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Sample records for chinese ethnic groups

  1. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-20

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.

  2. Characterization of Fecal Microbiota across Seven Chinese Ethnic Groups by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhuang; Gesudu, Qimu; Zheng, Yi; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota. PMID:24699404

  3. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes of Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhou; Jun, Wang; XingBo, Song; XiaoJun, Lu; Liu, Ding; BinWu, Ying

    2010-03-01

    We have co-amplified and analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) in 132 healthy unrelated autochthonous male individuals of Chinese Tibetan ethnic group residing in Lassa area of China. The gene diversity values for the Y-STRs loci ranged from a minimum 0.206 for DYS391 locus to a maximum of 0.912 for DYS385a/b locus in the populations. A total of 123 haplotypes were identified, among which 115 were unique and 8 occurred more than once. The overall haplotype diversity for 17 Y-STRs loci was 0.998. Research results will be valuable for forensic use in the regions and for Chinese population genetic study. PMID:20116321

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II in Chinese Bai ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Cai-Yong; Qian, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Han-Ting; Deng, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Xu, Peng

    2015-03-01

    For forensic and population genetic purposes, a total of 125 unrelated volunteers' blood samples were collected from Chinese Bai ethnic minority group to analyze sequence variation of two hypervariable segments (HVS-I and HVS-II) in the mitochondrial DNA control region. Comparing the HVS-I and HVS-II sequences of the 125 Chinese Bais to the Anderson reference sequence, we found 86 polymorphic loci in HVS-I and 40 in HVS-II in mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Chinese Bai ethnic minority group, which defined 93 and 53 different haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype diversity and the mean pairwise differences were 0.992 ± 0.003 and 6.553 in HVS-I, and 0.877 ± 0.027 and 2.407 in HVS-II, respectively. We defined four macrohaplogroups R, M, N and D with the proportions ranging from 9.6% to 40.0%. With the analysis of the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 16 180-16 193 in HVS-I, our study revealed new haplotypes of sequence variations. In addition, the Fst metric, phylogenetic tree, and principal component analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the Bai group and Chinese Han populations from South China, Changsha, and Guangdong. The results support that the Bai group is a multiorigin ethnic minority that has merged with the Chinese Han population.

  5. Comparison of major depressive disorder onset among foreign-born Asian Americans: Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Choi, Sunha; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-11-30

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1280 Asian Americans, we examined the extent to which major depressive disorder (MDD) onset differs by ethnicity and its associated factors for each of the three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese. We employed the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the survival and hazard functions for MDD onset by ethnicity, and cox proportional hazards models to identify socio-demographic and immigration-related factors associated with MDD onset. Approximately 7% of the entire sample had experienced MDD onset in their lifetime. Filipino immigrants showed the highest survival function, followed by Vietnamese immigrants over time. Those who were never-married or divorced were more likely to experience MDD onset when compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. Those who immigrated at a younger age were more likely to experience MDD onset than were those who immigrated at an older age. However, there were ethnic variations in terms of the risk factors that were associated with MDD onset across these three ethnic groups. Findings from this study signal the importance of understanding the differing experiences of MDD onset by ethnicity.

  6. Analysis of 17 Y-STR loci haplotype and Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution in five Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Li, Yue; Ou, Xue-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate genetic diversity in Chinese populations, 706 unrelated male individuals from five ethnic groups (Han, Korean, Hui, Mongolian, and Tibetan, respectively) were analyzed with 17 Y-chromosomal STRs. The haplotype diversity was 0.99985 in the combined data. A total of 675 distinct haplotypes were observed, of which 649 were unique. Y-chromosome haplogroups in the five groups were also predicted with Y-STR haplotypes. Genetic distance between the five studied ethnic groups and other published groups was analyzed by analysis of molecular variance and visualized in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, the 17 Y-STR loci are highly polymorphic markers in the five groups and hence are very useful in forensic application, population genetics, and human evolution studies.

  7. Genetic polymorphism analysis of 15 STR loci in Chinese Hui ethnic group residing in Qinghai province of China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ya-jun; Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Huang, Jing-feng; Li, Yuan-zhe; Qin, Hai-xia; Mu, Hao-fang; Su, Jie; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Fan, Shuan-liang

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the diversity distributions of allelic frequencies of 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci in a sample of Chinese Hui ethnic group in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The allelic frequencies of the 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were obtained from 2975 unrelated healthy Hui individuals. The STR genotyping data of all the samples were generated by DNA extraction, multiple amplification, GeneScan and genotype analysis. The genetic distances among different populations were calculated by using Nei's method and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the allelic frequencies of the same 15 STR loci using the neighbor-joining method. A total of 185 alleles were observed in the Hui population, with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5322. Chi-Square tests showed that all STR loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The forensic statistical parameters of all the loci showed high values. The population data in this study were compared with the previously published population data from other ethnics or areas. The Hui population showed significant differences from the Minnan Han, Uigur, Ewenki, Yi, Tibetan, Maonan and Malay ethnic minority groups in some loci, and from the South Morocco population and the Moroccan population in all the loci. Our results are valuable for human individual identification and paternity testing in the Chinese Hui population and are expected to enrich the genetic information resources of Chinese populations.

  8. Correlation between the linguistic affinity and genetic diversity of Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Lin, Keqin; Yu, Liang; Huang, Kai; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-10-01

    As the world's most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.

  9. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.

  10. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  11. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  12. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci of Chinese Tujia ethnic group residing in Youyang Region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ran; Jing, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Fang, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jiang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Y-STR haplotype data were obtained in a population sample of 197 unrelated healthy male individuals of Chinese Tujia ethnic minority group residing in an autonomous county of Southern China using 17 Y-chromosome STR markers. A total of 197 haplotypes were identified in the set of Y-STR loci. The overall haplotype diversity for the Tujia population at 17 Y-STR loci was 1.0000±0.0005. Genetic distance was estimated between this population and other 14 Chinese populations including Paiwan and Atayal populations of Taiwan, and Southern Han, Dong, Jing, Miao, Yao, Zhuang, Yi, Maonan, She, Hui, Sala, and Tibetan ethnic groups. The results demonstrated that the 17 Y-STR loci analyzed were highly polymorphic in Tujia ethnic group examined and hence useful for forensic cases, paternity testing, and population genetic studies. PMID:24565965

  13. Population genetics and forensic efficiency of twenty-one novel microsatellite loci of Chinese Yi ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Pan, Feng; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Rui; Jing, Hang; Xu, Peng

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated polymorphic distributions of allelic frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 21 novel autosomal microsatellite loci from 110 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic group. Expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.617 to 0.812, 0.777 to 0.936 and 0.560 to 0.790. The microsatellite loci showed high forensic efficiency. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999986902 and 0.999998818, respectively. Locus-by-locus allelic frequencies were compared using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method, and the statistically significant differences were observed between Yi group and Russian, Tujia, Kazak, Bai, Ningxia Han, Salar, Tibetan, and Uigur groups at 5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 12, and 13 loci, respectively. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses, and principal component analysis all indicated that the Yi group showed relatively short genetic relationships with Russian, Salar, and Bai group. The experimental results showed that the 21 loci in the multiplex system provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, also basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.

  14. Genetic diversities of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs of a Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group in Lhasa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.

  15. Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-02-05

    In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background.

  16. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  17. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  18. Genetic analysis of 15 mtDNA SNP loci in Chinese Yi ethnic group using SNaPshot minisequencing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun-Ting; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Wang, Hong-Dan; Yin, Cai-Yong; Fan, Han-Ting; Hu, Ling-Li; Shen, Chun-Mei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-01-15

    SNaPshot minisequencing is a rapid and robust methodology based on a single base extension with a labeled ddNTP. The present study detected 15 selected SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control and coding regions by minisequencing methodology using SNaPshot for forensic purpose. The samples were collected from 99 unrelated individuals of the Yi ethnic minority group in Yunnan Province. We have predominantly found high-frequency transitions (91.7%) and a significantly lower frequency of transversions (8.3%). The nt152, 489, 8701, 10,398, 16,183, and 16,362 loci were highly polymorphic, while the nt231, 473 and 581 loci were not polymorphic in the studied population. Based on these 15 SNPs, a total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes were defined in 99 individuals with the haplotype diversity of 0.9136. Also, we compared the mtDNA sequences of Yi group and other 9 populations worldwide and drew a Neighbor-Joining tree based on the shared 12 mtDNA SNP loci, which demonstrated a close relationship between Yi and Bai groups. In conclusion, the analysis of the 15 selected SNPs increases considerably the discrimination power of mtDNA. Moreover, the SNaPshot minisequencing method could quickly detect mtDNA SNPs, and is economical and sensitive. The set of selected 15 SNPs is highly informative and is capable for anthropology genetic analysis.

  19. Genetic analysis of 15 mtDNA SNP loci in Chinese Yi ethnic group using SNaPshot minisequencing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun-Ting; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Wang, Hong-Dan; Yin, Cai-Yong; Fan, Han-Ting; Hu, Ling-Li; Shen, Chun-Mei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-01-15

    SNaPshot minisequencing is a rapid and robust methodology based on a single base extension with a labeled ddNTP. The present study detected 15 selected SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control and coding regions by minisequencing methodology using SNaPshot for forensic purpose. The samples were collected from 99 unrelated individuals of the Yi ethnic minority group in Yunnan Province. We have predominantly found high-frequency transitions (91.7%) and a significantly lower frequency of transversions (8.3%). The nt152, 489, 8701, 10,398, 16,183, and 16,362 loci were highly polymorphic, while the nt231, 473 and 581 loci were not polymorphic in the studied population. Based on these 15 SNPs, a total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes were defined in 99 individuals with the haplotype diversity of 0.9136. Also, we compared the mtDNA sequences of Yi group and other 9 populations worldwide and drew a Neighbor-Joining tree based on the shared 12 mtDNA SNP loci, which demonstrated a close relationship between Yi and Bai groups. In conclusion, the analysis of the 15 selected SNPs increases considerably the discrimination power of mtDNA. Moreover, the SNaPshot minisequencing method could quickly detect mtDNA SNPs, and is economical and sensitive. The set of selected 15 SNPs is highly informative and is capable for anthropology genetic analysis. PMID:26432004

  20. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity. PMID:20854936

  1. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  2. Literacy, Place, and Migration in Philadelphia among Ethnic Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovito, Michael; Masucci, Michele

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the need for scholars interested in literacy, geography, and cultural studies to examine the role of English language literacy in shaping assimilation experiences of recent immigrant groups. We consider a case study of English language self-efficacy among ethnic Chinese immigrants in the Philadelphia metropolitan area to suggest how…

  3. Sequence variations in the transcriptional regulatory region and intron1 of HLA-DQB1 gene and their linkage in southern Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunping; Hu, Qingsong; Liu, Zehuan; Shen, Yang; Liu, Xiaoyi; Lin, Bin; Wu, Yuping; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2005-08-01

    Sequence polymorphism in the transcriptional regulatory region extending to intron1 (DQRRI1) of HLA-DQB1 gene, and their haplotypic distributions were investigated in southern Chinese populations. We cloned and sequenced a 1.1-kb segment containing the transcriptional regulatory region, exon1, and partial intron1 of HLA-DQB1 gene of 37 individuals from nine different ethnic groups in southern China. A high-density map of 162 polymorphisms, including 152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 10 insertion-deletion polymorphisms, was revealed. By comparing these data with SNPs deposited in dbSNP database in National Center for Biotechnology Information and polymorphisms that have been reported, 66 polymorphisms were firstly reported. A total of 16 different haplotypes were detected based on these 162 polymorphisms. The distribution of 16 alleles of DQRRI1 as well as their linkage with DQB1 exon2 alleles was also investigated based on the population study and phylogenetic analysis. Tight linkage between these two regions were discovered, as each of DQB1*02, DQB1*03, DQB1*04, DQB1*05, and DQB1*06 alleles was seen to be linked with specific DQRRI1 allele. Our study showed different pattern of transcriptional regulatory region, exon1, and intron1 of different DQB1 alleles.

  4. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  5. Weight, volume and surface area of placenta of normal pregnant women and their relation to maternal and neonatal parameters in Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Sivarao, S; Vidyadaran, M K; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S; Goh, Y M; Ramesh, K N

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity on maternal, placental and neonatal parameters. Maternal, placental, and the newborn parameters were corrected for gestational age. The male:female sex ratio was 1:1.03. One hundred and forty-four freshly delivered placentae from 55 Malaysian, 51 Chinese, and 38 Indian normal healthy patients were collected and standard stereological methods used to estimate the placental parameters. Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation and 1-way ANOVA were used to test significance of differences. Placental surface area, placental weight and placental volume of Indians were lower than Malays (P< 0.05). Placental weight correlated significantly with neonatal length (r=0.527), birthweight (r=0.665), head circumference (r=0.371) and booking weight (r=0.193) while placental volume correlated with neonatal length (r=0.588), birthweight (r=0.688), head circumference (r=0.384), parity (r=0.202) and booking weight (r=0.219) at P< 0.05. Indian babies weight and length were less than Chinese and Malay babies (P< 0.05) while booking weight of Indian mothers was less than those of Chinese mothers (P< 0.05). Even after being corrected for booking weight, placental parameters of Indian patients were still significantly less than Malays and Chinese (P< 0.05). PMID:12361688

  6. Ethnic Group Preferences for Counselor Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered paired-comparison questionnaire to ethnically mixed undergraduates (N-339) to measure preferences for 14 counselor characteristics. Found top 4 counselor characteristics cited by all 3 ethnic groups (Asian-American, Mexican-American, and Caucasian-American) to be counselors with similar attitudes, similar personality, greater…

  7. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  8. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  9. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  10. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P < .05 corrected); this reduction was detected in all 4 ethnic groups despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and image acquisition sequence. This finding provides evidence for a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia expressed above and beyond ethnic variations in incidence and clinical expression. In light of the existing literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. PMID:26264820

  11. The Effect of Ethnic Identity and Bilingual Confidence on Chinese Youth's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer Wen-shya

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the interrelated issues of private and public domains of self-esteem, ethnic identity formation, and bilingual confidence among youth of a minority group in a city in western Canada. One hundred, ten Chinese students aged 11-18 from a Chinese-language school were randomly surveyed. Most items of the instrument are derived from…

  12. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  13. American Ethnic Groups: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

    This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…

  14. Perception of Symptomatology in Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanborn, Kenneth O.; Katz, Martin M.

    This study was undertaken by several clinicians to obtain ratings of symptomatology and coping behavior of mental patients from different ethnic groups in Hawaii. Three dimensions of depression were studied: physical agitation, verbal retention, and optimism. The aims of the study were to describe the symptomatic and coping behaviors which are…

  15. Tooth wear in three ethnic groups in Sabah (northern Borneo).

    PubMed

    Milosevic, A; Lo, M S

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence and associated aetiologies of tooth wear were investigated in three ethnic groups in Sabah (Northern Borneo) using the Tooth Wear Index (TWI). The number of surfaces with enamel wear only, dentine exposed for less than a third or dentine exposed for more than a third were categorised into the TW minimal, moderate or severe respectively. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit medical/dental history, oral hygiene practices, satisfaction with body image, diet and other personal habits/details. The sample comprised of a self selected sample of 148 dental hospital attenders; 47 (32 per cent) each of ethnic Chinese and Malay and 54 (36 per cent) of ethnic Kadazan, matched for age and with a similar number of scoreable teeth per subject. Dentine exposure within the total sample was a common finding (95 per cent TW with moderate, 41 per cent TW severe). The Kadazan group had significantly (P < 0.05) more surfaces with severe tooth wear than the Chinese or Malay. Tobacco chewing was positively associated (rho = +0.4, P < 0.05) with both moderate and severe tooth wear, as was the habit of crushing/eating bones. Neither carbonated beverages or fresh fruit intake were associated with tooth wear, but their frequency of consumption was low. The buccal and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth were the most severely worn. Generally, wear was greater in the upper anterior sextant compared to the lower anterior sextant, with the exception of the lower incisal edges in the Kadazan group. Tooth wear into dentine was a common occurrence, especially among the Kadazan subjects and least among the Chinese subjects. The aetiological factors associated with this tooth wear are different to those encountered in Western cultures. PMID:9023582

  16. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433

  17. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds.

  18. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:16999802

  19. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.

  20. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  1. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  2. Ethnic differences in oro-facial somatosensory profiles-quantitative sensory testing in Chinese and Danes.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Luo, Y; Baad-Hansen, L; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Xie, Q-F; Svensson, P

    2013-11-01

    Ethnic differences in pain experiences have been widely assessed in various pathological and experimental conditions. However, limited sensory modalities have been described in previous research, and the affective-motivational factors have so far been estimated to be the main mediator for the ethnic differences. This study aimed to detect the ethnic differences of oro-facial somatosensory profiles related to the sensory-discriminative dimension in healthy volunteers. The standardised quantitative sensory testing battery developed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain was performed bilaterally in the infraorbital and mental regions on age- and gender-matched healthy Chinese and Danes, 29 participants each group. The influences of ethnicity, gender and test site on the somatosensory profile were evaluated by three-way anova. The ethnic disparities were also presented by Z-scores. Compared to Danes, Chinese were more sensitive to thermal detection, thermal pain, mechanical deep pain and mechanical pain rating parameters (P < 0·002) related to small fibre functions. However, the inverse results were observed for mechanical tactile modality related to large fibre function (P < 0·001) and wind-up ratio (P = 0·006). Women presented higher sensitivity compared to men. The mean Z-scores of all the parameters from Chinese group were in the normal zone created by Danish Caucasians' means and SDs. The ethnic disparities in somatosensory profile illustrated the necessity of establishing the reference data for different ethnic groups and possibly individual pain management strategies for the different ethnic groups.

  3. Diurnal Rhythms of Bone Turnover Markers in Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Jean; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jarjou, Landing; Zhou, Bo; Prentice, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ethnic groups differ in fragility fracture risk and bone metabolism. Differences in diurnal rhythms (DRs) of bone turnover and PTH may play a role. Objective: We investigated the DRs of plasma bone turnover markers (BTMs), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D in three groups with pronounced differences in bone metabolism and plasma PTH. Participants: Healthy Gambian, Chinese, and white British adults (ages 60–75 years; 30 per country). Interventions: Observational study with sample collection every 4 hours for 24 hours. Main Outcomes: Levels of plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type-1 N-propeptide, N-mid osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. DRs were analyzed with random-effects Fourier regression and cross-correlation and regression analyses to assess associations between DRs and fasting and 24-hour means of BTMs and PTH. Results: Concentrations of BTMs, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were higher in Gambians compared to other groups (P < .05). The DRs were significant for all variables and groups (P < .03) and were unimodal, with a nocturnal peak and a daytime nadir for BTMs, whereas PTH had two peaks. The DRs of BTMs and PTH were significantly cross-correlated for all groups (P < .05). There was a significant positive association between C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and PTH in the British and Gambian groups (P = .03), but not the Chinese group. Conclusions: Despite ethnic differences in plasma BTMs and PTH, DRs were similar. This indicates that alteration of rhythmicity and loss of coupling of bone resorption and formation associated with an elevated PTH in other studies may not uniformly occur across different populations and needs to be considered in the interpretation of PTH as a risk factor of increased bone loss. PMID:27294326

  4. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  5. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  6. Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Perry L., Comp.

    This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic…

  7. Minority Families: Strengths of Four Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.; Meredith, William H.

    While healthy families and minority family systems are two areas of family research currently getting attention, little is known about what various ethnic families consider to be important traits of healthy families. To examine this issue and to assess family strengths and marital and parenting satisfaction for different ethnic samples, parents…

  8. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  9. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival.

  10. Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample.

  11. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently inhabit…

  12. Ethnic Discrimination and the Income of Majority-Group Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semyonov, Moshe; Cohen, Yinon

    1990-01-01

    Studies Jews and Arabs in Israel to determine whether members of superordinate ethnic groups gain or lose from labor market discrimination against workers of a subordinate ethnic group. Finds that economic discrimination against Arabs benefits Jewish workers at the top of the social system more than those at the bottom. (AF)

  13. China's ethnic groups: fertility change in five autonomous regions.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Zhu, H

    1993-08-01

    The ethnic population of China increased from 35 million in the early 1950s to more than 90 million in 1990. They make up about 8% of China's population. The changes in the fertility levels of the Mongolian, the Tibetan, the Zhuang, the Hui, and the Uygur ethnic peoples inhabiting autonomous regions were investigated. The total fertility rates (TFRs) of the Mongolian, the Zhuang, and the Hui had declined to below 3.5 by the late 1980s. The TFR of the Mongolians dropped from 6.5 in the early 1970s to 3.0 in the late 1970s, rose to 3.6 in 1981 and 1982, and fell again to 2.3 in 1989. During 1985-89 the TFR of the Uygurs was 5.09 compared to 2.42 of the Han (Chinese) women in the region. The average life-time births during this period were: 2.7 for Mongolians, 3.5 for the Zhuang, 3.6 for the Hui, 0.8 higher than for the Han women. The average TFR of the Han women declined to 3.19 during 1985-89. Implementation of the same family planning program could account for the similar fertility levels of the latter 2 groups. The TFR of the Hui women was 7.0 before 1976, staying at 6.7 during the 1970s. However, it dropped from 6.5 in 1983 to 3.58 during 1985-89. The TFR of Tibetans was 5.0 in the early 1960s, and 30 years later it hovered between 4.0 and 5.0. The Uygurs maintained a TFR of 5.0 to 6.0 in the 20 years prior to 1993, although in 3 successive years after 1985 a decline started. 10% of Uygur women aged 18 already had 1 child. 5% of Hui women aged 20 in 1988 had born children. The infertility rates of ethnic women aged 49-57 in 1988 were; 14% for the Tibetans, 5% for the Uygurs, 2% for the Mongolians, and 1% each for the Hui and the Zhuang. The decline of fertility of ethnic groups started in the 1980s, and it was rather uneven as a consequence of implementation of family planning programs after a major decline of the fertility rate of the national population in the 1970s. PMID:12287606

  14. Ethnic Self-Labeling in Young American Adults from Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic labels were examined among 242 young American adults with Chinese ancestry (age range = 18-32 years, M = 23.97; 73% female, 27% male). Ethnic labels fell under broad categories whereby 22% reported heritage national labels (e.g., Chinese), 35% added American to their heritage national label (e.g., Chinese American), and 42%…

  15. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  16. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  17. Prejudice, Tolerance, and Attitudes Toward Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual and empirical examination of the term "prejudice". The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the term "tolerance" as it has developed in political sociology and suggests the application of this concept to the study of inter-ethnic attitudes. (Author)

  18. Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations.

  19. Ethnic Socialization and the Academic Adjustment of Adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and…

  20. Ethnic Chinese Students' Communication with Cultural Others in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Prue

    2005-01-01

    This interpretive study explores the intercultural communication experiences of ethnic Chinese students in a New Zealand university classroom context. In aspiring to collaborative relationships with their New Zealand peers and in seeking help from teaching staff, ethnic Chinese students often experienced difficulties in intercultural…

  1. Negotiating Differences in Learning and Intercultural Communication: Ethnic Chinese Students in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Prue

    2004-01-01

    Research on ethnic Chinese students studying in a Western (New Zealand) learning environment exposed differences in communication and learning between their first culture and the host culture. Thirteen ethnic Chinese students in a New Zealand university business school participated in an 18-month ethnographic study. The findings indicate that…

  2. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  3. Ethnic Attitudes among Minority and Majority Children: The Role of Ethnic Identification, Peer Group Victimization and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relative importance of ethnic identification, perceived parental attitudes, and peer victimization for Dutch and Turkish 10- to 12-year-olds' ethnic attitudes in the Netherlands. Found that for both groups, stronger ethnic identification related to more positive in-group evaluation, and peer victimization related to more negative…

  4. Population genetics of 14 ethnic groups using phenotypic data from VNTR loci.

    PubMed

    Balazs, I

    1993-01-01

    Population genetic studies were performed using five VNTR loci (D2S44, D4S163, D14S13, D17S79, D18S27). The populations examined were Caucasian (Australia, Brazil and U.S.A.), Australian aborigine, Chinese, Amerindian (Cheyenne, Maya, Navajo, Pima, Tobas/Wicnis), North American Black, North American Hispanic (California, Miami, New York, Texas). The overall size range of the alleles for these loci, in PstI-digested DNA, was the same in all populations. The major difference among populations was the relative frequency of particular groups of alleles. These differences were small among similar ethnic groups, while sometimes varying several fold among some of the more distinct populations. However, groups of alleles that were rare in the major ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Chinese) were also rare in the other populations. The frequency databases generated by typing individuals for 4 loci were used to compare the random DNA profile frequencies among populations. The results show that the estimated frequency of any 4 locus profile is very low in all populations examined (e.g., median value < 10(-8)). Analysis of relative genetic similarity among populations was used to create the most likely clustering of these ethnic groups. Results show an uncanny similarity between the clusters generated and genetic distance measurements obtained with traditional calculations of conventional genetic markers. PMID:8104559

  5. Contraception in ethnic minority groups in Bedford.

    PubMed

    Beard, P

    1982-08-01

    As an aid to health visitors who must provide advice on family planning, this article discusses the cultural and religious backgrounds of Italians, West Indians, Bengalis, and Punjabis as they affect family size and family planning, and describes a survey of the contraceptive practices of 100 mothers from these groups in Bedford. Family planning advice is provided to all mothers by doctors and health visitors, and services are available at family planning clinics or through general practitioners. Most of the Italians in Bedford originated in southern Italy. Traditional family life and strict morality remain strong, and Roman Catholic attitudes toward childbearing and birth control are influential. There are trends toward greater fertility decision making by couples, however. West Indians are characterized by a high illegitimacy rate, unstable unions, and early sexual experience, but their birthrate has fallen since their initial immigration to Britain. Among Bengalis, childbearing is the only means of prestige for women and sons are regarded as a source of security. Contraceptives are approved by the Islam religion but are seen as a threat to the traditional power structure of the male-dominated family. Punjabis, at one time a peasant group, are tending to become craftsmen with better education and the nuclear family is more common. Hinduism stresses early marriage and having many sons, but among Sikhs women may work outside the home and exercise great influence in family affairs. 10 West Indian, 9 Bengali, 44 Italian, and 37 Punjabi women having babies since June 1979 were selected from the birth record books of 3 health visitors in Bedford. There was no control group, and a true comparison was not possible. Average age and parity were 24 and 1.7 for West Indians, 27 and 4.4 for Bengalis, 26 and 1.8 for Italians, and 26 and 2.3 for Punjabis. 4 of 10 West Indians were unmarried, but there were no unmarried Asian mothers and only 1 Italian. Most women went to

  6. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  7. Bibliographic Index of American Ethnic Groups, Volume I [And] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas

    This index presents page references to topics on American ethnic groups in books, journals, and miscellaneous publications on ethnicity in America. The main purpose of the index is to enable the user to locate specific topics with relation to a particular ethnic group. The index lists 14 main subjects, comprised of topics and nine ethnic groups.…

  8. Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Badjie, Karafa S W; Tauscher, Craig D; van Buskirk, Camille M; Wong, Clare; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin Y; Stubbs, James R

    2011-01-01

    Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization. PMID:22356481

  9. [Lactase polymorphism in representatives of different ethnic-territorial groups].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I; Sheremet'eva, V A; Kondik, V M

    1992-01-01

    Lactase polymorphism was studied in the native population of West Siberia and also in Buryatia. LAC*R frequency observed is-Khants- 0.8367, Mansi - 0.8660, Nenets - 0.8944, Buryats - 0.6883. The data obtained are considered to be the result of natural selection under traditional historical economical-cultural environment of the ethnic groups in question.

