Jin, Li; Case, D. Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry. PMID:20098698
Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.
Kwok, Lai-yu; Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Gesudu, Qimu; Zheng, Yi; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Zhang, Heping
The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota.
Yang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Linli; Liu, Changhui; Feng, Xingling; Chen, Ling; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Chao
A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations. The combined powers of discrimination in males and females were calculated according to haplotype frequencies from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts in the relevant population and were high in four ethnic groups. The cumulative powers of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci were 1.000000000000000 and 0.999999999997940 in females and males, respectively. All 19 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic. The highest Reynolds genetic distances were observed for the Tibet-Uighur pairwise comparisons. This study represents an extensive report on X-STR marker variation in minor Chinese populations and a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of these 19 X STR markers in four Chinese ethnic groups.
Yang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Linli; Liu, Changhui; Feng, Xingling; Chen, Ling; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Chao
A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations. The combined powers of discrimination in males and females were calculated according to haplotype frequencies from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts in the relevant population and were high in four ethnic groups. The cumulative powers of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci were 1.000000000000000 and 0.999999999997940 in females and males, respectively. All 19 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic. The highest Reynolds genetic distances were observed for the Tibet-Uighur pairwise comparisons. This study represents an extensive report on X-STR marker variation in minor Chinese populations and a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of these 19 X STR markers in four Chinese ethnic groups. PMID:28211539
Huang, Z L; Wang, D Y; Zhang, P C; Dong, F; Yeoh, K H
Acoustic rhinometry (AR) evaluates the geometry of the nasal cavity by measuring the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and nasal volume (V) by means of acoustic reflection. Understanding the normal and pathologic conditions of the internal nasal cavity using AR is important in the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal range of AR parameters in healthy volunteers from three ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malay and Indian. We also attempted to evaluate the role of these measurements in the documentation of structural abnormalities in the nose. A total of 189 Singaporeans, aged > or = 18 years, were recruited from a nationwide survey study. They comprised 83 Chinese, 35 Malays and 71 Indians. Eighty-nine subjects had a rhinoscopically normal nose (Group 1), 77 had significant septal deviation (Group 2) and 23 had inferior turbinate hypertrophy (Group 3). AR was performed to measure the MCA at the anterior 1-5 cm from the nostril and the volume (V) between points at the nostril and 5 cm into the nose. A mean MCA (mMCA; equal to (L + R)/2) and a total volume (Vt; equal to L + R) were then calculated for each subject, where L and R refer to the measurements made for the left and right nostrils, respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in mMCA (p = 0.80) and Vt (p = 0.60) among the three ethnic subgroups of Group 1. Statistically significant differences were found only between Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001 for both mMCA and Vt) and between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001 for mMCA and p = 0.013 for Vt). Although there was no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, significant differences in MCA (p = 0.001) and V (p = 0.040) were found between the narrower sides (smaller volume) and the wider sides in Group 2, indicating volume compensation between the nasal cavities. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that there is no significant difference in the normal
Shen, Chun-Mei; Hu, Li; Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Li, Zhi-Dan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Guo, Yu-Xin; Mei, Ting; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Bo-Feng
We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group. A total of 137 unrelated healthy volunteers from Chinese Xibe group were the objects of our study. Among the selected loci, there were 51 variable positions including transitions and transversions, and single nucleotide transitions were common (83.93%) versus transversions. These variations defined 64 different mtDNA haplotypes exclusive of (CA)n and 9 bp deletion variation. The haplotype diversity and discrimination power in Xibe population were 0.9800 ± 0.004 and 0.9699, respectively. Besides, we compared Xibe group with 18 other populations and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using Neighbor-Joining method. The result revealed that Xibe group was a close to Xinjiang Han and Yanbian Korean groups. Our data also indicated that Xibe group has a close relationship with Daur and Ewenki groups, which is reflected by the history that Xibe was influenced by Daur and Ewenki groups during the development of these groups. In conclusion, the variants we studied are polymorphic and could be used as informative genetic markers for forensic and population genetic application. PMID:28327596
Tao, Y; Chen, J; Yao, Y; Shi, L; Lin, K; Huang, X; Dong, Z; Chu, J; Shi, L
Recently, a 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (+14 bp/-14 bp) in exon 8 of the Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene has been studied extensively because this polymorphism has been associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and could influence HLA-G mRNA expression. We investigated the distribution of the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in six different Chinese ethnic groups (Bulang, Wa, Hani, Jinuo, Maonan and Zhuang), which originated from three major ancient tribes (Di-Qiang, Baipu and Baiyue) in China. Comparison of the 14-bp insertion frequency in the six groups with other Chinese groups showed marked variation among the three ancient tribes, Di-Qing (0.490-0.534), Baipu (0.470-0.609) and Baiyue (0.280-0.344). Furthermore, the frequencies of the 14-bp insertion were similar in groups that came from the same ancient tribe, which indicated that the individuals who share the 14-bp insertion have the most probably inherited the 14-bp element from a common ancestor. In addition, an intra-tribal comparison of the 14-bp insertion/deletion frequencies between the descendants of the ancient ancestral tribes suggests that population histories or some environmental effects, such as founder effect or isolation, might also influence the distribution.
Gao, Ying; Han, Jun-Tao; Shen, Chun-Mei; Wu, Hua; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhao, Li-Jun; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hong-Dan; White, Richard E; Wei, Xing
Mongolian is the eighth largest ethnic minority on Chinese population data according to the 2010 census. In the present study, we presented the first report about the allelic frequencies and forensic statistical parameters at the 21 new STRs and analyzed linkage disequilibrium of pairwise loci in the Mongolian ethnic minority, China. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests demonstrated no significant deviations except for the D1S1627 locus. The cumulative power of discrimination and power of exclusion of all the loci are 0.9999999999999999992576 and 0.9999997528, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance showed that significant differences between the Mongolian and the other eight populations were found at 1-9 STR loci. In population genetics, the results of principal component analysis, structure analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis indicated shorter genetic distance between the Mongolian group and the Ningxia Han. All the results suggest that the 21 new STR loci will contribute to Chinese population genetics and forensic caseworks in the Mongolian group.
Liu, Wen-Juan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Ren, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jun-Yi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng
The Uygur ethnic minority is the largest ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and is a precious resource for the study of ethnogeny and forensic biology. Previous studies have focused on the genetic background of the Uygur group, however, the patrilineal descent of the group is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 24 Y-STR loci in the Uygur group and analyzed the population differentiations as well as the genetic relationships between the Uygur group and other previously reported populations using 17 Y-filer loci. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci in 109 Uygur individuals, 104 different haplotypes were obtained, 99 of which were unique. The haplotypic diversity and discrimination capacity of these 24 Y-STR loci in Uygur group were 0.9992 and 0.9541, respectively. An additional 7 loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522, and DYS527a,b) showed high genetic diversity and improved the overall discrimination capacity of the 24 Y-STR system. Pairwise Fst and neighbor-joining analysis showed that the Uygur group was genetically close to the Han populations from different regions.
Yuan, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng
Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been constantly discovered, studied, and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study, forensic human individual identification, and paternity tests.
Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Lin, Keqin; Yu, Liang; Huang, Kai; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing
As the world's most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.
Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng
The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.
Lai, Daniel W L
In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.
Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.
The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…
Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.
A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…
Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she
In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.
The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…
Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Mao, Xinmin; Tao, Yicun; Ran, Xinjian; Zhao, Haixia; Xiong, Jianhui; Li, Linlin
The gut microbiome may have an important influence on the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). To better understand the DM2 pandemic in ethnic minority groups in China, we investigated and compared the composition and richness of the gut microbiota of healthy, normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals and DM2 patients from two ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang, northwest China, the Uygurs and Kazaks. The conserved V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the isolated DNA. The amplified DNA was sequenced and analyzed. An average of 4047 high quality reads of unique tag sequences were obtained from the 40 Uygurs and Kazaks. The 3 most dominant bacterial families among all participants, both healthy and DM2 patients, were the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Significant differences in intestinal microbiota were found between the NGT individuals and DM2 patients, as well as between the two ethnic groups. Our findings shed new light on the gut microbiome in relation to DM2. The differentiated microbiota data may be used for potential biomarkers for DM2 diagnosis and prevention. PMID:28328990
Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O
Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.
Yao, Esther Lee
American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)
Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun
Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity.
Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun
With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented.
Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic…
Shen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Bo-feng; Deng, Ya-jun; Ye, Shi-hui; Yan, Jiang-wei; Yang, Guang; Wang, Hong-dan; Qin, Hai-xia; Huang, Qi-zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jing
Background Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. Conclusions
Thompson, Richard H.
Examines effects of population growth (due to immigration) and social and economic change on class formation and conflict among Toronto's ethnic Chinese. Suggests that what is often interpreted as ethnic conflict is actually class conflict and that groups consciously use ethnicity to obscure the fundamental class basis of their conflict.…
Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…
Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed
Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…
This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…
This research reported in this article ethnographically examines ethnicity and achievement in the formation of Korean Chinese students' peer networks. With the significance of children's peer networks in their interaction and school experience in mind, this article demonstrates how a group of ethnic Korean students at one Korean bilingual school…
Mitchell, Martha, Comp.; And Others
This bibliography identifies books citing the history of nine ethnic groups: American Indians, Puerto Rican Americans, Jewish Americans, Mexican Americans, Eskimos, Appalachians, black Americans, German Americans, and Japanese Americans. Books were selected to provide researchers with an accurate view of the histories of these groups and to cite…
Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn
An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…
Sanborn, Kenneth O.; Katz, Martin M.
This study was undertaken by several clinicians to obtain ratings of symptomatology and coping behavior of mental patients from different ethnic groups in Hawaii. Three dimensions of depression were studied: physical agitation, verbal retention, and optimism. The aims of the study were to describe the symptomatic and coping behaviors which are…
Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill
Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…
Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.
This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.
Yuen, Lili; Wong, Vincent W
Ethnicity is defined as “belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition”. Membership of certain ethnic groups has long been associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies that examined ethnic differences amongst women with GDM were often conducted in western countries where women from various ethnic backgrounds were represented. The prevalence of GDM appears to be particularly high among women from South Asia and South East Asia, compared to Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic communities. For some, but not all ethnic groups, the body mass index is a risk factor for the development of GDM. Even within a particular ethnic group, those who were born in their native countries have a different risk profile for GDM compared to those born in western countries. In terms of treatment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays a key role in the management of GDM and the prescription of MNT should be culturally sensitive. Limited studies have shown that women who live in an English-speaking country but predominantly speak a language other than English, have lower rates of dietary understanding compared with their English speaking counterparts, and this may affect compliance to therapy. Insulin therapy also plays an important role and there appears to be variation as to the progression of women who progress to requiring insulin among different ethnicities. As for peri-natal outcomes, women from Pacific Islander countries have higher rates of macrosomia, while women from Chinese backgrounds had lower adverse pregnancy outcomes. From a maternal outcome point of view, pregnant women from Asia with GDM have a higher incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance test results post-partum and hence a higher risk of future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, women from Hispanic or African-American backgrounds with GDM are more likely to develop hypertension post-partum. This review highlights the
Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.
Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74 interviewed by telephone in their preferred languages. The relationship between base-line constructs and mammography 2 years later was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Intention predicted mammography overall and among Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 10), with racial/ethnic differences in association (p = .020). Self-efficacy predicted mammography overall and among Whites (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 11), with no racial/ethnic interaction. Perceived benefits and subjective norms were associated with screening overall and in some racial/ethnic groups. These results generally support cross-cultural applicability of four of the five constructs to screening with mixed predictive value of measures across racial/ethnic groups. Additional in-depth inquiry is required to refine assessment of constructs. PMID:19805790
Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433
Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Griffiths, Judith
This study tested predictions drawn from social identity development theory (SIDT; [Nesdale, D. (1999a). Social identity and ethnic prejudice in children. In: P. Martin, & W. Noble (Eds.). "Psychology and society" (pp. 92-110). Brisbane: Australian Academic Press; Nesdale, D. (2004). Social identity processes and children's ethnic prejudice. In M.…
Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L
Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.
Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.
The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.
Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yinglin; Chen, Kaiyuan; Li, Duolu; Han, Chao; Kan, Quancheng
Accumulate evidence has implicated dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms in the etiology of schizophrenia. A single nucleotide polymorphism, -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs1799732), in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to schizophrenia; however, the data are inconclusive. This study investigated whether the -141C polymorphism is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in different ethnic groups by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 24 case-control studies examining the association between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia were identified according to established inclusion criteria. Significant association was revealed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in dominant genetic model (Ins/Ins + Ins/Del versus Del/Del) (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.81, z = 2.41, P = 0.02) in Chinese Han but not in Caucasian, Japanese or India populations. Our results indicate that -141C Ins/Del polymorphism might be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.
Redmond, Jean; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jarjou, Landing; Zhou, Bo; Prentice, Ann
Context: Ethnic groups differ in fragility fracture risk and bone metabolism. Differences in diurnal rhythms (DRs) of bone turnover and PTH may play a role. Objective: We investigated the DRs of plasma bone turnover markers (BTMs), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D in three groups with pronounced differences in bone metabolism and plasma PTH. Participants: Healthy Gambian, Chinese, and white British adults (ages 60–75 years; 30 per country). Interventions: Observational study with sample collection every 4 hours for 24 hours. Main Outcomes: Levels of plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type-1 N-propeptide, N-mid osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. DRs were analyzed with random-effects Fourier regression and cross-correlation and regression analyses to assess associations between DRs and fasting and 24-hour means of BTMs and PTH. Results: Concentrations of BTMs, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were higher in Gambians compared to other groups (P < .05). The DRs were significant for all variables and groups (P < .03) and were unimodal, with a nocturnal peak and a daytime nadir for BTMs, whereas PTH had two peaks. The DRs of BTMs and PTH were significantly cross-correlated for all groups (P < .05). There was a significant positive association between C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and PTH in the British and Gambian groups (P = .03), but not the Chinese group. Conclusions: Despite ethnic differences in plasma BTMs and PTH, DRs were similar. This indicates that alteration of rhythmicity and loss of coupling of bone resorption and formation associated with an elevated PTH in other studies may not uniformly occur across different populations and needs to be considered in the interpretation of PTH as a risk factor of increased bone loss. PMID:27294326
This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…
Zhang, Kewen; Hao, Xiaoming
This paper presents a case study exploring the impact of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) on the formation of ethnic social groups, or communities, by examining the case of Chinese students in North America and other parts of the world. The paper (1) reviews the relationship between communication and community; (2) traces the development of…
Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…
Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano
The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.
Wong, Sabrina T; Nordstokke, David; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) framework was used to test for the invariance of the instrument's psychometric properties across ethnic groups. We used multitrait scaling to eliminate items that did not meet the item-convergence criterion (r > 0.30) and where items were non-convergent items in at least three groups. A series of nested CFA models assessed the level of factorial invariance. One thousand seventy-four women completed the survey; Their mean age was 61 years with Chinese and Latinas reporting lower education compared to non-Latino Whites (p <. 001). A four-factor model (Tangible, Informational, Financial, Emotional/Companionship) fit within each ethnic group separately, suggested good fit. Multi-group CFA supported configural and metric invariance across all ethnic groups. Only partial scalar invariance was supported. This 8-item instrument is a reliable and valid tool that can be used as a multidimensional measure of social support. It can used to examine social support within one ethnic group and for comparative research across diverse ethnic groups of women.
Lim, K B; Jeevan, N H; Jaya, P; Othman, M I; Lee, Y H
Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.
Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113
Weed, Perry L., Comp.
This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic…
Preliminary selection for potential probiotic Bifidobacterium isolated from subjects of different Chinese ethnic groups and evaluation of their fermentation and storage characteristics in bovine milk.
Liu, W J; Chen, Y F; Kwok, L Y; Li, M H; Sun, T; Sun, C L; Wang, X N; Dan, T; Menghebilige; Zhang, H P; Sun, T S
A total of 29 strains of Bifidobacterium were isolated from 18 samples of human feces in different ethnic minority regions of China. All isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium longum (9 strains) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (20 strains) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were preliminarily tested for their suitability to become probiotics by assessing their ability to survive adequately at low pH conditions and their tolerance of different concentrations of bile salts and simulated gastrointestinal juices. In vitro tests were sequentially used to predict the survival of these strains in the simulated conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract. These strains were first exposed to pH 2.5 for 3h, and 7 out of the 29 strains were discriminated from the others by their high survival rates. Out of these 7 strains, 4 were found to grow and survive well at an even lower pH of 2.0 and in high bile salt concentration. Apart from the gastrointestinal survival capacity, both fermentation efficiency and storage characteristics are important criteria for selecting for suitable potential probiotic strains. Therefore, the fermentation efficiency in bovine milk and the bacterial viability during the storage in the resultant fermented milk were also evaluated for these 4 selected strains. In this study, we isolated and identified 29 novel Bifidobacterium strains. Based on our initial evaluation, at least 4 of them may serve as valuable resources for further dairy probiotic strain selection.
This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and ‘facilitating subjects’ at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body. PMID:27904229
This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and 'facilitating subjects' at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body.
Bulaeva, K B; Jorde, L; Ostler, C; Bulaev, O A; Pavlova, T A; Harpending, H
Genomic diversity of 21 STR loci has been studied in six ethnic populations of Daghestan (the Caucasus), namely, Avars, Dargins, Kubachians, Lezgins, and Nogais, and the results have been compared with these data for European, African, and East Asian ethnic groups. Daghestan is unique in its ethnic diversity, which is the greatest in the Caucasus: 26 out of approximately 50 autochthonous ethnic groups of the Caucasus live there. The genetic origin of this wide ethnic diversity of Daghestan and the Caucasus as a whole is still obscure. The genetic heterogeneity of Daghestan populations has been found to be lower than that of most other populations in the world. This is explained by a prolonged isolation and gene drift in their demographic history. Generalized genetic distances between ethnic groups calculated for the whole set of loci studied allow differentiating Asian populations from African ones, with European populations occupying intermediate positions. All Daghestan ethnic populations form a distinct common group together with some European populations (Finnish, Polish, and French). Nogais are genetically close to Southeast Asian populations. The genetic closeness and the apparently equal genetic diversity of Daghestan and European populations suggest that the ethnic differentiation of the ancestral populations of Daghestan and European ethnic groups occurred in the earliest populations of modern humans.
Fan, Xitao; And Others
The hypothesis that faulty classical psychometric and sampling procedures in test construction could generate systematic bias against ethnic groups with smaller representation in the test construction sample was studied empirically. Two test construction models were developed: one with differential representation of ethnic groups (White, African…
Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Lv, Zhe; Dong, Nan; Li, Qiong; Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Hou, Yin-Ling; Qian, Li; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Peng
In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 115 unrelated Hui male individuals from Haiyuan county or Tongxin county, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, to evaluate the forensic application of the 24 STR loci and to analyze interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Hui group data and previously published data of other 13 populations. A total of 115 different haplotypes were observed on these 24 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.4049 (DYS437) to 0.9729 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 1 at AGCU 24 Y-STR loci level, while the values were reduced to 0.999237, 0.996949, and 0.996644 at the Y-filer 17 loci, 11 Y-STR loci of extended haplotype and 9 Y-STR loci of minimal haplotype levels, respectively; whereas, haplotype diversity for additional 7 loci (not included in Y-filer 17 loci) was 0.995271. The pairwise FST , multidimensional scaling plot and neighbor-joining tree indicated the Hui group had the closest genetic relationship with Sala in the paternal lineage in the present study. In summary, the results in our study indicated the 24 Y-STRs had a high level of polymorphism in Hui group and hence could be a powerful tool for forensic application and population genetic study.
Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira
The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.
Gillett, James Stephen
Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)
Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R
This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.
Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen; Heyerdahl, Sonja
Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethnic origin and acculturation factors on psychiatric problems among immigrant adolescents. One aim was to examine variations in psychiatric problems according to gender and immigrant generation level. Another aim was to explore ethnic group differences in psychiatric problems…
Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M
Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.
Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)
Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E
There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.
Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Teoh, Hock Luen; Ong, Benjamin K C; Chan, Bernard P L
Data on interethnic differences in the Asian stroke population are limited. We evaluated the relationships among various cardiovascular risk factors, stroke subtypes, and outcomes in a multiethnic Singaporean population comprising consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting to our tertiary center over a 1-year period. Strokes were classified based on criteria used in the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). Functional independence at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. The ethnic distribution of the study population (n = 481; mean age, 64.1 ± 11.9 years) was 74% Chinese, 17% Malay, and 9% Indian. The prevalence of risk factors was similar in the 3 ethnic groups except for diabetes (Chinese, 39.8%; Malay, 67.5%; Indian, 52.3%; P < .001). Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Lacunar stroke was the most frequent stroke subtype (47.9%). Large-artery atherosclerotic infarctions were more prevalent in Indians (25.0%), whereas lacunar infarctions occured more frequently in Chinese (51.8%; P < .01). No differences in in-hospital mortality and functional independence at discharge were seen among the 3 ethnic groups. Despite the differences in risk factors and in stroke subtypes classified by location or underlying etiology, short-term outcome measures were similar in the 3 different Asian ethnicities in Singapore.
Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E
Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.
This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.
Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.
Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla
The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.
Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.
Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…
Webster, Staten W.
