Analyses of 162 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured interviews revealed the following findings: (1) the participants reported having high integrative…

  9. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of Alpinia oxyphylla fruits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-zhong; Yuan, Hui-hui; Bao, Xiao-li; Lan, Min-bo

    2013-11-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of intestinal disorders, urosis and diuresis. However, information about antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of its fruits remains to be elucidated. The ethanol crude extract (CE) and its fractions [petroleum ether fraction (PF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction (BF) and water fraction (WF) extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, respectively] of A. oxyphylla fruits were investigated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and reducing power assay. Cytotoxicity of the extracts (0-200 μg/mL) was tested on six human cancer cell lines (breast cancer cell line, cervix carcinoma cell line, lung adenocarcinoma cell line, liver carcinoma cell line, gastric cancer cell line and colon cancer cell line) using the sulforhodamine B assay. The TPC of extracts varied from 8.2 to 20.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. DPPH radical scavenging effect of extracts decreased in the order of EF > BF > CE > PF > WF, with IC50 values ranging from 74.7 to 680.8 μg/mL. 2,2-azo-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfoic acid) diammonium salt scavenging activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.236 mmol Trolox equivalence/mg extract. The extracts exhibited concentration-dependent reducing power, and EF showed the highest reducing ability. A satisfactory correlation (R(2) > 0.826) between TPC and antioxidant activity was observed. In addition, EF, PF and CE exhibited potent anticancer effects on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 40.1 to 166.3 μg/mL. The ethanol extract of A. oxyphylla fruit, especially the EF, was found to possess potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and thus a great

  10. The epigenome and transcriptional dynamics of fruit ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit has evolved myriad forms that facilitate seed dispersal in varied environmental and ecological contexts. Because fleshy fruits become attractive and nutritious to seed-dispersing animals, the transition from unripe to ripe fruit represents a dramatic shift in survival strategy—from protecting ...

  11. Outcome and Process Evaluation of a Norwegian School-Randomized Fruit and Vegetable Intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks intervention, a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a home economics classroom component and parental involvement and encouraged participation in the Norwegian School Fruit Programme, all delivered during the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly…

  12. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  13. Chemical ecology of fruit bat foraging behavior in relation to the fruit odors of two species of paleotropical bat-dispersed figs (Ficus hispida and Ficus scortechinii).

    PubMed

    Hodgkison, Robert; Ayasse, Manfred; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Häberlein, Christopher; Schulz, Stefan; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Zubaid, Akbar; Kunz, Thomas H

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the fruit odors of two bat-dispersed fig species in the Paleotropics, in relation to the foraging behavior of fruit bats, to test the following hypotheses: 1) fruit odor plays a critical role for detection and selection of ripe figs by fruit bats; 2) bat-dispersed fig species are characterized by the same, or similar, chemical compounds; and 3) total scent production, in bat-dispersed figs, increases when fruits ripen. We performed bioassays to test the effect of both natural and synthetic fig fruit odors on the foraging behavior of the short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis)-an important disperser of figs within the study area. Fruit bats responded to both visual and chemical (olfactory) cues when foraging for figs. However, the strongest foraging reaction that resulted in a landing or feeding attempt was almost exclusively associated with the presence of a ripe fruit odor-either in combination with visual cues or when presented alone. Fruit bats also used fruit odors to distinguish between ripe and unripe fruits. By using gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 16 main compounds were identified in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus hispida and 13 in the ripe fruit odor of Ficus scortechinii-including alcohols, ketones, esters, and two terpenes. Additional compounds were also recorded in F. hispida, but not identified-four of which also occurred in F. scortechinii. Total scent production increased in both species when fruits ripened. Both natural and synthetic fruit odors resulted in feeding attempts by bats, with no feeding attempts elicited by unscented controls. Reaction rates to natural fruit odors were higher than those to synthetic blends.

  14. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fight for Your Right to Fruit: Psychosocial Outcomes of a Manga Comic Promoting Fruit Consumption in Middle-School Youth.

    PubMed

    Leung, May May; Green, Melanie C; Tate, Deborah F; Cai, Jianwen; Wyka, Katarzyna; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to a manga comic (Japanese comic art) with messages promoting fruit consumption influenced psychosocial variables associated with increased fruit intake in middle-school youth. A three-group, randomized, single-session study was conducted in two public middle schools in central North Carolina. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) comic (manga comic promoting fruit consumption, (b) newsletter (newsletter about fruit), or (c) attention-control (newsletter about ancient Greece). Participants included N = 263 youth, with a mean age of 13.18 years (SD = 1.12). Outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and knowledge related to fruit intake were measured at baseline and immediately after reading. Secondary outcomes included transportation (degree to which participants are immersed in their media) and enjoyment, measured at posttest. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Comic group participants tended to have greater change in outcome expectations related to fruit intake compared to the attention-control group and greater transportation and enjoyment than the newsletter and attention-control groups. Study results are promising and suggest that manga comics may be a useful format to promote positive health beliefs in youth.

  16. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application.

  17. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2014-02-01

    We show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. For long Chinese texts (or for mixtures of short Chinese texts), rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters display a two-layer, hierarchic structure that combines a Zipfian power-law regime for frequent characters (first layer) with an exponential-like regime for less frequent characters (second layer). For these two layers we provide different (though related) theoretical descriptions that include the range of low-frequency characters (hapax legomena). We suggest that this hierarchic structure of the rank-frequency relation connects to semantic features of Chinese characters (number of different meanings and homographies). The comparative analysis of rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters versus English words illustrates the extent to which the characters play for Chinese writers the same role as the words for those writing within alphabetical systems.