  10. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  11. Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Badjie, Karafa S W; Tauscher, Craig D; van Buskirk, Camille M; Wong, Clare; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin Y; Stubbs, James R

    2011-01-01

    Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization.

  12. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  13. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  14. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  15. Reading and Written Expression Performance of Ten Asian/Pacific-Islander Ethnic Groups on the Eighth Grade California Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    For the first time, Asian and Pacific-Islander (API) eighth-grade students taking part in the California Assessment Program (CAP) were identified as belonging to one of the following 10 API ethnic groups: Asian-Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Pacific-Islander, and Vietnamese. In school districts associated…

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms predisposing to asthma in children of Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Ramphul, K; Lv, J; Hua, L; Liu, Q H; Fang, D Z; Ji, R X; Bao, Y X

    2014-05-01

    Our objective was to investigate the distributions of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MS4A2 E237G, MS4A2 C-109T, ADRB2 R16G, IL4RA I75V, IL4 C-590T, and IL13 C1923T in Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han children with asthma. This case-control association study enrolled 382 unrelated Mauritian Indian children, 193 with asthma and 189 healthy controls, and 384 unrelated Chinese Han children, 192 with asthma and 192 healthy controls. The SNP loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the Chinese Han samples and TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the Mauritian Indian samples. In the Mauritian Indian children, there was a significant difference in the distribution of IL13 C1923T between the asthma and control groups (P=0.033). The frequency of IL13 C1923T T/T in the Mauritian Indian asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group [odds ratio (OR)=2.119, 95% confidence interval=1.048-4.285]. The Chinese Han children with asthma had significantly higher frequencies of MS4A2 C-109T T/T (OR=1.961, P=0.001) and ADRB2 R16G A/A (OR=2.575, P=0.000) than the control group. The IL13 C1923T locus predisposed to asthma in Mauritian Indian children, which represents an ethnic difference from the Chinese Han population. The MS4A2 C-109T T/T and ADRB2 R16G A/A genotypes were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han children.

  17. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  18. Mutations in pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism in ethnic Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Lei; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Wen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lo, Fu-Sung; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Yang, Stone; Shih, Shin-Lin; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2014-01-01

    An inactivating mutation in the GNAS gene causes either pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1A) when it is maternally inherited or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) when it is paternally inherited. We investigated clinical manifestations and mutations of the GNAS gene in ethnic Chinese patients with PHP1A or PPHP. Seven patients from 5 families including 4 girls and 2 boys with PHP1A and 1 girl with PPHP were studied. All PHP1A patients had mental retardation. They were treated with calcitriol and CaCO3 with regular monitoring of serum Ca levels, urinary Ca/Cr ratios, and renal sonography. Among them, 5 patients also had primary hypothyroidism suggesting TSH resistance. One female patient had a renal stone which was treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. She had an increased urinary Ca/Cr ratio of 0.481 mg/mg when the stone was detected. We detected mutations using PCR and sequencing as well as analysed a splice acceptor site mutation using RT-PCR, sequencing, and minigene construct. We detected 5 mutations: c.85C>T (Q29*), c.103C>T (Q35*), c.840-2A>G (R280Sfs*21), c.1027_1028delGA (D343*), and c.1174G>A (E392K). Mutations c.840-2A>G and c.1027_1028delGA were novel. The c.840-2A>G mutation at the splice acceptor site of intron 10 caused retention of intron 10 in the minigene construct but skipping of exon 11 in the peripheral blood cells. The latter was the most probable mechanism which caused a frameshift, changing Arg to Ser at residue 280 and invoking a premature termination of translation at codon 300 (R280Sfs*21). Five GNAS mutations in ethnic Chinese with PHP1A and PPHP were reported. Two of them were novel. Mutation c.840-2A>G destroyed a spice acceptor site and caused exon skipping. Regular monitoring and adjustment in therapy are mandatory to achieve optimal therapeutic effects and avoid nephrolithiasis in patients with PHP1A.

  19. Effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention: ethnic group differences.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Ok; Schaffer, Bryan S; Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Dejoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2004-07-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention on organizational climate and worker health and well-being. Our sample consisted of employees from 21 stores of a large national retail chain. The intervention involved establishing and facilitating employee problem-solving teams in 11 of the stores. Teams were charged with developing and implementing action plans tailored to the needs of their specific site. Pre- and postcomparisons of the treatment and control groups showed that the intervention produced positive effects on both the climate and health and well-being outcomes; however, these effects varied significantly by ethnic group. Particularly in terms of organizational climate, black and Hispanic employees were the primary beneficiaries of the participatory intervention process. These results are interpreted in terms of social identification and self-categorization theories and are contrasted with traditional participatory and diversity training approaches. PMID:15247801

  20. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D

    1983-03-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio. PMID:6875443

  1. Effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention: ethnic group differences.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Ok; Schaffer, Bryan S; Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Dejoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2004-07-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention on organizational climate and worker health and well-being. Our sample consisted of employees from 21 stores of a large national retail chain. The intervention involved establishing and facilitating employee problem-solving teams in 11 of the stores. Teams were charged with developing and implementing action plans tailored to the needs of their specific site. Pre- and postcomparisons of the treatment and control groups showed that the intervention produced positive effects on both the climate and health and well-being outcomes; however, these effects varied significantly by ethnic group. Particularly in terms of organizational climate, black and Hispanic employees were the primary beneficiaries of the participatory intervention process. These results are interpreted in terms of social identification and self-categorization theories and are contrasted with traditional participatory and diversity training approaches.

  2. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  3. Gender and Ethnic Variation in Arranged Marriages in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Using a data set (N = 1,600) collected in the city of Urumchi in 2005, this article examines ethnic differences in arranged marriages in urban China. Data analysis shows a rapid decline in parental arrangement for both Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese in Urumchi. Han Chinese are less likely than Uyghur Muslims to report arranged marriages, with main…

  4. Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  6. [A survey on distribution of red cell blood group systems in naxi and primi ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Hao, L; Zhang, W; Tao, Y; Zhou, Z; Du, R

    1995-01-01

    A survey of distribution of red cell blood group systems, including ABO, MNSs, Rh and P, was carried out on the Naxi and Primi ethnic groups in Yunnan province. The results based on 104 cases in each of the two ethnic groups showed that both Naxi and Primi possessed a high gene frequency r of 0.6082 and 0.6882, respectively, with gene frequency p = q. The gene frequency m of Naxi (0.8509) was found to be very high among the populations studied in China until now, only next to that of Lizu (0.8709). The most common phenotype of Rh system was CcDE- in both Naxi and Primi, with a quite high cDE frequency. No case of Rh negative was observed in the two ethnic groups. The P1 in Naxi approximated to that in Primi. The red cell blood group systems and their genetic distances suggested that the Naxi and Primi was genetically close to ethnic groups of North China, but different from those of South China. This fact suggests that these two ethnics groups originated from the North China.

  7. Alpha-Fetoprotein levels in normal males from seven ethnic groups with different hepatocellular carcinoma risks.

    PubMed

    Sizaret, P; Tuyns, A; Martel, N; Jouvenceaux, A; Levin, A; Ong, Y W; Rive, J

    1975-08-22

    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) levels of 1,335 males (15 years and older) of seven ethnic groups (Chinese, Indians, and Malays from Singapore, Caucasians from Lyon, and Blacks from Nairobi, forest, and the savanna region of the Ivory Coast) were determined by radioimmunoassay. A few elevated levels (up to 30 nanounits/ml) were detected in some normal individuals, especially in the older age-groups. In addition, there was a systematic age-dependency of AFP levels particularly evident in the groups from Singapore-Lyon, in which there was a 50% AFP increase between the ages of 20 and 40. Comparison between Africans on the one hand and people from Singapore-Lyon on the other hand revealed highly significant differences (p less than 0.001), especially in the younger groups, whereas Chinese, Malays, and Indians from Singapore had very similar AFP pattern; this suggests an important role for environmental factors in the regulation of AFP levels. The age dependency of the presumed effect of environmental factors is in keeping with experimental data showing that young animals respond more vigorously to AFP-stimulating factors. Although the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differs in the three Singapore groups (the highest in Chinese and the lowest in Indians), no relationship was observed in this study between mean AFP level and HCC incidence in Singapore.

  8. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  9. Oral cancer incidence disparity among ethnic groups on Guam.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L

    2005-03-01

    Although the prevalence of betel nut use among Chamorro residents of Guam is higher than that of other Micronesians residing on the island, the "other Micronesian" ethnic groups have a mouth cancer incidence rate more than double that of Chamorros. The reason for this apparent disparity in rates of mouth cancer incidence may be clarified by future studies focused on the frequency and method of betel nut use among these populations. Another possible explanation for this apparent disparity in cancer incidence rates could be that of migration to Guam for medical treatment.

  10. Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2012-06-01

    This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.

  11. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren; Robinson, Jennifer; McFarland, Joel; KewalRamani, Angelina; Zhang, Anlan; Wilkinson-Flicker, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that, over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska…

  12. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  13. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  14. Neighborhood deprivation and adverse birth outcomes among diverse ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, T; Stein, CR; Savitz, DA; Kaufman, JS; Mason, SM; Herring, AH

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood has been associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, variation in the effect of neighborhood deprivation among diverse ethnic groups has not been studied. Methods Using linked hospital discharge and birth data for 517,994 singleton live births in New York City from 1998–2002, we examined the association between neighborhood deprivation, preterm birth (PTB), and term low birthweight (TLBW)(≥37 weeks and <2500g). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for PTB (<32 and 33–36 weeks) and TLBW were estimated using logistic regression. Results The aOR for PTB <32 weeks for the highest quartile of deprivation compared to the lowest was 1.24 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.13, 1.36), for PTB 33–36 weeks was 1.06 (95%CI=1.01, 1.11), and for TLBW was 1.19 (95%CI=1.11, 1.27). Measures of association varied by ethnicity; AORs of the greatest magnitude for PTB were found among Hispanic Caribbean women (PTB<32weeks: aOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.27, 2.10; PTB 33–36 weeks: aOR=1.32, 95%CI=1.02, 1.70), and for TLBW among African women (aOR=1.47, 95%CI=1.02, 2.13). Conclusions The mechanisms linking neighborhood deprivation to adverse birth outcomes may differ depending on individual ethnicity and/or cultural context and should be investigated in future research. PMID:20470971

  15. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  16. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  17. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  18. The social costs of academic success across ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal association between academic achievement and social acceptance across ethnic groups in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13,570; M(age) = 15.5 years). The effects of school context are also considered. Results show that African American and Native American adolescents experience greater social costs with academic success than Whites. Pertaining to school context, findings suggest that the differential social consequences of achievement experienced by African Americans are greatest in more highly achieving schools, but only when these schools have a smaller percentage of Black students. Students from Mexican descent also showed differential social costs with achievement in particular contexts. The implications of these findings to theory, policy, and future research are discussed.

  19. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  20. Ethnic Mongol Students and Cultural Recognition: Case Studies of Three Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenzhou, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Cultural recognition is of growing interest in China, where ethnic identity has become an increasingly conspicuous issue (Gladney 1994, 1996; Hansen 1999; Harrell 1990, 2001; Lee 2001; Postiglione 1999; Postiglione, Zhu, and Ben 2004; Teng 2001). However, the role of institutions of Chinese higher education has received little attention, despite…

  1. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  2. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.

  3. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities. PMID:24578104

  4. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: Is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation – particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised. PMID:22749442

  5. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  6. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  7. [The indigenous population. Demographic expansion of ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Valdes De Montano, L M

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the vital statistics of the 450 Mexican municipios in which 70% or more of the population speak indigenous languages permits a rough analysis of the demographic behavior of 23 different ethnic groups. Statistics of government departments dealing with indigenous affairs and the various indigenous organizations created since the 1970s provide other estimates of the size of the indigenous population. The census indicated a population of 5,181,038 speakers of indigenous languages aged 5 or older in 1980. The public administration estimated the 1980 indigenous population at 10 million, and the indigenous organizations estimated 12 to 18 million in 1980 and 15 million in 1989. Census and vital statistics data indicate that each indigenous group has had unique patterns of mortality and fertility in the past 30 years. Mortality declined significantly in some groups, but fertility overall has not declined to the same extent. In 1970 and 1980 respectively for the sample as a whole, the average crude birth rates were 42.4 and 37.3/1000 and the average crude death rates were 13.8 and 8.2/1000. The average annual growth rate was estimated at 2.9% for both years. 1980 growth rates ranged from 3.5% for the Maya and Mixtec to a low of 0.5% for the Tzotzil. PMID:12158100

  8. A macro analysis of population growth of China's ethnic groups in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, W

    1992-06-01

    8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.

  9. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  10. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships Between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans.

  11. Ethnicity, self reported psychiatric illness, and intake of psychotropic drugs in five ethnic groups in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bayard-Burfield, L; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study hypothesises that the presumed increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and intake of psychotropic drugs among Iranian, Chilean, Turkish, and Kurdish adults, when these groups are compared with Polish adults, can be explained by living alone, poor acculturation, unemployment, and low sense of coherence.
DESIGN—Data from a national sample of immigrants/refugees, who were between the ages of 20-44 years old, upon their arrival in Sweden between 1980 and 1989. Unconditional logistic regression was used in the statistical modelling.
SETTING—Sweden.
PARTICIPANTS—1059 female and 921 male migrants from Iran, Chile, Turkey, Kurdistan and Poland and a random sample of 3001 Swedes, all between the ages of 27-60 years, were interviewed in 1996 by Statistics Sweden.
MAIN RESULTS—Compared with Swedes, all immigrants had an increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs, with results for the Kurds being non-significant. Compared with Poles, Iranian and Chilean migrants had an increased risk of psychiatric illness, when seen in relation to a model in which adjustment was made for sex and age. The difference became non-significant for Chileans when marital status was taken into account. After including civil status and knowledge of the Swedish language, the increased risks for intake of psychotropic drugs for Chileans and Iranians disappeared. Living alone, poor knowledge of the Swedish language, non-employment, and low sense of coherence were strong risk factors for self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs. Iranian, Chilean, Turkish and Kurdish immigrants more frequently reported living in segregated neighbourhoods and having a greater desire to leave Sweden than their Polish counterparts.
CONCLUSION—Evidence substantiates a strong association between ethnicity and self reported longstanding psychiatric

  12. Childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain: a United Kingdom children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) study.

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, C. A.; McKinney, P. A.; Bunch, K. J.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I. J.

    1991-01-01

    We present here the results of the largest study of childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain, based on 7,658 children treated at paediatric oncology centres throughout the country. Incidence rates could not be calculated and so relative frequencies were analysed by the log-linear modelling method of Kaldor et al. (1990) with allowance made for regional variations in the ages and diagnostic groups of the children included in the study. Children of Asian (Indian sub-continent) and West Indian ethnic origin had similar patterns of incidence for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to White Caucasians. There was a significant excess of Hodgkin's disease among Asian children compared with Caucasians with an estimated relative risk (RR) of 2.09; this excess was greatest in the 0-4 age group (RR = 6.67). There were significant deficits of Wilms' tumour and rhabdomyosarcoma among Asian children, each with a frequency around half that among Caucasians, whereas West Indians had a significant excess of Wilms' tumour (RR = 2.55). Asian and West Indian children each had a non-significant twofold RR for unilateral retinoblastoma. The results suggest that the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is associated with environmental determinants in the country of residence which are most likely to relate to lifestyle factors. The occurrence of retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumour and Hodgkin's disease in early childhood is apparently related more to ethnicity than to geographical location and may reflect genetic factors or environmental exposures specific to the lifestyle of particular ethnic groups. PMID:1654982

  13. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions.

  14. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions. PMID:25871377

  15. Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment: Examining risk and resilience among youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M; Hua, Josephine M; Chance, Lauren J

    2010-04-01

    Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment were examined among 95 youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada (mean age 12 years). Utilizing cross-sectional data, promotive effects of ethnic identity were observed; higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms. Vulnerability effects of ethnic identity were fewer; lower ethnic identity was associated with above average depressive symptoms and, for males only, below average self-esteem. Findings also suggested that higher ethnic identity might buffer the stress of poor achievement, indicating a possible protective effect of ethnic identity. Although requiring replication, these preliminary findings illustrate the utility of adopting a risk and resilience framework and suggest the value of promoting strong ethnic identities.

  16. Circannual pattern of autistic births: reanalysis in three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ticher, A; Ring, A; Barak, Y; Elizur, A; Weizman, A

    1996-08-01

    Seasonal variations in births of autistic subjects have been reported for the United States, Canada, Sweden, Japan, and Israel. Here, data from England, Japan, and Israel are reanalyzed using spectral analysis for the cosine function. A sample of 583 autistic births occurring over 40 years (1947-1989) is meta-analyzed, focusing on rhythmicity. Major periodicities of 17.6, 18.6, and 21.8 years, on which minor periodicities ranging from 2.2 to 4.1 years were superimposed, yielded the best-fitting cosine function to significantly explain variance of autistic birth patterns. It is interesting that the function composed of a major period with several minor periods is remarkably similar in each of the three ethnic groups. In all three countries the acrophases (calculated function) aggregate in the period 1963-1970. In light of this apparent universality of rhythms in autistic births across continents, we call for further investigations into the role of environmental factors, possibly viral pandemics, in the etiology of autism.

  17. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  18. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  19. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  20. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-04

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.

  1. Learners' Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Pronunciation Accuracy: A Sociolinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…

  2. Do Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation Protect against Discrimination for Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…

  3. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  4. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  5. The Official National Language and Language Attitudes of Three Ethnic Minority Groups in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Minglang

    1999-01-01

    Uses an attitude/motivation battery and matched-guise procedure to examine Kazak, Uygur, and Yi subject's ratings of Putonghua (PTH) and Chinese ethnic minority nationality (EMN) languages and 12 variables in PTH learning. Shows among other things that integrative orientation of Beijing people are the best predictors of EMN's instrumental…

  6. Neighborhoods, Family, and Substance Use: Comparisons of the Relations across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance use. There are also some racial and ethnic group differences in relationships, including that low attachment to and lack of social opportunities in neighborhoods more strongly predict substance use among whites than among other racial and ethnic groups and that family management decreases the relationship between neighborhood safety and substance use among African Americans. A better understanding of the associations among factors that influence substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups can help effectively target preventive interventions for different groups. PMID:18461154

  7. Assimilation and Stratification in the Homeownership Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alba, Richard D.; Logan, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates home ownership differences among 12 racial and ethnic groups using the Public Use Sample data of the 1980 Census. Majority group members have the greatest probability of home ownership. Results support an assimilation perspective on home ownership. (SLD)

  8. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  9. Investigating ethnic differences in sexual health: focus groups with young people

    PubMed Central

    Connell, P; McKevitt, C; Low, N

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare normative beliefs about sexual health in young men and women from black Caribbean, black African, and white ethnic groups in order to better understand ethnic inequalities in sexual health. Methods: Focus group discussions with young people living in an area with known high prevalence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Groups were stratified by sex and self defined ethnicity. Results: 22 male and 20 female 16–25 year olds of black Caribbean, black African, and white ethnicity took part in eight discussions. Participants from black ethnic groups were more aware of gonorrhoea than white participants but all ethnic groups regarded these as being less important than unplanned pregnancy or HIV/AIDS. Most participants believed that they would have obvious symptoms if they had a sexually transmitted infection and could determine the cleanliness of sexual partners by visual or behavioural cues. Black Caribbean women were alone in acknowledging the likelihood of their partners having concurrent sexual relationships. Some black Caribbean women described negative attitudes of staff in genitourinary medicine clinics who were from the same ethnic background. Conclusion: In this focus group study we identified ethnic differences in terminology, awareness of sexually transmitted infections, non-exclusive sexual relationships, and experience of sexual health services but gender had a greater influence on normative beliefs. The similarities in norms for all ethnic groups might reflect common social and cultural exposures. The low priority given to sexually transmitted infections by young people from all ethnic groups needs to be addressed if they are to be tackled successfully. PMID:15295130

  10. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap." PMID:11552591

  11. Race and ethnicity in the workplace: spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Victoria C; Thomas, Kecia M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace--a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace.

  12. A Model of Intercultural Communication: The Interaction of Japanese and Other Ethnic Groups in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Several research studies have looked at Japanese-American interaction with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. A study by McCandless and Hoyt, "Sex, Ethnicity, and Play Preferences of Preschool Children," reveals that children in Hawaii base their choice of friends on racial distinctions. This is due, however, not to racial hostility or discrimination…

  13. Self-Esteem Changes in the Middle School Years: A Study of Ethnic and Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…

  14. Entering a New Peer Group in Ethnically and Linguistically Diverse Childcare Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Sanders, Kay; Lee, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined changes over time in social competence with peers as a function of child and classroom characteristics. One hundred and seventy ethnically diverse low-income children, all new to their peer groups, entered childcare classrooms with heterogeneous entry policies and ethnic/racial compositions. We observed…

  15. Sense of Belonging among High School Students Representing 4 Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the dimensions and mechanisms of belonging relevant to motivation and achievement among high school students representing 4 ethnic groups. Using survey data from 9th to 12th grade students (N = 5,494) attending 7 ethnically-diverse high schools, structural equation modeling was employed to explore, independently for each…

  16. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging among Persons of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…

  17. Patterns and Predictors of Father-Infant Engagement across Race/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…

  18. Validity of the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory with Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Ronke R.; Borgen, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    To address the issue of the Strong Interest Inventory's (SII) cross-cultural relevance, SII developers collected race and ethnicity data from their participants during the development of the 1994 SII. This study examines whether the outcome of the 1994 SII is comparable for different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Trends and important…

  19. Prevalence of Disabling Conditions among Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sylvia; And Others

    This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…

  20. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  1. Educational Enrollment Patterns of Minority Ethnic Groups in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This study examined the relationship between educational achievement and ethnicity as related to enrollment patterns of Wisconsin high school and college students. The purpose of the study was to identify the points at which minority students leave the educational system. The data utilized for the study were the enrollment data for 1973-74 and…

  2. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphism among ethnic groups in Singapore with report of additional alleles at loci 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Saha, N; Wee, K P

    1989-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST; E.C.2.5.1.18) were phenotyped by starch gel electrophoresis in post-mortem liver samples from 683 unrelated subjects of both sexes. 305 were Chinese, 185 Indians, 147 Malays and 46 from other racial groups of South-East Asia. GST1 and GST2 were found to be polymorphic in these populations. Additional alleles (GST1*3 and GST2*O) were observed at low frequency in all the ethnic groups. The frequency of GST1*1 was lower and that of GST1*2 was higher in Indians and Malays as compared to Chinese. GST1*0 and GST1*3 frequencies were similar in all these ethnic groups. The gene frequencies of the alleles of the GST2 locus varied significantly in the population studied. GST2*0 frequency was significantly higher in Indians than in Chinese and Malays, while the lowest frequency of GST2*1 was found in the Indians. GST2*2 frequency was higher in the Malays than in Chinese and Indians. GST1 and GST2 phenotype distributions were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups studied. Sex made no significant difference in the phenotype distribution.

  3. Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

    2005-05-01

    Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes.

  4. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  5. Iron deficiency in young Bradford children from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, P

    1986-01-01

    Haematological parameters and iron state were studied in children admitted to hospital consecutively during a six month period. A total of 147 of 598 children (24.6%) were anaemic, with haemoglobin values below the third centile of the reference range, and 131 of 400 children (32.8%) were iron deficient, with serum ferritin concentrations less than 10 micrograms/l. Both findings were more common in children from the Asian ethnic minority. The "routine" full blood count is a useful tool for the presumptive identification of iron deficiency in childhood. Iron deficiency is deleterious to the health of young children. In view of its extent and degree--not exclusively among the Asian ethnic minority--a community based preventive programme on the lines of the Stop Rickets Campaign is recommended. PMID:3080103

  6. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = −0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = −0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

  7. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the KPAS in Diverse Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-01-01

    Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined. PMID:19745161

  9. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750

  10. Death preparation among the ethnic Chinese well-elderly in Singapore: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carol K L; Yau, Matthew K

    Death preparation is an important process as it can help the elderly to achieve ego integrity at the last stage of their lives. This study aims to explore how the ethnic Chinese elderly in Singapore approach issues related to death and dying, and to identify factors that influence death preparation. Descriptive surveys with semi-structured interview questions were used. Eight ethnic Chinese older adults, recruited through purposive sampling, were interviewed. Additionally, 4 adults with a deceased parent were also interviewed to validate and complement the earlier identified themes. Results show that the current generation of Chinese elderly in Singapore do not seem to be averse to talking about issues related to death, and those who find it unnecessary to prepare for death seem to be associated with, among other factors, lesser financial assets and a strong belief in filial piety. With increasing affluence and dissolving traditions, it will be beneficial to draw the attention of the current generation of mature adults on early preparation at the final stage of the lifespan.

  11. [Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (A-376/202) in three Malian ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Guindo, A; Diakité, S A S; Diakite, M; Tapily, A; Traoré, M; Sangaré, B; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocyte G6PD deficiency is the most common worldwide enzymopathy. The aim of this study was to determine erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in 3 ethnic groups of Mali and to investigate whether erythrocyte G6PD deficiency was associated to the observed protection against malaria seen in Fulani ethnic group. The study was conducted in two different areas of Mali: in the Sahel region of Mopti where Fulani and Dogon live as sympatric ethnic groups and in the Sudanese savannah area where lives mostly the Malinke ethnic group. The study was conducted in 2007 in Koro and in 2008 in Naguilabougou. It included a total 90 Dogon, 42 Fulani and 80 Malinke ethnic groups. Malaria was diagnosed using microscopic examination after Giemsa-staining of thick and thin blood smear. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) samples were identified using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) assay and analysis of PCR-amplified DNA amplicon. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) rate was 11.1%, 2.4%, and 13.3% in Dogon, Fulani, and Malinke ethnic group respectively. Heterozygous state for G6PD (A-(376/202)) was found in 7.8% in Dogon; 2.4% in Fulani and 9.3% in Malinke ethnic groups while hemizygous state was found at the frequency of 2.2% in Dogon and 4% in Malinke. No homozygous state was found in our study population.We conclude that G6PD deficiency is not differing significantly between the three ethnic groups, Fulani, Dogon and Malinke.