This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…
Shoenfeld, Y; Alkan, M L; Asaly, A; Carmeli, Y; Katz, M
Benign hereditary leukopenia-neutropenia has been reported in several ethnic groups, including Yemenite Jews, Blacks of South African extraction, West Indians and Arab Jordanians. The subjects with BFL were shown not to have an increased incidence of infections, and their response to infection did not differ from subjects having normal white blood cell counts. This study entails the report of two additional unrelated ethnic groups with familial neutropenia - Black Beduin and Falashah Jews. The familial nature of the phenomenon was confirmed. The suggested mechanism of this type of neutropenia is a defect in release of mature WBC from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation. All ethnic groups thus far reported have tanned or dark skin. The significance of this common feature has still to be elucidated.
Zatzick, D F; Marmar, C R; Weiss, D S; Metzler, T
This investigation assessed the relationship between traumatic stress exposure and dissociation in male Vietnam theater veterans from three ethnic groups. Subjects were African-American (N = 61), Caucasian (N = 91), and Hispanic (N = 73) veterans who completed the Dissociative Experience Scale and a measure of war zone stress exposure, and who were rated on the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire-Rater Version. Greater exposure to war zone stress was associated with reports of more dissociation at the time of trauma and with more general dissociative experiences both when the data were pooled and when examined separately for each group. After controlling for the effects of war zone stress exposure, the significant differences found in peritraumatic and general dissociative experiences across the three ethnic groups no longer were evident. This investigation demonstrated that among American Vietnam veterans, greater exposure to traumatic stress is related to more dissociative experiences, regardless of ethnicity.
King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.
OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…
Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005
A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…
Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C
Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438
Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram
Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources.
Teh, M; Lee, Y S
This study attempts to determine the relative prevalence of intestinal-type and diffuse-type carcinomas (using a modified Lauren classification of gastric carcinomas) and to evaluate its significance in relation to the difference in stomach cancer risks among the different ethnic and Chinese dialect groups in Singapore. Of the 648 cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach studied, 405 (62.5%) were of the intestinal type, 206 (31.8%) of the diffuse type, and 37 (5.7%) of the mixed type. Men had higher proportions of intestinal-type carcinoma than women. The intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio increased progressively with age. Although the relative intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratios in women appeared to reflect the relative incidence rates of stomach cancer of the different ethnic and dialect groups, the ratios in men were inconsistent. Indian men had a higher intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio than Chinese men despite a lower incidence of stomach cancer. Hokkien men had the highest incidence of stomach cancer and the lowest intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio among the Chinese dialect groups. The use of the ratio as an indicator of relative risks for gastric cancer between populations of different genetic makeup is inconsistent and unreliable.
Huynh, Virginia W; Fuligni, Andrew J
Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and preparation for bias messages than their peers from European backgrounds. Chinese adolescents reported more promotion of mistrust messages than their peers with European backgrounds. Moreover, promotion of mistrust messages negatively predicted academic achievement, whereas positive cultural socialization messages accounted for the higher levels of motivation among adolescents from Chinese and Mexican backgrounds as compared with their equally achieving peers from European backgrounds.
Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan
The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic
Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan
The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic
Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen
Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers. PMID:28067780
Lin, A; Li, M; Xu, D-P; Zhang, W-G; Yan, W-H
Unlike high polymorphic classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, the genetic polymorphism of HLA-G is very limited. However, the prevalence of HLA-G alleles among different ethnic populations varied dramatically. The HLA-G null allele (HLA-G*0105N) is defined by a cytosine deletion (Delta C) at position 1597 in exon 3, which disrupts the reading frame and alters the expression of HLA-G proteins. The HLA-G*0105N allelic frequency was investigated in previous studies and possible roles were addressed. In the current study, a total of 310 Chinese Han and 260 Chinese She ethnic minority population had been genotyped for the G*0105N polymorphism. Marked difference was observed that the G*0105N allelic frequency in Chinese Han was 1.61%, while no copy of the null allele was observed in the Chinese She minority population (P(c) = 0.0073). Data also revealed that no homozygote of HLA-G*0105N allele exists in this Chinese Han population. Furthermore, significant difference was found for the frequencies of HLA-G*0105N both in Chinese Han and in Chinese She populations when compared with other ethnic populations. Taken together, our results indicated that ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N polymorphism among different ethnic populations is possibly the result of evolution. However, the advantages of the selection of this allele are necessary to be further investigated.
English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…
Using a data set (N = 1,600) collected in the city of Urumchi in 2005, this article examines ethnic differences in arranged marriages in urban China. Data analysis shows a rapid decline in parental arrangement for both Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese in Urumchi. Han Chinese are less likely than Uyghur Muslims to report arranged marriages, with main…
Wertsman, Vladimir F.
Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)
Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics.
Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. PMID:28228993
Saha, N; Bhattacharyya, S P; Yeoh, S C; Chua, S P; Ratnam, S S
Placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; E.C.188.8.131.52) polymorphism was studied in 254 Chinese, 104 Malays, and 47 Indians from Singapore using isoelectric focusing. There is suggestive evidence of two additional anodal alleles (GDH4 and GDH5) in addition to the three alleles described in earlier studies. Altogether, 14 phenotypes have been observed in the present investigation, compared with six phenotypes described in earlier studies. It appears that placental GDH is controlled by five codominant autosomal alleles producing 15 possible phenotypes. The gene frequencies of GDH1, GDH2, and GDH3 in these ethnic groups are significantly different from those reported in Caucasians. There were slight differences in the gene frequencies between the three ethnic groups, with those of Indians being nearer to the frequency in Caucasians. In general, the distribution of GDH phenotypes was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups studied.
Chinn, S; Hughes, J; Rona, R
AIM—To estimate trends in growth for 5 to 11 year old ethnic minority and inner city children and comparative representative samples from 1983 to 1994. DESIGN—Mixed longitudinal. SUBJECTS—At each of six surveys, more than 2000 inner city white, 1500 Urdu or Punjabi speaking, 5000 English representative white, 3000 Scottish representative white, and around 1000 Afro-Caribbean, 500 falling to 300 Gujarati speaking, and 260 increasing to 300other Indian children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS—Height, weight for height, and triceps skinfold thickness. RESULTS—Height increased in all inner city groups by ~ 1.5 cm, but group differences were maintained. Trends in triceps skinfold varied, but increased by 4-12% in Indian subcontinent girls. Weight for height increased generally. Inner city white children showed conflicting trends in weight for height and fatness. CONCLUSIONS—Afro-Caribbean children are maintaining their tall, slim build, but other groups emphasise the diversity of obesity patterns in a multi-ethnic society, with a predominant trend towards greater obesity. Monitoring of these groups should continue. PMID:9713005
Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana
This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.
Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J
The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.
Krug, Mark M.
This student book, one in a series of civic education materials, focuses on white ethnic groups and how they influence the operation of the American political system. The ethnic groups which are investigated include Poles, Irish, Italians, and Jews. An ethnic person is defined as anyone who decides to identify with and live among those who share…
Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N
The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.
Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D
We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma.
Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte
This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.
Mullan, Joseph T; Grossman, Brian R; Hernandez, Mauro; Wong, Alice; Eversley, Rani; Harrington, Charlene
This study examined the experiences of ethnically diverse, low-income consumers of paid personal assistance services (PAS) to understand the successes and problems they faced setting up and maintaining their assistance. A thematic analysis was conducted with transcripts from eight focus groups of ethnically homogeneous consumers (n = 67): African American, Latino, Chinese, Native American, and non-Hispanic white. These experienced consumers were generally satisfied with their current PAS but noted significant difficulties: Getting access to appropriate care, obtaining enough paid care to avoid unmet need, and dealing with confusing bureaucracies and cultural differences between them and agency staff/attendants. They desired more control over their care, including the use of paid family attendants when possible. Respondents recommended improved screening and training of attendants, more attendant time, higher wages for attendants, improved cultural sensitivity of attendants and agency staff, and greater consumer control over PAS. Although these low-income PAS consumers are ethnically and geographically diverse, the similarity of findings points to their ongoing struggle to access adequate high quality assistance. The burden they have in obtaining and maintaining services is substantial.
Chin, Big-Qu; Duda, Halyna
Ethnic schools (supplementary schools conducted on Saturday and weekday afternoons and religion-affiliated day schools) in the Boston area were surveyed in order to determine the effect of the Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act (TBEA) on ethnic schooling and the possibilities of ethnic school involvement with TBEA. The schools…
Parrott, Heather Macpherson
Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.
Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S
Objectives Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Methods Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. Results No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within ‘black’ and ‘Asian’ ethnic groups. Conclusions Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication
Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…
Lubahn, D B; Lord, S T; Bosco, J; Kirshtein, J; Jeffries, O J; Parker, N; Levtzow, C; Silverman, L M; Graham, J B
Two frequently used restriction-enzyme polymorphisms (RFLPs) of coagulant F.IX, TaqI and XmnI, have been examined in five ethnic groups: white Americans, black Americans, East Indians, Chinese, and Malays. There is a distinct "cline" in the frequencies of both polymorphisms, from white Americans to Malays. The rarer type 2 alleles of both polymorphisms, in which middle recognition sites are present--and which in our sample reach their highest frequencies in white Americans--are marginally higher in four groups of Europeans previously reported by others. The frequencies of the rarer alleles are significantly higher in Europeans than in black Americans and East Indians, and these alleles are essentially absent in Chinese and Malays. The frequency of heterozygosity diminishes in the same order, being zero in Malays for both polymorphisms. The polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium, and in all groups the type 1 allele for TaqI is disproportionately accompanied by the type 1 allele for XmnI. The paucity of type 2 alleles and the low rate of heterozygosity in four non-European groups suggest that the polymorphisms will be of little diagnostic value south of Gibraltar and east of Suez. This prediction is confirmed by the observed haplotype frequencies in the black American and the Oriental groups. PMID:2884869
Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina
"Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased.…
Lee, Richard M.
This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…
Shaw, Heather; Ramirez, Lisa; Trost, Ariel; Randall, Pat; Stice, Eric
Sociocultural models of eating pathology posit that ethnic minority groups should show fewer eating disturbances than Whites. Thus, the authors tested whether there were ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors for eating pathology and whether the relations between risk factors and eating pathology differed across ethnic groups, with data from adolescent and adult females (N = 785). Only 1 of the 14 tests of main effect differences between ethnic groups was significant and none of the 49 tests of whether ethnicity moderated the relations of risk factors to eating pathology were significant. Findings provide little support for the hypothesized ethnic differences in eating disturbances and suggest that ethnic minority groups have reached parity with Whites in this domain.
Michal Rassin, R N
This study was aimed at measuring professional and personal values among nursing students. The participants were 180 students tested according to 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The findings indicated that passing time has not harmed the fundamental values on which the nursing profession is based: human dignity, the prevention of suffering, reliability, and faithful relationships. Devaluation was observed in the values of equality among patients, and altruism, which were graded only in fifth and sixth place, respectively. It is necessary to consider the regression in the values: imagination, ambition, and cleanliness, which were graded among the bottom values on the list. Significant differences were found in the grading of several personal and professional values, as a function of ethnic origin. Results may help understand motives of nursing students and assist in promoting bachelor of nursing programmes while taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the student group.
Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond
A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation - particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised.
Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William
The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…
Cultural recognition is of growing interest in China, where ethnic identity has become an increasingly conspicuous issue (Gladney 1994, 1996; Hansen 1999; Harrell 1990, 2001; Lee 2001; Postiglione 1999; Postiglione, Zhu, and Ben 2004; Teng 2001). However, the role of institutions of Chinese higher education has received little attention, despite…
Experiences of 165 Chinese immigrants to San Francisco (California) who arrived between 1965 and 1975 suggest that workers employed in the ethnic labor market (enclave economy) have lower wages, higher turnover, and less promotional opportunities than workers in other labor markets. Positive aspects of the enclave economy are discussed. (SLD)
From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…
Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio
The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…
Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda
A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.
Yang, S; Liu, W
8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.
Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.
This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…
Lyman, Stanford M.
This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…
Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54% female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (Mage.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection–identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446
Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony
Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.
Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M; Hua, Josephine M; Chance, Lauren J
Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment were examined among 95 youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada (mean age 12 years). Utilizing cross-sectional data, promotive effects of ethnic identity were observed; higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms. Vulnerability effects of ethnic identity were fewer; lower ethnic identity was associated with above average depressive symptoms and, for males only, below average self-esteem. Findings also suggested that higher ethnic identity might buffer the stress of poor achievement, indicating a possible protective effect of ethnic identity. Although requiring replication, these preliminary findings illustrate the utility of adopting a risk and resilience framework and suggest the value of promoting strong ethnic identities.
Shah, Arti D.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Lin, Feng; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, Jeffrey; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Kanaya, Alka M.
Background Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared to Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared to other ethnic groups are lacking. Methods Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2,622 Whites; 803 Chinese Americans; 1,893 African Americans; and 1,496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass, and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and BMI. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, HDL, and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Results Compared to all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons to each MESA group, p < 0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (p < 0.001), and less lean mass (p < 0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared to Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (p < 0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared to African Americans (p < 0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. Conclusion There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass, and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in South Asians may partially
Henderson, Joseph Neil
Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…
Vinnikov, Y R
This is the second part of an article in which the author examines trends in population growth and development among the national and ethnographic groups of the republics of Central Asia. The historical process of ethnic group consolidation is studied, with a focus on the roles of bilingualism, cross-national marriage, and socioeconomic development in inter-ethnic integration
Klippel, Magot D.
Compares the performances on psychometric and Piagetian measures of intelligence at school entry of children of different ethnic groups living within a dominant Western-type culture. In general, few significant differences between the ethnic groups are found. (Author/AM)
Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao
As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.
Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael
This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…
Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna
Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…
Nasidze, I S
The compiled data on the distribution of polymorphic blood groups (ABO, Diego, Duffy, Kell-Cellano, Kidd, MN, MNSs, P, Penney, Rh(D), Rh-Hr), secretion ABH antigens in saliva, HLA system (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR), immunoglobulin (GM1) and other miscellaneous data (phenylthiocarbamide taste, tongue rolling) in the Caucasus are presented. Results of the interpopulation heterogeneity test show that, in spite of the limited territory of the Caucasus, a high level of genetic variability was observed. In terms of gene frequencies, these ethnic groups are approximately equidistant from European and West Asian Populations.
The present study was an assessment of attitudes of 410 ethnically Dutch adolescents toward three ethnic minority groups living in the Netherlands. Stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, affective associations, and the evaluation of possible interactions were used to predict the global evaluation of ethnic outgroups and accounted for much of the variance in ethnic attitudes. The relative importance of the four predictors varied by target group and location. Gender differences were found in the structure of attitudes; symbolic beliefs played a greater role in the attitudes of boys, whereas emotions played a more central role in the attitudes of girls. The evaluation of Dutch identity was related to the favorability of ethnic attitudes and also to the underlying structure. Respondents with a positive national identity had less favorable ethnic attitudes, and emotions were more predictive of their attitudes, whereas symbolic beliefs were most predictive among respondents with a less positive national identity.
Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk
Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…
Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q
Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world.
Botvin, J D
Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap."
Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:149-170, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark
Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)
Brown, Tyson H; O'Rand, Angela M; Adkins, Daniel E
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories.
Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben
Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…
Walker, Sylvia; And Others
This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…
Austin, A. Aukahi; Chorpita, Bruce F.
Extending analyses from a large school-based sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,126; Chorpita, 2002), this study examined anxiety and depression assessment with 5 ethnic groups in Hawaii. Ethnic differences in anxiety and depression symptoms, along with 2 temperamental characteristics--negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity…
Rowell, P. Clay; Benshoff, James M.
This study was designed to examine the relationship between personal growth group (PGG) experiences in multicultural counseling courses and counseling students' ethnic identity development. Differences in ethnic identity development were compared between counseling students who participated in a PGG experience as part of a multicultural counseling…
Lopez, Frederick G.; Ann-Yi, Sujin
This study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores…
Schneider, Jo Anne
Discusses the group dynamics of ethnic parades with respect to participants, outsiders, and recent immigrants. Covers the following topics: (1) context of parades; (2) community development within historical and social environment; (3) American and ethnic aspects; (4) presentation of immigrants in parades; (5) relationships with homeland; and (6)…
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo
This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…
Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth graders collected from three sites (Birmingham, AL, Houston, TX, and Los Angeles, CA) were used in the analyses. Simultaneous group structural equation modeling supported the invariance of parenting-early adolescent outcomes across sex and ethnic groups. Parental monitoring and parental norms were relatively robust predictors of early-adolescent externalizing problems and victimization, and to a lesser extent, of internalizing problems. A maternal nurturance by parental monitoring interaction was statistically significant for all outcome behaviors, indicating that higher monitoring in conjunction with higher maternal nurturance was associated with lower levels of early-adolescent problem behaviors. The findings suggest that core parenting factors such as nurturance, monitoring, and normative expectations for early adolescent problem behaviors may serve as a foundation for parenting components of multi-component intervention studies.
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.
We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578
Dumas, Jean E; Moreland, Angela D; Gitter, Alexandra H; Pearl, Amanda M; Nordstrom, Alicia H
The authors evaluate the relation of ethnic, socioeconomic status (SES), and belief match between parents and group leaders and engagement in a preventive intervention for parents of preschoolers. Engagement was assessed through attendance, retention, and quality of participation in sessions with 171 parents and 11 group leaders. SES match predicted attendance, retention, and quality of participation. Parents attended more sessions, remained longer in the program, and participated more actively when their group leader came from comparable SES backgrounds. Ethnic match predicted retention only, with parents attending longer when their ethnicity matched their group leader's. Engagement was unrelated to the extent of match across different characteristics, nor was the link between ethnic match and retention mediated by SES or belief match. Results suggest that social, cultural, and belief similarities between parents and group leaders may be less salient in preventive parenting interventions than is assumed. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Lewison, Grant; Kumar, Sameer; Wong, Chan-Yuan; Roe, Philip; Webber, Richard
Malaysia has three main ethnic communities: Chinese, Indians and Malays. At independence in 1957, the Chinese dominated commercial life, and this led to ethnic tensions and finally riots. As a result in 1969 Malaysia introduced a "New Economic Policy" (NEP) to promote Malays in all areas of activity, and in particular to assist them to obtain basic and higher education. We examined the scientific outputs from Malaysia between 1982 and 2014 and classified the names of Malaysian researchers into one of these three groups and two others. There was a major increase in Malay participation in research, which has risen from 20 % of researchers in 1982-1984 to 65 % in 2012-2014, with corresponding declines in the percentages of Chinese and Indian authors, although their absolute numbers have increased because Malaysian scientific output has increased so rapidly in the last 10 years. The huge increase in Malay researchers contrasts with their presence in the Malaysian population which has remained stable at about 50 % since 1969.
Haematological parameters and iron state were studied in children admitted to hospital consecutively during a six month period. A total of 147 of 598 children (24.6%) were anaemic, with haemoglobin values below the third centile of the reference range, and 131 of 400 children (32.8%) were iron deficient, with serum ferritin concentrations less than 10 micrograms/l. Both findings were more common in children from the Asian ethnic minority. The "routine" full blood count is a useful tool for the presumptive identification of iron deficiency in childhood. Iron deficiency is deleterious to the health of young children. In view of its extent and degree--not exclusively among the Asian ethnic minority--a community based preventive programme on the lines of the Stop Rickets Campaign is recommended. PMID:3080103
Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.
Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali
Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = −0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = −0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125
Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui
The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.
Austin, A Aukahi; Chorpita, Bruce F
Extending analyses from a large school-based sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,126; Chorpita, 2002), this study examined anxiety and depression assessment with 5 ethnic groups in Hawaii. Ethnic differences in anxiety and depression symptoms, along with 2 temperamental characteristics-negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA)-were examined within the context of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1991). Minimal between-group differences in temperamental characteristics were found. Good fit was found for a multisample model relating NA and PA to anxiety and depressive dimensions consistently across all groups. However, significant mean level differences among ethnic groups were found for several specific anxiety dimensions, suggesting that factors outside of the tripartite model explain observed ethnic differences. Further support for the generalizability of the tripartite model was also found.
Funk, Sandra G.; And Others
A methodology for stereotype research, including an experimental paradigm and an analytic method, is presented. The paradigm involves the collection of three different types of similarities data concerning ethnic groups and rating-scale adjectives. (Author/DEP)
Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750
Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Elliott, John O.
SUMMARY The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined epilepsy as an emerging public health issue in a recent report and emphasized the importance of epilepsy studies in minorities and people of low socioeconomic status. Previous research has suggested that the incidence rate for epilepsy is positively associated with various measures of social and economic disadvantage. In response, we utilize hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze health disparities in epilepsy and seizure risks among multiple ethnicities in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The goals of the analysis are to highlight any overall significant disparities in epilepsy risks between the populations of Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics in the study area during the years 2002–2004 and to visualize the spatial pattern of epilepsy risks by ethnicity to indicate where certain ethnic populations were most adversely affected by epilepsy within the study area. Results of the Bayesian model indicate that Hispanics have the highest epilepsy risk overall, followed by African Americans, and then Caucasians. There are significant increases in relative risk for both African Americans and Hispanics when compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the posterior mean estimates of 2.09 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (1.67, 2.62) for African Americans and 2.97 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (2.37, 3.71) for Hispanics. Results also demonstrate that using a Bayesian analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS) technology can reveal spatial patterns in patient data and highlight areas of disparity in epilepsy risk among subgroups of the population. PMID:18381676
Aguilar de Plata, Cecilia; Velasco de Echeverri, Maria Teresa; Gracia de Ramírez, Beatriz; Pradilla Ferreira, Alberto; Cruz Naranjo, Martha Liliana; Mosquera Escudero, Mildrey
Postprandial lipemia has been associated with atherogenesis and other non infectious chronic diseases. A descriptive, non aleatory study of 51 healthy young adults (23.8 +/- 4 years) of different ethnic background was carried out to identify possible personal or life style factors associated with the response of plasma lipids after a mixed carbohydrate and lipid load. Personal, family, life styles including use of drugs and activity and ethnic background were recorded. Anthropometrical measurements, a short insulin and postprandial lipemia tests were done. From these observations body mass index (BMI) and area under the curve (AUC) for lipids and glucose were calculated. High mean values were observed in AUC for glucose, triacylglycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Postprandial glucose with differences by age (p=0.05 Bonferroni) but no ethnic, gender, BMI or insulin sensitivity related significant differences were found. Mestizos (40%) showed two, and Negroes three (27%) postprandial triglyceridemia peaks. Noteworthy, subjects presenting four peaks had elevated BMI. Higher triglyceridemia values were found in white and mestizos (p<0.05), in subjects older than 29 and in males (p<0.05). Statistical correlation (r2=0.70) between BMI and triglyceridemia and change in postprandial trigliceridemia was found in white and black subjects. NEFA declined up to the second hour, but at 6-7 hours they reached levels higher than base values. Higher than reported values for UCA and BMI and an abnormal response to fat intake with an early release of NEFA was found. The high correlation between BMI and postprandial trigliceridemia suggests that body mass index could be a good predictor of postprandial trigliceridemia.
Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.
Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…
Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S
Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM.
Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping
STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10−27, 4.3791 × 10−28 and 6.9118 × 10−27, respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550
Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping
STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing.
DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L
OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations.
Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen
AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel
This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.
Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678
Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
Introduction: The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) is a valid and reliable scale among non-Latino Whites but has not been validated for use among other racial/ethnic groups despite increasing use with these populations. The current study examined the structural invariance and predictive equivalency of the WSWS across three racial/ethnic groups. Methods: The WSWS scores of 424 African American, Latino, and White smokers receiving smoking cessation treatment were analyzed in a series of factor analyses and multiple-group analyses. Additionally, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether WSWS scores differentially predicted smoking relapse across racial/ethnic groups. These analyses were consistent with a step-down hierarchical regression procedure for examination of test bias. Results: The 7-factor structure of the WSWS was largely confirmed in the current study, with the exception of the removal of two offending items. Evidence of full invariance across race/ethnicity was found in multiple-group analyses. The WSWS total score and subscales measuring anger, anxiety, concentration, and sadness predicted relapse, whereas the hunger, craving, and sleep subscales did not. None of these scales displayed differential predictive ability across race/ethnicity. The WSWS sleep subscale showed a significant interaction with race/ethnicity such that it was a significant predictor of relapse among Whites but not African Americans or Latinos. Conclusions: Overall, the WSWS is similar in structure and predictive of relapse across racial/ethnic groups. Caution should be exercised when using the WSWS sleep subscale with African Americans and Latinos. PMID:21454912
Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen
In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing.
Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.
Objectives We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 39 hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962
Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui
Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…
Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N
Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease.
Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S
The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.
Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie
Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257
Perrenet, Jacob; Terwel, Jan
The central question of this study was how gender, ethnicity, and ability influence students' participation in small cooperative groups, especially in relation to leadership. Interaction processes during cooperative group work were recorded in detail on the basis of direct observation and audio-recordings, and transcripts were analyzed by…
Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.
Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…
Lewis, James H.
Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…
Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn
This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…
Dennick-Brecht, M. Kathryn
Argues that research and teaching in sociology should reflect increased commitment achievements and contributions of culturally diverse groups. Discusses content analysis of 30 introductory sociology texts to determine quantity and quality of their coverage of U.S. ethnic and racial groups. Concludes that, although substantial progress has been…
Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana
This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…
Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C
We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.
Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.
We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210
Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814
Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.
Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly
Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James
Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.
Austin, Ashley; Wagner, Eric F.
Aims: To explore (1) the influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on treatment retention among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents and (2) the potential differential influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on treatment retention within each ethnic subgroup. Participants: A multi-ethnic sample of 420 adolescent juvenile offenders in…
Sachs, Michael C.; Enright, Paul L.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Jiang, Rui; Barr, R. Graham
Background Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) is an important and non-invasive index of diaphragm strength and an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The ability of adults over a wide age range and multiple ethnicities to perform MIP tests has previously not been evaluated. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited white, African-American, Hispanic and Chinese-American participants ages 45–84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease in six US cities. MIP was measured using standard techniques among 3849 MESA participants. The MIP quality goal was 5 maneuvers, with the two largest values matching within 10 cmH2O. Correlates of MIP quality and values were assessed in logistic and linear regression models. Results The 3849 MESA-Lung participants with MIP measures were 51% female, 35% white, 26% African-American, 23% Hispanic, and 16% Chinese-American. Mean MIP±SD was 73±26 cmH2O for women and 97±29 cmH2O for men. The quality goal was achieved by 83% of the cohort and was associated with female gender, older age, race/ethnicity, study site, low FEV1/FVC ratio, and wheeze with dyspnea. The multivariate correlates of MIP were male gender, younger age, higher BMI, shorter height, higher FVC, higher systolic blood pressure (in women) and health status (in men). There were no clinically important race/ethnic differences in MIP values. Conclusion Race-specific reference equations for MIP are unnecessary in the United States. More than 80% of adults can be successfully coached for 5 maneuvers with repeatability within 10 cmH2O. PMID:19796411
Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A
Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from
Choi, Pik Lin
This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…
Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana
Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.
Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah
Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10-64) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20532.001 PMID:28044981
Delisle, Hélène; Désilets, Marie-Claude; Vargas, Estanislao Ramirez; Garrel, Dominique
According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y). Although phenotypes were different, high triglycerides and fasting dysglycemia were good predictors of MetS in all three groups using both definitions. The international cut-offs for abdominal obesity were not predictive of MetS in the Haitian subjects.
Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison
Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences.
Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo
Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.
Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo
Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney
This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…
Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda
Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…
Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel
With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…
Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.
Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.
Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…
Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally
To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…
Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi
The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…
Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth
As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…
Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A
This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.
Kelly, William E.
This study examined the reliability, factorial validity, and measurement equivalence of the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) among three ethnic groups of college students. Participants included 200 Whites, 200 African Americans, and 200 Latino/Hispanics. The results indicated that although the African American sample scored slightly lower than the…
Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica
Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)
Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A
Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.
Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah
Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique
This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…
Consedine, Nathan S; Morgenstern, Amy H; Kudadjie-Gyamfi, Elizabeth; Magai, Carol; Neugut, Alfred I
Rates of prostate cancer screening are known to vary among the major ethnic groups. However, likely variations in screening behavior among ethnic subpopulations and the likely role of psychological characteristics remain understudied. We examined differences in prostate cancer screening among samples of 44 men from each of seven ethnic groups (N = 308; U.S.-born European Americans, U.S.-born African Americans, men from the English-speaking Caribbean, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and Eastern Europeans) and the associations among trait fear, emotion regulatory characteristics, and screening. As expected, there were differences in the frequency of both digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests among the groups, even when demographic factors and access were controlled. Haitian men reported fewer DRE and PSA tests than either U.S.-born European American or Dominican men, and immigrant Eastern European men reported fewer tests than U.S.-born European Americans; consistent with prior research, U.S.-born African Americans differed from U.S.-born European Americans for DRE but not PSA frequency. Second, the addition of trait fear significantly improved model fit, as did the inclusion of a quadratic, inverted U, trait fear term, even where demographics, access, and ethnicity were controlled. Trait fear did not interact with ethnicity, suggesting its effect may operate equally across groups, and adding patterns of information processing and emotion regulation to the model did not improve model fit. Overall, our data suggest that fear is among the key psychological determinants of male screening behavior and would be usefully considered in models designed to increase male screening frequency.
Korytina, Gülnaz; Kochetova, Olga; Akhmadishina, Leysan; Viktorova, Elena; Victorova, Tatyana
Objective: To determine the prevalence of the most common allelic variants of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2 and CYP2S1 in a representative sample of the three ethnic groups (Russians, Tatars and Bashkirs) from Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia), and compare the results with existing data published for other populations. Material and Methods: CYPs genotypes were determined in 742 DNA samples of healthy unrelated individuals representative of three ethnic groups. The CYPs gene polymorphisms were examined using the PCR-RLFP method. Results: Analysis of the CYP1A1 (rs1048943, rs4646903), CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2E1 (rs2031920) allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies revealed significant differences among healthy residents of the Republic of Bashkortostan of different ethnicities. Distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of CYP1A2 (rs35694136), CYP1B1 (rs1056836), CYP2C9 (rs1799853, rs1057910), CYP2F1 (rs11399890), CYP2J2 (rs890293), CYP2S1 (rs34971233, rs338583) genes were similar in Russians, Tatars, and Bashkirs. Analysis of the CYPs genes allele frequency distribution patterns among the ethnic groups from the Republic of Bashkortostan in comparison with the different populations worldwide was conducted. Conclusion: The peculiarities of the allele frequency distribution of CYPs genes in the ethnic groups of the Republic of Bashkortostan should be taken into consideration in association and pharmacogenetic studies. The results of the present investigation will be of great help in elucidating the genetic background of drug response, susceptibility to cancer and complex diseases, as well as in determining the toxic potentials of environmental pollutants in our region. PMID:25207010
Green, A E; Owen, D W
"This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."
Wan, Ching-Lee; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Lian, Lay-Hoong; Mohamed, Zahurin
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia as its encoded enzyme is involved in the metabolic inactivation of dopamine and noradrenaline. Several molecular genetic studies thus far have demonstrated that the COMT functional polymorphism of Val158Met is susceptible with schizophrenia. Hence, the present study aims to determine this genetic association of this SNP in the three major ethnic groups of the Malaysian population. A total of 317 patients (79 Malays, 154 Chinese and 84 Indians) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 417 healthy subjects (160 Malays, 164 Chinese and 93 Indians) were recruited. A PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the genotypes and alleles present. We found a significant association of genotypes within the total pooled samples, as well as in the female subgroup, with a higher frequency of heterozygotes in schizophrenia subjects. However, there were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequency between the schizophrenic patients and normal controls in all three ethnic groups. Our current findings suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism has a weak association with schizophrenia in the Malaysian population and does not play a major role in conferring susceptibility to the schizophrenia in any of the three major local ethnicities.
Ke, Yuebin; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Jiang, Youshen; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Li, Lu; Lu, Wenqing; Wu, Tangchun
To assess the natural variation of hOGG1 gene and the gene-environmental interactions, the hOGG1 codon 326 polymorphism and urinary 8-OHdG levels were investigated in large samples (n = 953) of healthy individuals from five Chinese ethnic populations by using PCR-RFLP and HPLC-ECD. Life-style parameters under study were obtained through a questionnaire. The allelic frequencies of the hOGG1 gene in the Chinese populations were found to be 0.16 (Ser/Ser), 0.49 (Ser/Cys) and 0.35 (Cys/Cys), respectively. The frequencies of Ser326Cys polymorphism were significantly different among the five Chinese ethnic populations (P = 0.002). No association was found between the hOGG1 gene polymorphism and other life-style parameters except for the association between Ser326Cys and smoking (P = 0.027). A significant increase of urinary 8-OHdG level was observed in Cys326Cys allelic healthy subjects (P = 0.033). These results suggest that there are natural variations of hOGG1 gene among Chinese ethnic populations. Smoking relates to Cys/Cys polymorphism frequencies, and oxidative DNA damage is repaired less in individuals with the hOGG1 Cys326Cys genotype.
Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E
Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.
Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A
The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.
Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng
Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.
Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead
Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.
Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Emery, Sherry L.; White, Martha M.; Grana, Rachel A.; Messer, Karen S.
Introduction: Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1–5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies. Methods: Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately. Results: Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59–2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29–2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75–3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27–3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13–4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85–5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups. Discussion: These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:19246433
Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven
Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.
Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities.
Nesdale, Drew; Brown, Kristi
Given that children have a strong bias towards their in-group, this study examined how children respond to a group member who is revealed to have negative qualities. One hundred and twenty Anglo-Australian children who were 6, 9, or 12 years of age heard a story about an (in-group) Anglo-Australian boy and a (out-group) Chinese boy who were good…
Fellows, Donald Keith
In this approach to an understanding of America's ethnic minorities, the most important concern is with the interaction between these various culture groups and the dominant, white society. Six of America's principal ethnic minorities have been considered: blacks, Mexicans, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and Puerto Ricans. In each case the same…
Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…
Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.
Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…
Park, Julie J.
Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…
Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Gower, Barbara A.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Muñoz, A. Julian; Darnell, Betty E.; Oster, Robert A.; Buchthal, Steven D.; Goran, Michael I.; Newcomer, Bradley R.
Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) has been inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, studies. This study utilized fast, high-resolution, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to: investigate relationships between muscle lipids (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL)) and insulin sensitivity in muscles of varying oxidative capacity, explore ethnic differences in these relationships, and determine whether a eucaloric, low-fat dietary intervention would reduce IMCL and increase insulin sensitivity. Subjects were 30 healthy, African-American (AA; n=14) and European-American (EA; n=16) males, BMI 26.49 (±5.57) kg/m2, age 21.80 (±7.84) yrs. Soleus and tibialis anterior muscle lipids were quantified using MRSI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed via intravenous glucose tolerance test. A 2-week, eucaloric, low-fat diet intervention was conducted in a sub-group (n=12) subjects with assessments at baseline and post-intervention. Neither IMCL nor EMCL levels differed between ethnicities. In the total group, and within EA (but not AA), both tibialis anterior IMCL and EMCL were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (P<0.05 for both); soleus muscle lipids were not associated with insulin sensitivity. Soleus, but not tibialis anterior, IMCL declined in both ethnic groups (average 25.3%; p<0.01) following dietary intervention; insulin sensitivity was unchanged. Results suggest that an association of muscle lipids with insulin sensitivity may be influenced by the oxidative capacity of the muscle group studied and may vary with ethnicity. PMID:22039395
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique
This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance and preference for same-ethnic friendships. Measures of ethnic and English identification, perceived peer acceptance, and friendship choice were administered to 207 south-Asian English children, aged between 5 and 11, at two time points 6 months apart. In line with predictions, longitudinal analysis showed that bicultural identification (i.e., higher ethnic and English identity) was related to higher perceived peer acceptance and less preference for same-ethnic friendships. Importantly, as hypothesized, this finding was limited to the older children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities. The results suggest that older children who adopted a bicultural identity were able to strategically 'flag' their multiple group identities, within their multicultural peer groups, to obtain acceptance amongst the maximum number of peers and show less preference for same-ethnic friendships. This study extends previous peer relations research, which has typically focused on individual social deficits or classroom norms, by showing that group identities influence peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children.
Mc Manus, V; Savage, E
Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.
Zhang, Pei; Wang, Qingzhi; Jiao, Fengjuan; Yan, Jianguo; Chen, Lijun; He, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Tian, Bo
Recent studies have linked certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The R1628P variant of LRRK2 may be a specific risk factor for PD in ethnic Han-Chinese populations. This study is to elucidate the epidemiological feature of R1628P in ethnic Han-Chinese population with PD. A comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the precise association between R1628P variant and the risk for PD in ethnic Han-Chinese and subgroups stratified by gender, onset age, or family history. The analysis assessing the role of R1628P on the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese supported a significant association, and the odds ratio was 1.86. We further estimate the specific prevalence in relevant ethnic Han-Chinese subgroups. After stratifying the eligible data by gender, onset age, or family history, significant associations were found in all male, female, early-onset, late-onset, familial and sporadic subgroups, and the odds ratio were 1.90, 1.94, 2.12, 1.75, 6.71 and 1.81 respectively. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that R1628P variant of LRRK2 has a significant association with the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese and subgroup population. PMID:27812003
Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Duan, Lei; Oh, Christine; Perron, Brian; Lee, Benedict
Objective To evaluate disparities in substance abuse treatment completion between and within racial and ethnic groups in publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Data Source The Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System with multicross-sectional annual data (2006–2009) for adult participants (n = 16,637) who received treatment from publicly funded programs (n = 276) for the first time. Study Design Retrospective analyses of county discharge and admission data. Hierarchical linear regressions models were used to test the hypotheses. Data Collection Client data were collected during personal interviews at admission and discharge for most participants. Principal Findings African Americans and Latinos reported lower odds of completing treatment compared with Whites. Within-group analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within racial and ethnic groups, highlighting primary drug problem, days of drug use before admission, and homelessness as significant factors affecting treatment completion. Service factors, such as referral by the criminal justice system, enabled completion among Latinos and Whites only. Conclusions These findings have implications for reducing health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minorities by identifying individual and service factors associated with treatment adherence, particularly for first-time clients. PMID:23350871
Guo, Yu-xin; Chen, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-hua; Zhang, Li-ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-tian; Zhang, Yu-dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-feng
The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264
Bonell, S.; Underwood, L.; Radhakrishnan, V.; McCarthy, J.
Background: Patient experience of those accessing mental health services has been found to be different between ethnic groups. Although the needs of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) from different ethnic communities are being increasingly recognised, little has been published about their experiences of mental health services. The aim of…
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony
Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408
Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas
Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953
Stronks, Karien; Kulu-Glasgow, Isik; Agyemang, Charles
The relationship between ethnicity and health is attracting increasing attention in international health research. Different measures are used to operationalise the concept of ethnicity. Presently, self-definition of ethnicity seems to gain favour. In contrast, in the Netherlands, the use of country of birth criteria have been widely accepted as a basis for the identification of ethnic groups. In this paper, we will discuss its advantages as well as its limitations and the solutions to these limitations from the Dutch perspective with a special focus on survey studies. The country of birth indicator has the advantage of being objective and stable, allowing for comparisons over time and between studies. Inclusion of parental country of birth provides an additional advantage for identifying the second-generation ethnic groups. The main criticisms of this indicator seem to refer to its validity. The basis for this criticism is, firstly, the argument that people who are born in the same country might have a different ethnic background. In the Dutch context, this limitation can be addressed by the employment of additional indicators such as geographical origin, language, and self-identified ethnic group. Secondly, the country of birth classification has been criticised for not covering all dimensions of ethnicity, such as culture and ethnic identity. We demonstrate in this paper how this criticism can be addressed by the use of additional indicators. In conclusion, in the Dutch context, country of birth can be considered a useful indicator for ethnicity if complemented with additional indicators to, first, compensate for the drawbacks in certain conditions, and second, shed light on the mechanisms underlying the association between ethnicity and health.
Thomas, R; Deary, A; Kaminski, E; Stockton, D; De Zueew, N
The emotional turmoil patients endure following a diagnosis of cancer can impair their ability to retain complex treatment-related information. Manoeuvres which increase the intensity of information have been shown to increase the amount retained. Providing details of treatment in a video format is one method of intensifying information provision, but the attitudes of patients to this format have not previously been evaluated. In this pilot study, the attitudes of 300 patients to video directed information were evaluated via questionnaires, of which 210 (70%) were returned. Eighty-nine per cent had easy access to a video cassette player. A highly significant number felt that the video would be very helpful or helpful (78%) compared to not helpful, worrying or equivocal 21% (P < 0.0001). This trend was particularly strong in patients < 60 years (83% versus 17%) (P < 0.0001) and those from ethnic groups (95% versus 5%) (P < 0.0001). As a result of this trial, a 20-min film (HEP) has been commissioned. It describes details of the two main treatments for cancer after surgery, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy, shows patients actually having treatment, and explains the common side-effects and ways to alleviate them. Patients satisfaction with the film and its effect on anxiety and depression are currently being evaluated in an international prospective randomized trial. If it proves advantageous for patients--in view of the ethnic group bias in this study--it will be translated into the ethnic languages of the UK.
Shaban, Lamya H; Zarini, Gustavo G; Exebio, Joel C; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and diabetes status in three ethnicities. This cross sectional study included Cuban Americans (n = 199), Haitian Americans (n = 253) and African Americans (n = 248) with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) from Florida, U.S. Recruitment of participants was through mailing lists (Cuban Americans and African Americans) and community based sources (Haitian Americans). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated significant differences in the odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D levels by ethnicity [P < 0.001], diabetes status [P < 0.001], and their interaction [P < 0.001]. Holm's modified Bonferroni method showed that only Cuban Americans without T2D had significantly lower odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D compared to all other groups. Haitian American and African American participants and participants having T2D had the greatest risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency. Future studies should focus on the role of vitamin D supplementation and diabetes outcomes across ethnic groups.
Gilbert, Penelope A; Khokhar, Santosh
A systematic review of the literature suggests the dietary habits of some ethnic groups living in Europe are likely to become less healthy as individuals increase consumption of processed foods that are energy dense and contain high levels of fat, sugar, and salt. Such products often replace healthy dietary components of the native diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Mixed food habits are emerging mainly amongst younger people in the second and third generations, most likely due to acculturation and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Age and immigrant generation are the major factors accounting for changes in dietary habits, whilst income, level of education, dietary laws, religion, and food beliefs are also important factors. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension present major problems for the mainstream European population. However, the risk of chronic disease is reported to be higher in ethnic populations, particularly South Asians, African Caribbeans, and Mexicans.
Gershoni-Baruch, R. ); Rosenmann, A. ); Droetto, S.; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Spritz, R.A. )
The authors have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. They detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, they detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense substitution, Gly47Asp (G47D). This mutation occurs on the same haplotype as in patients from the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico, suggesting that the G47D mutation in these ethnically distinct populations may stem from a common origin. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Keeler, Jarrod A.; Patki, Aniruddha; Woodard, Charles R.