  18. Fruit Size Determines the Role of Three Scatter-Hoarding Rodents as Dispersers or Seed Predators of a Fleshy-Fruited Atacama Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Loayza, Andrea P.; Squeo, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Scatter-hoarding rodents can act as both predators and dispersers for many large-seeded plants because they cache seeds for future use, but occasionally forget them in sites with high survival and establishment probabilities. The most important fruit or seed trait influencing rodent foraging behavior is seed size; rodents prefer large seeds because they have higher nutritional content, but this preference can be counterbalanced by the higher costs of handling larger seeds. We designed a cafeteria experiment to assess whether fruit and seed size of Myrcianthes coquimbensis, an endangered desert shrub, influence the decision-making process during foraging by three species of scatter-hoarding rodents differing in body size: Abrothrix olivaceus, Phyllotis darwini and Octodon degus. We found that the size of fruits and seeds influenced foraging behavior in the three rodent species; the probability of a fruit being harvested and hoarded was higher for larger fruits than for smaller ones. Patterns of fruit size preference were not affected by rodent size; all species were able to hoard fruits within the entire range of sizes offered. Finally, fruit and seed size had no effect on the probability of seed predation, rodents typically ate only the fleshy pulp of the fruits offered and discarded whole, intact seeds. In conclusion, our results reveal that larger M. coquimbensis fruits have higher probabilities of being harvested, and ultimately of its seeds being hoarded and dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents. As this plant has no other dispersers, rodents play an important role in its recruitment dynamics. PMID:27861550

  19. Intakes of Fruits, Vegetables, and Related Vitamins and Lung Cancer Risk: Results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yumie; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies evaluating the association of fruit and vegetable intakes on lung cancer risk were conducted in North American and European countries. We investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 Chinese adult men who were recruited to the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer risk associated with dietary intakes. During a median follow-up of 5.5 years, 359 incident lung cancer cases accrued after the first year of follow-up and 68.8% of them were current smokers. Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53–0.98), 0.69 (0.51–0.94), 0.65 (0.47–0.90), 0.63 (0.44–0.88), and 0.64 (0.46–0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk. PMID:23368913

  20. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrants, compared with Chinese in China and South East Asia: review.

    PubMed

    Yu, W M; Hussain, S S M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the literature and to compare published data on age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese people living in and outside China. Systematic review of incidence rate studies and statistical incidence data concerning nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese populations from 1960 to 2008. Sixteen papers were identified from the PubMed, Embase and Scopus electronic databases and from a hand search of the reference lists of the retrieved papers. Further searches for raw data on age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were conducted. Textbooks on relevant subjects were referred to for background information. A total of 19 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies included raw data on age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese people. Twelve other studies reported on changes in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese populations in selected countries or regions. Studies on age-specific and age-standardised rates obtained data from individual registries. Studies on incidence rates obtained data from hospital records, cancer notifications (from all sections of the medical profession), pathology records and death certificates. The results showed a decline in age-standardised incidence rates of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrant populations, compared with Chinese people in China. There was also a trend towards decreasing incidence the further the population had immigrated. Thus, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Singaporean Chinese was higher than that in Hawaiian Chinese, and that in Hawaiian Chinese was higher than that in Californian Chinese. This review found a decreasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese migrants living in countries with a low risk of the disease.

  1. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  2. A GRAMMAR OF SPOKEN CHINESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAO, YUEN REN

    THE AUTHOR OF THIS GRAMMAR STATES THAT THIS IS A "DISCUSSION BOOK" AND NOT AN INSTRUCTION BOOK FOR LEARNING CHINESE. HIS ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GRAMMAR IS BASED ON CURRENT LINGUISTIC METHODS AND ASSUMES THE READER HAS SOME KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTICS. THIS BOOK CONSTITUTES A REFERENCE WORK FOR LINGUISTS AND STUDENTS OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE. MAJOR…

  3. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  4. The miniature parachute of the dandelion fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Cathal; Viola, Ignazio Maria; Seale, Madeleine; Mastropaolo, Enrico; Nakayama, Naomi

    2017-11-01

    At the low Reynolds number at which small plant fruit (the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants) fly, there are a variety of modes of flight available: from parachuting to gliding and autorotation. Here we will explore the aerodynamics of small plumed fruit (dandelions) that utilise the parachuting mode of flight. If a parachute-type fruit is picked up by the breeze, it can be carried over formidable distances. Incredibly, these parachutes are mostly empty space, yet they are effectively impervious to the airflow as they descend. In addition, the fruit can become more or less streamlined depending on the environmental conditions. In this talk, we will present results from our numerical and physical modelling that clarify how these tiny parachutes achieve such impermeability despite their high porosity. We reveal that the dandelion's parachute tunes its permeability to achieve the aerodynamic stability as it flies, which helps confer the fruit's incredible flight capacity. This work was supported by the Leverhulme Trust [RPG-2015-255].

  5. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  6. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  7. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  8. SUMMARY OF FRUIT IRRADIATION AT WAGENINGEN

    SciTech Connect

    de Zeeuw, D.

    Use was made of l Mev electrons produced by a normal Van de Graaff accelerator in fresh soft fruit. In order to obtain an even dose distribution over the surface of fruit, it was packed one layer thick in small plastic boxes. Both upper and lower sides of these boxes were irradiated. In case of firmer fruit species, such as plums, these were also placed on mechanically driven rollers on which they were slowly rotated during irradiation. With this method the irradiation time was chosen twice as long as for the packed fruit so as to meet the total dosemore » requirement. Dosimetry measurements were made by both chemical and physical methods. The dose rate was 2 Krad per second. Results obtained with 100 to 500 Krad doses are given for strawberries, raspberries, red and black currants, blackberries, cherries, and plums. (auth)« less