  12. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…

  13. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  14. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  15. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  16. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10−27, 4.3791 × 10−28 and 6.9118 × 10−27, respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550

  17. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing.

  18. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550

  19. [Differences in doll play of four-year old children of different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Joraschky, Peter; Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In its psychological development, the child learns social-emotional competences in order to be able to cope with conflicts. Since ethnic diversity increases due to globalization, the influence of the ethnic background on the social competence children development must be investigated furthermore. The present study examines the differences of the social-emotional competences of children of various ethnic groups. To track the social-emotional competence in play, 84 Asian-American, Latin-American and African-American kindergarteners (age = 4) were tested with the Mac Arthur Story Stem Battery and the attachment representation using the Attachment Doll Play manual. There were significant differences in the avoidance of conflict, empathic and moral themes in problem-solving among the ethnic groups. Furthermore, according to ethnic background the children significantly differed in the dimensions of attachment representation, freezing/blocking, constriction and controlling. Since ethnically specific social competence, attachment dimensions and their inter-correlation were found, the children started Kindergarten with differing qualifications. There are indications that the differences in attachment accentuations in children call for ethnic differences in social competence and interpretations of social situations in adults and children. PMID:19485097

  20. [Differences in doll play of four-year old children of different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Joraschky, Peter; Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In its psychological development, the child learns social-emotional competences in order to be able to cope with conflicts. Since ethnic diversity increases due to globalization, the influence of the ethnic background on the social competence children development must be investigated furthermore. The present study examines the differences of the social-emotional competences of children of various ethnic groups. To track the social-emotional competence in play, 84 Asian-American, Latin-American and African-American kindergarteners (age = 4) were tested with the Mac Arthur Story Stem Battery and the attachment representation using the Attachment Doll Play manual. There were significant differences in the avoidance of conflict, empathic and moral themes in problem-solving among the ethnic groups. Furthermore, according to ethnic background the children significantly differed in the dimensions of attachment representation, freezing/blocking, constriction and controlling. Since ethnically specific social competence, attachment dimensions and their inter-correlation were found, the children started Kindergarten with differing qualifications. There are indications that the differences in attachment accentuations in children call for ethnic differences in social competence and interpretations of social situations in adults and children.

  1. Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations.

  2. Does the ‘Scottish effect’ apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, Raj S; Bansal, Narinder; Steiner, Markus; Brewster, David H

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Design, setting, population, measures and analysis This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups. Results For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups. Conclusions The ‘Scottish effect’ does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low

  3. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  4. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  5. Willingness to pay for mammography: item development and testing among five ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Dueñas, Grace V.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a willingness to pay (WTP) question for mammography that is appropriate for low income, ethnically-diverse women. Through qualitative research with 50 low income women of five ethnic groups we developed both a WTP question and a willingness to travel question (WTT). After being refined through interviews with 41 women, these questions were pilot tested on a random sample of 52 low income, ethnically-diverse women in the San Francisco area. Results show that the concepts underlying WTP and WTT were culturally appropriate to the five ethnicities in this study. Analyses generally confirm the validity of the WTP and WTT questions. As expected, WTP was associated with household income, perceived risk of cancer, and knowledge that one needs a mammogram even after a clinical breast examination. Despite the small samples, WTP varied among the ethnic groups. Additionally, WTT was moderately correlated with the natural log of WTP (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). These questions are now in use in a larger clinical trial and future analyses will explore willingness to pay and willingness to travel within and across the ethnic groups. PMID:11014787

  6. The relationship between air layers and evaporative resistance of male Chinese ethnic clothing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing.

  7. The relationship between air layers and evaporative resistance of male Chinese ethnic clothing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing. PMID:27184328

  8. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in three ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs and Kurds.

    PubMed

    Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas, C; Børsting, C; Zeinali, Z; Malekdoost, M; Zeinali, S; Morling, N

    2013-07-01

    A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds. However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs, Kurds and eighteen other worldwide populations. For each of the three Iranian ethnic groups, the lowest FST values calculated between an Iranian and non-Iranian populations were observed between Iranians and populations in Iraq and Turkey. The three Iranian ethnic groups grouped together with other West Asian populations in the MDS plot drawn from the FST values. Statistical parameters of forensic interest calculated for the Iranian ethnic groups showed values of the same order of magnitudes as those obtained for Asians. The mean match probability calculated for the 49 SNPs ranged from 1.7x10(-18) for Kurds to 1.3x10(-19) for Persians. Despite the low level of genetic structure observed among Persians, Lurs and Kurds, a single autosomal SNP database should be used with care when extending its forensic application to other Iranian ethnic groups. PMID:23648204

  9. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  10. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  11. Conspiracy Beliefs about the Origin of HIV/AIDS in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Torres, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

  12. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

  13. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 39 hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  14. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  15. Dietary sources of five nutrients in ethnic groups represented in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-04-28

    Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease. PMID:22947145

  16. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  17. The role of family and peer relations in adolescent antisocial behaviour: comparison of four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Wissink, Inge B; Marie Meijer, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is applicable to adolescents belonging to different ethnic groups. The sample included 603 adolescents (318 females and 285 males) from four ethnic groups: 68% of adolescents were Dutch, 11% were Moroccan, 13% were Turkish and 8% were Surinamese. The questionnaires assessing antisocial behaviour, quality of parent-adolescent relationship and involvement with deviant peers were completed by adolescents individually at schools. Results show few ethnic differences in the mean level of the assessed constructs: adolescents from different ethnic groups show similar levels of antisocial behaviour, are to a similar degree satisfied with their relationships with parents, disclose as much information to them, and do not differ in their involvement with deviant peers. However, the associations of parent and peer relations with antisocial behaviour differed across the ethnic groups.

  18. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  19. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  20. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  1. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  2. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  3. Ethnic Conflict, Group Polarization, and Gender Attitudes in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunovich, Robert M.; Deitelbaum, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We examine the sources of traditional gender attitudes during a period of social conflict and change. Using survey data from Croatia (Center for the Investigation of Transition and Civil Society, 1996; N=2,030) we explore the relationships between war-related experiences, in-group and out-group polarization, and two dimensions of gender attitudes:…

  4. Ethnic group and alcohol consumption: the case of 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire.

    PubMed

    Denscombe, M

    1995-03-01

    In recent years a number of research projects have reported on the level of alcohol use by young people. The research to date, however, has tended to overlook the ethnic origins of the young people as a factor associated with the level of alcohol use. Against this background, this paper reports findings on the use of alcohol by 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire with specific reference to ethnic group. A survey of over 1000 young people revealed significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of their attitudes to alcohol consumption and the frequency of alcohol consumption. As expected, South Asians tended to hold less favourable attitudes to drinking alcohol than their White counterparts and reported a far lower frequency of alcohol consumption. The extent of the divergence between the two ethnic groups is detailed, revealing a stark contrast between the groups at age 15-16 years. Attitudes to alcohol consumption and reported frequency of alcohol consumption were also analysed in relation to the religion of the respondents. This analysis was undertaken to see if there were differences within the broader ethnic groups which would be disguised by aggregating the results under the headings of 'South Asian' and 'White'. Within the South Asian group, some differences in attitudes to the consumption of alcohol were found between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, with the Muslims exhibiting particular sensitivity to their religion's proscription of drinking alcohol. Despite this, the reported level of drinking by the Hindus and Sikhs was not much greater than that of the Muslims. The three groups tended to have a similar frequency of alcohol consumption which was markedly lower than that reported by the White 15-16-year-olds. The findings from the DART research have certain substantive and certain methodological implications in relation to epidemiological studies of alcohol consumption. Substantively, the findings reinforce the need to include ethnic group as a key

  5. Marked differences in CRP genotype frequencies between the Fulani and sympatric ethnic groups in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Israelsson, Elisabeth; Ekström, Mattias; Nasr, Amre; Dolo, Amagana; Kearsley, Susannah; Arambepola, Gishanthi; Homann, Manijeh Vafa; Maiga, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K; ElGhazali, Gehad; Giha, Hayder A; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Berzins, Klavs; Tornvall, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that can activate various immune cells and bind to certain Fcγ receptors. The latter may compete with the binding of IgG antibodies to these receptors and could thereby interfere with the antigen-specific immune response. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the CRP gene have been strongly associated with the plasma concentration of CRP. The known lower susceptibility to malaria in the Fulani ethnic group, as compared to their sympatric neighbours in Africa, has been linked to different genetic backgrounds. The present study was performed to investigate if polymorphisms in the CRP gene could contribute to the lower susceptibility to malaria seen in the Fulani ethnic group. Methods The CRP -717 T>C, -286 C>T>A, and +1444 C>T polymorphisms were analysed in asymptomatic Fulani and non-Fulani individuals from Mali and Sudan using Pyrosequencing T and TaqMan r MGB probes. Results The rare -286 A allele, previously shown to be associated with increased CRP expression and plasma levels, was shown to be more frequent in the non-Fulani ethnic groups as compared to the sympatric Fulani ethnic group both in Mali and Sudan. The common -717 T allele was more prevalent in the non-Fulani ethnic group compared to the sympatric Fulani ethnic group, but only in Mali. The parasite prevalence was increased for the -286 A allele, but not for the -717 T allele. No differences regarding genotype frequency or parasite prevalence were seen for +1444 C>T. Conclusion This study indicate that CRP may play an important role in the immune responses to malaria, and that the -286 C/T/A CRP polymorphism may be a contributing factor to the lower susceptibility to malaria seen in the Fulani. PMID:19545442

  6. Why ethnic minority groups are under-represented in clinical trials: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hussain-Gambles, Mahvash; Atkin, Karl; Leese, Brenda

    2004-09-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to be the gold standard in evaluating medical interventions; however, people from ethnic minorities are frequently under-represented in such studies. The present paper addresses a previously neglected debate about the tensions which inform clinical trial participation amongst people from ethnic minorities, in particular, South Asians, the largest ethnic minority group in the UK. In a narrative review of the available literature, based mainly on US studies, the present authors aim to make sense of the issues around under-representation by providing a theoretical reconciliation. In addition, they identify a number of potential barriers to ethnic minority participation in clinical trials. In so doing, the authors recognise that the recent history of eugenic racism, and more general views on clinical trials as a form of experimentation, means that clinical trial participation among people from ethnic minorities becomes more problematic. Lack of participation and the importance of representational sampling are also considered, and the authors argue that health professionals need to be better informed about the issues. The paper concludes by offering a number of strategies for improving ethnic minority accrual rates in clinical trials, together with priorities for future research.

  7. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814

  8. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  9. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, M; Hewett, P

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  10. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  11. Comparing Coronary Artery Calcium among U.S. South Asians with Four Racial/Ethnic Groups: The MASALA and MESA studies

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Ewing, Susan K.; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Srivastava, Shweta; Dave, Swapna S; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) have high rates of cardiovascular disease which cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Few studies have examined coronary artery calcium (CAC) in South Asians. Methods We created a community-based cohort of South Asians in the United States and compared the prevalence and distribution of CAC to four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We compared 803 asymptomatic South Asians free of cardiovascular disease to the four MESA racial/ethnic groups (2,622 Whites, 1,893 African Americans, 1,496 Latinos and 803 Chinese Americans). Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any CAC was similar between White and South Asian men, but was lower in South Asian women compared to White women. After adjusting for all covariates associated with CAC, South Asian men were similar to White men and had higher CAC scores compared to African Americans, Latinos and Chinese Americans. In fully adjusted models, CAC scores were similar for South Asian women compared to all women enrolled in MESA. However, South Asian women ≥70 years had a higher prevalence of any CAC than most other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions South Asian men have similarly high CAC burden as White men, but higher CAC than other racial/ethnic groups. South Asian women appear to have similar CAC burden compared to other women, but have somewhat higher CAC burden in older age. The high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in South Asians may partly explain higher rates of cardiovascular disease in South Asians. PMID:24632509

  12. Morbidity and mortality in relation to smoking among women and men of Chinese ethnicity: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association among cigarette smoking, smoking cessation and a broad range of cancer incidence and all cause and cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of adults of Chinese ethnicity in Singapore. Methods Subjects were 61,320 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (44.5% men, aged 45–74 years, recruitment from 1993–1998) who were free of cancer at the baseline examination. Main outcomes-of-interest included cancer incidence, all cause and cause-specific mortality as of December 31, 2005. Results Cigarette smoking was positively associated with overall cancer incidence, including cancers at the following specific sites: head and neck region, upper gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary and pancreas cancer, lung, and bladder/renal pelvis cancer. Compared to never smokers, the relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of cancer incidence (all cancer sites) among current smokers smoking >22 cigarettes/day was 1.9 (1.7–2.1), p-trend<0.0001. Similarly, cigarette smoking was associated with all cause and cause-specific mortality, including deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared to never smokers, RR (95%CI) of all cause mortality among current smokers smoking >22 cigarettes/day was 1.8 (1.6–2.0), p-trend<0.0001. Also, relative to current smokers, ex-smokers experienced reduced cancer incidence and total mortality. The population attributable risk of smoking in men for cancer incidence as well as all-cause mortality was 23%, whereas in women it ranged from 4–5%. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for cancer incidence and major causes of mortality in Chinese men and women of Singapore. PMID:18006298

  13. Ethnic Group Bias in WISC-R Verbal Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.

    The study investigated cultural bias in the verbal items of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Six verbal subtests of the WISC-R were administered to 40 Anglo, 40 Mexican-American, and 40 Navajo intermediate grade students matched for grade level, sex, and socioeconomic status. The responses of three groups of subjects…

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  16. Perceived barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in older women of different racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Heesch, K C; Brown, D R; Blanton, C J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether barriers to exercise differ among racial/ethnic groups at the same stage of exercise adoption and adjacent stages within racial/ethnic groups. Questions about stage of exercise adoption and perceived barriers to exercise were administered to a cross sectional sample of 745 African American, 660 Hispanic, 738 Native American/Native Alaskan, and 769 Caucasian U.S. women aged 40 years and older. Correlations between rankings of barriers among racial/ethnic groups within the same stage ranged from .43 to .89. For each racial/ethnic group, significant differences existed between adjacent stages in the percentage of women reporting barriers to interfere with exercise (p < .10). Barriers were not similar enough among racial/ethnic groups to recommend that the same barriers be addressed for all races/ethnicities.

  17. High prevalence of NIDDM and impaired glucose tolerance in Indian, Creole, and Chinese Mauritians. Mauritius Noncommunicable Disease Study Group.

    PubMed

    Dowse, G K; Gareeboo, H; Zimmet, P Z; Alberti, K G; Tuomilehto, J; Fareed, D; Brissonnette, L G; Finch, C F

    1990-03-01

    Mauritius, a multiethnic island nation in the southwestern Indian Ocean, has one of the world's highest diabetes mortality rates. The prevalence of both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated in 5080 Muslim and Hindu Indian, Creole (mixed African, European, and Indian origin), and Chinese Mauritian adults aged 25-74 yr who were selected by random cluster sampling. Based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of IGT was significantly greater in women (19.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 18.1-21.2) than in men (11.7%, CI 10.5-12.8). By contrast, the prevalence of NIDDM was similar in men (12.1%, CI 10.9-13.4) and women (11.7%, CI 10.5-12.8) for all ethnic groups combined. The sex difference in IGT prevalence was seen in all ethnic groups, but for NIDDM, the sex difference was not consistent across ethnic groups. However, age- and sex-standardized prevalence of IGT and NIDDM was remarkably similar across ethnic groups (16.2 and 12.4% in Hindu Indians, 15.3 and 13.3% in Muslim Indians, 17.5 and 10.4% in Creoles, and 16.6 and 11.9% in Chinese, respectively). Three new cases of diabetes were diagnosed for every two known cases. The high prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in Indian subjects is consistent with studies of other migrant Indian communities, but the findings in Creole and, in particular, Chinese subjects are unexpected. Potent environmental factors shared between ethnic groups in Mauritius may be responsible for the epidemic of glucose intolerance.

  18. Discourses about ethnic group (de-)essentialism: oppressive and progressive aspects.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-09-01

    Social psychologists studying intergroup perceptions have shown an increasing interest in essentialist thinking. Essentialist beliefs about social groups are examined as cognitive processes and these beliefs would serve to rationalize and justify the existing social system. Discourse analyses on racism have emphasized that problems of racism are to a large extent problems of essentialism. Anti-essentialism has emerged as an emancipatory discourse in the challenge of hegemonic representations and oppressive relations. The present study examines how, in group discussions, ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority people define and use essentialist notions about social groups. Both Dutch and ethnic minority participants engaged in an essentialist discourse in which an intrinsic link between culture and ethnicity was made. However, there were also examples where this discourse was criticized and rejected. This variable use of (de-)essentialism is examined in terms of the conversation's context and issues at hand, such as questions of assimilation, group provisions, cultural rights, and agency. The main conclusion of this paper is that essentialism is not by definition oppressive and that de-essentialism is not by definition progressive. The discursive power of (de-)essentialist group beliefs depends on the way they are used and the context in which they appear.

  19. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences. PMID:22903193

  20. Metabolic syndrome in three ethnic groups using current definitions.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène; Désilets, Marie-Claude; Vargas, Estanislao Ramirez; Garrel, Dominique

    2008-04-01

    According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y). Although phenotypes were different, high triglycerides and fasting dysglycemia were good predictors of MetS in all three groups using both definitions. The international cut-offs for abdominal obesity were not predictive of MetS in the Haitian subjects. PMID:18347691

  1. Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

  2. Genetic structure in relation to the history of Hungarian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, C R; Béres, J

    1996-06-01

    The present analysis continues the study of 12 samples of 11 Hungarian ethnic groups and a collection of data from 8 foreign reference populations. The origin of these groups is entangled with the history of Hungary and specifically with the conquest of the Carpathian basin in the ninth century A.D. Given that each of the 11 groups has preserved its ethnic identity and assuming that genetic drift has played a major role, we expect that similarities and differences between the different Hungarian groups and between the Hungarian groups and the eight reference populations can be interpreted with respect to the controversial origin of the groups. The reference populations are those whose ancestors had high involvement in Hungarian history. We use multivariate statistical methods to analyze the gene frequencies of 22 loci. The results show that the Hungarian ethnic groups are genetically separate and that this separation is related to different migration waves. According to our results, Gypsies and Jews, who migrated relatively recently to Hungary, are distant from the other groups and, as predicted, appear to be genetically close to the North Indian and Ashkenazi reference populations, respectively. The Oriental population is least related to the Hungarian groups, but the distance diminishes when the P1 locus, which shows particularly high variability, is included. Some ethnic groups, especially Orség and Csángó, show genetic isolation and specific affinities with the reference populations that are related to their origin, namely, Slavs and Finns-Turks-Iranians, respectively. Other affinities were less striking than tradition would lead us to expect. Gene flow and admixture, as revealed by the significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances, may have played an important role in smoothing genetic differences between groups.

  3. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  4. Radio vs. Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)

  5. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  6. Health Service Access across Racial/Ethnic Groups of Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…

  7. Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

  8. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  9. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  10. Cancer and men from minority ethnic groups: an exploration of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lees, S; Papadopoulos, I

    2000-12-01

    The authors reviewed literature which has been published in the last 20 years. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and is expected to become a significant cause of death in developing countries. Whilst there are a large number of studies on cancer and men, there is a paucity of data on men from minority ethnic groups. In the USA, African Americans are more likely to develop cancer than any other ethnic group. Although cancer rates amongst minority ethnic groups in the UK are thought to be low, 11% of Indian and African men and 19% of Caribbean men died from cancer during 1979-1983. There is also further evidence in the USA that African American, Filipinos and Native Americans have the lowest cancer survival rates. Service utilization, especially tertiary care, is also thought to be low amongst minority ethnic groups from the USA and the UK. Reasons for these variations include artefactual, cultural, materialist and social selectivist explanations as well as the effects of migration, racism and genetic disposition. This area is under-researched, in particular cultural beliefs about cancer. Further research into this area should apply culturally competent methods to ensure valid data to inform cancer policy, education and practice.

  11. Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

  12. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  13. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  14. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  15. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  16. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  17. Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Shlomo

    1980-01-01

    Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for effects on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and small-group…

  18. Ethnic Attitudes of Minority Students and Their Contact with Majority Group Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2012-01-01

    Research on intergroup attitudes in children has focused on contact with out-group peers but neglected the role of adults. This cross-sectional self-report study examined the association between the ethnic attitudes of 174 minority (Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch) preadolescents (ages 9-13) and the perceived interpersonal relationships with their…

  19. The Graduate Degree Aspirations of Ethnic Student Groups among GRE Test-Takers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centra, John A.

    The degree objectives of prospective graduate students from the various ethnic groups were investigated in this study by using the extensive (200,000 plus) Graduate Record Examination (GRE) registrant population of 1976-1977. GRE scores, undergraduate grade point average, and being a male were the important predictors of students' expectations of…

  20. Ethnic Group Policy and the Politics of Sex: The Seattle Indian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Tranberg

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the shifting urban American Indian organizational scene is elicited by outside factors that make organizations dependent on city, state, and federal bodies. Implications of the distinction between policy and politics for explaining ethnic group activity are discussed in relation to the American Indian Women's Service League. (Author/GC)

  1. Synergy between Molecular and Contextual Views of Coping among Four Ethnic Groups of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; McPherson-Salandy, Renee; Milano, Kate

    2010-01-01

    The coping styles of four ethnic groups of older adults in response to negative life events were analyzed in a population-based study of 1118 residents of Brooklyn, New York. Using a molecular approach, data regarding the context of events and the corresponding coping responses was obtained. Open-ended semi-structured interviews allowed…

  2. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  3. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  4. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  5. Variances in the etiology of drug use among ethnic groups of adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, Frederick; Oetting, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews drug use trends among ethnic groups of adolescents. It identifies similarities and differences in general, and culturally specific variables in particular, that may account for the differences in drug use rates and the consequences of drug use. METHODS: The authors review trends in drug use among minority and nonminority adolescents over the past 25 years and propose an explanatory model for understanding the factors that affect adolescent drug use. Sources of variance examined include factors common to all adolescents, factors unique to certain ethnic groups, temporal influences, location and demographic variables, developmental and socialization factors, and individual characteristics. RESULTS: Most of the variance in adolescent drug use is due to factors that are common across ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: This finding should not overshadow the importance of addressing ethnocultural issues in designing prevention or treatment interventions, however. Although the major factors leading to drug use may be common across ethnic groups, unique elements within a culture can be used effectively in interventions. Interventions also need to address culturally specific issues in order to gain acceptance within a community. PMID:12435823

  6. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  7. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  8. Risk Factors for Acute Stroke among South Asians Compared to Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Methods Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. Results South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Discussion Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke. PMID:25268987

  9. The prevalence of neural tube defects among ethnic groups in Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J G; Stein, S C; Klein, R J; Kohl, S; Casey, G

    1982-01-01

    Records of almost 174,000 consecutive births at six Brooklyn hospitals during the years 1968-1976 were reviewed for congenital neural tube defects. Prevalence of anencephaly, myelomeningocele and occipital encephalocele combined was significantly higher in infants delivered to mothers born in Puerto Rico than in offspring of non-Puerto Rican whites or blacks. The association of prevalence rates with ethnicity remained significant after adjustment for several variables. However, when adjustment was made for private or service status the difference between Puerto Ricans and whites, although still appreciable, was no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in prevalence rates between whites and blacks were observed. Sex ratios of affected infants were close to unity in each ethnic group. Statistically significant associations were found between the prevalence of neural tube defects and parity, gravidity and economic status. The patterns of these associations varied among the ethnic groups. A declining trend in the prevalence of myelomeningocele was observed for all ethnic groups. PMID:7200098

  10. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients' sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype-phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights.

  11. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron–exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients’ sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype–phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights. PMID:26031747

  12. Friendship trumps ethnicity (but not sexual orientation): comfort and discomfort in inter-group interactions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan E; Calcagno, Justine E; Arrow, Holly; Malle, Bertram F

    2012-06-01

    An experience sampling study tested the degree to which interactions with out-group members evoked negative affect and behavioural inhibition after controlling for level of friendship between partners. When friendship level was statistically controlled, neither White nor Black participants reported feeling more discomfort interacting with ethnic out-group members compared to ethnic in-group members. When partners differed in sexual orientation, friendship level had a less palliating effect. Controlling for friendship, both gay and straight men - but not women - felt more behaviourally inhibited when interacting with someone who differed in sexual orientation, and heterosexual participants of both genders continued to report more negative affect with gay and lesbian interaction partners. However, gay and lesbian participants reported similar levels of negative affect interacting with in-group (homosexual) and out-group (heterosexual) members after friendship level was controlled. Results suggest that much of the discomfort observed in inter-ethnic interactions may be attributable to lower levels of friendship with out-group partners. The discomfort generated by differences in sexual orientation, however, remains a more stubborn barrier to comfortable inter-group interactions.

  13. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  14. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasmini, K; Idris, M N; Fatimah, A; Hanafiah, S; Iran, H; Asmah Bee, M N

    1997-09-01

    6239 children aged 7 to 16 years, attending 22 primary and secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened using a self report questionnaire, with their heights and weights measured using a digital electronic SECA beam balance. The selection was done by a two staged stratified random sampling from a total of 226 schools in Kuala Lumpur. The racial distribution was 56.7% Malays, 33.8% Chinese and 8.1% Indians; 3.6% (n:222) of the children were identified as obese and 6% (n:373) identified as overweight. The definitions of obese and overweight were computed using growth charts of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the median of the reference population. There were no significant differences amongst the 3 major ethnic groups in the obese group. The differences were significant in the overweight group with the Indians most overweight, followed by the Chinese and the Malays.