Abstract Background: Very little is known about the role of nasal morphology due to ethnic variation on particle deposition pattern in the sinonasal cavity. This preliminary study utilizes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate sinonasal airway morphology and deposition patterns of intranasal sprayed particles in the nose and sinuses of individuals from four different ethnic groups: African American (Black); Asian; Caucasian; and Latin American. Methods: Sixteen subjects (four from each ethnic group) with “normal” sinus protocol computed tomography (CT) were selected for CFD analysis. Three-dimensional reconstruction of each subject's sinonasal cavity was created from their personal CT images. CFD simulations were carried out in ANSYS Fluent™ in two phases: airflow phase was done by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations for steady state laminar inhalation; and particle dispersed phase was solved by tracking injected (sprayed) particles through the calculated airflow field. A total of 10,000 particle streams were released from each nostril, 1000 particles per diameter ranging from 5 μm to 50 μm, with size increments of 5 μm. Results: As reported in the literature, Caucasians (5.31 ± 0.42 cm−1) and Latin Americans (5.16 ± 0.40cm−1) had the highest surface area to volume ratio, while African Americans had highest nasal index (95.91 ± 2.22). Nasal resistance (NR) was highest among Caucasians (0.046 ± 0.008 Pa.s/mL) and Asians (0.042 ± 0.016Pa.s/mL). Asians and African Americans had the most regions with particle deposition for small (5 μm–15 μm) and large (20 μm–50 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Asians and Latin Americans individuals had the most consistent regional particle deposition pattern in the main nasal cavities within their respective ethnic groups. Conclusions: Preliminary results from these ethnic groups investigated showed that Caucasians and Latin Americans had
Sun, Fei; Ong, Rebecca; Burnette, Denise
The purpose of this article is to pinpoint the cultural and ethnic influences on dementia caregiving in Chinese American families through a systemic review and analysis of published research findings. Eighteen publications on Chinese American dementia family caregivers published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and early 2011 were identified. Based on a systematic database search and review process, we found that caregivers' beliefs concerning dementia and the concept of family harmony as evidenced through the practice of filial piety are permeating cultural values, which together affect attitudes toward research and help-seeking behaviors (ie, seeking information on diagnosis and using formal services). There is also evidence to suggest that these cultural beliefs impinge on key elements of the caregiving process, including caregivers' appraisal of stress, coping strategies, and informal and formal support. The study concludes with recommendations for future research and practice with the Chinese American population.
Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups. PMID:28154830
Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K; van Valkengoed, Irene G M
Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18-70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31-40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37-53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.
Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab
Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups. PMID:27630834
Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.
Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical
Xie, Tao; Yao, Hong; Pang, Xiaobo; Sun, Fuzhou; Ouyang, Liang; Wang, Jinhui
China has different ethnic minorities that establish their own medical systems and practice experience for thousand years, thereafter named Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drugs (CEMTDs) (http://www.cemtdd.com/index.html). Since many compounds from CEMTDs have been reported to perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological conditions, the relationships amongst a series of compounds from specific herbs, their targets and relevant diseases have become our main focus in CEMTD modernization. Herein, we have constructed the first Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drug Database (CEMTDD) mainly from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), retrieving CEMTD-related information from different resources. CEMTDD contains about 621 herbs, 4, 060 compounds, 2, 163 targets and 210 diseases, among which most of herbs can be applied into gerontology therapy including inflammation, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease. Gerontology is highly occurred in XUAR, and has abundant experience in treating such diseases, which may benefit for developing a new gerontology therapeutic strategy. CEMTDD displays networks for intricate relationships between CEMTDs and treated diseases, as well as the interrelations between active compounds and action targets, which may shed new light on the combination therapy of CEMTDs and further understanding of their herb molecular mechanisms for better modernized utilizations of CEMTDs, especially in gerontology. PMID:25970778
Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Osipova, E V; Gnusina, S V; Bardymova, T A
The peculiarities of HLA class II profile and lipid metabolism were examined in Buryat and Russian ethnic groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. The incidence of type 1 haplotypes in HLA class II gene family was lower in Buryats than that in Russians. In comparison with Russians, the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 in Buryat patients was characterized with a lower content of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL, which probably explains a more favorable course of the disease in Buryat population.
Li, Kai; Tang, Bei-Sha; Yang, Nan-Nan; Kang, Ji-Feng; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Rui-Qi; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Shen, Lu; Guo, Ji-Feng
Purpose: The protein encoded by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal (SMPD1) is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. While there are increasing evidences to suggest that lysosomal enzyme defects and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have strong associations, and recently, SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C, NM_000543) was found to be a risk factor for PD in Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry population, we try to investigate the possible association between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic PD in ethnic Chinese population. Methods: 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls were included in our study. SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C) was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Our results showed that none of 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls carried p.L302P. All of the 931 subjects’ genotypes were wild type TT. Our data indicated that in an ethnic Chinese population, p.L302P did not appear to be enriched in sporadic PD, and p.L302P may not be a risk factor for Chinese sporadic PD. And combine our data with the results from previous studies, we found that all of the 2,268 participants of Chinese population carrying no p.L302P. Conclusions: We could make a conclusion that p.L302P may not be common events for Chinese population. Sequencing of SMPD1 gene to find additional novel rare variants in the SMPD1 gene in diverse populations is needed. PMID:26550340
Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan
Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808
Nakash, Ora; Barchana, Micha; Liphshitz, Irena; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levav, Itzhak
This study examined the suicide risk among persons with cancer in ethnic groups with differential suicide mortality in the general population. We calculated the suicide standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) among Europe-America and Asia-North Africa-born Israelis with cancer, relative to the respective rates in the general population. The SIRs were higher in the European-American group [men: 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.30; women: 2.03, 95% CI 1.51-2.56], but not significantly different in the Asian-North African group (men: 0.86, 95% CI 0.52-1.20; women: 0.80, 95% CI 0.10-1.50). Assessment of suicide risk must consider the 'suicide culture' of the person with cancer.
Weidmann, Nils B; Benitez-Baleato, Suso; Hunziker, Philipp; Glatz, Eduard; Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas
The global expansion of the Internet is frequently associated with increased government transparency, political rights, and democracy. However, this assumption depends on marginalized groups getting access in the first place. Here we document a strong and persistent political bias in the allocation of Internet coverage across ethnic groups worldwide. Using estimates of Internet penetration obtained through network measurements, we show that politically excluded groups suffer from significantly lower Internet penetration rates compared with those in power, an effect that cannot be explained by economic or geographic factors. Our findings underline one of the central impediments to "liberation technology," which is that governments still play a key role in the allocation of the Internet and can, intentionally or not, sabotage its liberating effects.
Maty, Siobhan C; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Kim, Gemma
Little is known about the determinants of self-reported general health status among different Asian ethnic subgroups. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we designed, administered, and analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 705 Asians (292 Chinese, 226 Korean, 187 Vietnamese) in the Portland, Oregon region to describe associations between general health status and several sociodemographic and health-related factors in pooled and ethnic-group-stratified samples. Ethnic variation existed in all covariate distributions, except employment, public-service use, language use, health status, visiting healthcare providers, sleep habits, and use of prayer, meditation, yoga or acupuncture. Acculturation measures were strong predictors of poor/fair health in logistic regression models regardless of ethnicity. Ethnic variation in outcome status existed for all remaining covariates. Most health-related research overlooks the heterogeneity within the Asian population. These findings highlight substantial variability in the associations between self-reported general health status and sociodemographic and health-related measures between Asian ethnic groups.
Liu, Chang; Wang, Sha-Yan; Zhao, Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Yu-Hua; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruan-Zhang; Gao, Guo-Feng; Yu, Yue-Sheng; Kong, Qing-Peng
Gelao ethnic group, an aboriginal population residing in southwest China, has undergone a long and complex evolutionary process. To investigate the genetic structure of this ancient ethnic group, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 102 Gelao individuals were collected and analyzed in this study. With the aid of the information extracted from control-region hypervariable segments (HVSs) I and II as well as some necessary coding-region segments, phylogenetic status of all mtDNAs under study were determined by means of classifying into various defined haplogroups. The southern-prevalent haplogroups B, R9, and M7 account for 45.1% of the gene pool, whereas northern-prevalent haplogroups A, D, G, N9, and M8 consist of 39.2%. Haplogroup distribution indicates that the Gelao bears signatures of southern populations and possesses some regional characters. In the PC map, Gelao clusters together with populations with Bai-Yue tribe origin as well as the local Han and the Miao. The results demonstrate the complexity of Gelao population and the data can well supplement the China mtDNA database.
Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516
Sandino, Alma H; Rowe, Dorothy J
African American, Hispanic/Latina, and American Indian/Alaska Native persons are markedly underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREG) in the dental hygiene profession. The purpose of this study was to survey UREG dental hygiene students to determine their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that influenced their decision to enter the dental hygiene profession. Participants were eighty-four UREG students attending entry-level dental hygiene programs across the state of California. We conducted face-to-face interviews using a survey guide that consisted of forty-two mostly closed-ended questions. Most (57 percent) participants reported that they had either perceived or experienced barriers: primarily costs associated with the program and the lack of role models in their race/ethnicity. Almost all participants reported that there had been a person, mainly a dental professional, who influenced them to become a dental hygienist; 62 percent of these individuals were reported to be from a similar UREG group as the participant. Funding (57 percent) and emotional support from family and friends (87 percent) were the predominant facilitators employed by the participants to overcome barriers. Based on these results, we recommend three strategies to recruit more UREG students into the dental hygiene profession: more extensive outreach programs, enhanced mentoring by UREG dental professionals, and a modified admission process.
Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C
In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive.
Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; McFarland, Bentson H.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.
Background To assess the prevalence of nine different types of precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents, and examine the association between circumstances and post-mortem blood alcohol content (BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl.) across U.S. ethnic groups. Methods Data come from the restricted 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with post-mortem information on 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 17 states of the U.S. Results Among men, precipitating circumstances statistically associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl were physical health and job problems for Blacks, and experiencing a crisis, physical health problems and intimate partner problem for Hispanics. Among women, the only precipitating circumstance associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl was substance abuse problems other than alcohol for Blacks. The number of precipitating circumstances present before the suicide was negatively associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions Selected precipitating circumstances were associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl, and the strongest determinant of this level of alcohol intoxication prior to suicide among all ethnic groups was the presence of an alcohol problem. PMID:26173709
Gopinath, N; Chadha, S L; Jain, P; Shekhawat, S; Tandon, R
A community based epidemiologival survey of coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out on a random urban sample of 13,560 adults of different ethnic groups in Delhi. CHD was diagnosed either on the basis of clinical history, supported by documentary evidence of treatment in hospital/home or on the ECG evidence in accordance with Minnesota Code. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis per 1000 adults was the highest in Sikhs (47.3), lowest in Muslims (22.8) and identical in Hindus (31.8) and Christians (31.2). The prevalence rate/1000 of silent CHD on the basis of ECG was high in Muslims (89.5) and Sikhs (87.3), low in Christians (25.0) and intermediate in Hindus (60.0). The Sikhs showed the highest prevalence rate of myocardial infarct (MI) (15.5) and angina (AP) (31.8) compared to other communities. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis was higher in males than females in all communities. The prevalence of silent CHD was higher in females in Hindus and Sikhs but in Muslims it was higher in men (94.8) than in women (85.2). The wide variations in prevalence rates of CHD in different ethnic groups cannot be explained satisfactorily on the basis of conventional risk factors and support the multifactorial etiological character of CHD.
Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Shikaki, Khalil; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir
Ethno-political conflict impacts thousands of youth globally and has been associated with a number of negative psychological outcomes. Extant literature has mostly addressed the adverse emotional and behavioral outcomes of exposure while failing to examine change over time in social-cognitive factors in contexts of ethno-political conflict. Using cohort-sequential longitudinal data, the present study examines ethnic variation in the development of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups among Palestinian (n=600), Israeli Jewish (n=451), and Israeli Arab (n=450) youth over three years. Age and exposure to ethno-political violence were included as covariates for these trajectories. Findings indicate important ethnic differences in trajectories of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups, as well as variation in how such trajectories are shaped by prolonged ethno-political conflict. PMID:27019573
Derby, Kiersten S; Cuthrell, Kristine; Caberto, Christian; Carmella, Steven G; Franke, Adrian A; Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E; Le Marchand, Loïc
Previously, we documented that smoking-associated lung cancer risk is greater in Hawaiians and lower in Japanese compared with Whites. Nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) varies across ethnicity/race and is hypothesized to affect smoking behavior. We investigated whether higher CYP2A6 activity results in the smoker extracting more nicotine (adjusting for cigarettes per day) and being exposed to higher levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamine [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)] and pyrene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 585 smokers among the three main ethnic/racial groups in Hawaii and examined whether differences in CYP2A6 activity correlate with the ethnic/racial differences in lung cancer risk. We assessed CYP2A6 activity by nicotine metabolite ratio (total trans-3-hydroxycotinine/total cotinine) and caffeine metabolite ratio (1,7-dimethyl uric acid/1,7-dimethylxanthine) in 12 h urine. We also measured urinary nicotine equivalents (sum of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine and their respective glucuronides), a marker of nicotine dose, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronide, markers of NNK exposure, and 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker of pyrene exposure. The nicotine metabolite ratio was higher in Whites than in Japanese and intermediate in Hawaiians (P values < 0.05). Cigarettes per day-adjusted nicotine equivalents were lower in Japanese compared with Hawaiians or Whites (P = 0.005 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and greater in men than women (P < 0.0001). Nicotine equivalents and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol increased with CYP2A6 activity, indicating that smokers with greater nicotine metabolism smoke more extensively and have a higher internal NNK dose. The particularly low nicotine metabolism of Japanese smokers may contribute to their previously described decreased lung cancer risk.
George, Ginu P.; Mittal, Rama D.
BACKGROUND: Many strategies are being used for the quest for the disease causing genes. Inter-individual variations in several genes exist. Thus, even if they share the same disease-associated allele, the genomic backgrounds – and hence potential interacting alleles at other loci – of people with different regional ancestries may differ, with a consequent variation in the severity of their disease. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The present study was conducted to determine the distribution of Caspase 8 IVS12-19G/A, Caspase 8D302H, Caspase 8 -652del and Caspase 8 -678del polymorphisms (as frequency distribution of caspases in Indians generally is not yet known), which was then compared with different populations globally. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis was conducted in 205 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. RESULTS: The variant allele frequencies were 17.6% (A) in Caspase 8 IVS12-19G/A, 13.2% (H) in Caspase 8D302H, 23.2% (Del) in Caspase 8 -652del and 24.6% (Del) in Caspase 8 -678del. Further, comparison of frequency distribution of these genes was done with various published studies of different ethnic groups globally. CONCLUSION: It is anticipated from our results that the frequency of these caspase genes exhibits distinctive patterns in India, which could perhaps be attributed to ethnic variation. This study is important as it can form a baseline for screening individuals who are at high risk due to exposure to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition, and therefore, might help in investigating linked polymorphisms in a way that will not obscure potential associations between genotype and phenotype. PMID:21206702
Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A
Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001); Korean subjects were less likely to see herbs as a form of cancer prevention (34 % Chinese, 20 % Korean, 35 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001). Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.
Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.
This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…
Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther
A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224
Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther
A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn
Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.
Soulakova, Julia N.; Danczak, Ryan R.
Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors. PMID:28085040
Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of
Jo, Moon H.
Chinese immigration to the United States, which began around 1850, sparked strong anti-Asian sentiment and legal and economic restrictions upon these immigrants. Although some Chinese organizations helped immigrants, the overall response of the Chinese to systematic oppression was one of meekness and compliance. The Japanese began to immigrate to…
Kanneppady, Sham Kishor; Balamanikandasrinivasan; Kumaresan, Ramesh; Sakri, Santosh B.
Background: The patterns of facial growth, jaw and tooth size are inherited and are likely to differ among population and races. Aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the pattern of third molar (3M) impaction among three different ethnic groups (Chinese, Indian, Malay) of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Dental records and orthopantomographs of 2200 patients aged between 20 and 40 years were retrieved and examined retrospectively. Wherever impacted 3Ms were present, the status of 3Ms, their location, the level of impaction and angulations were recorded and analyzed using STATDISK (version 10.4) and the values obtained were compared with least square distance of 0.05 level. Results: About 667 radiographs met with the inclusion criteria and showed the presence of 1008 impacted 3Ms. On overall comparison the incidence of level B impactions were found to be higher in our study. Level A impactions were frequently seen in Chinese (41.9%), level B in Indian (36.4%) and level C impactions had an equal distribution among Chinese and Malays (34.1%). The difference was highly significant (P ≥ 0.05). Mesioangular impaction (49.8%) followed by distoangular (22.9%) were the most common impactions among all the three races. Conclusion: On comparison, mesioangular impaction was found to be the most frequent among all the three races whereas differences were seen in levels of impaction to some extent among the ethnic groups. But as a limitation, our findings and results reflected the status of 3Ms of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, not entire Malaysia. Therefore more similar studies have to be carried out in other parts of Malaysia to substantiate our present findings. PMID:24019804
Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Akimoto, Arthur K; Alves, Penha C Z; Hiragi, Cássia O; Penalva, Guilherme C; Oliveira, Silviene F; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria N
Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp(*1) and Hp (*2) alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp(*1) allele has two subtypes, Hp (*1F) and Hp (*1S) , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp(*1F) allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp(*1F)/Hp(*1S) allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp(*1F) allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp(*1F) frequencies, results of F (ST) (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp(*1F) and Hp(*1S) frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians.
Dillaway, Heather; Byrnes, Mary; Miller, Sara; Rehan, Sonica
Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial-ethnic and class locations in a Midwestern state were asked about the different meanings and experiences of menopause. African American women and Chicanas, particularly working-class women, viewed menopause as a positive experience, whereas many middle-class European American women discussed more negative feelings. Women of color were more likely than European Americans to report talking about menopause with same-race, same-sex friends only. While women of color discussed their knowledge of European American women's menopause, the latter lacked knowledge of other women's experiences. Women's lived experiences with privilege and oppression also surfaced in the interviews. The authors argue that when scholars listen to how women discuss menopause experiences, commonalities among women by gender, and differences among women by race, and class are exposed. The presence of racial-ethnic differences in these pilot data suggests the importance of more comparative studies on reproductive aging both in the United States and abroad.
Elkan, R; Avis, M; Cox, K; Wilson, E; Patel, S; Miller, S; Deepak, N; Edwards, C; Staniszewska, S; Kai, J
There is growing evidence of inequalities in access to high-quality cancer services between minority and majority ethnic groups. However, little research has been carried out from the perspective of users from minority ethnic groups themselves. This paper reports a review of the British literature exploring the views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups. We reviewed 25 qualitative studies that reported the experiences of people from minority ethnic groups. The studies highlighted significant issues and challenges, including comprehension and communication barriers, a lack of awareness of the existence of services and a perceived failure by providers to accommodate religious and cultural diversity. This paper critically discusses some of the explanations commonly invoked for ethnic inequalities in access to high-quality care, such as the belief that the lack of use of services reflects a lack of need. Despite positive initiatives to respond better to the needs of minority groups, we suggest the impact of these remains highly variable. Institutional racism within services is still much in evidence.
Li, M; Zhang, W; Leng, X; Li, Z; Ye, Z; Li, C; Li, X; Zhu, P; Wang, Z; Zheng, Y; Li, X; Zhang, M; Zhang, F; Zhao, Y; Zeng, X
The Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment and research group (CSTAR) provides major clinical characteristics of SLE in China and establishes a platform to provide resources for future basic and clinical studies. CSTAR originated as a multicentre, consecutive, and prospective design. The data were collected online from 104 rheumatology centers, which covered 30 provinces in China. The registered patients were required to meet four or more of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of SLE. All CSTAR centers use the same protocol-directed methods to provide uniform evaluations, which included demographic data, clinical features, laboratory examinations, and disease activity evaluations. The patient samples, including DNA samples and sera, were also collected for further quality controls and additional studies. Preliminary analysis from 2104 baseline evaluations was available for this analysis. Of 1914 female and 190 male patients (F:M=10.1), the mean age at onset was 29.2 y with confirmed diagnosis one year later at the age of 30.3 y. Eighty four (4.2%) of 2002 patients had a family history of rheumatic diseases, including 34 (1.7%) cases with SLE. In addition, one hundred and seven (5.2%) abnormal pregnancies were recorded among 2026 experiences. The characteristics of the CSTAR cohort were compared to similarly sized cohorts from other studies. We found that 56.1% of patients presented with concurrent hematological disorders compared to only 18.2% of European patients. Moreover, 47.4% of patients presented with nephropathy compared to 27.9% of European patients. Conversely, neurological manifestations were only seen in 4.8% of Chinese SLE patients compared to 19.4% of European patients, 12.1% of U.S. patients, 22.8% of Malaysian patients and 26.4% of Latin Americans. Pulmonary arterial hypertension and interstitial lung diseases were complications identified in 3.8% and 4.2% of Chinese lupus patients, respectively
van der Kooi, Anne-Lotte L F; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; van Valkengoed, Irene G M
We investigated whether ethnic differences in handgrip strength, a marker of poor muscle strength and quality, is a potential cause of ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We included 2086 Dutch, 2216 South Asian Surinamese, 2084 African Surinamese, 1786 Ghanaian, 2223 Turkish and 2199 Moroccan origin participants from the HELIUS study. We analyzed ethnic differences in handgrip strength, and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus using logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, body composition and lifestyle factors. Additionally, we investigated whether handgrip strength explained the ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found that handgrip strength differed significantly across ethnic groups. After full adjustment, we found an inverse association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.97) that did not differ substantially between ethnic groups, men and among women, and lean and overweight individuals. The association was not affected by the measure used to define type 2 diabetes mellitus, but was attenuated by exclusion of people with known diabetes. The ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus were not explained by handgrip strength (e.g. the OR for the South Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 5.03; 3.69-6.68 to 4.87; 3.57-6.65). In conclusion, we found large ethnic differences in handgrip strength and a consistent association of low handgrip strength with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus. This suggests that handgrip strength may be investigated as a target for intervention or a marker to identify people at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles
Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.