  9. Light versus Dark Carbon Metabolism in Cherry Tomato Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Laval-Martin, Danielle; Farineau, Jack; Diamond, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    The photosynthetic properties of the internal and peripheral tissues of the cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme Dun A. Gray) were investigated. Whole fruit and their isolated tissues evolve large amounts of CO2 in darkness. In the light, this evolution decreases but nevertheless remains a net evolution; 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea abolishes the effects of light. Incorporation of 14CO2 by leaves and fruit tissues demonstrates that the outer region of the fruit has the highest photosynthetic efficiency on a chlorophyll basis; the internal fruit tissue, richer in chlorophyll, has a much lower efficiency. The identification of intermediates following short term incubations with 14CO2 shows that in darkness the fruit accumulates the majority of label in malate. In the light, leaf tissue exhibits a pattern of incorporation characteristic of C-3 metabolism, whereas fruit tissue exhibits a decreased labeling of malate with a concomitant appearance of label in Calvin cycle intermediates. This is in agreement with the levels and types of carboxylating activities demonstrated in vitro; especially noteworthy is the very low ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity in the internal fruit tissue. The photosynthetic potential, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity, and quantities of malate accumulated by fruit tissues are parallel to their chlorophyll content during growth and maturation. PMID:16660204

  10. The Roles of Pinyin Skill in English-Chinese Biliteracy Learning: Evidence from Chinese Immersion Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lü, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…

  11. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  12. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  13. The cutting effect of male flower on the size of the fruit cob, the size of the fruit and seeds in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harijati, Nunung; Navisya, Hikma Isnailul; Diao, Ying

    2017-11-01

    The formation of fruits and seeds depends on pollination and fertilization. For the fruit itself, its formation and final size are closely correlated with the gibberellin content. It is known that pollen is one source of gibberellins. Porang is a member of the genus Amorphophallus, which has a compound fruit arranged on a cob and monoecious. Each fruit may contain a single seed or multiple seeds. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of male flower removal on the size of the fruit cob, the number of fruit per ear, the seed number per ear, the fruit size and the proportion of fruit that contains single or multiple seeds. Removing male flowers is done by cutting the cluster of male flowers when the flower is very young and still wrapped with a sheath. The resulting data were analyzed using an unpaired t-test. Analysis of the results shows that the diameter and length of the cob of a cut-male flower are lower than the normal flower. The number of fruit or seed numbers per ear of the cut-male flower is lower than the normal flower. However, the length and diameter of the fruit of the cut-male flower is higher than the normal flower. The normal flower has higher numbers of individual fruit with single seeds than cut-male flowers, and cut-male flowers have higher incidences of fruit containing more than one seed (multiple seeds). The maximum seed number of individual fruit of normal flowers and cut-male flowers is 4 and 7 seeds respectively. In categories of fruit containing multiple seeds, the individual fruit containing 2 seeds has the highest proportion of cut-male flowers.

  14. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    PubMed

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  15. A Case Study of Exploring Older Chinese Immigrants' Social Support within a Chinese Church Community in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chih-Ling; Shenk, Dena

    2016-09-01

    The number of older Chinese immigrants living in the United States is increasing steadily. They are faced with challenges to meet their needs for social support and are unlikely to turn to formal services. This case study utilizes an ecological framework to analyze social support among Chinese immigrants age 65 year and older within a Christian Chinese church community, and to explore the ways in which a Chinese church functions as the source of social support for older Chinese immigrants. Seven months of participant observation and ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 65+ Chinese adults who attended one Chinese church in the Southern United State and included questions concerning patterns of support and personal relationships within the church. Findings revealed that gender, living arrangements, working experiences, ability to drive, and English language skills were related to support the older Chinese immigrants sought, received, and provided. Although the Chinese church can be a viable source of supplementary support, some participants in this study felt the support they received from the church was insufficient, particularly in terms of emotional support. Therefore, suggestions are outlined that may assist Chinese churches to be more proactive in better understanding and providing services that meet the different needs and desires of older Chinese immigrants.

  16. Chinese-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, William S-Y; And Others

    The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

  17. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  18. Different Locks Must Be Opened with Different Keys: Using Chinese Proverbs for Teaching Finance to Chinese-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biktimirov, Ernest N.; Feng, Jingtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of Chinese proverbs in the teaching of finance to Chinese-speaking students. Familiar proverbs facilitate teaching to Chinese students by appealing to students' prior knowledge, improving retention of new material, and creating a friendlier classroom environment. Using Chinese proverbs in finance instruction also…

  19. The Perennial Problem: The Chinese Minority in Indonesia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-28

    peranakan , ethnic Chinese, local Chinese, foreign-born Chinese, Indonesian Chinese, alien Chinese, citizen Chinese, and so forth.) For the purposes of this...study, only four terms are im- -" portant: pribumi, peranakan , totok, and cina. ’Pribumi’ is * an Indonesian term which literally means ’indigenous...pribumi population consists of hundreds of different ethnic and linguistic groups. ’ Peranakan ’ is the term used to refer to the Indonesia-born Chinese

  20. Perceived access to fruits and vegetables associated with increased consumption.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Erin M; Miller Kobayashi, M; DuBow, W M; Wytinck, S M

    2009-10-01

    To examine the association between fruit and vegetable access in the community and change in fruit and vegetable consumption among participants in community-based health promotion programmes. Fruit and vegetable consumption and perceived access to fresh fruit and vegetables were measured by self-administered questionnaires at programme start, end and 1-year follow-up. Community produce availability was determined by grocery store assessments measuring the display space devoted to fruit and vegetable offerings, as well as price, variety and freshness. A total of nine communities were studied; 130 participants completed the fruit and vegetable portions of the questionnaires and could be linked to grocery store assessments. Participants made modest but significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption from programme start to end: the average increase was 2.88 (95% CI 1.52, 4.25) servings weekly; the average increase from start to follow-up was 2.52 (95% CI 1.09, 3.95) servings weekly. Greater perceived access to fruits and vegetables was significantly associated with higher increases in fruit and vegetable consumption from programme start to programme end. Greater availability of produce was associated with greater increases in fruit and vegetable servings from programme start to programme end as measured by store assessments. Environmental factors, such as access to fruits and vegetables, can modify the effects of community interventions. Interventions with the goal of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption should consider focusing on increasing access to fresh fruits and vegetables in target communities. Similarly, researchers may want to study access as an intervention, not just a contextual variable.