  16. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  17. Understanding the High Prevalence of Diabetes in U.S. South Asians Compared With Four Racial/Ethnic Groups: The MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Herrington, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ewing, Susan K.; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Dave, Swapna S.; Qureshi, Fareeha; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We compared South Asians with four other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. to determine whether sociodemographic, lifestyle, or metabolic factors could explain the higher diabetes prevalence and whether insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction occurred at younger ages and/or lower adiposity levels compared with other groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts, the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); all participants had no known cardiovascular disease and were between 44 and 84 years of age. We compared 799 South Asians with 2,611 whites, 1,879 African Americans, 1,493 Latinos, and 801 Chinese Americans. Type 2 diabetes was classified by fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or use of a diabetes medication. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and β-cell function was measured by the HOMA-β model. RESULTS South Asians had significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes (23%) than the MESA ethnic groups (6% in whites, 18% in African Americans, 17% in Latinos, and 13% in Chinese Americans). This difference increased further after adjustment for potential confounders. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher and HOMA-β levels were lower among South Asians compared with all other racial/ethnic groups after adjustment for age and adiposity. CONCLUSIONS The higher prevalence of diabetes in South Asians is not explained by traditionally measured risk factors. South Asians may have lower β-cell function and an inability to compensate adequately for higher glucose levels from insulin resistance. PMID:24705613

  18. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  19. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  20. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  1. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  2. Shared Epitope Alleles Remain A Risk Factor for Anti-Citrullinated Proteins Antibody (ACPA) – Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis in Three Asian Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chun-Lai, Too; Padyukov, Leonid; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh; Lundström, Emeli; Yahya, Abqariyah; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Larsson, Per Tobias; Murad, Shahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. Methods 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. Results The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. Conclusion The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia. PMID:21698259

  3. It Takes a Village (or an Ethnic Economy): The Varying Roles of Socioeconomic Status, Religion, and Social Capital in SAT Preparation for Chinese and Korean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…

  4. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  5. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  6. Relationships between discrimination in health care and health care outcomes among four race/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers. PMID:23456249

  7. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities.

  8. Relationships between discrimination in health care and health care outcomes among four race/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.

  9. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-xin; Chen, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-hua; Zhang, Li-ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-tian; Zhang, Yu-dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  10. Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Lipids may Differ with Muscle Group and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Gower, Barbara A.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Muñoz, A. Julian; Darnell, Betty E.; Oster, Robert A.; Buchthal, Steven D.; Goran, Michael I.; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) has been inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, studies. This study utilized fast, high-resolution, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to: investigate relationships between muscle lipids (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL)) and insulin sensitivity in muscles of varying oxidative capacity, explore ethnic differences in these relationships, and determine whether a eucaloric, low-fat dietary intervention would reduce IMCL and increase insulin sensitivity. Subjects were 30 healthy, African-American (AA; n=14) and European-American (EA; n=16) males, BMI 26.49 (±5.57) kg/m2, age 21.80 (±7.84) yrs. Soleus and tibialis anterior muscle lipids were quantified using MRSI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed via intravenous glucose tolerance test. A 2-week, eucaloric, low-fat diet intervention was conducted in a sub-group (n=12) subjects with assessments at baseline and post-intervention. Neither IMCL nor EMCL levels differed between ethnicities. In the total group, and within EA (but not AA), both tibialis anterior IMCL and EMCL were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (P<0.05 for both); soleus muscle lipids were not associated with insulin sensitivity. Soleus, but not tibialis anterior, IMCL declined in both ethnic groups (average 25.3%; p<0.01) following dietary intervention; insulin sensitivity was unchanged. Results suggest that an association of muscle lipids with insulin sensitivity may be influenced by the oxidative capacity of the muscle group studied and may vary with ethnicity. PMID:22039395

  11. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  12. [Principal component analysis of Y-chromosome haplotype distribution in 18 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Li; Yang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Hong; Gao, Lu; Lu, Jing; Cheng, Bao-Wen; Li, Kai-Yuan; Zan, Rui-Guang; Xiao, Chun-Jie

    2004-10-01

    Based on the historical records, 18 of the 26 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province are the descendant populations of three ancient tribes, Bai-Yue, Bai-Pu and Di-Qiang, linguistically belonging to the Daic, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman, respectively. In order to trace the origins of these native ethnic groups, a total of 13 East Asian specific Y-chromosome biallelic markers were used to study the genetic structure of 20 local populations covering all the 18 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. Haplotypes were analysis by PCR-RFLP method. Our results showed that H11 and H12 were the predominant haplotypes in the descendant populations of Bai-Yue tribe. H5, H6 and H8 were the dominant haplotypes in Di-Qiang descendants, and the frequencies of H6, H8 and H11 were very high in the descendant populations of Bai-Pu. To investigate relationships among 20 populations, a three dimensional PC analysis were performed based on the distribution of the 13 haplotypes. All populations were divided into two clusters in the PC plot. The first cluster was mainly composed by the descendant populations of Bai-Yue, and the second one was mainly composed by the descendants of Di-Qiang tribe. This result indicated that Bai-Yue and Di-Qiang's paternal lineage had different origins, which was in agreement with the historical documents and linguistic classification.

  13. Experiences of Mental Health Services by People with Intellectual Disabilities from Different Ethnic Groups: A Delphi Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonell, S.; Underwood, L.; Radhakrishnan, V.; McCarthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patient experience of those accessing mental health services has been found to be different between ethnic groups. Although the needs of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) from different ethnic communities are being increasingly recognised, little has been published about their experiences of mental health services. The aim of…

  14. Structure of Interests in Employed Male and Female Members of U.S. Racial-Ethnic Minority and Nonminority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Harmon, Lenore W.; Borgen, Fred H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the structure of interests across samples of employed U.S. racial-ethnic minority and nonminority adults drawn from over 38,000 individuals who participated in the 1994 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Results suggest that the SII can be used to assess the interests of those from different racial-ethnic groups. (RJM)

  15. Multiple Metabolic Genetic Risk Scores and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wineinger, Nathan E.; Vazquez, Ana I.; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Context/Rationale: Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with various metabolic and cardiovascular traits, offering us the opportunity to learn about and capitalize on the links between cardiometabolic traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: In multiple datasets comprising over 30 000 individuals and 3 ethnic/racial groups, we calculated 17 genetic risk scores (GRSs) for glycemic, anthropometric, lipid, hemodynamic, and other traits, based on the results of recent trait-specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and examined associations with T2D risk. Using a training-testing procedure, we evaluated whether additional GRSs could contribute to risk prediction. Results: In European Americans, we find that GRSs for T2D, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and body mass index are associated with T2D risk. In African Americans, GRSs for T2D, fasting insulin, and waist-to-hip ratio are associated with T2D. In Hispanic Americans, GRSs for T2D and body mass index are associated with T2D. We observed a trend among European Americans suggesting that genetic risk for hyperlipidemia is inversely associated with T2D risk. The use of additional GRSs resulted in only small changes in prediction accuracy in multiple independent validation datasets. Conclusions: The analysis of multiple GRSs can shed light on T2D etiology and how it varies across ethnic/racial groups. Our findings using multiple GRSs are consistent with what is known about the differences in T2D pathogenesis across racial/ethnic groups. However, further work is needed to understand the putative inverse correlation of genetic risk for hyperlipidemia and T2D risk and to develop ethnic-specific GRSs. PMID:24905067

  16. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  17. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  18. Serum vitamin D insufficiency and diabetes status in three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Lamya H; Zarini, Gustavo G; Exebio, Joel C; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and diabetes status in three ethnicities. This cross sectional study included Cuban Americans (n = 199), Haitian Americans (n = 253) and African Americans (n = 248) with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) from Florida, U.S. Recruitment of participants was through mailing lists (Cuban Americans and African Americans) and community based sources (Haitian Americans). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated significant differences in the odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D levels by ethnicity [P < 0.001], diabetes status [P < 0.001], and their interaction [P < 0.001]. Holm's modified Bonferroni method showed that only Cuban Americans without T2D had significantly lower odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D compared to all other groups. Haitian American and African American participants and participants having T2D had the greatest risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency. Future studies should focus on the role of vitamin D supplementation and diabetes outcomes across ethnic groups.

  19. Serum levels of cytokines in two ethnic groups with dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Berta N; Ramirez, Ruth E; Arboleda, Margarita; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ospina, Marta; Diaz, Francisco J

    2008-11-01

    This study compared the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in 78 Colombian patients, from two ethnic groups, with dengue virus infection. TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in Afro-Colombians than in Mestizos and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Mestizos than in Afro-Colombians, during the acute phase. IFN-gamma levels were similar in both ethnic groups. Significantly higher TNF-alpha levels were found in Afro-Colombians than in Mestizos in both dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The IL-6 levels were higher in Mestizos than in Afro-Colombians among patients with DF, but levels of this cytokine were higher in Afro-Colombians than in Mestizos among patients with DHF. Levels of IFN-gamma were higher in patients with DHF than DF. Higher levels of these cytokines were observed in secondary infection. These results suggest that ethnicity may contribute to differences in immune responses to dengue infections.

  20. Changing dietary habits of ethnic groups in Europe and implications for health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Penelope A; Khokhar, Santosh

    2008-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature suggests the dietary habits of some ethnic groups living in Europe are likely to become less healthy as individuals increase consumption of processed foods that are energy dense and contain high levels of fat, sugar, and salt. Such products often replace healthy dietary components of the native diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Mixed food habits are emerging mainly amongst younger people in the second and third generations, most likely due to acculturation and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Age and immigrant generation are the major factors accounting for changes in dietary habits, whilst income, level of education, dietary laws, religion, and food beliefs are also important factors. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension present major problems for the mainstream European population. However, the risk of chronic disease is reported to be higher in ethnic populations, particularly South Asians, African Caribbeans, and Mexicans.

  1. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene in patients with oculocutaneous albinism from various ethnic groups in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Gershoni-Baruch, R. ); Rosenmann, A. ); Droetto, S.; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Spritz, R.A. )

    1994-04-01

    The authors have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. They detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, they detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense substitution, Gly47Asp (G47D). This mutation occurs on the same haplotype as in patients from the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico, suggesting that the G47D mutation in these ethnically distinct populations may stem from a common origin. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Effect of Duration of Disease on Ventilatory Function in an Ethnic Saudi Group of Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan A.; Al Drees, Abdul Majeed; Ahmed, Jehangeer; Ahmed Shah, Sayed Fayaz; Al-Regaiey, Khalid; Husain, Ashraf; Al-Rubean, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death across the world and is responsible for a growing proportion of global health care expenditures. The present study was designed to observe the effect of diabetes mellitus on lung function in patients with diabetes belonging to a specific ethnic group, namely Saudis. Method In this study, a group of 47 apparently healthy volunteer male Saudi patients with diabetes was randomly selected. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 years. The patients were matched with another group of 50 healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Both groups met exclusion criteria as per standard. Spirometry was performed with an electronic spirometer (Schiller AT-2 Plus, Switzerland), and results were compared by a Student's t test. Results Subjects with diabetes showed a significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) relative to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in the forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) between the groups. We observed a significantly negative correlation between duration of disease and pulmonary function, as measured by FEV1 (r = 0.258, p = 0.04), FVC (r = 0.282, p = 0.28), and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) (r = 0.321, p = 0.014). Conclusions Pulmonary function in a specific ethnic group of patients with diabetes was impaired as evidenced by a decrease in FVC and FEV1 compared to pulmonary function in matched controls. Stratification of results by years of disease revealed a significant correlation between duration of disease and a decline in pulmonary function. PMID:19885139

  3. Homocysteine and its nutritional determinants in two ethnic groups of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Ginter, E; Valachicová, M

    2004-12-01

    Determinants of total homocysteine involve demographic (age, sex, ethnic origin), genetic (enzymatic defects of metabolic homocysteine pathways) and acquired factors (deficiency of B-group vitamins, state of health, lifestyle). Plasma levels of total homocysteine and serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin B6 were measured in adult apparently healthy Romany minority subjects (n=119) and compared with those levels in apparently healthy subjects of majority Slovak population (n=146). Mean homocysteine level was similar in both groups (9.92 micromol/l in the Romany vs. 9.61 micromol/l in majority group). Hyperhomocysteinemia was only observed in 3% of both ethnic probands. Vitamin B12 level was equal (301 micromol/l in the Romany and 311 micromol/ in majority group). Deficient levels were found in 4% of the Romany subjects and 9% of the majority subjects. Folic acid level was significantly lower in Romany group (11.3 nmol/l vs. 14.8 nmol/l) with deficiency in 42% of the Romany subjects vs. 28% in the majority subjects. This finding is a consequence of lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and whole grain products in the Romany group. Vitamin B6 deficiency was found in 68% of the Romany subjects and 40% of majority subjects. This vitamin is homocysteine determinant under excessive methionine intake (overnutrition with predominance of animal protein intake). As was demonstrated in a dietetic questionnaires, the Romany subjects are more frequent consumers of meat and eggs. This nutrition regime should indicate an increased homocysteine level under vitamin B6 deficiency. The results of normal homocysteine levels in the Romany population under condition of higher folic acid and vitamin B6 deficiencies, smoking and higher alcohol consumption may suggest a more effective homocysteine metabolism in relation to different ethnic origin.

  4. Human candidate polymorphisms in sympatric ethnic groups differing in malaria susceptibility in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Touré, Ousmane; Dara, Victor; Tapily, Amadou; Campino, Susana; Sepulveda, Nuno; Risley, Paul; Silva, Nilupa; Silva, Nipula; Corran, Patrick; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Clark, Taane G; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2013-01-01

    Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Mali, although disease susceptibility varies between ethnic groups, particularly between the Fulani and Dogon. These two sympatric groups share similar socio-cultural factors and malaria transmission rates, but Fulani individuals tend to show significantly higher spleen enlargement scores, lower parasite prevalence, and seem less affected by the disease than their Dogon neighbours. We have used genetic polymorphisms from malaria-associated genes to investigate associations with various malaria metrics between the Fulanai and Dogon groups. Two cross sectional surveys (transmission season 2006, dry season 2007) were performed. Healthy volunteers from the both ethnic groups (n=939) were recruited in a rural setting. In each survey, clinical (spleen enlargement, axillary temperature, weight) and parasitological data (malaria parasite densities and species) were collected, as well as blood samples. One hundred and sixty six SNPs were genotyped and 5 immunoassays (AMA1, CSP, MSP1, MSP2, total IgE) were performed on the DNA and serum samples respectively. The data confirm the reduced malaria susceptibility in the Fulani, with a higher level of the protective O-blood group, and increased circulating antibody levels to several malaria antigens (p<10(-15)). We identified SNP allele frequency differences between the 2 ethnic groups in CD36, IL4, RTN3 and ADCY9. Moreover, polymorphisms in FCER1A, RAD50, TNF, SLC22A4, and IL13 genes were correlated with antibody production (p-value<0.003). Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underpinning these genetic factors.

  5. Human Candidate Polymorphisms in Sympatric Ethnic Groups Differing in Malaria Susceptibility in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Touré, Ousmane; Dara, Victor; Tapily, Amadou; Campino, Susana; Sepulveda, Nuno; Risley, Paul; Silva, Nipula; Corran, Patrick; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Clark, Taane G.; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Mali, although disease susceptibility varies between ethnic groups, particularly between the Fulani and Dogon. These two sympatric groups share similar socio-cultural factors and malaria transmission rates, but Fulani individuals tend to show significantly higher spleen enlargement scores, lower parasite prevalence, and seem less affected by the disease than their Dogon neighbours. We have used genetic polymorphisms from malaria-associated genes to investigate associations with various malaria metrics between the Fulanai and Dogon groups. Two cross sectional surveys (transmission season 2006, dry season 2007) were performed. Healthy volunteers from the both ethnic groups (n=939) were recruited in a rural setting. In each survey, clinical (spleen enlargement, axillary temperature, weight) and parasitological data (malaria parasite densities and species) were collected, as well as blood samples. One hundred and sixty six SNPs were genotyped and 5 immunoassays (AMA1, CSP, MSP1, MSP2, total IgE) were performed on the DNA and serum samples respectively. The data confirm the reduced malaria susceptibility in the Fulani, with a higher level of the protective O-blood group, and increased circulating antibody levels to several malaria antigens (p<10-15). We identified SNP allele frequency differences between the 2 ethnic groups in CD36, IL4, RTN3 and ADCY9. Moreover, polymorphisms in FCER1A, RAD50, TNF, SLC22A4, and IL13 genes were correlated with antibody production (p-value<0.003). Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underpinning these genetic factors. PMID:24098393

  6. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to ethnically matched and ethnically mismatched film clips.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Levenson, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (African American, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed greater responsivity to ethnically matched films for African Americans and European Americans, with the largest effect for African Americans. These findings were consistent across both sex and level of cultural identification. Findings of ethnic difference notwithstanding, there were many areas in which ethnic differences were not found (e.g., little or no evidence was found of greater response to ethnically matched films in Chinese-American or Mexican- American participants). These findings indicate that the emotional response system clearly reacts to stimuli of diverse ethnic content; however, the system is also amenable to subtle "tuning" that allows for incrementally enhanced responding to members of one's own ethnic or cultural group. PMID:17144754

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  8. Variation of DAT1 VNTR alleles and genotypes among old ethnic groups in Mesopotamia to the Oxus region.

    PubMed

    Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Houshmand, Massoud; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh; Soltani, Niloofar Jahangir; Golalipour, Massoud

    2008-02-01

    Variation of a VNTR in the DAT1 gene in seven ethnic groups of the Middle East was used to infer the history and affinities of these groups. The populations consisted of Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, and Arab peoples of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait. Three hundred forty subjects from these seven ethnic groups were screened for DAT1. DAT1 VNTR genotyping showed 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 alleles in the samples. Analysis of these data revealed differentiation and relationship among the populations. In this region, which covers an area of 2-2.5 million km2, the influence of geography and especially of linguistic characteristics has had potentially major effects on differentiation. Religion also has played a major role in imposing restrictions on some ethnic groups, who as a consequence have maintained their community. Overall, these ethnic groups showed greater heterogeneity compared to other populations. PMID:18505046

  9. Attitude toward depression, its complications, prevention and barriers to seeking help among ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Tahir, Humera

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25-item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one-third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will prove fruitful

  10. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population. PMID:18549656

  11. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  12. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  13. CEMTDD: The database for elucidating the relationships among herbs, compounds, targets and related diseases for Chinese ethnic minority traditional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tao; Yao, Hong; Pang, Xiaobo; Sun, Fuzhou; Ouyang, Liang; Wang, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    China has different ethnic minorities that establish their own medical systems and practice experience for thousand years, thereafter named Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drugs (CEMTDs) (http://www.cemtdd.com/index.html). Since many compounds from CEMTDs have been reported to perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological conditions, the relationships amongst a series of compounds from specific herbs, their targets and relevant diseases have become our main focus in CEMTD modernization. Herein, we have constructed the first Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drug Database (CEMTDD) mainly from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), retrieving CEMTD-related information from different resources. CEMTDD contains about 621 herbs, 4, 060 compounds, 2, 163 targets and 210 diseases, among which most of herbs can be applied into gerontology therapy including inflammation, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease. Gerontology is highly occurred in XUAR, and has abundant experience in treating such diseases, which may benefit for developing a new gerontology therapeutic strategy. CEMTDD displays networks for intricate relationships between CEMTDs and treated diseases, as well as the interrelations between active compounds and action targets, which may shed new light on the combination therapy of CEMTDs and further understanding of their herb molecular mechanisms for better modernized utilizations of CEMTDs, especially in gerontology. PMID:25970778

  14. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups. PMID:27630834

  15. Copy number variations and genetic admixtures in three Xinjiang ethnic minority groups

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Haiyi; Li, Shilin; Jin, Wenfei; Fu, Ruiqing; Lu, Dongsheng; Pan, Xinwei; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Xinjiang is geographically located in central Asia, and it has played an important historical role in connecting eastern Eurasian (EEA) and western Eurasian (WEA) people. However, human population genomic studies in this region have been largely underrepresented, especially with respect to studies of copy number variations (CNVs). Here we constructed the first CNV map of the three major ethnic minority groups, the Uyghur, Kazakh and Kirgiz, using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We systematically compared the properties of CNVs we identified in the three groups with the data from representatives of EEA and WEA. The analyses indicated a typical genetic admixture pattern in all three groups with ancestries from both EEA and WEA. We also identified several CNV regions showing significant deviation of allele frequency from the expected genome-wide distribution, which might be associated with population-specific phenotypes. Our study provides the first genome-wide perspective on the CNVs of three major Xinjiang ethnic minority groups and has implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. PMID:25026903

  16. Complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: what puts the "hate" into hate speech?

    PubMed

    Leader, Tirza; Mullen, Brian; Rice, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Ethnophaulisms (A. A. Roback, 1944) are the words used as ethnic slurs to refer to out-groups in hate speech. The results of previous archival research have suggested that it is the complexity, more so than the valence, of ethnophaulisms that predicts the exclusion of ethnic immigrant out-groups from the receiving society. This article reports the results of 3 experimental examinations of the relative contributions of complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms to the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group was increased by the use of low-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group decreased by the use of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 3 confirmed the demonstration that exclusion decreased by the use of a different set of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. The results of these three experiments converge to indicate that low complexity exerts more of an effect than negative valences on the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. The implications of these results for theoretical approaches to intergroup behavior are considered. PMID:19210073

  17. Complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: what puts the "hate" into hate speech?

    PubMed

    Leader, Tirza; Mullen, Brian; Rice, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Ethnophaulisms (A. A. Roback, 1944) are the words used as ethnic slurs to refer to out-groups in hate speech. The results of previous archival research have suggested that it is the complexity, more so than the valence, of ethnophaulisms that predicts the exclusion of ethnic immigrant out-groups from the receiving society. This article reports the results of 3 experimental examinations of the relative contributions of complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms to the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group was increased by the use of low-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group decreased by the use of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 3 confirmed the demonstration that exclusion decreased by the use of a different set of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. The results of these three experiments converge to indicate that low complexity exerts more of an effect than negative valences on the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. The implications of these results for theoretical approaches to intergroup behavior are considered.

  18. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188). Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A better understanding of mutable

  19. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations. PMID:24940081

  20. [The association of leptin with dislipidemia in group of ethnic Kirghiz].

    PubMed

    Kerimkulova, A S; Lunegova, O S; Mirrakhimov, A E; Alibayeva, N T; Neronova, K V; Baiyramukova, A A; Mirrakhimov, E M

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of evaluation of relationship between leptin and lipid indicators in group of ethnic Kirghiz. The sampling included 322 ethnic Kirghiz (145 males and 177 females) aged from 30 to 75 years. To all patients was applied general clinical examination, anthropometric examination (height, body mass, waist circumference, thighs circumference). The body mass index was calculated. The level of glucose (on an empty stomach), lipids spectrum and leptin of blood serum were measured. The average age of patients consisted 57.7 +/- 9.6 years and average level of leptin was 7.8 ng/ml. The patients were allocated to three groups depending of tertile of leptin (< 3; 3.0-5.51; > or = 5.52 ng/ml in males; 9.6; 9.6-16.6; > or = 16.7 ng/ml in females). In patients from upper tertile as compared with patients from lower tertiles are noted high values of triglycerides (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.O01), in males and triglycerides (p = 0.02) in females. Leptin correlated with body mass index (in males: r = 0.68, p < 0.01; in females: r = 0.74, p < 0.001), concentration of triglycerides (in males: r = 0.301, p < 0.001; in females: r = 0.194, p < 0.001). Leptin correlated with total cholesterol in males (r = 0.214, p < 0.05) and with cholesterol of lipoproteins of high density in females (r = 0.156, p < 0.05). The level of leptin in group of ethnic Kirghiz is associated with dislipidemia, obesity, including abdominal obesity.

  1. Association study between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic Parkinson’s disease in ethnic Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Tang, Bei-Sha; Yang, Nan-Nan; Kang, Ji-Feng; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Rui-Qi; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Shen, Lu; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The protein encoded by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal (SMPD1) is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. While there are increasing evidences to suggest that lysosomal enzyme defects and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have strong associations, and recently, SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C, NM_000543) was found to be a risk factor for PD in Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry population, we try to investigate the possible association between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic PD in ethnic Chinese population. Methods: 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls were included in our study. SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C) was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Our results showed that none of 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls carried p.L302P. All of the 931 subjects’ genotypes were wild type TT. Our data indicated that in an ethnic Chinese population, p.L302P did not appear to be enriched in sporadic PD, and p.L302P may not be a risk factor for Chinese sporadic PD. And combine our data with the results from previous studies, we found that all of the 2,268 participants of Chinese population carrying no p.L302P. Conclusions: We could make a conclusion that p.L302P may not be common events for Chinese population. Sequencing of SMPD1 gene to find additional novel rare variants in the SMPD1 gene in diverse populations is needed. PMID:26550340

  2. Lipid Status and Predisposing Genes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from Various Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Osipova, E V; Gnusina, S V; Bardymova, T A

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of HLA class II profile and lipid metabolism were examined in Buryat and Russian ethnic groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. The incidence of type 1 haplotypes in HLA class II gene family was lower in Buryats than that in Russians. In comparison with Russians, the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 in Buryat patients was characterized with a lower content of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL, which probably explains a more favorable course of the disease in Buryat population.