Anders, Robert L; Olson, Tom; Bader, Julia
The relationship between quality of care and patient satisfaction has been documented. The specific research aim related to this study is to determine if differences exist among Caucasians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders who are hospitalized for an acute mental illness with regard to their perceived satisfaction with the care. The results of the overall study have been reported elsewhere. The sample was composed of 138 patients, of whom 34.7% were Caucasian, 31.2% Pacific Islanders, and 34.8% Asians. Within 24 hours of discharge, patients completed the Perceptions of Care instrument. Caucasians were over-represented in our sample in comparison to their percentage in the general population of Hawaii. These patients were significantly more satisfied (p = .04) with their care than the other ethnic groups. No single variable was found to specifically indicate why they were more satisfied than Pacific Islanders and Asians.
Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J
We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan
Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research framework—a variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of “what to do.” Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:15774990
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 data set was utilized to examine and compare trends and differences in PAD-related risk factor variables among 5 different ethnic/racial groups. The sample included individuals 40 years and older with PAD and of the ethnic/racial groups: Mexican American, Other Hispanic, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Other/Multiracial. Two demographic variables (age and gender) and 4 PAD-risk factors (hypertension [HTN], systolic blood pressure [SBP], and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), dyslipidemia, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL], diabetes, and cigarette smoking) were examined for each group. The study design conducted was descriptive using the NHANES 2003-2004 secondary data set. Raw data were weighted. Descriptive statistics were measured, Chi-squares were compared, and Phi-coefficients were measured for association using SAS version 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0. The group with the highest prevalence of PAD are females 40-50 years of age, and the ethnic group with PAD who have the highest risk for PAD-related risk factors are Non-Hispanic Black. Through Chi-square significant differences (P=0.00001-0.03874) between specific ethnic groups for all four PAD-related risk factors (i.e., HTN, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cigarette smoking). All of the associations between the prevalence of HTN, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or cigarette smoking and ethnicity were statistically significant (P=<0.0001). Overall differences exist among the different ethnic groups.
Vega, Jorge; Ramirez, Jose L; Bedoya, Gabriel; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda
Introduction: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy-) confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. Studies carried out in pursuing this direction in Colombia are scarce. Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities of La Italia (Chocó) and malarial infection. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with malaria. Sample size: Afro-Colombians 73; Amerindian (Emberá) 74, and Mestizo, 171. The presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene was studied by PCR and RFLP to help identify changes to T-46C and A131G which originate the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C and G/G, G/A, A/A. Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% of cases with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% due to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated with ethnicity (p= 0.003). Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotypes were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas the other diplotypes were infected with either of the species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0.90-1.00, among Afro-Colombians this was 0.50, the same as with the C allele and with an absence of heterozygous. At locus 131, the maximum frequency of the G allele was 0.30 in Amerindians and the maximum of the A allele was 0.69 in Afro-Colombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, there was a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+) but this was not observed with the P. vivax infection. P. vivax was ruled out in all FY- individuals. PMID:24893190
What Works Clearinghouse, 2010
This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The…
This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an…
Hester, Christina M; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Langille, Morgan GI; Umar, Shahid; Greiner, K Allen; Haribabu, Bodduluri
AIM: To investigate differences in microbes and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in stool samples from Hispanic and non-Hispanic African American, American Indian, and White participants. METHODS: Stool samples from twenty participants were subjected to analysis for relative levels of viable bacteria and for SCFA levels. Additionally, the samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for identification of bacteria present in the stool. We used a metagenome functional prediction technique to analyze genome copy numbers and estimate the abundance of butyrate kinase in all samples. RESULTS: We found that African Americans had significantly lower levels of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFAs than all other racial/ethnic groups. We also found that participant microbial profiles differed by racial/ethnic group. African Americans had significantly more Firmicutes than Whites, with enriched Ruminococcaceae. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was also significantly higher for African Americans than for Whites (P = 0.049). We found Clostridium levels to be significantly and inversely related to total SCFA levels (P = 0.019) and we found Bacteroides to be positively associated (P = 0.027) and Clostridium to be negatively associated (P = 0.012) with levels of butyrate. We also identified a correlation between copy number for a butyrate kinase predicted from 16S rRNA gene abundance and levels of butyrate in stool. CONCLUSION: The identified differences in gut flora and SCFA levels may relate to colorectal cancer mortality differentials and may be useful as targets for future clinical and behavioral interventions. PMID:25759547
Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui
By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
Sheu, Hung-Bin; Mejia, Araceli; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Primé, Dominic R; Chong, Shiqin Stephanie
Data of 306 Caucasian American, 284 Asian American, and 259 Latino/a American college students were analyzed in this study to test a modified version of Lent and Brown's (2006, 2008) satisfaction model in the academic context. In addition to the full set of variables hypothesized in the original model, the modified academic satisfaction model also included independent and interdependent self-construals to represent one's cultural orientations. Comparisons between the hypothesized model and 2 alternative models showed that direct paths from extraversion and emotional stability added significantly to the predictions of academic satisfaction and life satisfaction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups while those from independent and interdependent self-construals also had the same effects for Latino/a American students. The hypothesized model offered excellent fit to the data of all 3 racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with theoretical prediction, academic supports, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, or goal progress formed pathways that mediated the relations of personality traits and self-construals to academic satisfaction or life satisfaction across 3 groups. Although full measurement equivalence (configural invariance and metric invariance) was observed, 4 structural paths and 16 indirect effects differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Most of these differences in structural paths and indirect effects occurred between Caucasian Americans and Asian Americans. On balance, findings of the study provided evidence for the cross-racial/ethnic validity of the modified academic satisfaction model while identifying racial/ethnic differences that might have useful clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bartoli, A; Xiaodong, S; Gatti, G; Cipolla, G; Marchiselli, R; Perucca, E
To assess potential ethnic and gender-related differences in the expression of cytochrome CYP1A2-mediated activity, the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a CYP1A2 substrate) and its metabolite paracetamol were compared in 20 Caucasian and 20 Chinese subjects after administration of a single oral 900 mg phenacetin dose. Peak plasma concentrations and apparent oral clearance values for phenacetin did not differ between the two groups (geometric means: 3.4 micrograms/ml and 1.56 ml h-1 kg-1, respectively, for Caucasians vs. 4.7 micrograms/ml and 1.25 ml h-1 kg-1, respectively, for Chinese, after excluding one Caucasian with aberrantly low plasma phenacetin values). Pharmacokinetic parameters for metabolically derived paracetamol were also similar in the two groups. When subjects were divided into subgroups according to gender, phenacetin apparent oral clearance values were found to be lower in Chinese women compared with both Chinese men and Caucasian subjects of either sex. It is concluded that there are no major interethnic differences in the expression of CYP1A2-related activity between Caucasians and Chinese, although Chinese women as a subgroup may exhibit comparatively lower enzyme activity.
Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus
Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation.
Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus
Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation. PMID:27557135
Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp *2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp *1F and Hp *1S , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of F ST (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp*1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians. PMID:21637505
Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120
Chan, A H S; So, J C Y
This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.
Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias
This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223
Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F
This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.
Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z
During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.
Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F
Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.
Orzech, Kathryn M; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J
Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative (n = 71) and quantitative (n = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study among patients with hypertension and/or diabetes, the authors explored differences in self-reported adherence to diet and exercise plans and self-reported daily diet and exercise practices across four ethnic groups-Whites, Blacks, Vietnamese, and Latinos-at a primary health care center in Massachusetts. Adherence to diet and exercise plans differed across ethnic groups even after controlling for key sociodemographic variables, with Vietnamese participants reporting the highest adherence. Food and exercise options were shaped by economic constraints as well as ethnic and cultural familiarity with certain foods and types of activity. These findings indicate that health care providers should consider ethnicity and economic status together to increase effectiveness in encouraging diverse populations with chronic disease to make healthy lifestyle changes.
Galvan, Frank H.; Williams, John K.; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E.; Myers, Hector F.
Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 U.S. men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to men with CSA histories. PMID:24393013
Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.
To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…
Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.
This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…
Brown, Tyson H.; O'Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from…
Grunewald, Stephanie A.
Although bullying is a widely recognized problem among school-aged youth, current research has failed to adequately consider whether ethnicity impacts students' involvement in, and perceptions of, bullying behaviors. This study employed a mixed methodology to examine how an ethnically diverse sample of students in seventh and eighth grade…
Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.
Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…
Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S
The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The FST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping
Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Orzech, Kathryn M; Vivian, James
Research from several fields has explored health literacy as a multidimensional construct. The authors' multimethod study, "The Impact of Cultural Differences on Health Literacy and Chronic Disease Outcomes," assessed health literacy and chronic disease self-management among 296 patients from four ethnic groups (Vietnamese, African American, White, Latino) at a Massachusetts community health center between 2006 and 2010. Health literacy was assessed using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA) measures. Qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews (n = 34), home visits (n = 12), chronic disease diaries (n = 15), and focus groups (n = 47), were completed with a subset of participants. Qualitative interviews indicated a wide range of interpretations of S-TOFHLA questions in which participants substituted their own illness or health care experiences for the abstract examples offered in the instrument, at times leading to incorrect responses. Situating these responses in a broader social and cultural context, this article describes examples of the wide range of chronic disease self-management abilities among participants with limited education and/or low health literacy. It also discusses the culturally variable health beliefs identified among participants interviewed that may play important roles in their chronic disease self-management practices.
Teeuw, Marieke E; Loukili, Ghariba; Bartels, Edien AC; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
Consanguineous couples should be adequately informed about their increased reproductive risk and possibilities for genetic counselling. Information may only be effective if it meets the needs of the target group. This study aimed to gain more insight into: (1) attitudes of people belonging to ethnic groups in Western society towards consanguinity and their understanding of risk for offspring; and (2) their attitudes regarding reproductive information targeted at consanguineous couples. Dutch Moroccans and Turks were invited to complete an online questionnaire by snowball sampling and by placing a link on two popular Dutch Moroccan/Turkish forum websites between September and October 2011. The questionnaire was completed by 201 individuals who were, on average, neither positive nor negative towards consanguinity. Respondents with a consanguineous partner were more positive, estimated the risk for the offspring lower and were less positive about the provision of risk information to consanguineous couples when compared with respondents without a consanguineous partner. Participants of Turkish origin had a more negative attitude towards consanguinity and estimated the reproductive risk higher than Moroccan participants. More than half of the respondents thought that information should be given before marriage, whereas only 10% thought it should never be provided. The general practitioner was most often mentioned (54%) as the designated professional to inform people. Information about genetic risks related to consanguinity should be offered early, preferably before marriage. The diversity of the target population requires various strategies to disseminate information and reach consanguineous couples with the offer of genetic counselling. PMID:23921534
Teeuw, Marieke E; Loukili, Ghariba; Bartels, Edien Ac; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
Consanguineous couples should be adequately informed about their increased reproductive risk and possibilities for genetic counselling. Information may only be effective if it meets the needs of the target group. This study aimed to gain more insight into: (1) attitudes of people belonging to ethnic groups in Western society towards consanguinity and their understanding of risk for offspring; and (2) their attitudes regarding reproductive information targeted at consanguineous couples. Dutch Moroccans and Turks were invited to complete an online questionnaire by snowball sampling and by placing a link on two popular Dutch Moroccan/Turkish forum websites between September and October 2011. The questionnaire was completed by 201 individuals who were, on average, neither positive nor negative towards consanguinity. Respondents with a consanguineous partner were more positive, estimated the risk for the offspring lower and were less positive about the provision of risk information to consanguineous couples when compared with respondents without a consanguineous partner. Participants of Turkish origin had a more negative attitude towards consanguinity and estimated the reproductive risk higher than Moroccan participants. More than half of the respondents thought that information should be given before marriage, whereas only 10% thought it should never be provided. The general practitioner was most often mentioned (54%) as the designated professional to inform people. Information about genetic risks related to consanguinity should be offered early, preferably before marriage. The diversity of the target population requires various strategies to disseminate information and reach consanguineous couples with the offer of genetic counselling.
Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela
In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.
Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Cohen, Philip N.
Leading explanations for ethnic disparities in U.S. women's employment derive largely from research on men. Although recent case studies of newer immigrant groups suggest that these explanations may be less applicable than previously believed, no study to date has assessed this question systematically. Using 2000 Census data, this study tests the…
Lisack, J. P.; Shell, Kevin D.
From 1970 to 1980, Indiana's population grew 5.7 percent, with the white population growing less than 4 percent as opposed to a 30 percent growth rate for minority groups. Nearly 64.4 of the state's minority population resided in Marion and Lake counties as of 1980. Except for Asian Americans, Indiana residents who belong to ethnic minority groups…
The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…
Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Kelley, Mary E.; Karnes, Conny C.; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E.; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Finlayson, Teresa; Sionean, Catlainn; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection. Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales. PMID:26469638
Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…
Poliakoff, Lorraine, Comp.
This bibliography on ethnic groups cites 117 documents acquired and processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education from July 1968 to December 1969. Organization is in three sections: Negroes--58 items; Spanish Speaking People--33 items; and American Indians and Eskimos--26 items. Each section is further broken down by document type:…
Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…
Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan
This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654).
Howarth, Nancy C; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hankin, Jean H; Kolonel, Laurence N
Differences in BMI among ethnic groups may be partially explained by the consumption of energy-dense foods, which influences energy intake in controlled laboratory studies. However, the role of dietary energy density (ED, kJ/g) in free-living persons is less understood. Our objective was to determine whether ED is related to current BMI and the risk for overweight and obesity and whether these relations are consistent among ethnic groups. We calculated ED from responses to a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and validated the measures against multiple 24-h recalls. Subjects consisted of 191,023 participants in the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who were African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, or Caucasian. Mean ED varied from a low of 4.62 kJ/g in Japanese American men to a high of 5.08 kJ/g in African American men. Mean BMI was lowest in Japanese Americans of both sexes and highest in Native Hawaiian men and African American women. After adjusting for the amount of food consumed per day, age, current smoking status, physical activity, chronic disease, and education, a 1 kJ/g increase in ED was associated with an increase in BMI of approximately 1 kg/m2 in each ethnic sex group. This same increase in ED was associated with a significantly increased risk of being overweight in all ethnic sex groups, varying from 4% in African American men to 34% in Japanese American women. Our findings suggest that consumption of an energy dense diet is a risk factor for higher BMI in both men and women across ethnic groups.
Parker, Chris; Philp, Ian
There is a well-documented tendency for cognitive tests to underestimate the abilities of older people in black and minority ethnic groups. This gives rise to a substantially higher risk of mistaken diagnosis of dementia. Reasons include differences in extent or focus of formal education, lack of familiarity with English, lack of literacy in own first language, and culture-specific factors related to individual test items. Attempts to improve the accuracy of screening for these groups have included adaptation of existing tests, including adjustment of cut-points, translation and replacement of culture-specific items. So-called 'culture-free' tests have also been developed, which are less dependent on language, literacy and other skills developed during formal education. Cultural modifications and evidence of cross-cultural performance are summarized here for traditional tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, Abbreviated Mental Test Score, Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly), and for culture-free tests (Clock Drawing Test, Mini-Cog, 7-minute screening battery, Time and Change Test). The evidence on unadapted traditional tests shows that short ones perform at least as well as longer ones, and are more consistent across cultural and educational groups. Cut-point adjustments have not been universally found successful in improving accuracy, and do not address issues of acceptability. Translated and/or culturally adapted versions exist for a number of tests: it is important to establish cut-points appropriate to the target populations. There are promising results on culture-free tests, which are seen as less threatening and require little language interpretation, but they require further evaluation.
Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D
The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups.
Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Glymour, M Maria; Quesenberry, Charles P; Whitmer, Rachel A
INTRODUCTION Reducing racial/ethnic disparities is a primary objective of the National Alzheimer’s Plan (NAPA), yet direct comparisons within large samples representing diversity of the United States are lacking. METHODS Dementia incidence from 1/1/2000-12/31/2013 and 25-year cumulative risk in 274,283 healthcare members aged 64+ (n=18,778 African-American, n=4,543 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), n=21,000 Latino, n=440 Pacific Islander, n=206,490 White, n=23,032 Asian-Americans). Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, sex, medical utilization, and comorbidities. RESULTS Dementia incidence (N=59,555) was highest for African-Americans (26.6/1,000 person-years) and AIANs (22.2/1,000 person-years); intermediate for Latinos (19.6/1,000 person-years), Pacific Islanders (19.6/1,000 person-years), and Whites (19.3/1,000 person-years); and lowest among Asian-Americans (15.2/1,000 person-years). Risk was 65% greater for African-Americans (hazard ratio=1.65; 95% confidence interval=1.58-1.72) versus Asian-Americans. Cumulative 25-year risk at age 65 was: 38% African-Americans, 35% AIANs, 32% Latino, 25% Pacific Islanders, 30% White, and 28% Asian-Americans. DISCUSSION Dementia rates varied over 60% between groups, providing a comprehensive benchmark for the NAPA goal of reducing disparities. PMID:26874595
N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre
Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite.
Evseeva, I; Spurkland, A; Thorsby, E; Smerdel, A; Tranebjaerg, L; Boldyreva, M; Groudakova, E; Gouskova, I; Alexeev, L L
HLA class II alleles were determined by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP typing of DNA samples from 55 Nentsy, 81 Saami and 73 Pomor individuals from the North-European part of Russia. The results were compared with similar data from Russians. A high frequency of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotype and a low frequency of the DRB1*11-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotype, observed in all three ethnic groups, may indicate a common aboriginal component in their ancestry. Saami and Pomors displayed a similar pattern of allele and haplotype distribution, with the exception of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0304-DQB1*0301 haplotype, which was significantly higher among Saami compared Nentsy, Pomors and Russians. Nentsy individuals had a particularly high frequency of the DRB1*09-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0303 and the DRB1*12-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotypes. Genetic distances and correspondence analysis show that Pomors have a close relationship with Norwegians and Finns, whereas Nentsy and Saami are more closely related to Oriental populations.
Pardasani, Manoj; Bandyopadhyay, Subir
The minority population in the US is expected to overtake the nonHispanic Caucasian population by 2050. Compounding this demographic shift are the significant disparities between Caucasian and non Caucasian groups especially with regard to income, living standards, health and access to healthcare and vital services. Thus, healthcare and social service programs are being charged with identifying barriers and providing effective, culturally competent care to reduce these disparities in health and quality of life. But the issue of poverty and access is global and disparities affect communities worldwide. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the service concerns of 137 low-income or poor consumers receiving healthcare and social services in publicly funded facilities. Utilizing a modified cultural competence assessment tool, this study evaluates the impact of race/ethnicity on the experiences of receiving vital services and identifies factors that impact the help-seeking decisions made by consumers. Recommendations for practitioners and organizations to help promote effective models of services for a vulnerable, diverse population are provided.
Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Song, Wan-Geun; Lee, Hae-Mi; Joo, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ji-Young
Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to administer because of the wide variation in dose requirements to achieve a therapeutic effect. CYP2C9, VKROC1, and CYP4F2 play important roles in warfarin metabolism, and their genetic polymorphisms are related to the variability in dose determination. In this study we describe a new multiplex pyrosequencing method to identify CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), VKORC1*2 (rs9923231), and CYP4F2*3 (rs2108661) simultaneously. A multiplex pyrosequencing method to simultaneously detect CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 alleles was designed. We assessed the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in 250 Korean subjects using the multiplex pyrosequencing method. The results showed 100 % concordance between single and multiplex pyrosequencing methods, and the polymorphisms identified by pyrosequencing were also validated with the direct sequencing method. The allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in this population were as follows: 0.040 for CYP2C9*3, 0.918 for VKORC1*2, and 0.416 for CYP4F2*3. Although the allele frequencies of the CYP2C9*3 and VKROC1*2 were comparable to those in Japanese and Chinese populations, their frequencies in this Korean population differed from those in other ethnic groups; the CYP4F2*3 frequency was the highest among other ethnic populations including Chinese and Japanese populations. The pyrosequencing methods developed were rapid and reliable for detecting CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3. Large ethnic differences in the frequency of these genetic polymorphisms were noted among ethnic groups. CYP4F2*3 exhibited its highest allele frequency among other ethnic populations compared to that in a Korean population.
Chen, X B; Li, R X; Yang, H N; Dai, J C
This study aimed to establish a reference range of penile length and circumference of adult males in China, and to compare the penile dimensions of different ethnical backgrounds. To do this, penile length and circumference measurements were obtained from 5196 healthy males attending the Urology Counseling Clinic. The mean value of penile dimensions was a flaccid length of 6.5 ± 0.7 cm, a stretched length of 12.9 ± 1.2 cm and a flaccid circumference of 8.0 ± 0.8 cm. In the subgroup of 311 males, the mean erectile length was 12.9 ± 1.3 cm and the mean erectile circumference was 10.5 ± 0.9 cm, the mean flaccid and erectile glans lengths were 2.7 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively, and the mean flaccid and erectile glans diameters were 2.6 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. We found that flaccid penile length and circumference varied among different ethnicities. This study established a reference range for penile dimensions, which will help when counseling patients worried about their penile size or seeking penis enlargement surgery. We also found that penile dimensions are different in different ethnicities, but further investigations are needed to validate this.
Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan
The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…
Zou, Xing; Li, YongGuo; Li, Ping; Nie, QianYun; Wang, Ting; Hu, Yue; Zhu, Ying; Li, JianBo; Tang, RenKuan
The allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1P0, D3S1358, THOl, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, FGA, D6S1043, Penta D, Penta E, and D12S391) included in the Goldeneye™ DNA ID system 20A kit were obtained in 671 Chinese Han individuals residing in Chongqing, Southwest China. All 19 STR loci were identified in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A total of 238 alleles were observed with corresponding allele frequencies that varied from 0.0007 to 0.5119. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion for 19 STR loci in the Chongqing Han population were 0.99999999999999999999998954 and 0.99999998387, respectively. The findings indicated that the 19 autosomal STR loci were highly polymorphic in the Chongqing Han population and can be used as a powerful tool in personal identification and parentage testing. Our genetic study enriched the Chinese local forensic reference database. Population comparisons and phylogenetic analyses revealed that genetic heterogeneity widely existed among the Chongqing Han, Xinjiang Uyghur, and Kazakh populations as well as demonstrated that genetic similarity was tightly associated with those of close geographic origin or of the same ethnic origin.
Background This study evaluated the score reliability and equivalence of factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3)  in a sample of female college students from the four largest ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Participants were 1245 women who self-identified as European American/White (n = 543), African American/Black (n = 137), Asian American (n = 317), or Latina/Hispanic (n = 248). All completed the SATAQ-3 and a demographic questionnaire. To test the factor similarity and score reliability across groups, we used exploratory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alphas (respectively). Results Score reliability was high for all groups. Tests of factor equivalence suggested that the four pre-established factors of the SATAQ-3 (i.e., knowledge, perceived pressure, thin-ideal internalization, athletic-ideal internalization) were similar for women of all ethnic groups. Only two items (20 and 27) did not consistently load on the previously identified scale across all four groups. When scored, African Americans reported significantly less perceived pressure and internalization than all other groups. Conclusions Results support the use of the SATAQ-3 in female college students of these four ethnicities. PMID:24999395
Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Roberts, Robert
Context Epidemiologic studies of obesity have not examined the prevalence and relationship of mental-health conditions with obesity for diverse ethnic and racial populations in the United States. Objective (1) To assess whether obesity was associated with diverse psychiatric diagnoses across a representative sample of non-Latino whites, Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans; and (2) to test whether physical health status, smoking, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities mediate any of the observed associations. Design Our analyses used pooled data from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Analyses tested the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in a diverse sample of Americans (N=13,837), while adjusting for factors such as other disorders, age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking and physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) in different models. Results The relationship between obesity and last-year psychiatric disorders varied by ethnicity/race. The likelihood of having mood or anxiety disorder was positively associated with obesity for certain racial/ethnic groups, but was moderated by differences in physical health status. Substance-use disorders were associated with decreased odds for obesity in African-Americans. Conclusions The role of physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) dramatically changes the pattern of associations between obesity and psychiatric disorders, suggesting the important role it plays in explaining differential patterns of association across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:21184966
Burton, A E; Shaw, R L
Increasing ethnic diversity in the UK means that there is a growing need for National Health Service care to be delivered to non-English-speaking patients. The aims of the present systematic review were to: (1) better understand the outcomes of chronic pain management programmes (PMPs) for ethnic minority and non-English-speaking patients and (2) explore the perspectives on and experiences of chronic pain for these groups. A systematic review identified 26 papers meeting the inclusion criteria; no papers reported on the outcomes of PMPs delivered in the UK. Of the papers obtained, four reported on PMPs conducted outside the UK; eight reported on ethnic differences in patients seeking support from pain management services in America; and the remaining papers included literature reviews, an experimental pain study, a collaborative enquiry, and a survey of patient and clinician ratings of pain. The findings indicate a lack of research into UK-based pain management for ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking patients. The literature suggests that effective PMPs must be tailored to meet cultural experiences of pain and beliefs about pain management. There is a need for further research to explore these cultural beliefs in non-English-speaking groups in the UK. Culturally sensitive evaluations of interpreted PMPs with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the effectiveness of current provision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies.
Resetar Volz, Jennifer L; Cook, Clayton R
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred stimuli that are not currently offered. The article discusses a survey devised specifically for the purpose of this study. Stimuli currently offered as rewards are listed and rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results indicate that the majority of stimuli available within the token economy system were rated as preferred. Also, significant developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences are found, indicating the benefit of considering group-level characteristics when designing and implementing a groupwide token economy system. The implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Hsu, Ching-Kun; Sun, Jizhen; Boticki, Ivica
This paper reports the impacts of spontaneous student grouping to develop young students' orthographic awareness in the process of learning Chinese characters. A mobile-assisted Chinese character forming game is used to assign each student a Chinese character component on their smartphones through a wireless network. Fifteen Singaporean students,…
Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping
Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts. PMID:25647347
Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping
Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts.
This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…
Wong, Sau-Ling Cynthia
The largest Asian American ethnic group in the United States, as well as the group with the longest immigration history, is the Chinese. The presence of Chinese immigrants is felt strongly in California, the state where nearly 40 percent of the nation's Chinese have chosen to live. The history of Chinese immigration is traced to help understand…
Moore, Carolyn E; Murphy, Mary M; Holick, Michael F
Concerns about vitamin D status in the United States have resurfaced due to increasing reports of insufficiency and deficiency. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and currently few foods are fortified in the United States. Intakes of vitamin D in the United States from food and food plus supplements by age, sex, and race/ethnicity group were estimated. Individuals > or = 1 y old who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000) were included in the analysis. Vitamin D intake by non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and all individuals in the United States was estimated and compared with recommended levels. Vitamin D intakes were highest among children and teenagers, and lowest in the oldest age categories. Among children age 1-8 y, adequate intake (AI) levels for vitamin D from food were met or exceeded by 69% of Mexican American, 59% of NH white, and 48% of NH black subpopulations. Among adults > or = 51 y old, only 4% met or exceeded the AI from food alone. Few women 19-50 y old or men and women > or = 51 y old were estimated to consume recommended vitamin D levels from food. Mean dietary intakes of vitamin D from food plus supplements were consistently highest among NH white populations, although only small proportions of all those > or = 51 y old had intakes above the recommended levels. The large discrepancy between vitamin D intake by older individuals from food plus supplements and recommended levels, especially for NH black and Mexican American adults, warrants intervention.
Flores-Martínez, S E; Islas-Andrade, S; Machorro-Lazo, M V; Revilla, M C; Juárez, R E; Mújica-López, K I; Morán-Moguel, M C; López-Cardona, M G; Sánchez-Corona, J
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from the action and interaction of many genetic and environmental factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of glucose are associated with the susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus increases with age, as well as with obesity and hypertension, its prevalence and incidence are different among geographical regions and ethnic groups. In Mexico, a higher prevalence and incidence has been described in the south of the country, and differences between urban and rural communities have been observed. We studied 73 individuals from Santiago Jamiltepec, a small indigenous community from Oaxaca State, Mexico. This population has shown a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the Pst I (insulin gene), Nsi I (insulin receptor gene) and Gly972Arg (insulin receptor substrate 1 gene) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension in this population. Clinical evaluation consisted of BMI and blood pressure measurements, and biochemical assays consisted of determination of fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. PCR and restriction enzyme digestion analysis were applied to genomic DNA to identify the three polymorphisms. From statistical analysis carried out here, individually, the Pst I, Nsi I and Gly972Arg polymorphisms were not associated with the type 2 diabetes, obese or hypertensive phenotypes in this population. Nevertheless, there was an association between the Nsi I and Pst I polymorphisms and increased serum insulin levels.
Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki
This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.
Faconti, Luca; Silva, Maria J.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Nanino, Elisa; Read, Ursula M.; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie; Cruickshank, Kennedy J.
Objective: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully account for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease. We tested if arterial function indices, particularly augmentation index (AIx), and their determinants from childhood could underlie such ethnic variability among young British adults in the ‘DASH’ longitudinal study. Methods: DASH, at http://dash.sphsu.mrc.ac.uk/, includes representative samples of six main British ethnic groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AIx were recorded using the Arteriograph device at ages 21–23 years in a subsample (n = 666); psychosocial, anthropometric, and blood pressure (BP) measures were collected then and in two previous surveys at ages 11–13 years and 14–16 years. For n = 334, physical activity was measured over 5 days (ActivPal). Results: Unadjusted values and regression models for PWVs were similar or lower in ethnic minority than in White UK young adults, whereas AIx was higher – Caribbean (14.9, 95% confidence interval 12.3–17.0%), West African (15.3, 12.9–17.7%), Indian (15.1, 13.0–17.2%), and Pakistani/Bangladeshi (15.7, 13.7–17.7%), compared with White UK (11.9, 10.2–13.6%). In multivariate models, adjusted for sex, central SBP, height, and heart rate, Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi young adults had higher AIx (β = 3.35, 4.20, respectively, P < 0.01) than White UK with a similar trend for West Africans and Caribbeans but not statistically significant. Unlike PWV, physical activity, psychosocial or deprivation measures were not associated with AIx, with borderline associations from brachial BP but no other childhood variables. Conclusion: Early adult AIx, but not arterial stiffness, may be a useful tool for testing components of excess cardiovascular risk in some ethnic minority groups. PMID:27490950
Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234
Hope, V.; MacArthur, C.; Mullis, D.; Radcliffe, K.
Objectives: To examine whether the provision of advice and information to male genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic attendees was related to their reasons for attendance, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Method: Cross sectional survey of men attending a large city centre GUM clinic. Data were collected using an anonymous subject completed questionnaire. Results: Of the 302 men recruited, 72% described themselves as white and 85% reported only female sexual partners. Information and advice provision were generally found to reflect reason for attendance—for example, those attending with a concern about "an STD or urinary problem" were more likely to report advice and information on NSU/chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhoea, or syphilis than those attending without such concerns. For those attending with a concern about HIV less than half (42%) reported receiving advice and information about HIV. The reasons for attendance were found to vary with ethnicity (black men were more likely to attend for a "check up," and less likely to attend about HIV or with genital warts than white men) and sexual orientation (those with male partners were more likely to attend about HIV or hepatitis B than those with only female partners); there were corresponding variations in the provision of advice and information. Conclusions: The clinic was generally providing advice and information appropriate to the reasons for attendance and this reflected variations in such needs with ethnicity and sexual orientation. The provision of advice and information about HIV could be more comprehensive. Key Words: advice; male GUM clinic attendees; sexual orientation; ethnic group PMID:10961198
Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Jin, Rui; Li, Ya-Ni; Wang, Bo; Ma, Li-Xia; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Dan Wang, Hong-; Yang, Ze-Long; Zhu, Bo-Feng
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms have become a research hot spot in forensic science due to their tremendous potential in recent years. In the present study, we investigated 30 indel loci in a Chinese Yi ethnic group. The allele frequencies of the short allele of the 30 indel loci were in the range of 0.1025-0.9221. The power of discrimination values were observed ranging from to 0.2630 (HLD111 locus) to 0.6607 (HLD70 locus) and probability of exclusion values ranged from 0.0189 (HLD111 locus) to 0.2343 (HLD56 locus). The combined power of discrimination and power of exclusion for 30 loci in the studied Yi group were 0.99999999995713 and 0.97746, respectively, which showed tremendous potential for forensic personal identification in the Yi group. Moreover, the DA distances, phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed the Yi group had close genetic relationships with the Tibetan, South Korean, Chinese Han, and She groups.
Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Martin, Carrie L; Kolonel, Laurence N
A multivitamin/mineral supplement is the most widely used type of dietary supplement among American adults. Therefore, accurate assessment of intake from this supplement is crucial when studying diet and chronic diseases. From 1999 to 2001, the Multiethnic Cohort Study collected detailed information on multivitamin/mineral use among five ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. Daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals were calculated using the nutrient composition specified on the product label. For reported supplements with insufficient detail to match to a specific product, default nutrient profiles were assigned. Multivitamin/mineral use was reported by 50% of the participants (38% for Native Hawaiians to 57% for whites). Default profiles were assigned for 38% of users. The median daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals among users (n=75,865) were well above the Recommended Daily Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and zinc. Although nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals varied widely among individuals, there was no substantial difference in the median intake across ethnic groups. To accurately estimate nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals, detailed information on the product consumed should be collected. When detailed information is not available, the same default nutrient profiles can be used when estimating intakes for these five ethnic groups.
Askari, Alan; Arebi, Naila
Introduction. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a higher rate of pancolonic disease in South Asians (SA) compared with White Europeans (WE). The aim of the study was to compare colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) in SA to those of WE. Methods. Patients with UC were identified from a national administrative dataset (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) between 1997 and 2012 according to ICD-10 diagnosis code K51 for UC. The colectomy rate for each ethnic group was calculated as the proportion of patients who underwent colectomy from the total UC cases for that group. Results. Of 212,430 UC cases, 73,318 (35.3%) were coded for ethnicity. There was no significant difference in the colectomy rate between SA and WE (6.93% versus 6.90%). Indians had a significantly higher colectomy rate than WE (9.8% versus 6.9%, p < 0.001). Indian patients were 21% more likely to require colectomy for UC compared with WE group (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04–1.42, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Given the limitations in coding, the colectomy rate in this cohort was higher in Indians compared to WE. A prospectively recruited ethnic cohort study will decipher whether this reflects a more aggressive phenotype or is due to other confounding factors. PMID:28074174
Background Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Methods Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Results Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent. For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24267469
Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-Nan
Background There is evidence that ethnic/racial minorities are conferred differential risk for substance use problems based on where they live. Despite a burgeoning of research focusing on the role of neighborhood characteristics on health, limited findings are available on substance use. Our study uses nationally representative data (N= 13, 837) to examine: (1) What neighborhood characteristics are associated with risk of substance use disorders?; (2) Do the associations between neighborhood characteristics and substance use disorders remain after adjusting for individual-level factors?; and (3) Do neighborhood characteristics associated with substance use disorders differ by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual-level factors? Methods Data were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES-Geocode file) with 836 Census tracts. Analyses included African Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino whites. Separate logistic regression models were fitted for any past-year substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and drug use disorder. Results Living in more affluent and residentially unstable census tracts was associated with decreased risk of past-year substance use disorder, even after adjusting for individual-level factors. However, when we investigated the interaction of race/ethnicity and census latent factors with past-year substance use disorders, we found different associations for the different racial/ethnic groups. We also found different associations between neighborhood affluence, residential instability and any past-year substance use and alcohol disorders by nativity. Conclusions Characteristics of the environment might represent differential risk for substance disorders depending on a person’s ethnicity/race and nativity status. PMID:22699095
Zhang, Xiufeng; Hu, Liping; Du, Lei; Nie, Aiting; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Xiran, Zeng; Nie, Shengjie
The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex(®) 21 kit were evaluated from 748 unrelated healthy individuals of the Miao ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province in southwestern China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Miao population and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 991 26 and 0.999 999 975, respectively. The results suggested that the 20 STR loci were highly polymorphic, which makes them suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing.
Dunham, Jessica Barfield
Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…
Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya
This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…
Arnold, David Harvey; Griffith, Jessica R.; Ortiz, Camilo; Stowe, Rebecca M.
Examined low socioeconomic-status (SES) preschool classrooms for teacher perceptions of children and teacher/child interactions as a function of ethnicity. Hispanic teachers described Hispanic boys as having high levels of difficulty; they engaged in high levels of interaction with them. Perceptions of girls were more positive and less influenced…
Jones, Sandra; Diener, Edward
Ethnic preferences of black and white college students were measured using subjects' ratings of employment applications of either Afro-Americans, Asian-Americans, or Whites. The data revealed that whites preferred white applicants and blacks preferred black applicants across all categories. (Author)
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…
Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.
Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…
Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.
The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…
Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.
Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…
Tan, Xiu Ling; Yap, Sae Cheong; Li, Xiang; Yip, Leonard W.
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 race-specific normative databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-3, in differentiating between early glaucomatous and healthy normal Chinese eyes. Method: 52 healthy volunteers and 25 glaucoma patients were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. All underwent standardized interviews, ophthalmic examination, perimetry and HRT optic disc imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity were derived to assess the discriminating abilities of the 3 normative databases, for both Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) and Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS). Results: A significantly higher percentage (65%) of patients were classified as “within normal limits” using the MRA-Indian database, as compared to the MRA-Caucasian and MRA-African-American databases. However, for GPS, this was observed using the African-American database. For MRA, the highest sensitivity was obtained with both Caucasian and African-American databases (68%), while the highest specificity was from the Indian database (94%). The AUC for discrimination between glaucomatous and normal eyes by MRA-Caucasian, MRA-African-American and MRA-Indian databases were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88), 0.79 (0.69-0.89) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84) respectively. For GPS, the highest sensitivity was obtained using either Caucasian or Indian databases (68%). The highest specificity was seen with the African-American database (98%). The AUC for GPS-Caucasian, GPS-African-American and GPS-Indian databases were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66-0.87), 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) respectively. Conclusion: Comparison of the 3 ethnic databases did not reveal significant differences to differentiate early glaucomatous from normal Chinese eyes.
Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major
Sung, Betty Lee
A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…
Saw, S H
Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia.
Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen
The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.
Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.
Hartz, D T
Ninety-six high school students reported their own behavior and the behavior of their parents in the resolution of conflicts during the previous year, using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Parent-teen dyadic aggression levels for Americans of European, Japanese, Polynesian, and Filipino ancestry were compared in a series of orthogonal contrasts. The adolescent children of Polynesian American parents reported significantly higher parent aggression levels than did adolescents with parents of other ethnicity. Parent aggression was the best predictor of teen aggression directed toward parents. Subjects reciprocated with counteraggression toward European American parents significantly more often than toward parents of other ethnicity. Aggression by one parent was highly correlated with aggression by the other parent. Aggression by either parent was more highly correlated with teen aggression toward the mother, than with teen aggression toward the father.
Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )
The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Haverkos, H. W.; Turner, J. F.; Moolchan, E. T.; Cadet, J. L.
The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities. PMID:10063784
Zha, Lagabaiyila; Liu, Ying; Guo, Yadong; Li, Jun; Wang, Ke; Geng, Kun; Liao, Qiao; Liu, Jinshan; Chen, Hanchun; Cai, Jifeng
In this research, we investigated the allele frequencies and forensic parameters of 21 non-, CODIS short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500) among 523 unrelated, Chinese Mongolians in the city of Tongliao, Horqin district, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey
Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed.
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education
Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei
Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…
Nesdale, Drew; Griffiths, Judith A.; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne
Based on self-categorization theory (SCT; Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987), this study examined the extent to which 7- and 10-year-old children's perceptions of similarity to, and positivity towards, their in-group would be increased by factors predicted to enhance the salience of in-group-out-group categorizations. In a minimal…
Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M
Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment.
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).
Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh
Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189
Khan, Abdul Satter; Al-Sweilem, Maisa; Akturk, Zekeriya
Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) living in four main areas along the Northern Borders of Saudi Arabia was completed in 2005. We examined knowledge of HBV and vaccination status and compared them with some socio-demographic factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 45.61 years (±8.44), 53% of whom were Non-Arabs (Non Arabic speaking). Of the total, 41.6% gave seven or more correct answers out of 12 questions addressing knowledge about the transmission and sequelae of HBV. Almost 40% of the respondents had not been vaccinated while the remaining respondents had had three full doses of vaccination. A high level of knowledge (≥ 7 correct answers) was significantly associated (p<0.05) with higher level of education, vaccination status, ethnic groups, occupation, age, marital status, and the time spent in Saudi Arabia. Income and type of accommodation were not associated (p>0.05) with level of knowledge. However, vaccination status was associated (p<0.05) with almost all socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: Hepatitis screening programs for expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia started 10 years ago and are expected to have a great impact on the combat against HBV infections and their complications. However, beyond screening, health promotion, vaccination campaigns, and access to vaccine for the underprivileged classes are some necessary measures towards achieving success. PMID:23012171
Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovičová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Mačeková, Soňa; Boroňová, Iveta; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan
Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden.
Forsyth, Andrew D; Stoff, David M
We examine the challenges and barriers to quality mentoring for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups and propose solutions for establishing a robust pipeline of early-career scientists who are well equipped to conduct research on disparities in HIV and mental health. In addition, we review contributions to this special supplement on mentoring and advocate a multilevel strategy that targets funding agencies, academic and research institutions, mentors, and mentees to enhance the diversity of the nation's scientific workforce and ensure that the public health system benefits from innovations derived from the optimal use of existing human capital.
Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V
The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed.
Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.
The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217
Parker, Alison E; Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred; Thompson, Julie A; Beale, Karen S
We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents’ beliefs about the role of emotions in the family and how cultural or ethnic background may influence those beliefs. Based on philosophical traditions and previous research, three dimensions of parental beliefs were predicted: Value of Emotion, Socialization of Emotion, and Controllability of Emotion. We expected new themes to emerge during the focus groups.Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 parents from the three cultural groups mentioned above. Groups met for two sessions scheduled 2 weeks apart. Focus group discussions were led by same-ethnicity moderators. Aninductive analysis was conducted; key themes and subthemes were identified.All three theoretically derived dimensions were well represented in each focus group. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included children’s appropriate expression of negative emotions, role of emotion in the home, children’s capacity for controlling emotions, and parents’ role in socialization of emotion. Cultural variations included concern about parents’ expression of negative emotion, children’s modulation of positive emotion, the role emotions play in behavior, and choice in emotional experience. Two new dimensions also emerged: Relational Nature of Emotions and Changeability of Emotions. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included emphasis on emotional connections with children, emotional contagion in families, developmental change in children’s emotions, and intergenerational change in emotion socialization. Cultural variation included discussion of emotions as guides for action and children’s emotional privacy. Dimensions and the themes and subthemes within them
Yao Sua, Tan; Hooi See, Teoh
The Chinese language movement was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand the recognition of Chinese as an official language to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national education system in Malaysia. It began in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish national primary schools teaching in English and Malay to…
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.