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruizhi; Yang, Min; Bao, Yuqian; Li, Hong; Shan, Zhongyan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Juan; Lv, Qinguo; Wu, Ou; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-10-28

    The study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic health in subjects with obesity in the Chinese population and to identify the determinants related to metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. 5013 subjects were recruited from seven provincial capitals in China. The obesity and metabolic status were classified based on body mass index (BMI) and the number of abnormalities in common components of metabolic syndrome. 27.9% of individuals with obesity were metabolically healthy. The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype was significantly decreased with age in women (p trend < 0.001), but not significantly in men (p trend = 0.349). Central obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93-8.59), longer sedentary time (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.27-3.06), and with a family history of obesity related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.26-2.71) were significantly associated with having metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Higher levels of physical activity and more fruit/vegetable intake had decreased ORs of 0.67 (95%CI = 0.45-0.98) and 0.44 (95%CI = 0.28-0.70), respectively. 27.9% of obese participants are in metabolic health. Central obesity, physical activity, sedentary time, fruits/vegetables intake and family history of diseases are the determinants associated with metabolic status in obesity.

  3. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life.more » The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.« less

  4. Lifting properties of the alkamide fraction from the fruit husks of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    PubMed

    Artaria, C; Maramaldi, G; Bonfigli, A; Rigano, L; Appendino, G

    2011-08-01

    The fruits of various Zanthoxylum species are used as a spice in the Chinese and Japanese cuisine because of their delicate flavour and tingling properties. The lipophilic hydroxyalkamides hydroxy α- and β-sanshools (1a,b) have been identified as the tingling principles of these plants, and previous studies have validated a sanshool-rich lipophilic extract from the fruit husks of Z. bungeanum Maxim. (Zanthalene ® ) as an anti-itching cosmetic ingredient. Because tingling is a sort of 'paralytic pungency', and Zanthalene ® potently inhibits synaptic transmission, we have investigated its capacity to relax subcutaneous muscles and act as a topical lifting agent for wrinkles. An anti-wrinkles extract rich in spilanthol (2), a lipophilic alkamide having sensory properties similar to those of Zanthalene ® , was used as a reference. Short-term (lifting effect) and long-term (anti-wrinkle) improvements of skin roughness parameters were evaluated by both objectives' and subjectives' measurements. An immediate 'lifting' effect was observed with the sanshool-rich lipophilic extract, at dosages at which the reference alkamide extract was inactive in the objective assays. Limited desensitization after repeated application and good overall tolerability were observed, although a modest long-term anti-wrinkle effect was shown by both products. Taken together, these observations validate the use of sanshool-rich lipophilic extracts as an efficacious, immediate-action lifting agent, and exemplify the relevance of sensory observations to foster the development of innovative cosmetic ingredients. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.

  6. The association between blood pressure in adolescents and the consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juice--an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Marta M C; de Araújo, Márcio F M; de Freitas, Roberto W J Freire; de Almeida, Paulo C; Zanetti, Maria L

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate blood pressure levels with the consumption of fruit, vegetables and pulses and fruit juice among Brazilian adolescents. Scientific evidence has shown a relationship between the regular consumption of vegetables and the prevention of cardiovascular disturbances, such as arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional and correlational study was designed involving a random sample of 794 adolescents from 12 private schools located in a metropolitan area in the north-east of Brazil. The subjects responded to a questionnaire structured so as to investigate their regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and juice. Blood pressure was measured three times, with an interval of one minute between each measurement. The average of the last two measurements was used for the study. The chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation were used to investigate the association between blood pressure and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and juice. Lower values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were identified in adolescents with a consumption of fruit ≥twice daily (p<0·001). In the case of vegetables and pulses, systolic blood pressure was lower among adolescents who consumed more of this type of food (p=0·021). This study concluded that adolescents who consume more fruit have lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while those who regularly consume vegetables and pulses also had lower levels of systolic pressure. The results of this study suggest that nurses can develop health education activities in schools to encourage the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and fruit juices, especially among those adolescents who are more likely to develop arterial hypertension. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  8. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease…

  9. On-Tree Mango Fruit Size Estimation Using RGB-D Images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenglin; Verma, Brijesh

    2017-01-01

    In-field mango fruit sizing is useful for estimation of fruit maturation and size distribution, informing the decision to harvest, harvest resourcing (e.g., tray insert sizes), and marketing. In-field machine vision imaging has been used for fruit count, but assessment of fruit size from images also requires estimation of camera-to-fruit distance. Low cost examples of three technologies for assessment of camera to fruit distance were assessed: a RGB-D (depth) camera, a stereo vision camera and a Time of Flight (ToF) laser rangefinder. The RGB-D camera was recommended on cost and performance, although it functioned poorly in direct sunlight. The RGB-D camera was calibrated, and depth information matched to the RGB image. To detect fruit, a cascade detection with histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature was used, then Otsu’s method, followed by color thresholding was applied in the CIE L*a*b* color space to remove background objects (leaves, branches etc.). A one-dimensional (1D) filter was developed to remove the fruit pedicles, and an ellipse fitting method employed to identify well-separated fruit. Finally, fruit lineal dimensions were calculated using the RGB-D depth information, fruit image size and the thin lens formula. A Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 4.9 and 4.3 mm was achieved for estimated fruit length and width, respectively, relative to manual measurement, for which repeated human measures were characterized by a standard deviation of 1.2 mm. In conclusion, the RGB-D method for rapid in-field mango fruit size estimation is practical in terms of cost and ease of use, but cannot be used in direct intense sunshine. We believe this work represents the first practical implementation of machine vision fruit sizing in field, with practicality gauged in terms of cost and simplicity of operation. PMID:29182534

  10. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Naegele, Rachel P; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation.