  3. Repositioned Lives: Language, Ethnicity, and Narrative Identity among Chinese-Vietnamese Community College Students in Los Angeles' San Gabriel Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Russell Alan

    Chinese speakers from Vietnam are a distinctive but hidden ethnolinguistic minority group in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles. Many variables present barriers to their full participation in society from both the values and norms of dominant American society and non-Chinese co-nationals from Vietnam as well as higher status co-ethnics…

  4. Health literacy and ethnic disparities in health-related quality of life among rural women: results from a Chinese poor minority area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between health literacy (HL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as well as relationship differentials by ethnicity among rural women from a Chinese poor minority area. Methods We conducted in-person interviews with 913 rural women aged 23 – 57 (57.5% Hui minorities/42.5% Han ethnicity) enrolled in the Ningxia Women Health Project, gathering data on EQ-5D, self-designed HL, socio-demographic characteristics, and chronic diseases. The extent of impairments in the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was used to measure HRQoL. Factor analysis yielded a single HL factor, which was used as a dichotomous variable in multivariate log-binomial regression models that examined the adjusted association of HL with HRQoL. Results Nearly half of the women had no formal education. The most prevalent impairments were pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression (42.42% and 32.09%, respectively). The Hui minorities had 1.65 times higher rates of low HL (defined as less than mean of the factor score for HL) and 1.22 and 1.25 times for pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression impairments, respectively. Low HL was associated with poor HRQoL, with a 23% increase in the prevalence of pain/discomfort impairments after adjusting for socio-demographics. This association was significant in the Hui group (PR=1.30, 95% CI=1.06-1.58) but not for the Han group (PR=0.99, 95% CI=0.76-1.30). HL-stratified analysis revealed modification for ethnic disparities in HRQoL; for pain/discomfort impairments, high HL-PR=0.88 (95% CI=0.71-1.08), low HL-PR=1.24 (95% CI = 1.01-1.52); for anxiety/depression impairments, high HL-PR=0.98 (95% CI=0.73-1.32), low HL-PR=1.44 (95% CI = 1.05-1.98). Conclusions Low HL is associated with poor HRQoL across the entire sample and the association may be modified by ethnicity. Similarly, ethnic disparities in HRQoL may be modified by HL, larger in low HL group. Health services should address HL in vulnerable minority women to improve their

  5. Adapting health promotion interventions to meet the needs of ethnic minority groups: mixed-methods evidence synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jj; Davidson, E; Bhopal, Rs; White, M; Johnson, Mrd; Netto, G; Deverill, M; Sheikh, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is now a considerable body of evidence revealing that a number of ethnic minority groups in the UK and other economically developed countries experience disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality compared with the majority white European-origin population. Across these countries, health-promoting approaches are increasingly viewed as the long-term strategies most likely to prove clinically effective and cost-effective for preventing disease and improving health outcomes in those with established disease. OBJECTIVES To identify, appraise and interpret research on the approaches employed to maximise the cross-cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and improving healthy eating for African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations. DATA SOURCES Two national conferences; seven databases of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews of health promotion interventions aimed at the general population, including the Clinical Evidence, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network databases (1950-2009); 11 databases of research on adapted health promotion interventions for ethnic minority populations, including BIOSIS, EMBASE and MEDLINE (1950-2009); and in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of researchers and health promoters. REVIEW METHODS Theoretically based, mixed-methods, phased programme of research that involved user engagement, systematic reviews and qualitative interviews, which were integrated through a realist synthesis. Following a launch conference, two reviewers independently identified and extracted data from guidelines and systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for the general population and any guidance offered in relation to how to interpret this evidence for ethnic minority populations. Data were thematically analysed. Reviewers then

  6. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001); Korean subjects were less likely to see herbs as a form of cancer prevention (34 % Chinese, 20 % Korean, 35 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001). Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  7. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  8. Digital discrimination: Political bias in Internet service provision across ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Nils B; Benitez-Baleato, Suso; Hunziker, Philipp; Glatz, Eduard; Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas

    2016-09-01

    The global expansion of the Internet is frequently associated with increased government transparency, political rights, and democracy. However, this assumption depends on marginalized groups getting access in the first place. Here we document a strong and persistent political bias in the allocation of Internet coverage across ethnic groups worldwide. Using estimates of Internet penetration obtained through network measurements, we show that politically excluded groups suffer from significantly lower Internet penetration rates compared with those in power, an effect that cannot be explained by economic or geographic factors. Our findings underline one of the central impediments to "liberation technology," which is that governments still play a key role in the allocation of the Internet and can, intentionally or not, sabotage its liberating effects. PMID:27609892

  9. A Comparison of Written Chinese Achievement among Heritage Learners in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Helen H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines effects of grouping practice on written Chinese achievement among heritage learners in college Chinese classes. Subjects were two groups of heritage students, a homogeneous group and a heterogeneous group. Results suggest in college level Chinese language classes, tracking based on linguistic background can improve heritage students'…

  10. Incidence of breast-feeding in a low socioeconomic group of mothers in the United States: ethnic patterns.

    PubMed

    Rassin, D K; Richardson, C J; Baranowski, T; Nader, P R; Guenther, N; Bee, D E; Brown, J P

    1984-02-01

    Breast-feeding has been shown to have increased in incidence during recent years in the United States. However, this increase is not particularly evident in lower socioeconomic groups. Factors associated with the decision to breast-feed or not were investigated in a population of 379 mothers. Self-completed questionnaires were obtained from 94.5% of these mothers. Data with respect to demographics, reproductive history, prenatal care, and education were collected. Only 27.2% of the study population indicated that they intended to breast-feed. Using the chi2 test for equality of proportions, marital status, head of household, maternal and paternal ethnicity, maternal education, income, and number of pregnancy were found to be the most important variables associated with breast-feeding. The effect of ethnicity predominated over that of the other demographic variables when they were examined jointly within ethnic groups. The effect of ethnicity was apparent when the number of each ethnic group in the study population was compared with the percent of that group that intended to breast-feed: 145 Anglo-Americans, 43.5% breast-feeding; 131 black Americans, 9.2%; 62 Mexican Americans, 22.6%; 19 others, 42.1%. The importance of ethnicity in the decision to breast-feed has probably been underestimated. Efforts to increase breast-feeding in the United States ought to be designed with full consideration of this factor.

  11. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants.

  12. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516

  13. Precipitating Circumstances of Suicide and Alcohol Intoxication among U.S. Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; McFarland, Bentson H.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of nine different types of precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents, and examine the association between circumstances and post-mortem blood alcohol content (BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl.) across U.S. ethnic groups. Methods Data come from the restricted 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with post-mortem information on 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 17 states of the U.S. Results Among men, precipitating circumstances statistically associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl were physical health and job problems for Blacks, and experiencing a crisis, physical health problems and intimate partner problem for Hispanics. Among women, the only precipitating circumstance associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl was substance abuse problems other than alcohol for Blacks. The number of precipitating circumstances present before the suicide was negatively associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions Selected precipitating circumstances were associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl, and the strongest determinant of this level of alcohol intoxication prior to suicide among all ethnic groups was the presence of an alcohol problem. PMID:26173709

  14. [Structural and functional changes of external and intracranial arteries in elderly patients of different ethnic groups with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Fedorets, V N; Abramov, E A; Bartosh-Zelenaia, S Iu; Naĭden, T V

    2014-01-01

    The present article discusses the problem of structural and functional changes in extra-and intracranial arteries in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease (CHD) belonging to different ethnic groups before the upcoming coronary arteriography research and planned operative intervention. We examined 120 elderly patients with ischemic heart disease, including 50 patients of Korean nationality and 70 patients of Slavic ethnicity. Average values of IMT of the right and left CCA patients of South Asian group were significantly lower than those of Slavic ethnicity. Elderly patients with CHD the violation of cerebral circulation were due to atherosclerotic lesions of the extracranial vessels and local hemodynamic disturbances in their area of pathological tortuosity. Korean ethnicity elderly patients with CHD were observed more pronounced signs of stenosis and deformation of the main arteries of the neck, as well as lower collateral reserve of cerebral circulation.

  15. Han ethnicity-specific type 2 diabetic treatment from traditional Chinese medicine?

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chung; Chang, Su-Sen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene is one of the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility genes specific to the Han Chinese population. IDE, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, is a potential target for controlling insulin degradation. Potential lead compounds for IDE inhibition were identified from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) through virtual screening and evaluation of their pharmacokinetic properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to validate the stability of complexes from docking simulation. The top three TCM compounds, dihydrocaffeic acid, isopraeroside IV, and scopolin, formed stable H-bond interactions with key residue Asn139, and were linked to active pocket residues His108, His112, and Glu189 through zinc. Torsion angle trajectories also indicated some stable interactions for each ligand with IDE. Molecular level analysis revealed that the TCM candidates might affect IDE through competitive binding to the active site and steric hindrance. Structural feature analysis reveals that high amounts of hydroxyl groups and carboxylic moieties contribute to anchor the ligand within the complex. Hence, we suggest the top three TCM compounds as potential inhibitor leads against IDE protein to control insulin degradation for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:29.

  16. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  17. The effect of alcohol use on IL-6 responses across different racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Míguez, María José; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Burbano-Levy, Ximena; Carmona, Talita; Malow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Aims Chronic inflammation has become increasingly recognized as a health threat for people living with HIV, given its associations with multiple diseases. Accordingly, the scientific community has prioritized the need to identify mechanisms triggering inflammation. Participants & methods A clinic-based case–control study was designed to elucidate the plausible effects of alcohol use on IL-6. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells for measuring IL-6 culture supernatant and plasma for HIV assessments were collected from 59 hazardous alcohol users and 66 nonhazardous alcohol users, who were matched according to their age, gender and US CDC HIV severity status. Results Stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced significantly higher amounts of IL-6 in hazardous alcohol users compared with nonhazardous alcohol users. However, racial status and receiving HAART significantly moderated this effect. Notably, in both HAART and non-HAART scenarios, IL-6 levels were associated with CD4 counts and viral burden. A distinctive IL-6 production pattern across racial/ethnic groups was also evident and showed that, when prescribed HAART, Hispanic hazardous alcohol users have a particularly high risk of morbidity compared with their Caucasian and African–American counterparts. After adjusting for confounders (e.g., sociodemographics and HIV disease status), regression analyses confirmed that chronic inflammation, as indicated by IL-6 levels (log), is associated with alcohol use, race/ethnicity and thrombocytopenia, and tended to be related to concurrent smoking. Conclusion Our data confirm that, despite HAART, people living with HIV still have a persistent inflammatory response that, in our study, was associated with chronic hazardous alcohol use. The data also highlight racial/ethnic disparities in IL-6 that justify further investigations. PMID:23565120

  18. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  19. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  20. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  2. Y-STR variation among ethnic groups from Ecuador: Mestizos, Kichwas, Afro-Ecuadorians and Waoranis.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Fabricio; Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Sánchez, Dora; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña

    2009-06-01

    Twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were studied in the three major ethnic groups from Ecuador: Mestizos, Native Amerindians (Kichwas, Quichuas) and Afro-Ecuadorians aiming to construct a representative database for this region in Latin America. All three populations exhibit high haplotypes diversities. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals significant differentiation between the Mestizos, the Kichwas and the Afro-Ecuadorians. The analysis of a hunter-gatherer group of Native Amerindians from the Amazonian provinces of Ecuador, the Waoranis (Huaorani) revealed markedly reduced haplotypes variability and a large genetic distance to the major Ecuadorian populations. PMID:19414158

  3. Academic Performance Differences among Ethnic Groups: Do the Daily Use and Management of Time Offer Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2013-01-01

    This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…

  4. Characteristic distribution of HTLV type I and HTLV type II carriers among native ethnic groups in South America.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, T; Li, H C; Lou, H; Yashiki, S; Karino, S; Zaninovic, V; Oneegllo, S G; Camacho, M; Andrade, R; Hurtado, L V; Gomez, L H; Damiani, E; Cartier, L; Dipierri, J E; Hayami, M; Sonoda, S; Tajima, K

    1999-09-20

    To confirm the geographic and ethnic segregation of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers in native populations in South America, we have conducted a seroepidemiological study of native populations in South America, including HTLV-I carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups in the Andes highlands of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, and two ethnic groups on Chiloe Island and Easter Island; and HTLV-II carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups of the lowlands along the Atlantic coast of Colombia, Orinoco, Amazon, and Patagonia, and one ethnic group on Chiloe Island. The incidence rate of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers varied among the ethnic groups, ranging from 0.8 to 6.8% for HTLV-I seropositivity and from 1.4 to 57.9% for HTLV-II seropositivity. A new HTLV-I focus was found among the Peruvian Aymara (1.6%), the Bolivian Aymara (5.3%) and Quechua (4.5%), the Argentine Puna (2.3%), and the Chilean Atacama (4.1%), while on HTLV-II focus was found among the Brazilian Kayapo (57.9%), the Paraguayan Chaco (16.4%), and the Chilean Alacalf (34.8%) and Yahgan (9.1%). The distribution of HTLV-I/II foci showed a geographic clustering of HTLV-I foci in the Andes highlands and of HTLV-II foci in the lowlands of South America. It was thus suggested that South American natives might be divided into two major ethnic groups by HTLV-I and HTLV-II carrier state.

  5. Reprogenetics, Genetic Tools and Reproductive Risk: Attitudes and Understanding Among Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Simonstein, Frida; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated a possible relationship between the attitudes toward genetic technologies and the understanding of genetics, reproduction, and reproductive risk among Israeli Arabs and Israeli Jews. The study included 203 respondents, who answered a structured self-report questionnaire. They were recruited using a snowball method, which increased the participation of Israeli Arabs in the sample, although the sample was not representative of the Israeli population as a whole (there were more Arabs and fewer men). The respondents in this study expressed a positive attitude toward genetic technologies, but were less in favor of using genetic tools for non-medical purposes. Respondents of both groups were not knowledgeable of genetics; however, they scored higher on the items related to reproductive risk, which suggests that some awareness about genetic risk exists in both sectors of the Israeli population. Nevertheless, Israeli Arabs were less positive than Israeli Jews regarding the application of genetic tools. Moreover, although an understanding of genetics correlated positively with the attitude among Arabs, it did not affect the attitude of Jews, who remained very positive, regardless of their level of understanding. This result suggests that other social and cultural factors, besides understanding, might be at work among these two major ethnic sectors. Further studies that integrate educational, social, and cultural aspects among ethnic sectors of the population are required to improve health services and genetic counselling in Israel and in other countries. PMID:26051269

  6. The reported views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elkan, R; Avis, M; Cox, K; Wilson, E; Patel, S; Miller, S; Deepak, N; Edwards, C; Staniszewska, S; Kai, J

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence of inequalities in access to high-quality cancer services between minority and majority ethnic groups. However, little research has been carried out from the perspective of users from minority ethnic groups themselves. This paper reports a review of the British literature exploring the views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups. We reviewed 25 qualitative studies that reported the experiences of people from minority ethnic groups. The studies highlighted significant issues and challenges, including comprehension and communication barriers, a lack of awareness of the existence of services and a perceived failure by providers to accommodate religious and cultural diversity. This paper critically discusses some of the explanations commonly invoked for ethnic inequalities in access to high-quality care, such as the belief that the lack of use of services reflects a lack of need. Despite positive initiatives to respond better to the needs of minority groups, we suggest the impact of these remains highly variable. Institutional racism within services is still much in evidence.

  7. [Relationship between malaria and anemia in two ethnic groups living in sympatry in Mali].

    PubMed

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Tolo, Y; Tapily, A; Arama, C; Daou, M; Baby, M; Traore, B; Doumbo, O

    2012-12-01

    Studies performed in Burkina Faso and Mali showed differences in susceptibility to malaria between the Fulani and other sympatric ethnic groups, the Mossi and Dogon. We carried out a longitudinal survey and three cross-sectional studies from 2003 to 2005 in order to assess the prevalence of anemia in Dogon and Fulani. The distribution of the study population by sex was comparable between the two ethnic groups (p = ns). The Fulani are mainly cattle breeders and the Dogons, farmers. They were exposed to similar entomological inoculation rates, and studies on "knowledge, attitude, and practices" showed no difference between the two ethnic groups. The cross-sectional studies were performed during the intense malaria transmission season (in September 2003 and 2005) and during the dry season (in March 2004). Longitudinal clinical follow-up studies were performed from August to December 2005 using the WHO 28 days in vivo test, after administration of a curative dose of antimalarial drugs to patients with mild malaria. During the cross-sectional studies, both Fulani men and women had significantly lower hemoglobin levels than their Dogon counterparts; this difference was most evident in the women (in 2005: 9.4 g/dl in Fulani vs 10.7 g/dl in Dogon, p = 0.0002). Clinical longitudinal follow-up data showed that Fulani children aged 10-14 years have lower hemoglobin levels than Dogon children. At day 0, the mean of hemoglobin level was 9.6 g/dl in Dogon children vs. 8.7 g/dl in Fulani children (p = 0.01). At day 28, after malaria treatment, we also observed a significant difference in hemoglobin levels in children (10.6 g/dl in Dogon vs 9.3 g/dl in Fulani, p < 0.001). A stronger association between anemia and spleen enlargement was found in the Fulani (53.2% with spleen enlargement) than in the Dogon (32.9%) [p = 0.005]. The Fulani suffer more from anemia than the Dogon, despite their lower susceptibility to malaria. The difference in anemia between Dogon and Fulani must be

  8. Social identity complexity and immigrants' attitude toward the host nation: the intersection of ethnic and religious group identification.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2012-09-01

    Social identity complexity refers to individual differences in the interrelationships among multiple ingroup identities. The present research conducted in the Netherlands examines social identity complexity in relation to Muslim immigrants' national identification and the attitude toward the host majority. Three studies are reported that focused on the interrelationship between ethnicity and religion and examined social identity complexity in different ways. Study 1 showed that lower social identity complexity is associated with lower national identification. Studies 2 and 3 examined the interaction between ethnic and religious group identification. For Muslim identifiers, higher ethnic identification was related to lower national identification and higher ingroup bias (Studies 2) and lower endorsement of national liberal practices (Study 3). In contrast, for those who did not strongly identify with Muslims, higher ethnic identification was associated with higher national identification, stronger endorsement of Dutch liberal practices, and more positive stereotypes about the Dutch outgroup (Study 3).

  9. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  10. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. Design A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants 219 276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205 326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001–2004, 2005–2008 and 2009–2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. Results During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p=0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p=0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p=0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p=0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. Conclusions We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. PMID:26260346

  11. The Association of Handgrip Strength and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Six Ethnic Groups: An Analysis of the HELIUS Study.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Anne-Lotte L F; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether ethnic differences in handgrip strength, a marker of poor muscle strength and quality, is a potential cause of ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We included 2086 Dutch, 2216 South Asian Surinamese, 2084 African Surinamese, 1786 Ghanaian, 2223 Turkish and 2199 Moroccan origin participants from the HELIUS study. We analyzed ethnic differences in handgrip strength, and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus using logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, body composition and lifestyle factors. Additionally, we investigated whether handgrip strength explained the ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found that handgrip strength differed significantly across ethnic groups. After full adjustment, we found an inverse association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.97) that did not differ substantially between ethnic groups, men and among women, and lean and overweight individuals. The association was not affected by the measure used to define type 2 diabetes mellitus, but was attenuated by exclusion of people with known diabetes. The ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus were not explained by handgrip strength (e.g. the OR for the South Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 5.03; 3.69-6.68 to 4.87; 3.57-6.65). In conclusion, we found large ethnic differences in handgrip strength and a consistent association of low handgrip strength with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus. This suggests that handgrip strength may be investigated as a target for intervention or a marker to identify people at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Measurement of Perceived and Technical Quality of Care for Depression in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Groups.

    PubMed

    Leff, H Stephen; Chow, Clifton; Wieman, Dow A; Ostrow, Laysha; Cortés, Dharma E; Harris, Treniece

    2016-08-01

    Measurement of patient satisfaction is now considered essential for providing patient centered care and is an important tool for addressing health care disparities. However, little is known about how ethnically and racially diverse (ERD) groups differ in how they perceive quality, and widely used instruments for measuring perceived quality give little attention to cultural elements of care. This study examined the relationship between the culturally determined beliefs and expectations of four ERD groups (African Americans, Latinos, Portuguese-speakers, and Haitians, total N = 160) and the technical quality of treatment for depression provided in four "culturally-specific" primary care clinics. Using data from the Experiences of Care and Health Outcomes survey, chart reviews and focus groups, the study addressed a set of questions related to the psychometric properties of perceived care measures and the technical quality of care. The groups differed in preferred cultural elements except all preferred inclusion of religion. They did not differ in overall perceived quality. Technical quality was higher for Portuguese and Haitians than for African Americans and Latinos. Implications of group differences for measuring quality are discussed. PMID:26748509

  13. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  14. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    .05). Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%), and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%). Regardless of ethnicity, children who spent more than 4 hours per day in front of a screen were approximately twice as likely to be overweight (OR, 1.96 [95%CI: 1.06-3.64, p = 0.03]). Regardless of race, inactivity levels are related to body mass. Ethnic and gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of biological and cultural reasons. Key points Regardless of race, inactivity levels are related to body mass. In an ethnically diverse urban group of South African school children, there exists an age related decline in physical activity and increase in time spent in front of a screen. Ethnic and gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of biological and cultural reasons. PMID:24790492

  15. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  16. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Four Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic-groups of midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, twoway ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development. PMID:24879749

  17. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  18. Ethnicity and gender in late childhood and early adolescence: group identity and awareness of bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O; Huynh, Virginia W; Masten, Carrie L

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (Mage = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture the types of bias that were most salient to children and (b) daily diaries and individual measures to examine the multiple components of children's gender and ethnic identities. Results revealed ethnic, gender, and grade-level differences in awareness of ethnic and gender bias. Overall, more children were aware of gender bias than ethnic bias. This effect was most pronounced among White/European American youths. Among those in 4th grade, African American and Latino youths were more likely to be aware of ethnic bias than were White/European American youths. Analyses also examined how awareness of bias was related to gender and ethnic identity. For example, children who had a salient and important gender identity, and a devalued ethnic identity, were less likely than other children to be aware of ethnic bias.

  19. Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Nöthlings, U; Boeing, H; Maskarinec, G; Sluik, D; Teucher, B; Kaaks, R; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J; Dethlefsen, C; Overvad, K; Amiano, P; Toledo, E; Bendinelli, B; Grioni, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Mattiello, A; Beulens, JWJ; Iestra, JA; Spijkerman, AMW; van der A, DL; Nilsson, P; Sonestedt, E; Rolandsson, O; Franks, PW; Vergnaud, A-C; Romaguera, D; Norat, T; Kolonel, LN

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Given the importance of nutrition therapy in diabetes management, we hypothesized that food intake differs between individuals with and without diabetes. We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups. Methods Study populations were the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Study and the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Dietary intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires, and calibrated using 24h-recall information for the EPIC-Study. Only confirmed self-reports of diabetes at cohort entry were included: 6192 diabetes patients in EPIC and 13 776 in the MEC. For the cross-sectional comparison of food intake and lifestyle variables at baseline, individuals with and without diabetes were matched 1:1 on sex, age in five year categories, BMI in 2.5 kg/m2 categories, and country. Results Higher intake of softdrinks (by 13 and 44% in the EPIC and MEC), and lower consumption of sweets, juice, wine, and beer (>10% difference) were observed in participants with diabetes compared to those without. Consumption of vegetables, fish and meat was slightly higher in individuals with diabetes in both studies, but the differences were less than 10%. Findings were more consistent across different ethnic groups than countries, but generally showed largely similar patterns. Conclusions Although diabetes patients are expected to undergo nutritional education, we found only small differences in dietary behavior in comparison to cohort members without diabetes. These findings suggest that emphasis on education is needed to improve the current behaviors in order to assist in the prevention of complications. PMID:21346715

  20. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  1. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  2. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  3. Prevalence of Vision Disorders by Racial and Ethnic Group among Children Participating in Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Maguire, Maureen G.; Cyert, Lynn A.; Ciner, Elise; Quinn, Graham E.; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Moore, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and significant refractive error among African-American, American Indian, Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preschoolers in the Vision In Preschoolers study. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants Three- to 5-year old preschoolers (n = 4040) in Head Start from 5 geographically disparate areas of the United States. Methods All children who failed the mandatory Head Start screening and a sample of those who passed were enrolled. Study-certified pediatric optometrists and ophthalmologists performed comprehensive eye examinations including monocular distance visual acuity (VA), cover testing, and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Examination results were used to classify vision disorders, including amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive errors, and unexplained reduced VA. Sampling weights were used to calculate prevalence rates, confidence intervals, and statistical tests for differences. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence rates in each racial/ethnic group. Results Overall, 86.5% of children invited to participate were examined, including 2072 African-American, 343 American Indian (323 from Oklahoma), 145 Asian, 796 Hispanic, and 481 non-Hispanic white children. The prevalence of any vision disorder was 21.4% and was similar across groups (P = 0.40), ranging from 17.9% (American Indian) to 23.3% (Hispanic). Prevalence of amblyopia was similar among all groups (P = 0.07), ranging from 3.0% (Asian) to 5.4% (non-Hispanic white). Prevalence of strabismus also was similar (P = 0.12), ranging from 1.0% (Asian) to 4.6% (non-Hispanic white). Prevalence of hyperopia >3.25 diopter (D) varied (P = 0.007), with the lowest rate in Asians (5.5%) and highest in non-Hispanic whites (11.9%). Prevalence of anisometropia varied (P = 0.009), with the lowest rate in Asians (2.7%) and highest in Hispanics (7.1%). Myopia >2.00 D was relatively uncommon (<2.0%) in all groups with the lowest rate in American

  4. Adiposity, dietary and physical activity patterns in ethnic Chinese youths: a cross-country comparison of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, M C; Ho, T F; Block, G; Lee, M; Anderson, J; Sabry, Z

    1994-06-01

    During the last decade, childhood obesity has been on the increase in Singapore and many newly industrialized Asian countries. We compared the mean body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF) values, as well as the dietary and physical activity patterns of Singaporean Chinese and Chinese American youths. Chinese Americans had a higher mean BMI but a lower mean TSF than Singaporean Chinese. Dietary comparisons suggest that Singaporean Chinese ate fish and grain products more often than Chinese American youths, while Chinese American youths consumed processed meats, dairy products and snack foods more frequently. Mean frequency of consumption of low fat, traditional Chinese foods such as rich porridge was higher among the Singaporean Chinese, while typical 'American' foods including cheese were consumed more often among the Chinese Americans. Certain food items that were more 'neutral' in terms of their cultural identity, such as carbonated drinks, cookies and bread were consumed with the same mean frequencies in both cohorts. In terms of physical activity, Singaporean Chinese youths, on average, spent more time in sedentary activities, less time sitting, and more time in light or moderate activities. The mean time spent on vigorous activities per day was only one hour in both cohorts. Our study suggests differences in body fat distribution and composition, as well as in dietary and activity patterns, between Chinese American and Singaporean Chinese youths. There is a need to develop obesity indicators that are appropriate for the specific populations involved, and to carefully investigate environmental influences on childhood obesity.

  5. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale across four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Garnaat, Sarah L; Norton, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is the most commonly used instrument for assessing OCD in clinical trials, but little information is available regarding its appropriateness with patients of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. We examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of this widely used measure, across individuals from four racial and ethnic groups utilizing both university and outpatient samples. Results indicated that a two-factor (Obsessions and Compulsions) model fit the undergraduate and outpatient samples and was structurally invariant across racial/ethnic groups. Minimal evidence of non-invariance was observed across racial/ethnic groups, with the exception that items on the Obsessions subscale may, at lower levels, under-estimate obsessive concerns among Black individuals. Overall, the Y-BOCS appears to show invariance across people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds, although caution should be taken in comparing scores obtained from Black patients to current norms given evidence of substantial non-invariance on the Obsessions scale.

  6. The Modulation of Mimicry by Ethnic Group-Membership and Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation. PMID:27557135

  7. The Modulation of Mimicry by Ethnic Group-Membership and Emotional Expressions.

    PubMed

    Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation. PMID:27557135

  8. The Modulation of Mimicry by Ethnic Group-Membership and Emotional Expressions.

    PubMed

    Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation.

  9. Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: enrollment and attainment in the early reform years.

    PubMed

    Hannum, Emily

    2002-02-01

    Using evidence about educational disparities, this article demonstrates the need for attention to minority populations in studies of social stratification in China. Analyses of data from a 1992 survey of children demonstrate substantial ethnic differences in enrollment among rural 7- to 14 year olds, with rates for ethnic Chinese boys roughly double those for girls from certain ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses indicate that the ethnic gap can be attributed, in part, to compositional differences in geographic location of residence and socioeconomic background. There is no general tendency of a greater gender gap for minorities than for the ethnic Chinese, but significant differences in the gender gap emerge across individual ethnic groups. Together with evidence from census data showing that ethnic disparities in junior high school transitions increased between 1982 and 1990, these results stress the continuing significance of ethnicity as a fundamental factor that conditions status attainment opportunities in China.