The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination–psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or “mainstream American” identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary
Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts.
Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A
The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS-R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning.
Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.
Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667
Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N.; Wallander, Jan L.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS–R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS–R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning. PMID:25932505
Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.
Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…
Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.
Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J
This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.
This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059
This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants' attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors' scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were "not for us." The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities.
Benedek, G; Brautbar, C; Vardi, P; Sharon, N; Weintrob, N; Zung, A; Israel, S
This study examined a possible association of the insulin (INS) gene with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in patients and controls from four ethnic groups in Israel. We analyzed the distribution of -23HphI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T/A alleles that correspond to INS variable number of tandem repeat short class I alleles (26-63 repeats) and class III alleles (141-209 repeats), respectively. The -23HphI T/T genotype was found to be positively associated with T1D in three Jewish groups (Yemenites: 93.9% patients vs 68.8% controls, P = 0.0002; Ashkenazi: 80.6% vs 50.8%, P < 10(-4); Ethiopians: 75% vs 40.5%, P = 0.002). The Yemenite healthy controls have the highest frequency of T allele from all Jewish groups studied (83.5% vs 68.8% in Ashkenazi and 64.3% in Ethiopians). The high frequency of a susceptibility allele in the Yemenites is in line with the high incidence of T1D in this population. No association was observed between T1D and the INS gene in Israeli Arabs studied (70.6% vs 66.7%). Variable incidence of T1D among different ethnicities in Israel is largely attributed to heterogeneous genetics. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) results of our previous studies describing the susceptibility and protective haplotypes were used for combined analysis to determine possible interaction between the HLA and INS loci. Only in the Ashkenazi group such interaction was presented with statistical significance.
Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon
Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients. PMID:26675374
Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.
A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857
Bhatti, Shahzad; Aslam Khan, Muhammad; Abbas, Sana; Attimonelli, Marcella; Gonzalez, Gerardo Rodriguez; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; de Souza, Erica Martinha Silva
The insight heterodox genetics of mtDNA infer new perspectives at the level of human mitochondrial control region heteroplasmy, which is substantial in evolutionary as well as forensic interpretation. The main goal of this study is to interrogate the recurrence and resolve the ambiguity of blurry spectrum of heteroplasmy in the human mtDNA control region of 50 Baluchi and 116 Sindhi unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was employed classically, that was further investigated by minisequencing. Only 20% Baluchi and 25.8% Sindhi were homoplasmic, whereas rest of 80% Baluchi and 74.1% Sindhi exhibited at least one heteroplasmy within the specimen. In total, 166 individuals have length heteroplasmy (LH) found at positions 16189, 303-315, 568-573, and 514-524, whilst point mutation heteroplasmy (PMH) was detected at positions 73, 16093, 16189, and 16234, respectively. Overall LH was observed albeit high frequency in Sindhi ethnic group (82%) rather than Baluchi's (37%), whereas PMH accumulation was relatively extensive (24%) in Baluchi's than Sindhi's (11.2%). The obtained results ascertained that growing knowledge of heteroplasmy assisted to develop consciences in the forensic community that heteroplasmy plays a pivotal role in the legal interpretation on a regular basis and knowledge of its biological underpinnings has a vital niche in the forensic science. Limited studies have focused on heteroplasmy, yet scientific attention should be given, in order to determine its magnitude in different ethnic boundaries.
Guo, Shujie Phoebe; Munshi, Debashish; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Simpson, Mary
This article critically analyses the discourse of consumer choice embedded in health communication interactions between maternity-care providers and migrant ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand. Findings indicate that Chinese mothers, as the customers of the New Zealand maternity and health care services, are encouraged to "fit in" with the Western discourse of choice. However, the mothers' cultural predispositions for childbirth and communication have a significant impact on the ways in which they respond to and resist this discourse. Drawing on theoretical insights from postcolonialism and Third World feminism, this article contributes to the study of intercultural health communication by examining cultural dilemmas in the discourse of choice that is often taken for granted in Western health contexts. In doing so, it builds a platform for an inclusive maternity care and health environment in multicultural societies.
Australia is a multicultural society in which the most rapidly ageing groups are immigrants, many of whom cannot speak English well. Minimal research has been conducted to identify ethnic variation in health concerns and expectations of older Australians from non-English-speaking backgrounds, necessary to facilitate culturally appropriate services. This paper presents findings from 12 focus group sessions (4 Anglo, 3 Italian, 2 Chinese, 2 Arabic, 1 Greek) with older (60+) Australians. Common areas of concern were inadequate medication information, labelling and instructions. Anglo participants differed from ethnic participants in their use of herbal remedies, language, relationship with pharmacist and doctor and awareness of health rights. Other concerns and expectations were specific to a particular ethnic group. The findings should increase health professionals' awareness of the similarities and differences which exist between mainstream Anglo and ethnic Australians, and also between ethnic groups, thereby avoiding the use of a blanket approach when communicating with, or planning policies for, ethnic older Australians.
Dunn, Richard A.; Yen, Steven T.
Abstract Background This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Methods Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health–lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Results Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes. PMID:21815810
Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung
Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…
Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie
Objectives To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. Methods After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an “action research” approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Results Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years’ classes without the intervention. Conclusions Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students’ tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity. PMID:28132033
Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.
Chinese-American girls perform as well as Chinese-American boys at higher levels of mathematics. Caucasian-American girls perform significantly less well than Caucasian-American boys. This study, designed to examine factors involved in this differential, contrasts 25 first generation Chinese-American mother-father pairs and 27 Caucasian-American…
Studies of the history of newspapers in the United States have virtually ignored the ethnically oriented, foreign language press. This gap in journalistic investigation should be filled by considering the two conflicting roles which ethnic newspapers fill: assimilation of the ethnic group into the mainstream of American culture and maintenance and…
Ireland, James; Carlton, Victoria E H; Falkowski, Matthew; Moorhead, Martin; Tran, Karen; Useche, Francisco; Hardenbol, Paul; Erbilgin, Ayca; Fitzgerald, Ron; Willis, Thomas D; Faham, Malek
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that lead to non-synonymous changes in proteins may have functional effects and be subject to selection. Hence they are of particular interest in the study of genetic diseases. We have genotyped approximately 28,000 such SNPs in three ethnic populations (the HapMap plates) and ten primate species and analyzed these data for evidence of selection. We find SNPs predicted by PolyPhen to be damaging, have lower allele frequencies, and are particularly likely to be population-specific. We have also grouped SNPs by molecular function or biological process of the associated genes and find evidence that selection may be acting in concert on classes of genes.
Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu
Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions
Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong
OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.
Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy
The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…
Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly
Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng
We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population’s genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice. PMID:23733431
Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564
The study examined differences in the characteristics of intimate femicide among various groups in Israeli society between 1995 and 2007. The findings show that Israeli-born Jews and Arabs were underrepresented among intimate femicide offenders. By contrast, the proportion of Ethiopian immigrants was 21 times higher than their proportion in the total population, and immigrants from the former USSR were overrepresented by 142.1%. Ethiopian immigrants differed significantly from the other groups with regard to femicide followed by suicide: Among Ethiopian immigrants, the percentage of femicide followed by suicide was almost twice as high as the percentage found among the other groups. In addition, immigrants from the former USSR differed significantly from the other groups with regard to femicide under the influence of alcohol.
Leck, I; Lancashire, R J
STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were: (1) to compare the birth prevalence of malformations in different ethnic groups and (2) to explore the reasons for the ethnic variations found by examining birth prevalence in the offspring of matings between ethnic groups. DESIGN--Analysis of data from a register of malformations and register of births. SETTING--Birmingham, England. SUBJECTS--A total of 432,778 infants (including stillbirths) born in 1960-84. MAIN RESULTS--Significant differences (p < 0.01) between ethnic groups were exhibited by the birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD), cleft palate, cleft lip, oesophageal atresia/fistula, hypospadias, hip dislocation, clubfoot, polydactyly, and syndactyly. In the offspring of matings between parents of European and Caribbean origin, the birth prevalence of NTD, cleft lip, hypospadias, hip dislocation, polydactyly, and syndactyly seemed more likely to be influenced by the ethnicity of both parents than by that of the mother alone. The reverse was true for the birth prevalence of NTD in subjects with one parent of Irish origin and on of British. CONCLUSIONS--Genetic differences may be responsible for Europeans being at lower risk of polydactyly and at higher risk of NTD, cleft lip, hypospadias, hip dislocation, and syndactyly than Caribbeans. Variations in the intrauterine environment are more likely to account for NTD being more common in Irish than in British subjects. PMID:7798046
Bastian, H M; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Alarcón, G S; Friedman, A W; Fessler, B J; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D
% confidence limits (CL) = 1.07-6.87, P < 0.04) and African-American ethnicities (OR = 3.13, 95% CL = 1.21-8.09, P < 0.02), not married or living together (OR = 3.45, 95% CL = 1.69-7.69, P < 0.0003), higher SLAM score (OR = 1.11, 95% CL = 1.02-1.19, P < 0.007), anti-dsDNA (OR = 3.14, 95% CL = 1.50-6.57, P < 0.0001) and anti-RNP (OR = 4.24, CL = 1.98-9.07, P < 0.0001) antibodies were shown to be significant predictors of the occurrence of LN. Repeated analyses excluding the patients with missing HLA data showed that absence of HLA-DQB1*0201 was also a significant predictor for the occurrence of LN (OR = 2.34, CL = 1.13-5.26, P < 0.04). In conclusion, LN occurred significantly more often in Hispanics and African-Americans with SLE. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunologic/immunogenetic factors seem to be predictive of LN occurring after the diagnosis of SLE has been made.
Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP) region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117) was C (72.6%) followed by B (24.8%) and co-infection with B and C (2.6%). The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively). From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among HBV carriers of
Reddy, Vikram K; Gapstur, Susan M.; Prineas, Ronald; Colangelo, Laura A.; Ouyang, Pamela; Kadish, Alan H
Background ST elevation in precordial leads has been associated with genetic syndromes of arrhythmias and sudden death. ST height data in different ethnic groups are limited. Methods ST height was determined in 4612 African American, Chinese, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men and women aged 45–84 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. For leads I, II and V1 to V6, ST height, measured at the J point and 60ms after the J point, adjusted for covariates were compared between non-Hispanic white and other ethnic groups using ANCOVA. Results Among men, ST height was significantly different across all ethnic groups at both time points for all leads (p < 0.01), except at the J point for limb lead II (p=0.2). Among women, differences were also significant at the J point and 60 ms past the J point (p<0.01). ST height was lowest for non-Hispanic whites in all leads and at both time points. At the J point, Chinese had the highest ST height for leads V1 and V2, whereas African Americans had the greatest ST height for leads I and V3 to V6. At 60 ms past the J point, Chinese men had the greatest ST height for lead I and V1 to V6; and Chinese women had greatest ST height for leads V1 to V3. Conclusions There were significant differences in ST height among ethnic groups in all ECG leads. The physiological mechanisms and clinical significance of these differences and the possible association with arrhythmias require further study. PMID:18973491
Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam
Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.
Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa
(a) Background The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which migrant Puerto Ricans reside on the mainland as an ethnic minority and another in which they reside in their place of origin. (b) Methods Sample Probability samples of 10 to 13 year old youth of Puerto Rican background living in the South Bronx, New York City (SB) and in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) (N=1,271) were followed over time. Measures Three assessments of internalizing psychiatric symptoms (elicited through the DISC-IV) and of antisocial behaviors (ASB) quantified through a six-point index were carried out. Independent variables included scales of adult and child acculturation and cultural stress, and other putative correlates. Data Analysis Within each study site, multilevel linear regression models were examined. (c) Results Parental acculturation was associated with ASB in youth at both sites, but youth acculturation itself was not related to psychiatric symptoms. At both contexts, cultural stress was a more consistent correlate of youth psychiatric symptoms than acculturation after controlling for nativity, maternal education, child gender, stressful life events and parental psychopathology. However, the strength of the youth cultural stress association decreased over time. (d) Conclusion The association between cultural factors and child psychiatric symptoms is not restricted to contexts where an ethnic group is a minority. PMID:18400061
Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh
Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483
Built from data collected through three-phase in-depth interviews, this study explores from cultural and social perspectives why Chinese students may initially be termed silent participants when they first commence group work with western students; and then examines the impact of cultural interaction through group work on their adjustment.…
The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…
Gallagher, Ann; Bridgeman, Brent; Cahalan, Cara
Examined data from several national testing programs to determine whether the change from paper-based administration to computer-based tests influences group differences in performance. Results from four college and graduate entrance examinations and a professional licensing test show that African Americans and, to a lesser degree, Hispanics,…
Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn
Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…
Soliz, Jordan; Thorson, Allison R.; Rittenour, Christine E.
Guided by the Common Ingroup Identity Model (S. L. Gaertner & J. F. Dovidio, 2000) and Communication Accommodation Theory (C. Shepard, H. Giles, & B. A. LePoire, 2001), we examined the role of identity accommodation, supportive communication, and self-disclosure in predicting relational satisfaction, shared family identity, and group salience in…
Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel
One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…
World-Wide Education and Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT.
During 1972 Worldwide Education and Research Institute conducted a statewide needs assessment in Alaska. Initially more than 2,000 Alaskans responded to an extensive questionnaire or interview about the State's schools. After gathering the data, 9 groups of representative Alaskans were convened for documenting and validating critical educational…
Hawker, Jeremy I; Olowokure, Babatunde; Wood, Annette L; Wilson, Richard C; Johnson, Richard
We examined MMR vaccine uptake among ethnic groups in Birmingham, UK between 1994 and 2000, a period incorporating adverse MMR vaccine publicity. From 1994 to 2000 overall uptake: (1) fell significantly from 91.1% in 1994 to 89.8% (chi(2) for trend p<0.001) in 2000, (2) in Asian children significantly increased (chi(2) for trend p<0.001), and (3) in White children significantly decreased (chi(2) for trend p<0.001). Differences between ethnic groups with the highest (Asian) and the lowest (Black Caribbean) uptake rates increased from 2.1% in 1994 (p=ns) to 6.8% in 2000 (p<0.001). This study suggests underlying ethnic inequalities in MMR vaccine uptake and differential response to adverse vaccine publicity.
Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.
Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436
Rideaux, Tiffany; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Fernandez, Senaida; O'Hara, Ruth
To address the growing need for ethnically unbiased cognitive screening, we examined whether the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), the abbreviated Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), or a combination of the two provided optimal detection of dementia in an ethnically diverse group of older adults with no cognitive impairment (normal); cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND); and dementia. Participants included 509 Caucasians, 124 African Americans, and 68 Latinos (>70 years old) from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study who completed the MMSE and FOME. Empirically derived decision trees were computed using signal detection software for receiver operator characteristics (ROC). Among the three ethnic groups, ROC analyses revealed that lower scores on both the MMSE and FOME provided better detection of CIND or dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE was augmented by the addition of the FOME among Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone was the best screen in Latino older adults to distinguish any cognitive impairment from normal. When comparing CIND versus dementia, however, the FOME alone was best for detecting dementia among Latinos. The abbreviated FOME is recommended to increase clinical validity and thus minimize ethnic biases when administering the MMSE to Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone is preferred for older Latinos unless comparing CIND and dementia, in which case the FOME alone would then be recommended. Findings suggest that ethnicity is important in the selection of an appropriate cognitive screen and cut-score to use with older adults.
Khoo, Chin Meng; Sairazi, Sarina; Taslim, Siska; Gardner, Daphne; Wu, Yi; Lee, Jeannette; van Dam, Rob M.; Shyong Tai, E.
OBJECTIVE The development of obesity-related metabolic disorders varies with ethnicity. We examined whether ethnicity modifies the relationship between BMI and three metabolic pathways (insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin) that are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 4,804 Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian residents of Singapore with complete data on insulin resistance (IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and total adiponectin levels. Linear regression models with an interaction term ethnicity*BMI were used to evaluate whether ethnicity modifies the association between BMI and IR, CRP, and adiponectin. RESULTS In both uni- and multivariate analyses, BMI was directly associated with IR and CRP and inversely with adiponectin across all ethnic groups. When compared with Chinese and Malays, Asian-Indians had higher IR and CRP and lower adiponectin levels. The associations between BMI and its metabolic pathways were significantly stronger in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The increase in IR and CRP and the decrease in adiponectin for each unit increase in BMI were greater in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The findings were similar when waist circumference was used in the analyses instead of BMI. CONCLUSIONS The impact of BMI on IR, CRP, and adiponectin appears greater in Chinese as compared with other major Asian ethnic groups. This may partly explain the rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes and CVD in Chinese populations and highlights the importance of weight management in Asian ethnic groups despite the apparently low levels of obesity. PMID:21464462
Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre
Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.
Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans.
Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…
Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel
Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa.
See, Beng Huat; Torgerson, Carole; Gorard, Stephen; Ainsworth, Hannah; Low, Graham; Wright, Kath
The aim of the article is to identify those factors that drive the high participation in immediate post-16 and higher education of some minority ethnic groups in the UK. What could we learn from these examples to encourage higher aspirations more generally? The article reports a summary of a formal and systematic review of 1678 studies dated 1997…
Kim, Young K.; Rennick, Liz A.; Franco, Marla A.
This study examines unique patterns of college engagement and outcomes among Latino undergraduate students attending highly selective institutions in comparison with those from other racial/ethnic groups. The study also identifies predictors of select college outcomes--that is, cognitive, affective, and civic outcomes--for this population.…
Alegría, Analucía A.; Petry, Nancy M.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
Introduction Prior research suggests that racial minority groups in the US are more vulnerable to develop a gambling disorder than Whites. However, no national survey on gambling disorders exists that has focused on ethnic differences. Methods Analyses of this study were based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large (n=43,093) nationally representative survey of the adult (18+ years) population residing in households during 2001–2002 period. DSM-IV diagnoses of pathological gambling, mood, anxiety, drug use and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Results Prevalence rates of disordered gambling among Blacks (2.2%) and Native/Asian Americans (2.3%) were higher than that of Whites (1.2%). Demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity differed among Black, Hispanic and White disordered gamblers. However, all racial and ethnic groups evidenced similarities with respect to symptom patterns, time course and treatment seeking for pathological gambling. Conclusions The prevalence of disordered gambling, but not its onset or course of symptoms, varies by racial and ethnic group. These varying prevalence rates may reflect, at least in part, cultural differences in gambling and its acceptability and accessibility. These data may inform the need for targeted prevention strategies for high-risk racial and ethnic groups. PMID:19407710
Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…
Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.
This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…
Stewart, David G; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Chapman, Meredith K; Varma, Malini; Lehinger, Elizabeth
Ethnic minority youth are disproportionately affected by substance use-related consequences, which may be best understood through a social ecological lens. Differences in psychosocial consequences between ethnic majority and minority groups are likely due to underlying social and environmental factors. The current longitudinal study examined the outcomes of a school-based motivational enhancement treatment intervention in reducing disparities in substance use consequences experienced by some ethnic minority groups with both between and within-subjects differences. Students were referred to the intervention through school personnel and participated in a four-session intervention targeting alcohol and drug use. Participants included 122 youth aged 13-19 years. Participants were grouped by ethnicity and likelihood of disparate negative consequences of substance use. African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic youth formed one group, and youth identifying as White or Asian formed a second group. We hypothesized that (1) there would be significant disparities in psychosocial, serious problem behavior, and school-based consequences of substance use between White/Asian students compared to African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic students at baseline; (2) physical dependence consequences would not be disparate at baseline; and (3) overall disparities would be reduced at post-treatment follow-up. Results indicated that African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic adolescents demonstrated statistically significant disparate consequences at baseline, except for physical dependency consequences. Lastly, significant reductions in disparities were evidenced between groups over time. Our findings highlight the efficacy of utilizing school-based substance use interventions in decreasing ethnic health disparities in substance use consequences.
Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...
Little academic attention has been given to the supplementary education experience of immigrant students in the Canadian research literature, especially in a non-English speaking context such as Quebec. Yet these schools are important for understanding the influence of ethnicity as well as religion on the academic preparedness and social…
Pignataro, Ana Genoveva; Levy Tacher, Samuel Israel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Nahed Toral, José; González Espinosa, Mario; Rendón Carmona, Nelson
Silvopastoral systems combine trees and/or shrubs with grazing cattle. In the municipality of Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico, some indigenous communities have developed silvopastoral systems based on their traditional knowledge regarding use of local natural resources. Through analysis of classification based on the composition of tree vegetation, two groups of grazing units were identified in the study area. Different attributes of tree and herbaceous vegetation, as well as of agricultural management and production, were compared between the two groups. Results indicate that at least two strategies of silvopastoral management exist. The first - LTD - is characterized by an average density of 22 adult trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 22.4 ha. The second - HTD - has an average of 54.4 trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 12.2 ha. Average richness per grazing unit for the LTD strategy was 7.2 species, and for HTD strategy it was 12.7 species. Average basal area for LTD was 1.7 m2 ha(-1), and for HTD 3.8 m2 ha(-1). Finally, the average level of fixed carbon for LTD was 2.12 mg ha(-1), and for HTD 4.89 mg ha(-1). For all variables, there was a significant difference between the two strategies. In addition, both strategies differ in prairie management. In the HTD strategy, growers spare their preferred spontaneously growing tree species by clearing around them. Many of these species, particularly those harvested for timber, belong to the original vegetation. In these prairies, average coverage of native grasses (60.8 ± 7.85) was significantly greater than in the LTD strategy (38.4 ± 11.32), and neither fertilizers nor fire are used to maintain or improve the pastures; by contrast, in HTD prairies, introduced grasses, principally Cynodon plectostachyus, have a higher average coverage (43.4 ± 13.75) than in the LTD prairies (17.08 ± 9.02). Regardless of the differences in composition of tree and
Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda
Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.
Yáñez, Jorge; Mansilla, Héctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramón M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri
Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameños) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000 years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250 μg L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported.
A total of 729 cases of NPC (93.6% confirmed histologically) were diagnosed among the Singapore Chinese population during a five-year period (1968--1972). Age-standardized incidence rates for the total Chinese population were 18.4 per 100,000 per year for males and 7.0 for females; the respective rates for the specific Chinese communities were 14.1 and 4.7 for Hokkien, 18.3 and 6.2 for Teochew, 29.1 and 11.0 for Cantonese, 14.2 and 3.3 for Hainanese, 12.6 and 4.8 for Hakka and 12.2 and 6.0 for the other dialect groups. It is evident that all of the Chinese communities in Singapore have high risks for NPC; only the Cantonese have risks significantly higher than that for the rest of the Chinese population. NPC incidence rates for males and females of the other major racial groups in Singapore were 4.7 and 0.6 for Malays and 0.9 and 0.0 for Indians, respectively.
Lou, Vivian W. Q.; Zhang, Yiqi
Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a Participatory Empowerment Group (PEG) for Chinese type 2 diabetes patients in Shanghai. Method: A randomized waiting list control and pretest and posttest comparisons were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing blood sugar level and health-related quality of life.…
Smith, Martin M.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Yan, Gonggu; Sherry, Simon B.
This study supports the generalizability of perfectionistic strivings and concerns across Canadian and Chinese university students (N = 1,006) and demonstrates the importance of establishing measurement invariance prior to hypothesis testing with different groups. No latent mean difference in perfectionistic concerns was observed, but Canadian…
Inti, Pitsinee; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kampuansai, Jatupol
Hemoglobin E (HbE) is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE). Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria. PMID:26808200
Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Inti, Pitsinee; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kampuansai, Jatupol
Hemoglobin E (HbE) is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE). Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria.
BLAIR, GEORGE E.; AND OTHERS
THE MAJOR THEME OF FIVE PAPERS OF A PANEL IS THE NEED FOR TEACHERS TO UNDERSTAND THE DIVERSE CULTURES AND VALUE SYSTEMS OF THEIR PUPILS. SISTER FRANCIS MAUREEN POINTS UP THE SENSITIVITIES AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS OF PUERTO RICAN CHILDREN, AND REVEREND JOSEPH FITZPATRICK REMARKS ON THE INTENSE FAMILY FEELING, NONCOMPETITIVE ATTITUDES, AND LACK OF…
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Zosuls, Kristina M; Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Hughes, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew
Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership.
Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Jayasuriya, Dinuk; Silove, Derrick
The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014. Exposure to conflict-related traumatic experiences (TEs) generating a trauma count (TC), and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using a modified version of the HTQ adapted to the local context. The final analytic sample included 4260 participants after excluding records with missing data on key variables. We conducted Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MG-CFA) to test the four-factor (DSM-5 consistent) and three-factor (DSM-IV-TR) models of PTSD, then assessing measurement invariance of the four factor model by gender and ethnic groups. The three-factor and four-factor DSM-5 model each produced a good fit across the sample as a whole. In addition, there was configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the four-factor model both by gender and ethnicity. The trauma count was directly associated with each of the symptom domains of the four factor model. Our findings provide support for the capacity of the modified HTQ to measure the DSM5 construct of PTSD across gender and key ethnic groupings in Sri Lanka. Confirmation of our findings in other cultures will be important.
van de Schoot, Rens; van der Velden, Floor; Boom, Jan; Brugman, Daniël
This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n = 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of anti-social behaviour were used to distinguish subgroups. These subgroups were created on the basis of anti-social behaviour profile scores, using Latent Class Analysis. Moderator effects of gender and ethnic background were investigated using a log-linear analysis. The main finding was that each sociometric status group consisted of subgroups that differed in terms of prevalence of self-reported anti-social behaviour. At-risk young adolescents who reported involvement in anti-social behaviour appeared in every status group, including the popular group. Implications for school prevention programmes for anti-social behaviour are discussed.
Johannesson, Jokull; Palona, Iryna
Asian megatrends are necessitating the development of management education of ethnic groups like the overseas Chinese and, universities need to change accordingly. This article identifies five Asian megatrends and their impact on the management education of overseas Chinese. The megatrends are: the emergence of women in politics and business; a…
Ferguson, Susan J.
Examines the differences in marriage rates and timing among white, Chinese American, and Japanese American women. An accelerated time model estimates the duration until marriage for each racial-ethnic group while controlling for nativity, education, birth cohort, ancestry, and English proficiency. Chinese American and Japanese American women delay…
Argues that for too long the experiences of the Chinese population in America have been either shrouded in misconception or totally ignored, and that this country must recognize and deal with the issues affecting this community. Learning about Chinese Americans will allow us to reexamine governmental policies towards racial and ethnic groups and…
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910
Young Bear, Ray; And Others
Poets Ray Young Bear (Mesquakie), James Mitsui (Japanese American), James McAuley (Irish-American), Alex Kuo (Chinese-America) and Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Sioux) participated in this forum on the legacy of culture and the creative process. Genres, culture, and definitions of ethnicity were discussed; and an audience participation question-and-answer…
Poniah, Prevathe; Mohamed, Zahurin; Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Mohd Zain, Shamsul; Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Razack, Azad HA
Androgens are involved in prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth. Genes involved in androgen metabolism mediate key steps in sex steroid metabolism. This study attempted to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen metabolism pathway are associated with PCa risk in low incidence Asian ethnic groups. We genotyped 172 Malaysian subjects for cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYP17A1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, polypeptide 1 and 2 (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes of the androgen metabolism pathway and assessed the testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and IGF-1 levels. SNPs in the CYP17A1, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and IGF-1 genes were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although we did not find significant association between SNPs analysed in this study with PCa risk, we observed however, significant association between androgen levels and the IGF-1 and several SNPs. Men carrying the GG genotype for SNP rs1004467 (CYP17A1) had significantly elevated testosterone (P = 0.012) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (P = 0.024) as compared to carriers of the A allele. The rs518673 of the SRD5A1 was associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Our findings suggest CYP17A1 rs1004467 SNP is associated with testosterone and DHT levels indicating the importance of this gene in influencing androgen levels in the circulatory system of PCa patients, hence could be used as a potential marker in PCa assessment. PMID:26770559
Stern, Dalia; Robinson, Whitney R; Popkin, Barry M
Background: In the literature, it has been suggested that there are race-ethnic disparities in what Americans eat. In addition, some studies have shown that residents of African American and low-income neighborhoods have less access to grocery stores and supermarkets, which tend to stock healthier foods. However, it is unclear whether differences in food shopping patterns contribute to the poorer nutrient profile of food purchases made by racial-ethnic minorities. Objectives: We examined whether the mix of food stores where people shop (i.e., food-shopping patterns) was associated with the nutrient profile of packaged food purchases (PFPs) and the types of foods and beverages purchased, and we determined whether these associations differ across racial-ethnic groups. Design: We used PFPs by US households (Nielsen National Consumer Panel) from 2007 to 2012 and implemented a cluster analysis to categorize households according to their food-shopping patterns. Longitudinal random-effects linear regression models were used to examine the association between food shopping patterns and the nutrient qualities and types of packaged foods and beverages purchased by race-ethnicity in US households. Results: Shopping primarily at grocery chains was not associated with a better nutrient profile of household PFPs or the food and beverages that households purchased than was shopping primarily at mass merchandisers (value-oriented stores that sell merchandise lines in multiple departments) or at a combination of large and small stores. These results were consistent across racial-ethnic groups. Regardless of where households shopped, non-Hispanic African American households purchased foods with higher energy, total sugar, and sodium densities than did non-Hispanic white and Hispanic households. Conclusion: Policy initiatives that focus on increasing physical access to stores or helping stores sell healthier products to encourage healthier purchases may be ineffective because other
Han, Yawen; De Costa, Peter I.; Cui, Yaqiong
We focus on the learning of English in a Chinese university in Jiangsu and the university's preferential language policy, which allowed Uyghur minority students from Xinjiang to be enrolled despite their lower scores in the entrance examination. Guided by the constructs of language ideologies [Kroskrity, P. V. (2000). "Regimes of language:…
This article uses the notion of resistance as an analytical tool, emphasizing its sociopolitical significance and multidimensionality, to understand the complex link between ways of being Malay, Chinese and Indian schoolgirls, schooling and the wider Malaysian society. The macro and micro dynamics of the Malaysian ethnoscape, namely the ethnic…
Han, Der-Yan; Chen, Sue-Huei
The Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale has been applied widely. However, there is no complete report on the reliability and validity of its Chinese version (ATSPPHS-C). A total of 353 Taiwanese undergraduates completed the ATSPPHS-C, Help-Seeking Willingness Scale, Symptom Check List-90R, and Marlowe-Crowne Social…
de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith
Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413
Nadel, Max, Ed.
This teaching manual presents a model course for eighth graders involving the study of the ethnic groups that make up an American urban community. The course considers cultural, historical and sociological elements of immigrant groups in New York City, especially the Irish, Italian, Jewish, Chinese, Black and Puerto Rican populations. The manual…
Background This study aims to identify risk factors for level of offending among childhood offenders from different socio-economic status (SES) neighborhoods and ethnic origins. Method Three groups of childhood first time police arrestees were studied using standardized instruments for individual and parental characteristics: native Dutch offenders from moderate to high SES neighborhoods, native Dutch offenders from low SES neighborhoods, and offenders of non-Western origin from low SES neighborhoods. Results All subgroups showed high rates of externalizing disorders (27.2% to 41.8%) and familial difficulties (25.7% to 50.5%). Few differences between neighborhoods were found in the prevalence and impact of risk factors. However, the impact of some family risk factors on offending seemed stronger in the low SES groups. Regarding ethnical differences, family risk factors were more prevalent among non-Western childhood offenders. However, the association of these factors with level of offending seemed lower in the non-Western low SES group, while the association of some individual risk factors were stronger in the non-Western low SES group. Turning to the independent correlation of risk factors within each of the groups, in the Dutch moderate to high SES group, 23.1% of the variance in level of offending was explained by ADHD and behavioral problems; in the Dutch low SES group, 29.0% of the variance was explained by behavioral problems and proactive aggression; and in the non-Western low SES group, 41.2% of the variance was explained by substance use, sensation seeking, behavioral peer problems, and parental mental health problems. Conclusions Thereby, the study indicates few neighborhood differences in the impact of individual and parental risk factors on offending, while individual and parental risk factors may differ between ethnic groups. PMID:21714906
Ardila, Carlos M.; Vivares-Builes, Annie Marcela; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A.
Introduction: To evaluate the influence of the socio-economic context on self-reported gingival bleeding (SRGB) in individuals of ethnic minority groups (IEG). Methods: Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey in Colombia were collected. A multiple-stage stratified sampling was used. Data from 34.843 subjects were collected through interviews. The influence of socio-economic factors on SRGB in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. Results: Out of 34.843 subjects studied, a total of 6.440 individuals were members of ethnic minority groups. SRGB was observed in approximately 5% of IEG. There was a significant difference between IEG and subjects of the rest of the sample (28.403 subjects) regarding SRGB, elementary and high school education, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Human Development Index (HDI) and Unmet Basic Needs Index (UBNI) disfavouring IEG (P<0.05). The logistic model showed that SRGB was associated with IEG (P<0.001). This association persisted after controlling for confounders. A total of 33 Colombian states (level 2) and 6.440 members (level 1) of ethnic minority groups were included in the multilevel analisys; this model showed that the variance on SRGB was statistically significant at level 1 and 2. However, the variation at IEG level (35%) was smaller than the variation between states (65%) in the multilevel multivariate model. Conclusions: SRGB was higher in IEG. Also, GDP, HDI and UBNI were unfavourable factors in the members of ethnic minority groups. Considering these detriment factors and the higher variation between states, this study suggests that socio-economic context affects significantly SRGB in IEG. PMID:26383215
Siordia, Carlos; Bell, Ronny A; Haileselassie, Shalom L
In the USA, some race-ethnic minorities are unjustly relegated to the margins of society. As a consequence, these groups are more frequently found to have risk profiles associated with adverse health than individuals from the majority group (non-Hispanic Whites). Limited research has been devoted to investigating how American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) differ from other race-ethnic minorities and the majority group with regard to prevalence and risk for self-care, independent living, and ambulatory disabilities. Our investigation attempts to quantify both of these tracks by accounting for race-ethnic and poverty status. Our cross-sectional analysis used nationally representative data from the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year (2009-2013) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) file to address this literature gap. We selected survey participants from the four states with the largest concentration of AIANs in the USA (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Oklahoma). We used information on 2,428,233 individuals to generalize prevalence of and risk for disability to 49,994,332 individuals in the Southwest US. We found disability (self-reported) prevalence differed between our six race-ethnic groups in statistically significant and complex ways. Population-weighted logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and citizenship found AIANs have a higher risk for disability than non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanics. In order to impact public health and build a more equitable society, efforts should continue to identify health disparities. Researchers should continue to advance conceptual frameworks on plausible causal mechanisms between markers of social stratification and disablement processes.
Buunk, Abraham P; Hoben, Ashley D
Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three ethnic groups. i.e., Mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and Blacks (n = 35). Nearly all men in this study were farm workers or fishermen. Participants reported more negative than positive attitudes towards cousin marriage, and women reported more negative attitudes than did men. The main objection against marrying a cousin was that it is wrong for religious reasons, whereas the risk of genetic defects was considered relatively unimportant. Cousin marriage was not considered to contribute to the quality and unity of marriage and the family. The three ethnic groups did not differ in their attitude towards cousin marriages. However, a slower life history was related to a more negative attitude towards cousin marriages, especially among Blacks, less so among Mixtecs, and not at all among Mestizos. In addition, and independent of the effect of life history, with increasing levels of parental control over mate choice, the attitude towards cousin marriage was more positive, but among men the attitude was more negative the more religious they were. The results are discussed in the context of theorizing on life history theory and the benefits and costs of cousin marriages.
Liu, Tao; Liu, Qing; Liang, Meng; Zheng, Shutao; Li, Xiu Ling; Lu, Xiaomei; Sheyhidin, Ilyar
To investigate the viral load of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Using Gp5+/Gp6+ consensus primers, the prevalence of HPV DNA was examined in 253 paraffin-embedded ESCC samples. The presence and viral load of HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in Kazakhs, Uygurs and Hans using type-specific primers by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Among the 253 ESCC samples, 52 cases were positive for HPV DNA, all the 52 positive cases displayed HPV 16 infection, and six of the 52 cases were co-infected by HPV 16 and 18. HPV 16-positive rate and viral load were higher in lesions, and was inversely correlated with differentiation grades. However, there was no statistic significance among different differentiation grades. Also, there were no significant difference between detection rates of HPV types, viral load and age, gender, ethnic group, and lymph node metastasis. HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes could simultaneously be detected in ESCC specimens in three main ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The viral load of HPV 16 is higher in the ESCC lesions, and is inversely correlated with the differentiation grades. These observations reinforce the suggestion that HPV infection may involved in ESCC carcinogenesis; however, high prevalence or viral load of HPV infection does not seem to be related with high incidence of ESCC in Kazakhs, which may be the one element among the multiple risk factors contributing to ESCC.
Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Yung, Vanda
Parent training (PT) is a well supported treatment for reducing and preventing child conduct problems and abusive parenting. However, questions have been raised about the dissemination of PT to culturally diverse families who hold different views on childrearing and family structure. This article describes the application of group PT in two Chinese immigrant families to illustrate dual strategies for addressing potential cultural barriers. The Incredible Years program builds in many therapeutic process elements to address cultural concerns about PT skills to enhance parental engagement. In addition, augmenting basic PT with additional skills training can help parents manage stressors common in immigrant families in order to facilitate uptake of new parenting skills. Our implementation experience suggests that high risk immigrant Chinese parents can be effectively engaged in group PT even when they are not in treatment voluntarily. PMID:20564684
Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…
Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.
Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study…
Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong
This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…
Williams, Joanna L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.
In this article, we explore how researchers can more fully consider and conceptualize the role of race and ethnicity in studies of youth development programs, with an emphasis on positive youth development (PYD). Such a focus can be integrated in a more meaningful way through the application of a theoretical model that provides a framework for…
Femminella, Francis X.
The relationship between ethnic heritage and citizenship is explored in this paper. The author develops his analysis in four chapters. Chapter I examines levels of identity through which all individuals progress as they mature. These include identification with oneself, one's family, the extended family and ethnic group, the nation, and the world…
Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh
This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…
Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An
Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women
Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An
Abstract Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension. We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [−0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, −0.89 to −0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [−0.52 (CI −0.92 to −0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs–blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07). Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy
Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC
Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940
Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda
A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P <0.001), height (P <0.001) and weight (P<0.005) were significantly associated with the haemoglobin status of the Pod women. Haemoglobin level of both ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (P<0.05) of the Munda adult women, possibly due to better buying capacity. However, negative effect of food expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (P<0.05), which may be due to disparity in food sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake
DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.
Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A
The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024
Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Liu, James H; Ng, Sik Hung; Loong, Cynthia; Gee, Susan; Weatherall, Ann
Hierarchical cluster analyses of a trait sorting task were used to investigate social representations (and cultural stereotypes) of elderly New Zealanders (NZers) of Chinese and European origin, held by young (mean age = 17) and middle-aged (mean age = 46) NZers from both ethnic groups. Consistent with cultural theories of aging in Chinese societies, organizational features for NZ Chinese were: evaluative simplicity, role-governed representations (e.g., division between socio-emotional and task-oriented elders), little differentiation as a consequence of the ethnicity of elders or age group of subject, and an overall structure dominated by good/bad. NZ Europeans' social representations were more evaluatively complex, had fewer subtypes and more differences as a consequence of target person ethnicity. The Curmudgeon and the Nurturant were the most consensual stereotypes across the 8 cluster analyses (2 subject ethnicity x 2 target ethnicity x 2 subject age group), with the most power to organize stereotypical perceptions of elders across cultural groups. Only the majority group, NZ Europeans, displayed out-group homogeneity effects by creating more categories of elderly Europeans than Chinese. Both ethnic groups held representations of elderly Europeans as higher status in society, and both had more contact with European than Chinese elders outside the family.
Shi, C. Y.; Phang, T. W.; Lin, Y.; Wee, A.; Li, B.; Lee, H. P.; Ong, C. N.
The present study characterised p53 mutations in 44 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from Chinese patients residing in a high-incidence area. Twelve point mutations (27%) were detected in tumour tissues using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by direct DNA sequencing. Remarkably, no mutations were observed at codon 249. This is in contrast to HCCs from other high HCC incidence areas with endemic aflatoxin exposures, in which codon 249 is a mutational hot spot. It is therefore suggested that risk factors other than dietary exposure to aflatoxin may contribute to the high HCC incidence in Singapore. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7599044
Xu, Fu-Rong; Yang, Ya-Yun; Zhang, En-Lai; A, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Cui-Feng; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xu; Dai, Lu-Yuan
On-farm conservation and utilization of crop landraces have been proposed as means of conserving plant germplasm, in contrast to ex situ germplasm conservation, but little is known about the effectiveness of this approach. This paper reports the findings from a survey conducted in 15 unique ethnic groups of the Yunnan Province on the conservation and utilization of paddy rice, wheat (including wheat, barley, oats, and rye) and maize landrace varieties through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and questionnaires. The surveyed regions covered 306 villages (the village group) from 237 administrative villages in 124 towns (township) distributed in 36 counties of 11 prefectures (city) in Yunnan Province. The survey showed that 44.8%, 77.5%, and 37.3% of the visited villages had lost their paddy rice, wheat, and maize landraces, respectively. A total of 901 landraces were collected, including 371 rice, 119 wheat, and 411 maize varieties, respectively. There were 2.9 on-farm varieties on average per village, 3.3, 8.0 and 5.2 varieties on average per 100 households, 1 000 peasants and 100 Ha farmland areas, respectively. Among the 306 villages, two villages (Laomian and Qingkou) maintained the highest crop diversity with 18 varieties (including 10 rice and 8 maize varieties) and 14 paddy rice varieties. Also, on-farm varieties in different ethnic groups varied significantly from each other, ranging from 16 to 120 varieties per group. The diversity of paddy rice varieties was the highest, ranging from 1 to 72, and the diversity was mainly distributed in southern, southwest Yunnan of tropical, subtropical ethnic regions. The wheat varieties ranged from 0 to 47 and distributed in northern, northwest Yunnan of high altitude, temperature, and cold ethnic regions. The maize varieties ranged from 4 to 40. These patterns of variation in on-farm varieties are directly associated with traditional culture and custom for the ethnic minorities and reflect the lack of improved
Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan
This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…