  11. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  12. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  13. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  14. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  15. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  16. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  17. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  18. Associations of dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views with gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Xiong, Ribo; Wang, Liang; Cui, Junying; Shi, Linna; Liu, Yungang; Luo, Bingde

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively. Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week. Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. the GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively). Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.

  19. Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Carrie; Heegaard, Einar; Høiland, Klaus; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Kuyper, Thomas W; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Kirk, Paul M; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Gange, Alan C; Egli, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Büntgen, Ulf; Boddy, Lynne; Kauserud, Håvard

    2018-06-01

    Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude, and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation, and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 d, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 d, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large-scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic groups as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring-fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species-specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  1. Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of Loquat Fruit Identifies Major Signal Networks Involved in Fruit Development and Ripening Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Huwei; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Hu, Weicheng; Wang, Xinfeng; Shen, Ting; Yang, Liming

    2016-11-04

    Loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important non-climacteric fruit and rich in essential nutrients such as minerals and carotenoids. During fruit development and ripening, thousands of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from various metabolic pathways cause a series of physiological and biochemical changes. To better understand the underlying mechanism of fruit development, the Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the global changes of gene transcription levels. More than 51,610,234 high quality reads from ten runs of fruit development were sequenced and assembled into 48,838 unigenes. Among 3256 DEGs, 2304 unigenes could be annotated to the Gene Ontology database. These DEGs were distributed into 119 pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. A large number of DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signaling, and cell-wall degradation. The real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analyses revealed that several genes related to cell expansion, auxin signaling and ethylene response were differentially expressed during fruit development. Other members of transcription factor families were also identified. There were 952 DEGs considered as novel genes with no annotation in any databases. These unigenes will serve as an invaluable genetic resource for loquat molecular breeding and postharvest storage.

  2. The fruit of Bursera: structure, maturation and parthenocarpy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Ordoñez, María F.; Arizmendi, M. del Coro; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The deterioration of seasonally tropical dry forests will stop with the implementation of management plans for this ecosystem. To develop these plans, we require information regarding aspects such as germination and the presence of ‘empty seeds’ of representative species—like, for example, Bursera, a genus with a high number of endemic species of the Mesoamerican Hotspot—that would enable us to propagate its species. The main purpose of this study is to describe the phenological and structural characteristics of fruits of 12 Bursera species and provide useful data for future studies on germination and seed dispersal, and to acquire new and useful information to understand the phylogenetic relationships of the Burseraceae family. Methodology We described the phenology of fruit ripening in 12 species of Bursera. Fruits were collected from the study sites in three different stages of development. The histochemical and anatomical characteristics of fruits of all species were described with the use of inclusion techniques and scanning microscopy. Principal results There is a time gap between the development of the ovary and the development of the ovule in the 12 studied species. The exposed pseudoaril during the dispersion stage is an indicator of the seed's maturity and the fruit's viability. The Bursera fruit shows the same structural pattern as that of Commiphora, as well as many similarities with species of the Anacardiaceae family. All species develop parthenocarpic fruits that retain the structural characteristics of the immature fruits: soft tissues rich in nitrogen compounds and few chemical and physical defences. Insects were found mainly inside the parthenocarpic fruits in eight species of Bursera. Conclusions The dispersion unit in Bursera consists of a seed, a lignified endocarp that protects the seed, and a pseudoaril that helps attract seed dispersers. The production of parthenocarpic fruits is energy saving; however, it is

  3. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  4. White-fruited strawberry genotypes are not per se hypoallergenic.

    PubMed

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Eberlein, Bernadette; Edelmann, Kathrin; Bleicher, Philip; Kurze, Elisabeth; Helm, Dominic; Olbricht, Klaus; Darsow, Ulf; Ring, Johannes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The strawberry fruit Fra a 1-proteins are homologues of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and have essential biological functions in pigment formation during fruit ripening. Patients affected by allergy against birch pollen tolerated fruits of a naturally occurring white-fruited F.×ananassa genotype, which showed reduced levels of Fra a 1 proteins along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. We evaluated the cross-reactive allergenic potential of a number of naturally occurring white- and red-fruited strawberry varieties to detect genotypes with low allergenic reactivity, whose fruit might be tolerated by patients with mild allergy. Protein extracts of 51 different strawberry varieties (Fragaria×ananassa, F. vesca, and F. nilgerensis) were screened by Western blot analysis with a polyclonal Fra a 1.02 antibody. Besides, activation of basophils of eight atopic patients allergic to birch pollen were studied using Bet v 1a and different concentrations of 15 selected strawberry protein extracts out of the 51 strawberry genotypes. Median percentages of activated basophils stimulated by extracts from white- and red-fruited genotypes ranged from 36 to 84% and 44 to 76%, respectively indicating that white-fruited strawberry are not per se hypoallergenic. Protein extracts from white-fruited F. vesca cv. Yellow Wonder showed the lowest cross-reactivity but high biological variability. The knowledge about the allergenic potential of different strawberry genotypes may help to improve food safety and can serve as starting point for the development of red-fruited hypoallergenic strawberry cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fruits for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cai-Ning; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Liu, Qing; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading global health problems. Accumulating epidemiological studies have indicated that consuming fruits was inversely related to the risk of CVDs. Moreover, substantial experimental studies have supported the protective role of fruits against CVDs, and several fruits (grape, blueberry, pomegranate, apple, hawthorn, and avocado) have been widely studied and have shown potent cardiovascular protective action. Fruits can prevent CVDs or facilitate the restoration of morphology and functions of heart and vessels after injury. The involved mechanisms included protecting vascular endothelial function, regulating lipids metabolism, modulating blood pressure, inhibiting platelets function, alleviating ischemia/reperfusion injury, suppressing thrombosis, reducing oxidative stress, and attenuating inflammation. The present review summarizes recent discoveries about the effects of fruits on CVDs and discusses potential mechanisms of actions based on evidence from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. PMID:28608832

  6. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  7. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on.