  10. Family Check-Up Effects Across Diverse Ethnic Groups: Reducing Early-Adolescence Antisocial Behavior by Reducing Family Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120

  11. Family check-up effects across diverse ethnic groups: reducing early-adolescence antisocial behavior by reducing family conflict.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Knoble, Naomi B; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007 ). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent-child interactions for diverse cultural groups. A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6-8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120

  12. Haptoglobin gene subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp *2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp *1F and Hp *1S , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of F ST (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp*1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians. PMID:21637505

  13. Why do some South African ethnic groups have very high HIV rates and others not?

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris; Zondo, Sizwe

    2011-04-01

    The differences in HIV prevalence between South Africa's racial/ethnic groups (19.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% among 15-49-year-old blacks, coloureds and whites, respectively) are as big as those between the countries with the highest and lowest levels of HIV prevalence worldwide. These large racial/ethnic differences are largely determined by different sexual network structures. In networks among black South Africans, sexual partnerships are more likely to be arranged concurrently - a configuration that leads to exponential increases in the spread of HIV. An examination of the historical origins of polygamy (where it is normative for partnerships to be arranged concurrently) and monogamy (serial or lifetime) reveals that it is the practice of universal monogamy in stratified societies which is the outlier. The ideology and practice of universal monogamy originated in Europe as the result of several factors, most prominently conflicts between the Christian Church and the nobility. After its imposition in Europe, the European colonial project would see this ideology disseminated around the world. Under the influence of liberalism it would mutate into a secular and unacknowledged value-programme of monogamy as a universal norm. This value-programme and practice of monogamy (mostly serial) is still the norm for white South Africans; thus, this sexual behaviour 'spandrel' (by-product of other historical processes) is a large contributor to the lower levels of HIV prevalence among whites. In pre-colonial African societies, polygyny was normative, and the Christian value-programme of monogamy never achieved the hegemonic status it did in Europe and other areas of conquest. Married black African men who converted to Christianity were no less likely to have additional sexual partners, but only more likely to conceal them. The ongoing secrecy about having concurrent partners has contributed to the connectedness of sexual networks among black Africans at large and in this manner has

  14. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  15. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful. PMID:16802072

  16. Understanding academic attitudes and achievement in mexican-origin youths: ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and fatalism.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.

  17. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-01

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  18. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Emotions and Behaviours of Adult Men from Three Ethnic Groups in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Frank H.; Williams, John K.; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E.; Myers, Hector F.

    2014-01-01

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 U.S. men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to men with CSA histories. PMID:24393013

  19. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Mauritania: results of first nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A

    2012-04-01

    There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population.

  20. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tyson H.; O'Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from…

  1. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  2. Consanguineous marriage and reproductive risk: attitudes and understanding of ethnic groups practising consanguinity in Western society.

    PubMed

    Teeuw, Marieke E; Loukili, Ghariba; Bartels, Edien Ac; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-04-01

    Consanguineous couples should be adequately informed about their increased reproductive risk and possibilities for genetic counselling. Information may only be effective if it meets the needs of the target group. This study aimed to gain more insight into: (1) attitudes of people belonging to ethnic groups in Western society towards consanguinity and their understanding of risk for offspring; and (2) their attitudes regarding reproductive information targeted at consanguineous couples. Dutch Moroccans and Turks were invited to complete an online questionnaire by snowball sampling and by placing a link on two popular Dutch Moroccan/Turkish forum websites between September and October 2011. The questionnaire was completed by 201 individuals who were, on average, neither positive nor negative towards consanguinity. Respondents with a consanguineous partner were more positive, estimated the risk for the offspring lower and were less positive about the provision of risk information to consanguineous couples when compared with respondents without a consanguineous partner. Participants of Turkish origin had a more negative attitude towards consanguinity and estimated the reproductive risk higher than Moroccan participants. More than half of the respondents thought that information should be given before marriage, whereas only 10% thought it should never be provided. The general practitioner was most often mentioned (54%) as the designated professional to inform people. Information about genetic risks related to consanguinity should be offered early, preferably before marriage. The diversity of the target population requires various strategies to disseminate information and reach consanguineous couples with the offer of genetic counselling.

  3. Chronic Disease Self-Management and Health Literacy in Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, SUSAN J.; ARMIN, JULIE; TORRES, CRISTINA HUEBNER; ORZECH, KATHRYN M.; VIVIAN, JAMES

    2012-01-01

    Research from several fields has explored health literacy as a multidimensional construct. The authors’ multimethod study, “The Impact of Cultural Differences on Health Literacy and Chronic Disease Outcomes,” assessed health literacy and chronic disease self-management among 296 patients from four ethnic groups (Vietnamese, African American, White, Latino) at a Massachusetts community health center between 2006 and 2010. Health literacy was assessed using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA) measures. Qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews (n = 34), home visits (n = 12), chronic disease diaries (n = 15), and focus groups (n = 47), were completed with a subset of participants. Qualitative interviews indicated a wide range of interpretations of S-TOFHLA questions in which participants substituted their own illness or health care experiences for the abstract examples offered in the instrument, at times leading to incorrect responses. Situating these responses in a broader social and cultural context, this article describes examples of the wide range of chronic disease self-management abilities among participants with limited education and/or low health literacy. It also discusses the culturally variable health beliefs identified among participants interviewed that may play important roles in their chronic disease self-management practices. PMID:23030562

  4. Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks.

    PubMed

    Machulla, H K G; Batnasan, D; Steinborn, F; Uyar, F A; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Oguz, F S; Carin, M N; Dorak, M T

    2003-04-01

    The central Asian country Mongolia is home to more than 20 tribes and ethnic groups, some of which are related to neighboring Turkic populations. The main Mongolian people, Khalkha, live in central and eastern Mongolia while the Tsaatan minority lives in the north of the country. The Oold minority is from the western Altai mountain region and live in close proximity with Turkic people. We have typed the HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci by PCR-SSP in these three Mongolian populations as well as a sample of the German population. To examine their genetic relationships, a sample of the Turkish population already typed at the HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci were used. Altogether five populations were analyzed: Khalkha (n = 100), Tsaatan (n = 72), Oold (n = 52), German (n = 260) and (Anatolian) Turkish (n = 498). Nei's unbiased genetic identity (GI) and genetic distance (GD) were estimated from genotypes using PopGene v1.31, and dendrograms were constructed using phylip. The results suggested a close relationship of the Khalkha to the Tsaatan. The Turks and Germans were equally distant to all three Mongolian populations. These results confirmed the lack of strong genetic relationship between the Mongols and the Turks despite the close relationship of their languages (Altaic group) and shared historical neighborhood. This study has provided useful population data for genetic and anthropologic studies bridging eastern and western populations.

  5. Consanguineous marriage and reproductive risk: attitudes and understanding of ethnic groups practising consanguinity in Western society.

    PubMed

    Teeuw, Marieke E; Loukili, Ghariba; Bartels, Edien Ac; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-04-01

    Consanguineous couples should be adequately informed about their increased reproductive risk and possibilities for genetic counselling. Information may only be effective if it meets the needs of the target group. This study aimed to gain more insight into: (1) attitudes of people belonging to ethnic groups in Western society towards consanguinity and their understanding of risk for offspring; and (2) their attitudes regarding reproductive information targeted at consanguineous couples. Dutch Moroccans and Turks were invited to complete an online questionnaire by snowball sampling and by placing a link on two popular Dutch Moroccan/Turkish forum websites between September and October 2011. The questionnaire was completed by 201 individuals who were, on average, neither positive nor negative towards consanguinity. Respondents with a consanguineous partner were more positive, estimated the risk for the offspring lower and were less positive about the provision of risk information to consanguineous couples when compared with respondents without a consanguineous partner. Participants of Turkish origin had a more negative attitude towards consanguinity and estimated the reproductive risk higher than Moroccan participants. More than half of the respondents thought that information should be given before marriage, whereas only 10% thought it should never be provided. The general practitioner was most often mentioned (54%) as the designated professional to inform people. Information about genetic risks related to consanguinity should be offered early, preferably before marriage. The diversity of the target population requires various strategies to disseminate information and reach consanguineous couples with the offer of genetic counselling. PMID:23921534

  6. DPB1 alleles are associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility in multiple ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Thomas D; Valdes, Ana M; Santiago, Alma; Frazer de Llado, Teresa; Raffel, Leslie J; Zeidler, Adina; Rotter, Jerome I; Erlich, Henry A; Rewers, Marian; Bugawan, Teodorica; Noble, Janelle A

    2004-08-01

    Genetic associations between type 1 diabetes and alleles at the HLA class II locus DPB1 have been previously reported. Observed associations could be due to variation in the DPB1 locus itself or to linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DPB1 alleles and other susceptibility loci. One measure of whether the association of an allele with a disease reflects a true effect of the locus or is simply due to LD is the observation of that association in multiple ethnic groups. Previous type 1 diabetes associations have been reported for DPB1*0301 and DPB1*0202 (predisposing) and for DPB1*0402 (protective). In this study, results are reported from testing these associations in three different sample sets: 1) Puerto Rican case and control subjects, 2) Mexican-American simplex families, and 3) high-risk (DR3/DR4) individuals with and without an affected relative. DPB1*0301 was associated in all three groups, even after accounting for LD with DRB1-DQB1. DPB1*0202 and DPB1*0402 were positively and negatively associated, respectively, in two of the three populations. These results suggest that the observed DPB1 associations, especially that of the DPB1*0301 allele, with type 1 diabetes are likely to be true associations. This supports the concept that multiple genes in the HLA region can affect type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

  7. Do racial and ethnic group differences in performance on the MCAT exam reflect test bias?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dwight; Dorsey, J Kevin; Franks, Ronald D; Sackett, Paul R; Searcy, Cynthia A; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized examination that assesses fundamental knowledge of scientific concepts, critical reasoning ability, and written communication skills. Medical school admission officers use MCAT scores, along with other measures of academic preparation and personal attributes, to select the applicants they consider the most likely to succeed in medical school. In 2008-2011, the committee charged with conducting a comprehensive review of the MCAT exam examined four issues: (1) whether racial and ethnic groups differ in mean MCAT scores, (2) whether any score differences are due to test bias, (3) how group differences may be explained, and (4) whether the MCAT exam is a barrier to medical school admission for black or Latino applicants. This analysis showed that black and Latino examinees' mean MCAT scores are lower than white examinees', mirroring differences on other standardized admission tests and in the average undergraduate grades of medical school applicants. However, there was no evidence that the MCAT exam is biased against black and Latino applicants as determined by their subsequent performance on selected medical school performance indicators. Among other factors which could contribute to mean differences in MCAT performance, whites, blacks, and Latinos interested in medicine differ with respect to parents' education and income. Admission data indicate that admission committees accept majority and minority applicants at similar rates, which suggests that medical students are selected on the basis of a combination of attributes and competencies rather than on MCAT scores alone.

  8. Relationships between racial-ethnic identity, self-esteem and in-group attitudes among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Positive in-group distinctiveness has been associated with self-esteem increases among adolescents and adults. To examine whether in-group biases are associated with self-esteem enhancement among minority group children, Native Canadian children (N = 414, 209 female) age 6-11 completed each year for 5 years, measures assessing their level of concrete operational thought, racial-ethnic identity, racial-ethnic centrality, implicit and explicit self-esteem, and implicit and explicit in-group attitudes. According to cognitive developmental theory, increases in the level of concrete operational thought will predict increases in racial-ethnic identity, and increases in identity should, in turn, predict more favorable in-group attitudes. Social identity theory predicts that more favorable in-group attitudes should predict increases in self-esteem. Multi-level structural equation modelling revealed support for these hypotheses. Cognitively mature children who identify closely with their group enhanced their level of self-esteem by positively differentiating between group members on dimensions that favor their group. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future studies are also presented. PMID:24343260

  9. Implications of Changing Ethnic-Group Representation in Indiana's Population. Part 1: Highlights and Summary. Manpower Report 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.; Shell, Kevin D.

    From 1970 to 1980, Indiana's population grew 5.7 percent, with the white population growing less than 4 percent as opposed to a 30 percent growth rate for minority groups. Nearly 64.4 of the state's minority population resided in Marion and Lake counties as of 1980. Except for Asian Americans, Indiana residents who belong to ethnic minority groups…

  10. Racial/Ethnic Group and Socioeconomic Status Variation in Educational and Occupational Expectations from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…

  11. HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs in the United States: Geographically Explained Variance Across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Kelley, Mary E.; Karnes, Conny C.; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E.; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Finlayson, Teresa; Sionean, Catlainn; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection. Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales. PMID:26469638

  12. Ethnic, Gender, and Socio-Economic Group Differences in Academic Performance and Secondary School Selection: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender, socio-economic (SES), and ethnic group differences in academic performance (measured at 14 and 16 years) in a sample of 517 British pupils (mean age = 16.5 years). White pupils outperformed their Black and Pakistani counterparts and high SES pupils consistently outperformed their low SES counterparts. Results from two…

  13. Ethnic Groups: Negroes, Spanish Speaking, American Indians, and Eskimos. Part 4 of a Bibliographic Series on Meeting Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Lorraine, Comp.

    This bibliography on ethnic groups cites 117 documents acquired and processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education from July 1968 to December 1969. Organization is in three sections: Negroes--58 items; Spanish Speaking People--33 items; and American Indians and Eskimos--26 items. Each section is further broken down by document type:…

  14. Group-Based Preference Assessment for Children and Adolescents in a Residential Setting: Examining Developmental, Clinical, Gender, and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…

  15. Influence of ethnic group on asthma treatment in children in 1990-1: national cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Tauleria, E.; Rona, R. J.; Chinn, S.; Burney, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the extent to which the prescription of drugs for asthma adhered to recommended guidelines in 1990-1 and to assess the influence of ethnic group on prescription. DESIGN--Cross sectional. SETTING--Primary schools in England and Scotland in 1990-1. SUBJECTS--Children aged mainly 5-11 years. The representative samples included 10628 children. The inner city sample included 7049 children, 4866 (69%) from ethnic minority groups. For the prevalence estimation 14490 children were included in the analysis (82% of the eligible children). For the treatment analysis a subgroup of 5494 children with respiratory symptoms was selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and drugs commonly prescribed for asthma, method of administration, inappropriate treatment, and odds ratios to assess the effect of ethnic group on rate of prescription and method of administration. RESULTS--Children with respiratory symptoms in the inner city sample were less likely to be diagnosed as having asthma. Of children with reported asthma attacks, those in inner city areas had a higher risk of not having been prescribed any drug for asthma (odds ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.26 to 2.77). Overall, 773 (75%) of these children had received a beta 2 agonist, 259 (25%) had received steroids, 148 (14%) had received sodium cromoglycate, and 194 (19%) had received no drug treatment in the previous year. When prescribed, beta 2 agonists were inhaled in 534 (69%) of cases, and this percentage was even lower in ethnic minority groups. Children of Afro-Caribbean and Indian subcontinent origin who had asthma were less likely to receive beta 2 agonists, and those from the Indian subcontinent were less likely to receive anti-inflammatory drugs. Antibiotics were less prescribed and antitussives more prescribed in children from ethnic minority groups than in white children. CONCLUSION--In 1990-1 the risk of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma was higher in

  16. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654). PMID:25972428

  17. Dietary energy density is associated with overweight status among 5 ethnic groups in the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Nancy C; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hankin, Jean H; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2006-08-01

    Differences in BMI among ethnic groups may be partially explained by the consumption of energy-dense foods, which influences energy intake in controlled laboratory studies. However, the role of dietary energy density (ED, kJ/g) in free-living persons is less understood. Our objective was to determine whether ED is related to current BMI and the risk for overweight and obesity and whether these relations are consistent among ethnic groups. We calculated ED from responses to a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and validated the measures against multiple 24-h recalls. Subjects consisted of 191,023 participants in the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who were African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, or Caucasian. Mean ED varied from a low of 4.62 kJ/g in Japanese American men to a high of 5.08 kJ/g in African American men. Mean BMI was lowest in Japanese Americans of both sexes and highest in Native Hawaiian men and African American women. After adjusting for the amount of food consumed per day, age, current smoking status, physical activity, chronic disease, and education, a 1 kJ/g increase in ED was associated with an increase in BMI of approximately 1 kg/m2 in each ethnic sex group. This same increase in ED was associated with a significantly increased risk of being overweight in all ethnic sex groups, varying from 4% in African American men to 34% in Japanese American women. Our findings suggest that consumption of an energy dense diet is a risk factor for higher BMI in both men and women across ethnic groups. PMID:16857848

  18. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  19. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups.

  20. The Behavioral Ecology of Family Planning : Two Ethnic Groups in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S

    2007-09-01

    Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide.

  1. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549

  2. Ethnicity matters: the experiences of minority groups in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Manoj; Bandyopadhyay, Subir

    2014-01-01

    The minority population in the US is expected to overtake the nonHispanic Caucasian population by 2050. Compounding this demographic shift are the significant disparities between Caucasian and non Caucasian groups especially with regard to income, living standards, health and access to healthcare and vital services. Thus, healthcare and social service programs are being charged with identifying barriers and providing effective, culturally competent care to reduce these disparities in health and quality of life. But the issue of poverty and access is global and disparities affect communities worldwide. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the service concerns of 137 low-income or poor consumers receiving healthcare and social services in publicly funded facilities. Utilizing a modified cultural competence assessment tool, this study evaluates the impact of race/ethnicity on the experiences of receiving vital services and identifies factors that impact the help-seeking decisions made by consumers. Recommendations for practitioners and organizations to help promote effective models of services for a vulnerable, diverse population are provided.

  3. HLA profile of three ethnic groups living in the North-Western region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I; Spurkland, A; Thorsby, E; Smerdel, A; Tranebjaerg, L; Boldyreva, M; Groudakova, E; Gouskova, I; Alexeev, L L

    2002-01-01

    HLA class II alleles were determined by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP typing of DNA samples from 55 Nentsy, 81 Saami and 73 Pomor individuals from the North-European part of Russia. The results were compared with similar data from Russians. A high frequency of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotype and a low frequency of the DRB1*11-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotype, observed in all three ethnic groups, may indicate a common aboriginal component in their ancestry. Saami and Pomors displayed a similar pattern of allele and haplotype distribution, with the exception of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0304-DQB1*0301 haplotype, which was significantly higher among Saami compared Nentsy, Pomors and Russians. Nentsy individuals had a particularly high frequency of the DRB1*09-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0303 and the DRB1*12-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotypes. Genetic distances and correspondence analysis show that Pomors have a close relationship with Norwegians and Finns, whereas Nentsy and Saami are more closely related to Oriental populations.

  4. The prevalence of hematologic and metabolic abnormalities during chronic kidney disease stages in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Barbour, S J; Er, L; Djurdjev, O; Karim, M A; Levin, A

    2008-07-01

    We conducted an observational cross-sectional study to determine if the prevalence of hematologic and metabolic abnormalities in chronic kidney disease (CKD) varied in different ethnic groups. We used a CKD provincial database where a complete data set at the time of registration was available as well as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which showed using the abbreviated MDRD formula that the patients had CKD of stages 3-5. We included patients with self-reported race of Caucasian, Oriental Asian, or South Asian. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of at least one of the following: anemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, hypoalbuminemia, and three or more laboratory abnormalities. All definitions were consistent with K/DOQI guidelines. When compared with Caucasians, Oriental Asians and South Asians had a higher prevalence of many of the metabolic abnormalities during most stages of CKD and were more likely to have any abnormality at all levels of eGFR. The prevalence of three or more laboratory abnormalities was higher in Oriental Asians at all stages and in South Asians at some levels of eGFR. These results were unchanged or exaggerated when controlled for age, gender, diabetes, and a primary diagnosis of renal disease. Hence, it appears that South Asians and Oriental Asians have more laboratory abnormalities compared with Caucasians at most levels of eGFR.

  5. Distribution and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases among Elderly Uyghur Ethnic Group in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xihua; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Tang, Weiming; Ben, Yanli; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Wang, Faxing

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates. Results Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17–1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53–2.61) and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00–2.34). Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs. Conclusion Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems

  6. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China.

  7. The nutrient intakes of mothers of low birth weight babies - a comparison of ethnic groups in East London, UK.

    PubMed

    Rees, G A; Doyle, W; Srivastava, A; Brooke, Z M; Crawford, M A; Costeloe, K L

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare the nutrient intakes of mothers of different ethnic origins after they had given birth to a low birth weight (LBW) baby (< 2.5 kg). A total of 165 participants from East London, UK completed a prospective 7-day diet diary using household measures, between 8 and 12 weeks post-partum. The data were originally collected as baseline data prior to two separate nutrition intervention studies and were combined and re-interrogated for the purpose of this paper. Folate and iron intakes were low in all ethnic groups compared to the Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNI). Half did not meet the RNI for folate and 88% did not meet the RNI for iron. Nearly a quarter of the group did not achieve the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) for iron. The mean vitamin D and calcium intakes were significantly different between the ethnic groups (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, respectively). African women had the highest vitamin D intakes (4.72 microg d(-1)) and Caucasians and Asians the lowest (2.4 microg d(-1)). Caucasians had the highest calcium intakes (780 mg d(-1)) and Africans the lowest (565 mg d(-1)). Over two-thirds of African, Asian and African-Caribbean women did not meet the RNI for calcium. Thirty-one per cent of Africans did not meet the LRNI for calcium. Our data show a high prevalence of inadequate nutrition among women who deliver LBW babies with differences in nutrient intake between ethnic groups. This information can be used to target specific appropriate dietary advice to ethnic minorities for the prevention or repetition of LBW. PMID:16881884

  8. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  9. Ethnicity and Gender in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Group Identity and Awareness of Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Masten, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (M[subscript age] = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture…

  10. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  11. Score reliability and factor similarity of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among four ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the score reliability and equivalence of factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) [1] in a sample of female college students from the four largest ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Participants were 1245 women who self-identified as European American/White (n = 543), African American/Black (n = 137), Asian American (n = 317), or Latina/Hispanic (n = 248). All completed the SATAQ-3 and a demographic questionnaire. To test the factor similarity and score reliability across groups, we used exploratory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alphas (respectively). Results Score reliability was high for all groups. Tests of factor equivalence suggested that the four pre-established factors of the SATAQ-3 (i.e., knowledge, perceived pressure, thin-ideal internalization, athletic-ideal internalization) were similar for women of all ethnic groups. Only two items (20 and 27) did not consistently load on the previously identified scale across all four groups. When scored, African Americans reported significantly less perceived pressure and internalization than all other groups. Conclusions Results support the use of the SATAQ-3 in female college students of these four ethnicities. PMID:24999395

  12. European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4,000 subjects genotyped for 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian, and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be controlled effectively in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity of performing additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets.

  13. Knowledge of Down syndrome in pregnant women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Chilaka, V N; Konje, J C; Stewart, C R; Narayan, H; Taylor, D J

    2001-03-01

    The uptake of any screening test is influenced by knowledge of the condition being screened for. In the present study, the knowledge and the source of knowledge of women offered antenatal screening for Down syndrome (DS) was assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 300 consecutive women booking for antenatal care, of the 245 (82%) women who completed and returned the questionnaire, 117 (48%) were Caucasian, 85 (35%) were Asian born outside the UK, 32 (13%) were Asian born in the UK and ten (4%) belonged to other categories. Only 30% of the cohort had a good understanding of the condition. Racial groups other than Caucasian had a poorer understanding of DS. The factors which affected knowledge of DS included quality of spoken English, knowing an affected child, parity and religion. The most significant factor affecting acceptance of screening was the woman's knowledge of DS. The source of information for the condition varied widely: 42% from a general practitioners (GP), 24% from the hospital and 16% from midwives. The proportion with good knowledge was similar in those women whose source of information was the GP (45%) and the midwife (41%). These proportions were, however, higher (though not significantly) when the source of information was from magazines and newspapers (67%) and from friends (53%). Uptake of the screening test was best in those with good knowledge (53%) compared to those with poor knowledge (23%) (p<0.02). Between 28% and 66% (depending on the ethnic group) of women had a screening blood test "allegedly" without knowing why it had been performed. In order to improve uptake of the screening test for DS there is need for better education and counselling of women attending for antenatal care.

  14. Dramatic Increases in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence and Body Mass Index Among Ethnic-Immigrant and Social Class Groups in the United States, 1976–2008

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Hiatt, Robert A.; Timsina, Lava R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined trends in US obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among 30 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and length of immigration, and among detailed education, occupation, and income/poverty groups from 1976 to 2008. Using 1976–2008 National Health Interview Surveys, differentials in obesity, overweight, and BMI, based on self-reported height and weight, were analyzed by using disparity indices, logistic, and linear regression. The obesity prevalence for the US population aged ≥18 tripled from 8.7% in 1976 to 27.4% in 2008. Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008. During 1991–2008, obesity prevalence for US-born adults increased from 13.9 to 28.7%, while prevalence for immigrants increased from 9.5 to 20.7%. While immigrants in each ethnic group and time period had lower obesity and overweight prevalence and BMI than the US-born, immigrants’ risk of obesity and overweight increased with increasing duration of residence. In 2003–2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31–39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants. Between 1976 and 2008, the obesity prevalence more than quadrupled for those with a college education or sales occupation. Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups. Continued immigrant and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence will likely have substantial impacts on future obesity trends in the US. PMID:20549318

  15. A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts.

  16. A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts. PMID:25647347

  17. A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts. PMID:25647347

  18. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  19. Forensic evaluation and population genetic study of 30 insertion/deletion polymorphisms in a Chinese Yi group.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Jin, Rui; Li, Ya-Ni; Wang, Bo; Ma, Li-Xia; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Dan Wang, Hong-; Yang, Ze-Long; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Insertion/deletion polymorphisms have become a research hot spot in forensic science due to their tremendous potential in recent years. In the present study, we investigated 30 indel loci in a Chinese Yi ethnic group. The allele frequencies of the short allele of the 30 indel loci were in the range of 0.1025-0.9221. The power of discrimination values were observed ranging from to 0.2630 (HLD111 locus) to 0.6607 (HLD70 locus) and probability of exclusion values ranged from 0.0189 (HLD111 locus) to 0.2343 (HLD56 locus). The combined power of discrimination and power of exclusion for 30 loci in the studied Yi group were 0.99999999995713 and 0.97746, respectively, which showed tremendous potential for forensic personal identification in the Yi group. Moreover, the DA distances, phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed the Yi group had close genetic relationships with the Tibetan, South Korean, Chinese Han, and She groups.

  20. Ethnic Segmentation in the American Metropolis: Increasing Divergence in Economic Incorporation, 1980-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John; Alba, Richard D.; Dill, Michael; Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    Tracks the evolution of metropolitan ethnic economics between 1980-90, when most immigrant groups experienced explosive population growth. Uses census data to describe ethnic enclaves, entrepreneurial niches, and employment niches in metropolitan areas. Results suggest that initial successes of some groups (Whites, Cubans, Koreans, and Chinese)…

  1. Influence of ethnic group-membership and gaze direction on the perception of emotions. A cross-cultural study between Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487

  2. Evaluation of α-Globin Gene Mutations Among Different Ethnic Groups in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Abbas; Jalali-Far, Mohammadali; Saki, Najmaldin; Hosseini, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Kiani-Ghalesardi, Omid; Paridar, Mostafa; Azarkeivan, Azita; Magaji-Hamid, Kabir

    2016-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders in the world. In addition to large deletions, over 50 different α-thal point mutations were detected around the world, thus, patients showed different phenotypes with regard to genotype. This study evaluated the genetic frequency of α-thal in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran, to help implement premarital and prenatal screening programs. The study was conducted on couples proposing to get married and parents who were referred to the genetic center of Shafa Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, for prenatal diagnosis (PND) in 2012. Genomic DNA was purified by the salting-out method and tested using multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR), reverse hybridization test strips and DNA sequencing. Overall, 11 mutations were found on the α-globin genes. Based on gene frequency, the most common mutant allele was -α(3.7) (rightward) (71.3%) followed by the two gene deletion - -(MED) (9.7%). Other common mutations were α(codon 19)α (GCG>GC-, α2) (8.4%), the polyadenylation (polyA1) site α(polyA1)α (AATAAA>AATAAG) (2.8%), and α(-5 nt)α (-TGAGG) (2.0%). In addition, an extremely rare mutation at α(codon 21)α [Hb Fontainebleau, HBA2: c.64G > C (or HBA1)] was also found. The results of this study are critical for correct diagnosis of α-thal carriers, premarriage counseling and PND. This study suggests that the distribution of mutations on the α-globin genes differs among the ethnic groups in Khuzestan Province as well as in other provinces. PMID:26878087

  3. DNA polymorphism analysis of candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Mexican ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Flores-Martínez, S E; Islas-Andrade, S; Machorro-Lazo, M V; Revilla, M C; Juárez, R E; Mújica-López, K I; Morán-Moguel, M C; López-Cardona, M G; Sánchez-Corona, J

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from the action and interaction of many genetic and environmental factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of glucose are associated with the susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus increases with age, as well as with obesity and hypertension, its prevalence and incidence are different among geographical regions and ethnic groups. In Mexico, a higher prevalence and incidence has been described in the south of the country, and differences between urban and rural communities have been observed. We studied 73 individuals from Santiago Jamiltepec, a small indigenous community from Oaxaca State, Mexico. This population has shown a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the Pst I (insulin gene), Nsi I (insulin receptor gene) and Gly972Arg (insulin receptor substrate 1 gene) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension in this population. Clinical evaluation consisted of BMI and blood pressure measurements, and biochemical assays consisted of determination of fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. PCR and restriction enzyme digestion analysis were applied to genomic DNA to identify the three polymorphisms. From statistical analysis carried out here, individually, the Pst I, Nsi I and Gly972Arg polymorphisms were not associated with the type 2 diabetes, obese or hypertensive phenotypes in this population. Nevertheless, there was an association between the Nsi I and Pst I polymorphisms and increased serum insulin levels.

  4. Access to and coverage of renal replacement therapy in minorities and ethnic groups in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Pernalete, Nidia; Meza, Josefina; Milanes, Carmen Luisa; Carlini, Raul G

    2005-08-01

    Access to and coverage of renal replacement therapy in minorities and ethnic groups in Venezuela. Numerous studies have documented the presence of racial and minority disparities regarding the impact of renal disease and access to renal replacement therapy (RRT). This problem is less well documented in Latin America. Venezuela, like most countries in the region, is subject to severe constraints in the allocation of resources for high-cost chronic diseases, which limits the access of patients with chronic kidney disease to RRT. Although access to health care is universal, there is both a deficit in coverage and disparity in the access to RRT, largely as a result of socioeconomic limitations and budget constrains. With current rising trends of the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and costs of medical technology, the long-term goal of complete RRT coverage will become increasingly out of reach. Current evidence suggests that prevention of progression of renal disease is possible at relatively low cost and broad coverage. Based on this evidence, the Ministry of Health has redesigned its policy with respect to renal disease based on 4 elements: 1. Prevention by means of early detection and referral to multidisciplinary health teams, as well as promotion of health habits in the community. 2. Prevention of progression of renal disease by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic means. 3. An increase in the rate of coverage and reduction of disparities in the access to dialysis. 4. An increase in the rates of renal transplantation through better organ procurement programs and reinforcement of transplant centers. However, the projected increase in the number of patients with ESKD receiving RRT will represent a serious burden to the health care system. Therefore, implementation of these policies will require the involvement of international agencies as well as an adequate partnership between nephrologists and health care planners, so that meeting the increasing demands

  5. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups. PMID:26863467

  6. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  7. Can arterial wave augmentation in young adults help account for variability of cardiovascular risk in different British ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Faconti, Luca; Silva, Maria J.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Nanino, Elisa; Read, Ursula M.; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie; Cruickshank, Kennedy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully account for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease. We tested if arterial function indices, particularly augmentation index (AIx), and their determinants from childhood could underlie such ethnic variability among young British adults in the ‘DASH’ longitudinal study. Methods: DASH, at http://dash.sphsu.mrc.ac.uk/, includes representative samples of six main British ethnic groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AIx were recorded using the Arteriograph device at ages 21–23 years in a subsample (n = 666); psychosocial, anthropometric, and blood pressure (BP) measures were collected then and in two previous surveys at ages 11–13 years and 14–16 years. For n = 334, physical activity was measured over 5 days (ActivPal). Results: Unadjusted values and regression models for PWVs were similar or lower in ethnic minority than in White UK young adults, whereas AIx was higher – Caribbean (14.9, 95% confidence interval 12.3–17.0%), West African (15.3, 12.9–17.7%), Indian (15.1, 13.0–17.2%), and Pakistani/Bangladeshi (15.7, 13.7–17.7%), compared with White UK (11.9, 10.2–13.6%). In multivariate models, adjusted for sex, central SBP, height, and heart rate, Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi young adults had higher AIx (β = 3.35, 4.20, respectively, P < 0.01) than White UK with a similar trend for West Africans and Caribbeans but not statistically significant. Unlike PWV, physical activity, psychosocial or deprivation measures were not associated with AIx, with borderline associations from brachial BP but no other childhood variables. Conclusion: Early adult AIx, but not arterial stiffness, may be a useful tool for testing components of excess cardiovascular risk in some ethnic minority groups. PMID:27490950

  8. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

  9. Ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about HIV among Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong, Lahu and Northern Thai in a north-western Thailand border district

    PubMed Central

    Kunstadter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities. PMID:23930982

  10. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths. PMID:23196328

  11. In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of nine medicinal plants used by ethnic groups in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Methods Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Results Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent. For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24267469

  12. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  13. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  14. Prothrombotic SERPINC1 gene polymorphism may affect heparin sensitivity among different ethnicities of Chinese patients receiving heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Ma, Hai-Ping; Ti, Ai Lai Ti Ta Lai; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Zheng, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the antithrombin (gene, SERPINC1, and perioperative sensitivity to heparin in patients receiving heart surgery. The SERPINC1 genotype and allele frequency, coagulation parameters 24 hours before and after surgery, and clinical findings were compared among 3 ethnic groups, Han, Uighur, and Kazakh, patientswho received heart surgery. In Han patients, longer coagulation time as well as higher heparin and protamine dosage was observed. SERPINC1 gene sequencing identified 2 mutations in exon 5, g.981A>G (rs5877) and g.1011A>G (rs5878). The minor allele frequency of allele (A>G) for rs5877 and rs5878 was higher in the Han patients and was significantly different among the ethnic groups (P = .004 and P = .006, respectively). The increased SERPINC1 SNP frequency among Han patients receiving heart surgery might contribute to the differences in their perioperative sensitivity to heparin.

  15. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  16. Women's Stereotypic Roles: A Replication and Standardization of the AWS and PAQ for Selected Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others

    A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…

  17. Examining the Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy across Diverse Client Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jessica Barfield

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…

  18. Community Violence, Social Support Networks, Ethnic Group Differences, and Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…

  19. Beyond Socioeconomics: Explaining Ethnic Group Differences in Parenting through Cultural and Immigration Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth; Kanatsu, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This study examined both socioeconomic and cultural factors in explaining ethnic differences in monitoring, behavioral control, and warmth--part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue. Socioeconomic variables included mother's and father's educational levels, employment status, home ownership, number of siblings in the…

  20. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  1. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  2. Day Care Interactions and Teacher Perceptions as a Function of Teacher and Child Ethnic Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David Harvey; Griffith, Jessica R.; Ortiz, Camilo; Stowe, Rebecca M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined low socioeconomic-status (SES) preschool classrooms for teacher perceptions of children and teacher/child interactions as a function of ethnicity. Hispanic teachers described Hispanic boys as having high levels of difficulty; they engaged in high levels of interaction with them. Perceptions of girls were more positive and less influenced…

  3. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:2298755

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and

  5. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Jacobs, David R.; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A.; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Data on 6,680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Results Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. PMID:20609433

  6. Improving pathways into mental health care for black and ethnic minority groups: a systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2009-01-01

    Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.

  7. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of 21 non-CODIS STR loci in the Chinese Mongolian ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lagabaiyila; Liu, Ying; Guo, Yadong; Li, Jun; Wang, Ke; Geng, Kun; Liao, Qiao; Liu, Jinshan; Chen, Hanchun; Cai, Jifeng

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we investigated the allele frequencies and forensic parameters of 21 non-, CODIS short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500) among 523 unrelated, Chinese Mongolians in the city of Tongliao, Horqin district, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

  9. Differential Functioning of the Chinese Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in Adolescent Gender Groups: Use of a Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate whether items of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C; "Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation" in "Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II" [in Chinese]. The Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation, Taiwan, 2000) exhibited DIF across adolescent gender groups, in…

  10. [Distribution of ABO blood groups and incidence of Rh factor (D) in various ethnic groups in the Hindu Kush region (Kafirs, Kalash Chitrali)].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, W

    1980-02-01

    With the aid of Eldon cards the distribution of the ABO blood groups and of the Rh factor (D) was investigated in different native ethnic groups (Kafirs, Kalash, Chitrali) in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. All studied groups are characterized by a relatively high frequency of blood group gene A and extremely low frequencies of B and O. This distribution differs appreciably from that of the rest of the Indian subcontinent as well as that of the adjacent Central Asiatic areas. The possible causes of the exceptional position of the native Hindu Kush groups in the ABO blood group system are discussed. It may be assumed that selection as a result of mother-child compatibility played a role as will be shown in a later paper. Concerning the studied traits of the Rhesus system, all investigated groups fit in the range of variation of the South Asian area. PMID:6773468

  11. Dyslipidemia in Special Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Robert; Zhao, Beinan; Azar, Kristen M.J.; Hastings, Katherine G.; Nimbal, Vani; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This manuscript reviewed racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia, including prevalence of dyslipidemia, its relation to CHD and stroke mortality rates, response to lipid-lowering agents, and lifestyle modification. In particular, among all racial/ethnic groups, Asian Indians, Filipinos and Hispanics are at higher risk for dyslipidemia, which is consistent with the higher coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in these groups. In addition, compared to other racial/ethnic groups, statins may have a higher efficacy for Asians. Studies suggest lower starting dosage in Asians, but the data are mixed. Genetic differences in statin metabolism can in part explain this racial/ethnic difference in statin sensitivity and adverse effects. Furthermore, lifestyle modification is recommended as part of dyslipidemia control and management. Both African Americans and Hispanics have more sedentary behavior and less favorable diet profile. Hispanic subgroups (i.e. Mexican, Puerto Rican, etc.) and Asian (i.e. Chinese, South Asian, etc.) subgroups should be disaggregated for lifestyle interventions due to cultural differences among the subgroups. Further studies are needed to better understand racial/ethnic-specific risk factors contributing to the observed differences in dyslipidemia, CHD, and stroke. Culturally-tailored prevention and intervention should be provided to the minority populations with elevated risk for dyslipidemia and considerably more research is needed to determine the best approaches to helping specific subgroups. PMID:25939303

  12. Ethnic elders.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.

    1996-01-01

    The numbers of elderly people from ethnic groups within Britain is rising rapidly as postwar immigrants age. Ethnic elders face problems owing to age-associated increased risks of common chronic diseases, racial discrimination, and poor access to many health services and social services. This disadvantage will be alleviated through increased understanding of health beliefs held by ethnic elders and ensuring better access to services through mechanisms such as employment of more staff from ethnic minority groups in senior positions, better training of staff, and more appropriate and sensitive environments. The myths that family care is sufficient, that no use of services implies no need, and that assimilation into the majority population will occur must be discounted. Images p610-a Fig 1 PMID:8806256

  13. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    SciTech Connect

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Lin, Julia Y; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    We examine differential validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups.

  15. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lin, Julia Y.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Alegria, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    We examine differential validity of DSM-IV diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups. PMID:23148026

  16. Ethnic stratification in northwest China: occupational differences between Han Chinese and national minorities in Xinjiang, 1982-1990.

    PubMed

    Hannum, E; Xie, Y

    1998-08-01

    The debate on market reforms and social stratification in China has paid very little attention to China's ethnic minorities. We explored rising occupational stratification by ethnicity in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Analyses of census data from 1982 and 1990 pointed to educational disadvantages faced by ethinic minorities as the most plausible explanation for the change. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant increase in the effect of education on high-status occupational attainment but no change in the effect of ethnicity. Net of education, ethnic differences in high-status occupational attainment were negligible. In contrast, large ethnic differences in manufacturing and agricultural occupations persisted after education and geography were statistically controlled.

  17. Identifying priorities to improve maternal and child nutrition among the Khmu ethnic group, Laos: a formative study

    PubMed Central

    de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed. PMID:22515273

  18. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  19. The Comparison of Nutritional Status Between Turkman and Non-Turkman Ethnic Groups in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghari, Gholam Reza; Jafar Golalipour, Mohammad

    Undernutrition and obesity are two most children health problems in world. Several agents can effect on food pattern among ethnic groups. This study was designed to determine nutritional status among rural children by two ethnic groups (Turkman and Non-Turkman) in north of Iran in 2004. We chose 20 villages of 118 by cluster and simple sampling. All of 2-5 years old children in this area were considered in this study. Sample size was 1446 cases (551 = Turkman and 895 = non-Turkman). Height, weight and personal identification were recorded by questioner. BMI percentile and under -1SD, -2SD and -3SD from NCHS were used for comparison. X2-test and T-test were used to analyze by software SPSS. Turkman children are about 426 g heavier and 4.9 cm taller than non-Turkman in all of age groups. T-test is significant between two groups by weight and height (p< 0.05). Stunting and underweight were observed in Turkman group 13.2 and 1.9%, respectively less than in non-Turkman by -2SD criterion. There is a significant difference between two groups by stunting (p< 0.05). Obesity and overweight exist in Turkman group 24.5 and 2.6%, respectively are less than in non-Turkman. Obesity is statistical significant between two groups (p< 0.05). Secular growth in two groups is incompatible and in Turkman group, it is better than Non-Turkman. There is severe height deficit in Non-Turkman group and it increases the BMI values. Thereby, malnutrition is the most health problem in rural area in north of Iran and nutritional intervention is necessary for solving these problems. BMI values are not suitable for children with stature failure.

  20. Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group – a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cortellini, Venusia; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cerri, Nicoletta; Marino, Alberto; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Aim To find an association between Y chromosome polymorphisms and some ethnic groups. Methods Short tandem repeats (STR) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the Y chromosome were typed in 311 unrelated men from four different ethnic groups – Italians from northern Italy, Albanians, Africans from the Maghreb region, and Indo-Pakistanis, using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit and the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit. Results STRs analysis found 299 different haplotypes and SNPs analysis 11 different haplogroups. Haplotypes and haplogroups were analyzed and compared between different ethnic groups. Significant differences were found among all the population groups, except between Italians and Indo-Pakistanis and between Albanians and Indo-Pakistanis. Conclusions Typing both STRs and SNPs on the Y chromosome could become useful in determining ethnic origin of a potential suspect. PMID:23771759

  1. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  2. Effects of racial and ethnic group and health literacy on responses to genomic risk information in a medically underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Stafford, Jewel D.; McGowan, Lucy D’Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R.; Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information [genetic test/family history] and disease condition [diabetes/heart disease] and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. Methods 1057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing one of four vignettes (two-by-two randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. Results No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR=1.93; p<0.0001); respondents with marginal (OR=1.54; p=0.005) or limited (OR=1.85; p=0.009) health literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR=1.78; p=0.001) and Hispanics (OR=1.85; p=0.001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=1.45; p=0.04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β= −0.41; p<0.001) and Hispanics (β= −0.25; p=0.033) intended to change fewer health habits than Whites; health literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Conclusions Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information. PMID:25622080

  3. Research participation by low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups: how payment may change the balance.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-10-01

    Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment.

  4. Identity and attitudinal reactions to perceptions of inter-group interactions among ethnic migrants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Liebkind, Karmela

    2012-06-01

    This 1-year follow-up study investigated the direct and indirect effects of past, anticipated, and actual experiences of inter-group interactions on the development of national identity and attitudes towards the national majority among ethnic re-migrants (N= 141) from Russia to Finland. According to the results, the quality of past inter-group contact in the pre-migration stage (T(1)) did not directly affect national identification and out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage (T(2)). Instead, the effect of contact quality at T(1) on national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2) was indirect via perceived discrimination and out-group rejection at T(2). In addition, there were two indirect pathways from out-group attitudes at T(1) to national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2), via pleasant contact experiences (further associated with positive out-group attitudes) and via perceived discrimination (further associated with negative attitudes and lower national identification) in the post-migration stage. Anticipated discrimination only had a direct effect on out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage. The results highlight the role of past and anticipated inter-group relations in the formation of post-migration inter-group interactions, which, in turn, are decisive for the formation of national identification and out-group attitudes of re-migrants.

  5. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).

  6. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K.

    2014-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41–11.54% during 2009–2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005–2011 (1.58–1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  7. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  8. KNOWLEDGE OF HEPATITIS B AND VACCINATION STATUS OF SOME EXPATRIATE ETHNIC GROUPS OF BLUE COLLAR WORKERS IN NORTHERN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Satter; Al-Sweilem, Maisa; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) living in four main areas along the Northern Borders of Saudi Arabia was completed in 2005. We examined knowledge of HBV and vaccination status and compared them with some socio-demographic factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 45.61 years (±8.44), 53% of whom were Non-Arabs (Non Arabic speaking). Of the total, 41.6% gave seven or more correct answers out of 12 questions addressing knowledge about the transmission and sequelae of HBV. Almost 40% of the respondents had not been vaccinated while the remaining respondents had had three full doses of vaccination. A high level of knowledge (≥ 7 correct answers) was significantly associated (p<0.05) with higher level of education, vaccination status, ethnic groups, occupation, age, marital status, and the time spent in Saudi Arabia. Income and type of accommodation were not associated (p>0.05) with level of knowledge. However, vaccination status was associated (p<0.05) with almost all socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: Hepatitis screening programs for expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia started 10 years ago and are expected to have a great impact on the combat against HBV infections and their complications. However, beyond screening, health promotion, vaccination campaigns, and access to vaccine for the underprivileged classes are some necessary measures towards achieving success. PMID:23012171

  9. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth.

  10. Key issues in mentoring in HIV prevention and mental health for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Andrew D; Stoff, David M

    2009-04-01

    We examine the challenges and barriers to quality mentoring for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups and propose solutions for establishing a robust pipeline of early-career scientists who are well equipped to conduct research on disparities in HIV and mental health. In addition, we review contributions to this special supplement on mentoring and advocate a multilevel strategy that targets funding agencies, academic and research institutions, mentors, and mentees to enhance the diversity of the nation's scientific workforce and ensure that the public health system benefits from innovations derived from the optimal use of existing human capital. PMID:19246661

  11. Population genetics for 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR®Y-filerTM) in Luzhou Han ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Bing, Long; Liang, Weibo; Pi, Jianhua; Zhang, Deming; Yong, Dai; Luo, Haibo; Zhang, Lushun; Lin, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR(®)Y-filerTM)-DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 were analyzed in 424 unrelated males from Luzhou Han ethnic group, Southwest China. 365 haplotypes were observed. The discrimination capacity was 0.8608 and the haplotype diversity was 0.9992. PMID:23298877

  12. Prevalence of complex activity limitations among racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups of adults: United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Schiller, Jeannine S

    2011-09-01

    This brief has shown that racial and ethnic differences exist in the prevalence of complex activity limitations among adults. Further, within the U.S. Hispanic adult population, a number of significant differences were found in complex activity limitations among Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, and other Hispanic adults—differences that would likely go unnoticed if the Hispanic population were treated as a single group. These disparities in the prevalence of complex activity limitations are further influenced by sex and age.

  13. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  14. Ethnic Contestation and Language Policy in a Plural Society: The Chinese Language Movement in Malaysia, 1952-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao Sua, Tan; Hooi See, Teoh

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese language movement was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand the recognition of Chinese as an official language to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national education system in Malaysia. It began in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish national primary schools teaching in English and Malay to…

  15. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  16. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  17. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  18. APOE Genotype in the Ethnic Majority and Minority Groups of Laos and the Implications for Non-Communicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Southivong, Bouavanh; Rattanavong, Oudayvone; Sengkhygnavong, Vikham; Pyaluanglath, Amphay; Sayasithsena, Saymongkhonh; Nakamura, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Murata, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3%) than among Lao Loum (12.6%). In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups. Conclusions/Significance A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent. PMID:27168072

  19. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27446295

  20. [How are You, My Tribe? The Health Relationship Among the Tribe, Ethnic Group, and the Self].

    PubMed

    Kasirisir, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health. PMID:27250955

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of 17 Y-STRs haplotypes in Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxia; Yan, Jiangwei; Tang, Hui; Jiao, Zhangping; Liu, Yacheng

    2006-10-01

    Haplotypes and allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci, namely DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a,b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 were determined in a population sample of 112 healthy unrelated autochthonous Tibetan ethnic male individuals from Tibet of China. No shared haplotypes were observed. The gene diversity values for the Y-STRs loci ranged from 0.2052(DYS391) to 0.9301(DYS385a,b). The results demonstrate that these loci will be very useful for human identification in forensic cases and paternity tests in Tibetan population of China.

  2. [How are You, My Tribe? The Health Relationship Among the Tribe, Ethnic Group, and the Self].

    PubMed

    Kasirisir, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.

  3. Association of PPP2CA polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility in multiple ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenfeng; Sunahori, Katsue; Zhao, Jian; Deng, Yun; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Williams, Adrienne H.; Comeau, Mary E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Marion, Miranda C.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji-Seon; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Yu, Chack-Yung; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Petri, Michelle A.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Vilá, Luis M.; Reveille, John D.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Harley, John B.; Boackle, Susan A.; Stevens, Anne M.; Scofield, R. Hal; Merrill, Joan T.; Freedman, Barry I.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Moser, Kathy L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; James, Judith A.; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Tsokos, George C.; Tsao, Betty P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective T cells from patients with SLE express increased amounts of PP2Ac which contribute to decreased production of IL-2. Because IL-2 is important in the regulation of several aspects of the immune response, it has been proposed that PP2Ac contributes to the expression of SLE. This study was designed to determine whether genetic variants of PPP2AC are linked to the expression of SLE and specific clinical manifestations and account for the increased expression of PP2Ac. Methods We conducted a trans-ethnic study consisting of 8,695 SLE cases and 7,308 controls from four different ancestries. Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the PPP2CA were genotyped using an Illumina custom array. PPP2CA expression in SLE and control T cells was analyzed by real-time PCR. Results A 32-kb haplotype comprised of multiple SNPs of PPP2CA showed significant association with SLE in Hispanic Americans (HA), European Americans (EA) and Asians but not in African-Americans (AA). Conditional analyses revealed that SNP rs7704116 in intron 1 showed consistently strong association with SLE across Asian, EA and HA populations (pmeta=3.8×10−7, OR=1.3[1.14–1.31]). In EA, the largest ethnic dataset, the risk A allele of rs7704116 was associated with the presence of renal disease, anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP antibodies. PPP2CA expression was approximately 2-fold higher in SLE patients carrying the rs7704116 AG genotype than those carrying GG genotype (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our data provide the first evidence for an association between PPP2CA polymorphisms and elevated PP2Ac transcript levels in T cells, which implicates a new molecular pathway for SLE susceptibility in EA, HA and Asians. PMID:21590681

  4. Proteomic identification of differentially-expressed proteins in esophageal cancer in three ethnic groups in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zan; Feng, Jun-Guo; Tuersun, Aerziguli; Liu, Tao; Liu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Shu-Tao; Huang, Cong-Gai; Lv, Guo-Dong; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Lu, Xiao-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The Objective is to identify candidate biomarkers for Squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in three ethnics in Xinjiang as well as reveal molecular mechanism. Proteins from 15 pairs of ESCC and matching adjacent normal esophageal tissues (five pairs in each ethnic of Kazakh, Uygur and Han) were separated by 2-DE and differentially proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS. After identified by Mascot database, some of interesting proteins were confirmed in the other 175 pairs of ESCC by immuno histochemistry. Comparison of patterns revealed 20 proteins significantly changed, of which 12 protein with concordantly increased, such as ACTB protein, COMT protein, Syntaxin binding protein Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2), Cathepsin D, Chromosome 1 open reading frame 8, Heat shock protein 27, Cdc42, Proteosome, LLDBP, Immunoglobulin, TNF receptor associated factor 7; and eight protein spots with concordantly decreased intensity in ESCC, such as Adenylate kinase 1, General transcription factor II H, Smooth muscle protein, Trangelin, Early endosome antigen 1, Annexin A2, Fibrin beta, Tropomyosin. There were a significant difference in protein overexpression of PKM2 (74.9%) and Cathepsin D (85.1%) in ESCC compared to adjacent tissues (P < 0.05) by immunohistochemistry. Further, overexpression of Cathepsin D was obvious difference in Hazakh ESCC (94.7%) than that in Uygur (78.6%) (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the overexpression of Cathepsin D was reversely associated with ESCC differentiation (P < 0.05). Twenty proteins differentially-expressed between ESCC and normal tissues were identified. Cathepsin D and PKM2 were for the first time observed to be dysregulated in Kazakh's ESCC. Moreover, Cathepsin D may play a complicated role both in carcinogenesis and cell-differentiation of ESCC. PMID:21125333

  5. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS-R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning.

  6. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N.; Wallander, Jan L.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS–R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS–R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning. PMID:25932505

  7. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97) higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile). Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat) had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03), compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat). For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05). Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan. PMID:21333029

  8. "It's Not Like [I'm] Chinese and Canadian. I am in between": Ethnicity and Students' Conceptions of Historical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Carla L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between students' ethnic identities and their ascriptions of historical significance to moments in Canada's past. Twenty-six grade 12 students living in an ethnically diverse urban centre in British Columbia, Canada participated. Phenomenographic research methods were followed, with a range of data informing…

  9. Ability Grouping: 1970 -- II. The Impact of Ability Grouping on School Achievement, Affective Development, Ethnic Separation and Socioeconomic Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Warren G.; Bryan, Miriam M.

    In this comprehensive review, important studies from the literature relevant to the impact of ability grouping on students are summarized. The following are considered: the effect of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping practices on academic achievement and affective development; the tendency of ability grouping to produce separation of students…

  10. Urinary BLCA1 is specific for urothelial cancer detection in Chinese ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lujia; Feng, Chenchen; Ding, Guanxiong; Jiang, Haowen; Ding, Qiang; Wu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the potential of BLCA1 for detection of urothelial cancer including urinary bladder cancer (UBC) and upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). Method: An antibody for BLCA1 was generated and indirect ELISA was used to detect urinary BLCA1 level. Clinicopathological parameters were studied for the association with BLCA1 level. Urine samples from UBC and UTUC patients, together with cases with other urological disorders were collected and tested. Results: Urinary BLCA1 level in UBC and UTUC patients were significantly higher than that in normal controls. This was also proven when urothelial cancers were grouped as a whole, where as the level did not differ between UBC and UTUC samples. BLCA1 was also significantly higher in urothelial cancer samples compared to other urological disorders such as patients with long-dwelling catheter, glandular cystitis, BPH and other benign conditions. Cut-off value at 0.0009 OD/μg yielded a sensitivity of 92.7% and a specificity of 92.9% for UBC. Conclusion: Urinary BLCA1 is a promising marker for urothelial cancers including UBC and UTUC with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26770501

  11. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  12. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 Asp620Asn mutation is rare in the ethnic Chinese population with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuai; Xiao, Qin; Cao, Li; Liu, Jun; Rong, Tian-Yi; Ma, Jian-Fang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2012-06-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) Asp620Asn mutation has been identified in late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of Swiss and Austrian descent as well as sporadic PD patients in the United States. In order to determine the contribution of VPS35 mutations in mainland Chinese PD patients and to better understand the association between VPS35 and PD, we sequenced all 17 exons of VPS35 in 32 probands of presumed autosomal-dominant, late-onset familial PD and 35 normal controls. Meanwhile, we analyzed VPS35 Asp620Asn mutation in 512 PD patients. A total of 371 subjects without neurological disorders from the same region in China were set as a control group. We did not find any VPS35 coding region mutation in 32 familial PD patients. VPS35 Asp620Asn mutation was either not found in 480 PD patients. Our results suggested that VPS35 Asp620Asn may be not associated with PD in Chinese population.

  13. Cultural dilemmas of choice: Deconstructing consumer choice in health communication between maternity-care providers and ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shujie Phoebe; Munshi, Debashish; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Simpson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This article critically analyses the discourse of consumer choice embedded in health communication interactions between maternity-care providers and migrant ethnic Chinese mothers in New Zealand. Findings indicate that Chinese mothers, as the customers of the New Zealand maternity and health care services, are encouraged to "fit in" with the Western discourse of choice. However, the mothers' cultural predispositions for childbirth and communication have a significant impact on the ways in which they respond to and resist this discourse. Drawing on theoretical insights from postcolonialism and Third World feminism, this article contributes to the study of intercultural health communication by examining cultural dilemmas in the discourse of choice that is often taken for granted in Western health contexts. In doing so, it builds a platform for an inclusive maternity care and health environment in multicultural societies. PMID:24446879

  14. “Not Designed for Us”: How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059

  15. Polymorphisms of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 & UGT1A1*28 in three major ethnic groups from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, L. K.; Hashim, H.; Zakaria, Z. A.; Salleh, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians). Methods: A total of 306 healthy unrelated volunteers were screened for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27. Blood samples (5 ml) were obtained from each subject and DNA was extracted. PCR based methods were designed and validated for detection of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28. Direct DNA sequencing was performed to validate the results of randomly selected samples. Results: Malays and Indian have two-fold higher frequency of homozygous of UGT1A1*28 (7TA/7TA) which was 8 and 8.8 per cent, respectively compared to the Chinese (4.9%). However, the distribution of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27 showed no significant differences among them. UGT1A1*27 which has not been detected in Caucasian and African American population, was found in the Malaysian Malays (3.33%) and Malaysian Chinese (2.0%). Interpretation & conclusions: There was interethnic variability in the frequency of UGT1A1*28 in the Malaysian population. Our results suggest that genotyping of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*27 need to be performed before patients are prescribed with irinotecan due to their high prevalence of allelic variant which could lead to adverse drug reaction. PMID:22960892

  16. Polymorphic Admixture Typing in Human Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857

  17. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…

  18. "That Box Doesn't Belong to You": Racial Ethos and Community-Based Ethnic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Liang

    2011-01-01

    By expanding Bourdieusian concepts of class ethos and "habitus" in the field of racial analysis, the article closely examines the shaping of a racial/ethnic ethos among a particular group of Chinese Americans. The findings suggest that the community ethos is affected both by a self-consciousness about the positioning of Chinese Americans in the…

  19. Association of Breastfeeding with Maternal Visceral Adiposity Postmenopause Among Three Racial/ Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Richard F.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah; Laughlin, Gail A.; Wooten, Wilma; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between breastfeeding and visceral adiposity postmenopause. Design and Methods Participants were community-dwelling women aged 55–80 from the Caucasian Rancho Bernardo Study, the Filipino Women’s Health Study, and the Health Assessment Study of African-American Women who had visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measurements by computed tomography between 2000–2002. Linear regression was used to determine the association between average breastfeeding duration per child and VAT. Results In Caucasian, Filipino and African-American women, average number of live births was 3, 4 and 3; average breastfeeding duration was 4.3, 1.8 and 5.1 months, respectively. Filipino women had more live births, were more likely to breastfeed, and breastfed shorter durations. African-American women had lower VAT, despite higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), BMI and waist girth. Women who breastfed >3 months on average had 8.8 cm3 lower VAT than women who breastfed ≤3 months, independent of covariates. Women who initiated breastfeeding had lower BMI and waist girth than those who did not, but did not differ by VAT unless they breastfed >3 months. Associations were independent of race/ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest breastfeeding initiation is associated with reduced BMI and smaller waist girth and breastfeeding >3 month is associated with lower VAT postmenopause. PMID:25522135

  20. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-12-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients.

  1. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients. PMID:26675374

  2. Does Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory Account for the Actual Vitality of Ethnic Groups? A Critical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmur, Kutlay

    2011-01-01

    Ethnolinguistic vitality theory asserts that Status, Demographic, Institutional Support and Control factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups. An assessment of a group's strengths and weaknesses in each of these dimensions provides a rough classification of ethnolinguistic groups into those having low, medium, or high vitality. Low…

  3. Graduate and Professional School Applications, Admissions and Enrollments (1981-1988): A Status Report on Ethnic Groups Underrepresented at UC Davis. Research Synopsis No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Davis. Office of Student Affairs Research and Information.

    This report describes postgraduate enrollment trends for ethnic groups underrepresented at University of California, Davis. The UC Davis Student Affirmative Action (SAA) Plan identifies the following groups as underrepresented in both the Graduate Division and professional schools: American Indian, Black/African-American, Chicano/Mexican American,…

  4. Identifying with More than One Ethnic and/or Racial Group: Another Examination of the Impact on Differential Item Functioning Statistics. Statistical Report 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…

  5. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  6. Mainland Chinese Students' Group Work Adaptation in a UK Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Built from data collected through three-phase in-depth interviews, this study explores from cultural and social perspectives why Chinese students may initially be termed silent participants when they first commence group work with western students; and then examines the impact of cultural interaction through group work on their adjustment.…

  7. [Sequence polymorphism of mtDNA HVR Iand HVR II of Oroqen ethnic group in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun-Xia; Chen, Feng; Dang, Yong-Hui; Li, Tao; Zheng, Hai-Bo; Chen, Teng; Li, Sheng-Bin

    2008-04-01

    Venous blood samples from 50 unrelated Oroqen individuals living in Inner Mongolia were collected and their mtDNA HVR I and HVR II sequences were detected by using ABI PRISM377 sequencers. The number of polymorphic loci, haplotype, haplotype frequence, average nucleotide variability and other polymorphic parameters were calculated. Based on Oroqen mtDNA sequence data obtained in our experiments and published data, genetic distance between Oroqen ethnic group and other populations were computered by Nei's measure. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Neighbor Joining method. Comparing with Anderson sequence, 52 polymorphic loci in HVR I and 24 loci in HVR II were found in Oroqen mtDNA sequence, 38 and 27 haplotypes were defined herewith. Haplotype diversity and average nucleotide variability were 0.964+/-0.018 and 7.379 in HVR I, 0.929+/-0.019 and 2.408 in HVR II respectively. Fst and dA genetic distance between 12 populations were calculated based on HVR I sequence, and their relative coefficients were 0.993(P < 0.01). A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on genetic distances and included Oroqen, Taiwan and South Han population in a clade, which indicated near genetic relation between them, and far relation with northern Han, Mongolian and other foreign populations. The genetic polymorphism of mtDNA HVR I and HVR II in Oroqen ethnic group has some specificities compared with that of other populations. These data provide a useful tool in forensic identification, population genetic study and other research fields.

  8. Prevalence, Risk, and Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder across Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia Y.; Norris, L. Frances; Gao, Shan; Takeuchi, David T.; Jackson, James S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Valentine, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assess whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) varies in prevalence, diagnostic criteria endorsement, and type and frequency of traumatic events (PTEs) among a nationally representative U.S. sample of 5071 non-Latino whites, 3264 Latinos, 2178 Asians, 4249 African Americans, and 1476 Afro-Caribbeans. Methods PTSD and other psychiatric disorders were evaluated using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) in a national household sample that oversampled ethnic/racial minorities (n=16,238) but was weighted to produce results representative of the general population. Results Asians have lower prevalence rates of probable lifetime PTSD while African Americans have higher rates as compared to non-Latino whites, even after adjusting for type and number of exposures to traumatic events, and for sociodemographic, clinical and social support factors. Afro-Caribbeans and Latinos seem to demonstrate similar risk to non-Latino whites, adjusting for these same covariates. Higher rates of probable PTSD exhibited by African Americans and lower rates for Asians, as compared to non-Latino whites, do not appear related to differential symptom endorsement, differences in risk or protective factors or differences in types and frequencies of PTEs across groups. Conclusions There appears to be marked differences in conditional risk of probable PTSD across ethnic/racial groups. Questions remain about what explains risk of probable PTSD. Several factors that might account for these differences are discussed as well as the clinical implications of our findings. Uncertainty of the PTSD diagnostic assessment for Latinos and Asians requires further evaluation. PMID:24226308

  9. General and Central Obesity in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran: Effect of the Neighborhood Environment

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics can have direct and indirect effects on the weight status of the residents. Objectives To assess the relationship between general and central obesity and the neighborhood environment in two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks and Kurds) living in Urmia city, Northwestern Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20 - 64 years from two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks, n = 445; Kurds, n = 278) were selected from 38 neighborhoods using a combination of cluster, random, and systematic sampling methods. Neighborhood characteristics were obtained by a validated 22-item neighborhood and a health observational checklist. General and central obesity were measured and evaluated using standard methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the dominant neighborhood environment. The association of neighborhood characteristics with general and central obesity was analyzed by a logistic regression model. Results Three common neighborhood environments were identified: 1) modern-affluent, 2) central-high access and 3) marginal. These three factors explained 73.2% of the total variance. Overall, the participants living in a higher tertile of the central-high access neighborhoods had an increased chance of central obesity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.34). Azeri Turks living in the highest tertile of the modern-affluent neighborhoods had a significantly higher likelihood of having general obesity (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37 - 4.01). Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), energy intake, and physical activity did not change the results. However, after adjustment for educational level, the association was not significant. Conclusions The findings point to a relationship between neighborhood characteristics and obesity only in the Azeri Turks. However, educational level was more important than neighborhood quality in

  10. Programs for Increasing the Engagement of Underrepresented Ethnic Groups and People with Disabilities in HPC. Final assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Valerie

    2012-12-23

    Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly

  11. General and Central Obesity in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran: Effect of the Neighborhood Environment

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics can have direct and indirect effects on the weight status of the residents. Objectives To assess the relationship between general and central obesity and the neighborhood environment in two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks and Kurds) living in Urmia city, Northwestern Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20 - 64 years from two ethnic groups (Azeri Turks, n = 445; Kurds, n = 278) were selected from 38 neighborhoods using a combination of cluster, random, and systematic sampling methods. Neighborhood characteristics were obtained by a validated 22-item neighborhood and a health observational checklist. General and central obesity were measured and evaluated using standard methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the dominant neighborhood environment. The association of neighborhood characteristics with general and central obesity was analyzed by a logistic regression model. Results Three common neighborhood environments were identified: 1) modern-affluent, 2) central-high access and 3) marginal. These three factors explained 73.2% of the total variance. Overall, the participants living in a higher tertile of the central-high access neighborhoods had an increased chance of central obesity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.34). Azeri Turks living in the highest tertile of the modern-affluent neighborhoods had a significantly higher likelihood of having general obesity (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37 - 4.01). Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), energy intake, and physical activity did not change the results. However, after adjustment for educational level, the association was not significant. Conclusions The findings point to a relationship between neighborhood characteristics and obesity only in the Azeri Turks. However, educational level was more important than neighborhood quality in

  12. Functional deficit of T regulatory cells in Fulani, an ethnic group with low susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Torcia, Maria G.; Santarlasci, Veronica; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Clemente, AnnMaria; Maggi, Laura; Mangano, Valentina D.; Verra, Federica; Bancone, Germana; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Bienvenu Sodiomon; Liotta, Francesco; Frosali, Francesca; Angeli, Roberta; Severini, Carlo; Sannella, Anna R.; Bonini, Paolo; Lucibello, Maria; Maggi, Enrico; Garaci, Enrico; Coluzzi, Mario; Cozzolino, Federico; Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Sergio; Modiano, David

    2008-01-01

    Previous interethnic comparative studies on the susceptibility to malaria performed in West Africa showed that Fulani are more resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria than are sympatric ethnic groups. This lower susceptibility is not associated to classic malaria-resistance genes, and the analysis of the immune response to P. falciparum sporozoite and blood stage antigens, as well as non-malaria antigens, revealed higher immune reactivity in Fulani. In the present study we compared the expression profile of a panel of genes involved in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Fulani and sympatric Mossi from Burkina Faso. An increased expression of T helper 1 (TH1)-related genes (IL-18, IFNγ, and TBX21) and TH2-related genes (IL-4 and GATA3) and a reduced expression of genes distinctive of T regulatory activity (CTLA4 and FOXP3) were observed in Fulani. Microarray analysis on RNA from CD4+CD25+ (T regulatory) cells, performed with a panel of cDNA probes specific for 96 genes involved in immune modulation, indicated obvious differences between the two ethnic groups with 23% of genes, including TGFβ, TGFβRs, CTLA4, and FOXP3, less expressed in Fulani compared with Mossi and European donors not exposed to malaria. As further indications of a low T regulatory cell activity, Fulani showed lower serum levels of TGFβ and higher concentrations of the proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10 and CCL22 compared with Mossi; moreover, the proliferative response of Fulani to malaria antigens was not affected by the depletion of CD25+ regulatory cells whereas that of Mossi was significantly increased. The results suggest that the higher resistance to malaria of the Fulani could derive from a functional deficit of T regulatory cells. PMID:18174328

  13. Teacher Commitment: A Comparative Study of Malaysian Ethnic Groups in Three Types of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2014-01-01

    Commitment is a complex attitude that is potentially influenced by the nature of the groups and is contingent on the context in which an individual functions. Thus, different sociocultural environments will prescribe different imperatives for individuals' or groups' attitudes toward their work, particularly teachers' commitment in a…

  14. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population’s genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice. PMID:23733431

  15. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-06-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.

  16. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  17. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564

  18. Thai group set to invest in Chinese petchem complex

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-06

    A $5-billion refinery and petrochemical complex is planned by Thailand's Charoen Pokphand (Bangkok) at the seaport of Nimpoh, near Shanghai. The company has discussed the project with the central government of China, and state oil and petrochemicals company Sinopec (Beijing) is due to complete a feasibility study within the next two months. Charoen's plastics processing subsidiary, Kuo Shen (Hong Kong), is expected to hold 70% in the venture, Sinopec 20%, and the Chinese government the remaining 10%. Western companies have been invited to participate. Solvay (Brussels), a 49% partner with Charoen Pokphand in the Vinythai polyvinyl chloride (PVC) joint venture at Map Ta Pud, Thailand, has not yet made a commitment. The 5-million m.t./year oil refinery would feed the complex, which will be based on a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant, downstream aromatics units, and a range of derivatives plants. The complex, which falls outside the many announced for Thailand's current five-year economic plan, is expcted to be implemented in stages. To begin with, a 120,000-m.t./year PVC plant will be built that will be fed on imported vinyl chloride monomer. Charoen is in discussions with process licensers, including Solvay, European Vinyl Corp., BFGoodrich, and Shinetsu. Half the PVC output will be consumed by Kuo Shen in China, where Charoen has several plastics processing units, including one in Shanghai and one in Nimpoh. Meanwhile, Sinopec's Hong Kong subsidiary is seeking partners to invest in joint venture projects in China. Sinopec president Liu Xuemin says the company is willing to cooperate with overseas companies to establish small petrochemical projects. In addition, Sinopec is negotiating with officials of Dayang in Jiangsu province and the special economic zone of Shen Zhen, near Hong Kong, on joint ventures for plastics and food additives.

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype C/C1 in the Minangkabau ethnic group in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP) region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117) was C (72.6%) followed by B (24.8%) and co-infection with B and C (2.6%). The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively). From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among HBV carriers of

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XII. Risk factors for lupus nephritis after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bastian, H M; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Alarcón, G S; Friedman, A W; Fessler, B J; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D

    2002-01-01

    % confidence limits (CL) = 1.07-6.87, P < 0.04) and African-American ethnicities (OR = 3.13, 95% CL = 1.21-8.09, P < 0.02), not married or living together (OR = 3.45, 95% CL = 1.69-7.69, P < 0.0003), higher SLAM score (OR = 1.11, 95% CL = 1.02-1.19, P < 0.007), anti-dsDNA (OR = 3.14, 95% CL = 1.50-6.57, P < 0.0001) and anti-RNP (OR = 4.24, CL = 1.98-9.07, P < 0.0001) antibodies were shown to be significant predictors of the occurrence of LN. Repeated analyses excluding the patients with missing HLA data showed that absence of HLA-DQB1*0201 was also a significant predictor for the occurrence of LN (OR = 2.34, CL = 1.13-5.26, P < 0.04). In conclusion, LN occurred significantly more often in Hispanics and African-Americans with SLE. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunologic/immunogenetic factors seem to be predictive of LN occurring after the diagnosis of SLE has been made.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XII. Risk factors for lupus nephritis after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bastian, H M; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Alarcón, G S; Friedman, A W; Fessler, B J; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D

    2002-01-01

    % confidence limits (CL) = 1.07-6.87, P < 0.04) and African-American ethnicities (OR = 3.13, 95% CL = 1.21-8.09, P < 0.02), not married or living together (OR = 3.45, 95% CL = 1.69-7.69, P < 0.0003), higher SLAM score (OR = 1.11, 95% CL = 1.02-1.19, P < 0.007), anti-dsDNA (OR = 3.14, 95% CL = 1.50-6.57, P < 0.0001) and anti-RNP (OR = 4.24, CL = 1.98-9.07, P < 0.0001) antibodies were shown to be significant predictors of the occurrence of LN. Repeated analyses excluding the patients with missing HLA data showed that absence of HLA-DQB1*0201 was also a significant predictor for the occurrence of LN (OR = 2.34, CL = 1.13-5.26, P < 0.04). In conclusion, LN occurred significantly more often in Hispanics and African-Americans with SLE. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunologic/immunogenetic factors seem to be predictive of LN occurring after the diagnosis of SLE has been made. PMID:12004788

  2. Directory of Ethnic Resources of Philadelphia and Delaware Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipaul

    Among the ethnic groups dealt with by this comprehensive directory are Albanians, Armenians, blacks, Chinese, Danes, Filipinos, Germans, Greeks, Hungarians, Irish, Italians, Japanese, Jews, Koreans, Latvians, Lebanese, Lithuanians, Norwegians, Poles, Portuguese, Puerto Ricans, Russians, Scots, Serbs, Swiss, Turks, Ukranians, Vietnamese, and…

  3. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  4. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  5. Psychosocial Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome among Latino Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Manuel S.; Myers, Hector F.; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS. Research design and methods Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388) that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support) on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen) in predicting risk for MetS were conducted. Results In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group. Conclusions Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups. PMID:25906072

  6. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483

  7. Groups challenge US role in planned Chinese project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-18

    Environmental groups have threatened to sue the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps of Engineers over the Agencies role in the construction and planning of China's Three Gorges Dam. They allege the Agencies have violated the Endangered Species Act by failing to notify the US Fish and Wildlife Service about their work on the dam. The environmental group wants to change a 1986 regulation which exempts federal agencies from consulting with the Fish and Wildlife Service on actions affecting endangered species outside the US.

  8. Widening inequalities in MMR vaccine uptake rates among ethnic groups in an urban area of the UK during a period of vaccine controversy (1994-2000).

    PubMed

    Hawker, Jeremy I; Olowokure, Babatunde; Wood, Annette L; Wilson, Richard C; Johnson, Richard

    2007-10-23

    We examined MMR vaccine uptake among ethnic groups in Birmingham, UK between 1994 and 2000, a period incorporating adverse MMR vaccine publicity. From 1994 to 2000 overall uptake: (1) fell significantly from 91.1% in 1994 to 89.8% (chi(2) for trend p<0.001) in 2000, (2) in Asian children significantly increased (chi(2) for trend p<0.001), and (3) in White children significantly decreased (chi(2) for trend p<0.001). Differences between ethnic groups with the highest (Asian) and the lowest (Black Caribbean) uptake rates increased from 2.1% in 1994 (p=ns) to 6.8% in 2000 (p<0.001). This study suggests underlying ethnic inequalities in MMR vaccine uptake and differential response to adverse vaccine publicity.

  9. Communicative Correlates of Satisfaction, Family Identity, and Group Salience in Multiracial/Ethnic Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliz, Jordan; Thorson, Allison R.; Rittenour, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the Common Ingroup Identity Model (S. L. Gaertner & J. F. Dovidio, 2000) and Communication Accommodation Theory (C. Shepard, H. Giles, & B. A. LePoire, 2001), we examined the role of identity accommodation, supportive communication, and self-disclosure in predicting relational satisfaction, shared family identity, and group salience in…

  10. A Study of Social Identity in Two Ethnic Groups in India and Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, E. S. K.; Huq, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports two studies which examined the social identity of Hindu and Muslim subjects under three frames of reference: self, own group, and outgroup evaluations cross-nationally. Findings are examined in relation to the interplay of specific socio-contextual experiences in the differential pattern of social identity processes. (SED)

  11. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  12. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in two ethnic groups in southeastern Kenya: perspectives from the northeastern periphery of the Bantu expansion

    PubMed Central

    Batai, Ken; Babrowski, Kara B.; Arroyo, Juan Pablo; Kusimba, Chapurukha M.; Williams, Sloan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Bantu languages are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic research supports linguists and historians who argue that migration played an important role in the spread of this language family, but the genetic data also indicates a more complex process involving substantial gene flow with resident populations. In order to understand the Bantu expansion process in east Africa, mtDNA hypervariable region I variation in 352 individuals from the Taita and Mijikenda ethnic groups was analyzed, and we evaluated the interactions that took place between the Bantu- and non-Bantu-speaking populations in east Africa. The Taita and Mijikenda are Bantu-speaking agropastoralists from southeastern Kenya, at least some of whose ancestors probably migrated into the area as part of Bantu migrations that began around 3,000 BCE. Our analyses indicate that they show some distinctive differences that reflect their unique cultural histories. The Taita are genetically more diverse than the Mijikenda with larger estimates of genetic diversity. The Taita cluster with other east African groups, having high frequencies of haplogroups from that region, while the Mijikenda have high frequencies of central African haplogroups and cluster more closely with central African Bantu-speaking groups. The non-Bantu speakers who lived in southeastern Kenya before Bantu speaking groups arrived were at least partially incorporated into what are now Bantu-speaking Taita groups. In contrast, gene flow from non-Bantu speakers into the Mijikenda was more limited. These results suggest a more complex demographic history where the nature of Bantu and non-Bantu interactions varied throughout the area. PMID:23382080

  13. The Student's Perspective: Exploring Ethnic Group Variances in Bullying Behavior Using Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Although bullying is a widely recognized problem among school-aged youth, current research has failed to adequately consider whether ethnicity impacts students' involvement in, and perceptions of, bullying behaviors. This study employed a mixed methodology to examine how an ethnically diverse sample of students in seventh and eighth grade…

  14. Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…

  15. Analysis of ANKKI (rs1800497) and DRD2 (rs1079597, rs1800498) variants in five ethnic groups from Punjab, North-West India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Sandhu, Harkirat Singh; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-06-10

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is one of the essential neurotransmitters in the brain studied extensively in the field of psychiatric disorders, alcoholic behaviors and Pharmacology. It is also a promising gene for studying the evolutionary and genetic variation among populations. The present study was an attempt to understand the extent of genetic variation among five different ethnic groups (Bania, Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Khatri and Scheduled caste) of Punjab (North West India). A total of 1012 individuals belonging to the above mentioned groups were analyzed for three TaqI Polymorphic loci of DRD2 and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKKI) using the allele frequencies and haplotype frequency distribution pattern. All the three loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The average heterozygosity for all loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3936 to 0.4986. The genetic differentiation among the population was observed to be in order of 0.0053.Among of the eight studied haplotypes, only six were shared by all the ethnic groups. TaqID and TaqIB loci were reported to be in significantly higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Scheduled Caste only, whereas TaqIA and TaqID showed modest LD in Brahmin, Jat Sikh and Khatri. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the studied ethnic groups formed a close cluster, suggesting similar genetic structure of these populations which are in close proximity with other Indo European speaking North Indian and western Indian population groups. Overall this study highlights the genomic uniformity among the ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India) owing to their common ancestral history and geographical closeness.

  16. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  17. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  18. Acculturation and plasma fatty acid concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...

  19. Ethnicity, Religion, and Academic Preparedness: A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Supplementary Secular Schools and Nonsecular Church-Affiliated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Little academic attention has been given to the supplementary education experience of immigrant students in the Canadian research literature, especially in a non-English speaking context such as Quebec. Yet these schools are important for understanding the influence of ethnicity as well as religion on the academic preparedness and social…

  20. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…