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice, except that it may not be used to color foods for...

  9. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice, except that it may not be used to color foods for...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice, except that it may not be used to color foods for...

  11. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out skins... this section; (ii) multiply the percent so found by the weight of such fruit ingredient; (iii) divide... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL...

  12. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  13. Decrease of blood lipids induced by Shan-Zha (fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida) is mainly related to an increase of PPARα in liver of mice fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Niu, C- S; Chen, C- T; Chen, L- J; Cheng, K- C; Yeh, C- H; Cheng, J- T

    2011-08-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia are well-developed in the clinic while PPARα is a target for lipid-lowering agents. Shan-Zha (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to increase digestion. Also, Shan-Zha fruit extract showed merit to improve obesity and hyperlipidemia in hamsters; however, the mechanism remained obscure. In the present study, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced by high fat diet in C57BL/6 J male mice. Then, they were orally administered with Shan-Zha fruit extract at an effective dose of 250 mg/kg for 7 days. The liver was removed to estimate the expressions of PPARα and β-oxidation-related enzyme. Oral intake of Shan-Zha extract significantly improved hyperlipidemia in high fat diet-fed mice with an increase of PPARα expression in liver. Also, expression of PPARα-regulated β-oxidation-related enzymes was raised in liver by Shan-Zha extract. However, adipose tissue and others were not modified by this treatment of Shan-Zha fruit extract. Thus, Shan-Zha can increase the expression of PPARα to facilitate β-oxidation-related enzymes in liver for lipid degradation and blood lipid decrement. Also, this is the first report showing Shan-Zha fruit extract can influence liver to lower hyperlipidemia prior to the action in adipose tissue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Phytotoxicity of citrus and subtropical fruits to acetaldehyde vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, K.

    1975-01-01

    Several citrus and subtropical fruits (oranges, limes, lemons, mangos and papayas) were evaluated for phytotoxicity to acetaldehyde vapor. Exposure of fruits to 0.5 or 1% acetaldehyde vapor for 24 hr (low concentration-long exposure) did not produce skin injury or off-flavor in comparison with non-exposed fruits. This non-phytotoxic effect was also obtained at 5 to 20% acetaldehyde vapor for 10 to 15 min (high concentration-short exposure). However, acetaldehyde vapor concentration of 4% for 1 hr or 5% for 30 min (high concentration-long exposure) produced severe lenticel and skin injuries to the fruits. Exposure of fruits at these concentration also produced lackmore » of or off-flavor. Phytotoxicity of fruits to acetaldhyde vapor was a function of concentration and exposure.« less

  15. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  16. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Carughi, Arianna; Feeney, Mary Jo; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Fulgoni, Victor; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bulló, Mònica; Webb, Densie

    2016-03-05

    Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee identified a gap between recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and the amount the population consumes. Even fewer Americans consume tree nuts, which are a nutrient-dense food, rich in bioactive compounds and healthy fatty acids. Consumption of fruits and nuts has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. An estimated 5.5 to 8.4 % of U.S. adults consume tree nuts and/or tree nut butter. This review examines the potential of pairing nuts and dried fruit to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors and focuses on emerging data on raisins and pistachios as representative of each food category. Evidence suggests that increasing consumption of both could help improve Americans' nutritional status and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  17. Organizational capacities for 'residential care homes for the elderly' to provide culturally appropriate end-of-life care for Chinese elders and their families.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sui-Ting; Fang, Christine Meng-Sang; Lou, Vivian Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Developing culturally appropriate end-of-life care for Chinese elderly and families is not an endemic challenge for Hong Kong, but that of the Western countries with a noticeable trend of rising Chinese population. The particular development of Hong Kong healthcare system, which is currently the major provider of end-of-life care, makes Hong Kong a fruitful case for understanding the confluence of the West and the East cultures in end-of-life care practices. This study therefore aims at building our best practice to enhance the capacity of residential care homes in providing culturally appropriate end-of-life care. We conducted two phases of research, a questionnaire survey and a qualitative study, which respectively aims at (1) understanding the EoL care service demand and provision in RCHEs, including death facts and perceived barriers and challenges in providing quality end-of-life care in care homes, and (2) identifying the necessary organizational capacities for the 'relational personhood' to be sustained in the process of ageing and dying in residential care homes. Findings shed light on how to empower residential care homes with necessary environmental, structural and cultural-resource-related capacity for providing quality end-of-life care for Chinese elders and their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Korea's Attempts to Eliminate Chinese Characters and the Implications for Romanizing Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannas, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Examines Korea's experience with abandoning Chinese characters for an all-phonetic script. Despite efforts to replace characters with "all-hangul" in South Korea, reform opponents reinstated Chinese characters. In North Korea, a similar reform was also rescinded. Certain "linguistic" problems need to be solved for the reform to…

  19. Identification of molecular markers associated with fruit traits in olive and assessment of olive core collection with AFLP markers and fruit traits.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Seker, M; Ipek, A; Gul, M K

    2015-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to characterize olive core collection with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and fruit traits and to determine AFLP markers significantly associated with these fruit characters in olive. A total of 168 polymorphic AFLP markers generated by five primer combinations and nine fruit traits were used to characterize relationships between 18 olive cultivars. Although all olive cultivars were discriminated from each other by either AFLP markers (<0.75 similarity level) or fruit traits, clustering based on the AFLP markers and fruit traits was not significantly correlated (r = 0.13). Partial clustering of olive cultivars by AFLP markers according to their geographical origin was observed. Associations of AFLP markers with fruits were determined using a multiple-regression analysis with stepwise addition of AFLP markers. Significant associations between eight AFLP markers and fruit traits were identified. While five AFLP markers demonstrated significant negative correlation with fruit and stone weight, width and length and total polyphenols (P < 0.05), three AFLP markers displayed significant positive correlation with α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (P < 0.01). This is the first report on the association of molecular markers with fruit traits in olive. Molecular markers associated with morphological and agronomic traits could be utilized for the breeding of olive cultivars. However, the association power of these markers needs to be confirmed in larger populations, and highly correlated markers should then be converted to PCR-based DNA markers such as sequence-characterized amplified region markers for better utilization.

  20. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  1. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... added for any processing or packing or canning, or otherwise added to such fruit. (ii) In the case of fruit prepared by the removal, in whole or in part, of pits, seeds, skins, cores, or other parts; the... pits and seeds are removed therefrom; the weight of such fruit, exclusive of the weight of such pits...

  2. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... added for any processing or packing or canning, or otherwise added to such fruit. (ii) In the case of fruit prepared by the removal, in whole or in part, of pits, seeds, skins, cores, or other parts; the... pits and seeds are removed therefrom; the weight of such fruit, exclusive of the weight of such pits...

  3. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... added for any processing or packing or canning, or otherwise added to such fruit. (ii) In the case of fruit prepared by the removal, in whole or in part, of pits, seeds, skins, cores, or other parts; the... pits and seeds are removed therefrom; the weight of such fruit, exclusive of the weight of such pits...

  4. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  6. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  7. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake in the Czech child population.

    PubMed

    Jakubikova, Marie; Dofkova, Marcela; Ruprich, Jiri

    2011-06-01

    To describe fruit and vegetable intake of pre-school and school children in the Czech Republic and to provide information about their preferences and dietary habits. Cross-sectional dietary survey conducted by the method of repeated 24 h recall on two non-consecutive days. Usual intakes were calculated for three age categories (4-6, 7-10 and 11-14 years). The whole area of the Czech Republic. A subgroup of 602 children aged 4-14 years was extracted from the representative sample of respondents participating in a national dietary survey (SISP) realized in the years 2003 and 2004. Estimated average usual intakes of fruit and vegetables were 209 (sd 69) g/d in children aged 4-6 years, 230 (sd 84) g/d in children aged 7-10 years, and 284 (sd 133) g/d and 261 (sd 140) g/d respectively in boys and girls aged 11-14 years. Only 22 % of children had total daily intake of fruit and vegetables of five or more servings on the day of the survey. Fruits were consumed almost two times more often than vegetables in all age groups studied. The majority of fruit consumption comprised apples and bananas, which made up more than 60 % of the whole fruit intake. Fruiting vegetables were the most frequently consumed group of vegetables. Fruit and vegetable intakes in all age categories were under recommended levels and the diversity of fruit and vegetables consumed by the Czech children was relatively low.

  10. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  11. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Analysis of the Impact of Traditional Chinese Culture on Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2006-01-01

    The educational tradition of China has developed from traditional Chinese culture. Without an understanding of the cultural impact on traditional education, it is impossible to comprehend the educational tradition of China and to change its traditional educational ideas. There are fine traditions and feudal remains in Chinese culture which ought…

  13. Analysis of aroma compounds of pitaya fruit wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiao; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Shaodan; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze the volatile components in red pitaya fruit wine, the study using headspace solid phase microextractionand gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology of pitaya fruit juice and wine aroma composition analysis comparison. Results showed that 55 volatile components were detected in red pitaya fruit wine, including 12 kinds of alcohol (18.16%), 18 kinds of esters (66.17%), 7 kinds of acids (5.94%), 11 kinds of alkanes (4.32%), one kind of aldehyde (0.09%), 2 kinds of olefins (0.09%) and 3 kinds of other volatile substances (0.23%). Relative contents among them bigger have 11 species, such as decanoic acid, ethyl ester (22.92%), respectively, diisoamylene (20.75%), octanoic acid, ethyl ester (17.73%), etc. The red pitaya fruit wine contained a lot of aroma components, which offer the products special aroma like brandy, rose and fruit.

  14. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  15. Cracking the Chinese Character: Radical Sensitivity in Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language and Its Relationship to Chinese Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2015-01-01

    Radicals are building blocks of Chinese complex characters and exhibit certain positional, phonological and semantic regularities. This study investigated whether adult non-native learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) were aware of the positional (orthographic), phonological and semantic information of radicals, and whether such…

  16. Snap, crack and pop of explosive fruit.

    PubMed

    Galstyan, Anahit; Hay, Angela

    2018-05-09

    There is an increasing appreciation for the role of physical forces in plant development. Mechanics are fundamental to how explosive fruit eject their seeds, and recent studies have successfully combined mechanics with developmental genetics to help explain how these dispersal traits are produced and how they evolved. Computational modeling is used more and more to address developmental questions, and explosive fruit are particularly good systems for combining biology and modeling approaches. Finite element models have been recently used to explore questions such as: Why do touch-me-not species with similar fruits, differ so much in how efficiently they transfer stored energy to eject seeds? And how do popping cress fruits use the expansive force of turgor pressure for tissue contraction? Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Creates Positive Change in Children's Consumption and Other Behaviors Related to Eating Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the 2009-2010 USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on fruit intake and other behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Wisconsin fourth- and fifth-grade students. Methods: Participants were fourth- and fifth-grade from one FFVP school (n = 51)…

  18. Patterns of fruit traits in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Fleming, Theodore H.; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yong

    2004-10-01

    As a basis for determining how vertebrate frugivores influence the evolution of tropical fruits, we investigated distribution patterns of different fruit traits that are known to influence frugivore food choice, drawing on data gathered from 626 plant species in a primary tropical rainforest at Xishuangbanna, SW China. Species with fleshy fruits are common (66%) in the forest; the proportion of fleshy fruits differed among different growth forms: canopy trees (63%), subcanopy trees (83%), shrubs (74%), lianas (67%), herbs (65%) and epiphytes (49%). Dry fruits had a higher frequency of small-seeded species (length of seed <2 mm) compared to fleshy fruit (34% vs. 14%, respectively), and a lower proportion of species with few seeds (1-3 seeds per fruit) (52% vs. 77%). In fleshy fruits, small fruits (<20 mm in length) were predominant (69%) while medium-sized fruits (20-50 mm) were produced by 105 species (26%), and 20 species (5%) produced large fruit (>50 mm). As a whole, black fruits were most common (40% of 389 species), followed by fruits with red, brown, yellow and bicolored (19%, 13%, 13% and 8%, respectively); green, white, and blue fruits were relatively rare (4%, 2% and 1%, respectively). Characteristics of small fleshy fruits included thin husks, red, white, or black colors and a few medium-sized seeds (2-10 mm). Many medium-sized fruits had large, well-protected seeds. The distribution of plant species among various fruit and seed categories is non-random in this forest. Nested ANOVA revealed a significant phylogenetic component in the variances of most fruit traits while fruit size and color showed 39.7-48.1% of within-genus variances from non-phylogenetic factors.

  19. Influence of Chinese cultural health beliefs among Malaysian Chinese in a suburban population: a survey.

    PubMed

    Chew, K S; Tan, T W; Ooi, Y T

    2011-04-01

    In a multiethnic nation, it is not uncommon for doctors to encounter patients of different cultural backgrounds. Often, patients' cultural beliefs influence their perception of health and illnesses, and their treatment option. Many Chinese cultural beliefs are influenced by the Taoist concept of yin-yang balance. We interviewed 50 Malaysian Chinese from the general public of a suburban population in order to unravel the impact of Chinese cultural health beliefs on their decision-making, and this was compared with the opinions of 50 Chinese medical students from second to final year. Convenience sampling was then applied. From the survey, 78 percent of the general public believed that 'too much heat' or 'too much coldness' in the body could cause diseases. Compared to the medical students, a significantly higher number of the respondents held such beliefs, including the beliefs that abdominal colic is due to excessive 'wind' in the abdomen, consuming certain food can dispel wind from the body, and the importance of observing taboos during the confinement period after delivery. The majority of respondents from both groups believed that it is acceptable to combine both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine. There is a discrepancy in the extent to which these beliefs influence the perception of health and illnesses among the general public and among medical students. Healthcare providers need to be aware of such beliefs and practices regarding traditional Chinese medicine among their Chinese patients.

  20. Influence of fruit age of the Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut on the relationship between Aceria guerreronis population density and percentage of fruit damage.

    PubMed

    Sousa, André Silva Guimarães; Argolo, Poliane Sá; Gondim, Manoel Guedes Correa; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2017-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), is one of the main coconut pests in the American, African and parts of the Asian continents, reaching densities of several thousand mites per fruit. Diagrammatic scales have been developed to standardize the estimation of the population densities of A. guerreronis according to the estimated percentage of damage, but these have not taken into account the possible effect of fruit age, although previous studies have already reported the variation in mite numbers with fruit age. The objective of this study was to re-construct the relation between damage and mite density at different fruit ages collected in an urban coconut plantation containing the green dwarf variety ranging from the beginning to nearly the end of the infestation, as regularly seen under field conditions in northeast Brazil, in order to improve future estimates with diagrammatic scales. The percentage of damage was estimated with two diagrammatic scales on a total of 470 fruits from 1 to 5 months old, from a field at Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, determining the respective number of mites on each fruit. The results suggested that in estimates with diagrammatic scales: (1) fruit age has a major effect on the estimation of A. guerreronis densities, (2) fruits of different ages should be analyzed separately, and (3) regular evaluation of infestation levels should be done preferably on fruits of about 3-4 months old, which show the highest densities.

  1. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  2. Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-14

    Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The SlFSR gene controls fruit shelf-life in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lincheng; Zhu, Mingku; Ren, Lijun; Li, Anzhou; Chen, Guoping

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Fruit ripening represents a process that changes flavor and appearance and also a process that dramatically increases fruit softening. Fruit softening and textural variations mainly result from disruptions to the cell walls of the fruit throughout ripening, but the exact mechanisms and specific modifications of the cell wall remain unclear. Plant-specific GRAS proteins play a critical role in development and growth. To date, few GRAS genes have been functionally categorized in tomato. The expression of a novel GRAS gene described in this study and designated as SlFSR (fruit shelf-life regulator) specifically increased during fruit ripening, but was significantly decreased in the tomato mutant rin (ripening inhibitor). RNAi repression of SlFSR resulted in reduced expression of multiple cell wall modification-related genes, decreased the activities of PG (polygalacturonase), TBG (tomato β-galactosidase), CEL (cellulase), and XYL (β-D-xylosidase), and significantly prolonged fruit shelf-life. Furthermore, overexpression of SlFSR in mutant rin gave rise to up-regulated expression of multiple cell wall modification-related genes, such as PG, TBG4, CEL2, XYL1, PL, PE, MAN1, EXP1, and XTH5, and significantly shortened the fruit shelf-life. These findings reveal some of the genetic mechanisms underlying fruit cell wall metabolism and suggest that the SlFSR gene is another potential biotechnological target for the control of tomato fruit shelf-life. PMID:29635354

  4. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  5. Tomato Fruit Cell Wall 1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, James L.; Nevins, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces β-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively, the

  6. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (