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Sample records for chinese ethnic groups

  1. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-20

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.

  2. Dermatoglyphics from All Chinese Ethnic Groups Reveal Geographic Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Li; Case, D. Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-01

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry. PMID:20098698

  3. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam tablet in different Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Guo, T; Mao, G-F; Xia, D-Y; Su, X-Y; Zhao, L-S

    2011-06-01

    Subjects of different ethnic groups may respond differently to drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam among healthy volunteers from five different ethnic groups in China: Han, Mongolian, Uygur, Hui and Korean. Healthy volunteers (10 Hans, 10 Mongolians, 10 Uygurs, 10 Huis and 9 Koreans) of Chinese nationality received a single oral tablet dose of 15 mg midazolam in an open label, parallel-group study. Blood samples were collected at intervals and analysed for midazolam by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ethnic differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of midazolam using non-compartmental methods and anova and Kruskal-Wallis rank test. Midazolam maximum concentration (C(max) ) was significantly lower in Mongolians than that in Hans, Uygurs, Huis and Koreans (74·9 ± 33·7, 103·1 ± 26·4, 124·8 ± 50·0, 130·0 ± 38·3 and 189·0 ± 82·1 μg/L, respectively). C(max) for the Koreans were significantly greater, compared with Hans and Mongolians. The time to attain C(max) (t(max) ) for Hans was significantly longer as compared with Koreans and Uygurs (1·5 ± 0·7, 0·8 ± 0·5, 0·6 ± 0·7 h, respectively). Midazolam terminal half-life (t(1/2z)) were 3·0 ± 0·8, 2·2 ± 0·7, 1·9 ± 0·7, 3·5 ± 1·9, 3·8 ± 2·3 h for Hans, Mongolians, Uygurs, Huis and Koreans, respectively. The differences in half-life were significant between Koreans and Mongolians, Koreans and Uygurs, Uygurs and Huis, respectively. There were no differences between young males and females for all pharmacokinetic parameters. Double peaks in the concentration-time profiles were observed in some subjects. There were some significant differences in midazolam pharmacokinetics between the five Chinese ethnic groups. However, the wide intra-ethnic variability observed in PK parameters makes predictions of midazolam kinetics, using ethnicity as predictor, unreliable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The polymorphism of the Knops blood group system among five Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Han, Sha-Sha; Guo, Zhong-Hui; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Zi-Yan

    2010-12-01

    This work aims to explain the complexity of the Knops blood group system in the Chinese population. The Knops blood group system consists of antigens encoded by CR1 gene exon 29. A total of 281 individuals from the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were studied. The coding region of the CR1 gene of 11 Han donors was analysed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. CR1 gene exon 29 in the 39 samples was analysed through genomic DNA sequencing. According to the sequencing result, a PCR-sequence-specific primers system was designed to screen the A4646G and A4870G alleles in the Chinese population. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the coding region of the CR1 gene in the Han population. Two SNPs (A4646G and A4870G) were detected in the CR1 gene exon 29. The 4646G allele was found only in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups, in which the allele frequencies were 0·11 and 0·06, respectively. The frequencies of the 4870A allele in the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were 0·82, 0·83, 0·82, 0·57 and 0·57, respectively. The CR1 gene in the Chinese people is more conservative than that in the Caucasian or African people. Different Chinese ethnic groups may have their own different CR1 gene characteristics. The existence of 4646G in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups suggests that both may carry certain Caucasian characteristics in the CR1 gene. The frequency of 4870G in the Lisu and Dong ethnic groups implies possible incidence of evolutionary pressure similar to what the Africans had experienced. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Characterization of Fecal Microbiota across Seven Chinese Ethnic Groups by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhuang; Gesudu, Qimu; Zheng, Yi; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota. PMID:24699404

  6. Characterization of fecal microbiota across seven Chinese ethnic groups by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Lai-yu; Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Gesudu, Qimu; Zheng, Yi; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota.

  7. Genetic analysis of 19 X chromosome STR loci for forensic purposes in four Chinese ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Linli; Liu, Changhui; Feng, Xingling; Chen, Ling; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations. The combined powers of discrimination in males and females were calculated according to haplotype frequencies from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts in the relevant population and were high in four ethnic groups. The cumulative powers of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci were 1.000000000000000 and 0.999999999997940 in females and males, respectively. All 19 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic. The highest Reynolds genetic distances were observed for the Tibet-Uighur pairwise comparisons. This study represents an extensive report on X-STR marker variation in minor Chinese populations and a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of these 19 X STR markers in four Chinese ethnic groups. PMID:28211539

  8. Genetic analysis of 19 X chromosome STR loci for forensic purposes in four Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Linli; Liu, Changhui; Feng, Xingling; Chen, Ling; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-17

    A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations. The combined powers of discrimination in males and females were calculated according to haplotype frequencies from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts in the relevant population and were high in four ethnic groups. The cumulative powers of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci were 1.000000000000000 and 0.999999999997940 in females and males, respectively. All 19 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic. The highest Reynolds genetic distances were observed for the Tibet-Uighur pairwise comparisons. This study represents an extensive report on X-STR marker variation in minor Chinese populations and a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of these 19 X STR markers in four Chinese ethnic groups.

  9. Evaluation of nasal cavity by acoustic rhinometry in Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z L; Wang, D Y; Zhang, P C; Dong, F; Yeoh, K H

    2001-10-01

    Acoustic rhinometry (AR) evaluates the geometry of the nasal cavity by measuring the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and nasal volume (V) by means of acoustic reflection. Understanding the normal and pathologic conditions of the internal nasal cavity using AR is important in the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal range of AR parameters in healthy volunteers from three ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malay and Indian. We also attempted to evaluate the role of these measurements in the documentation of structural abnormalities in the nose. A total of 189 Singaporeans, aged > or = 18 years, were recruited from a nationwide survey study. They comprised 83 Chinese, 35 Malays and 71 Indians. Eighty-nine subjects had a rhinoscopically normal nose (Group 1), 77 had significant septal deviation (Group 2) and 23 had inferior turbinate hypertrophy (Group 3). AR was performed to measure the MCA at the anterior 1-5 cm from the nostril and the volume (V) between points at the nostril and 5 cm into the nose. A mean MCA (mMCA; equal to (L + R)/2) and a total volume (Vt; equal to L + R) were then calculated for each subject, where L and R refer to the measurements made for the left and right nostrils, respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in mMCA (p = 0.80) and Vt (p = 0.60) among the three ethnic subgroups of Group 1. Statistically significant differences were found only between Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001 for both mMCA and Vt) and between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001 for mMCA and p = 0.013 for Vt). Although there was no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, significant differences in MCA (p = 0.001) and V (p = 0.040) were found between the narrower sides (smaller volume) and the wider sides in Group 2, indicating volume compensation between the nasal cavities. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that there is no significant difference in the normal

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA SNP loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chun-Mei; Hu, Li; Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Li, Zhi-Dan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Guo, Yu-Xin; Mei, Ting; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group. A total of 137 unrelated healthy volunteers from Chinese Xibe group were the objects of our study. Among the selected loci, there were 51 variable positions including transitions and transversions, and single nucleotide transitions were common (83.93%) versus transversions. These variations defined 64 different mtDNA haplotypes exclusive of (CA)n and 9 bp deletion variation. The haplotype diversity and discrimination power in Xibe population were 0.9800 ± 0.004 and 0.9699, respectively. Besides, we compared Xibe group with 18 other populations and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using Neighbor-Joining method. The result revealed that Xibe group was a close to Xinjiang Han and Yanbian Korean groups. Our data also indicated that Xibe group has a close relationship with Daur and Ewenki groups, which is reflected by the history that Xibe was influenced by Daur and Ewenki groups during the development of these groups. In conclusion, the variants we studied are polymorphic and could be used as informative genetic markers for forensic and population genetic application. PMID:28327596

  11. Distribution of HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in six Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Chen, J; Yao, Y; Shi, L; Lin, K; Huang, X; Dong, Z; Chu, J; Shi, L

    2013-04-01

    Recently, a 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (+14 bp/-14 bp) in exon 8 of the Human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene has been studied extensively because this polymorphism has been associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and could influence HLA-G mRNA expression. We investigated the distribution of the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in six different Chinese ethnic groups (Bulang, Wa, Hani, Jinuo, Maonan and Zhuang), which originated from three major ancient tribes (Di-Qiang, Baipu and Baiyue) in China. Comparison of the 14-bp insertion frequency in the six groups with other Chinese groups showed marked variation among the three ancient tribes, Di-Qing (0.490-0.534), Baipu (0.470-0.609) and Baiyue (0.280-0.344). Furthermore, the frequencies of the 14-bp insertion were similar in groups that came from the same ancient tribe, which indicated that the individuals who share the 14-bp insertion have the most probably inherited the 14-bp element from a common ancestor. In addition, an intra-tribal comparison of the 14-bp insertion/deletion frequencies between the descendants of the ancient ancestral tribes suggests that population histories or some environmental effects, such as founder effect or isolation, might also influence the distribution.

  12. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic polymorphisms for Chinese Uygur ethnic group and its phylogenic analysis with other Chinese groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Ren, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jun-Yi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-02-01

    The Uygur ethnic minority is the largest ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and is a precious resource for the study of ethnogeny and forensic biology. Previous studies have focused on the genetic background of the Uygur group, however, the patrilineal descent of the group is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 24 Y-STR loci in the Uygur group and analyzed the population differentiations as well as the genetic relationships between the Uygur group and other previously reported populations using 17 Y-filer loci. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci in 109 Uygur individuals, 104 different haplotypes were obtained, 99 of which were unique. The haplotypic diversity and discrimination capacity of these 24 Y-STR loci in Uygur group were 0.9992 and 0.9541, respectively. An additional 7 loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522, and DYS527a,b) showed high genetic diversity and improved the overall discrimination capacity of the 24 Y-STR system. Pairwise Fst and neighbor-joining analysis showed that the Uygur group was genetically close to the Han populations from different regions.

  13. Structural polymorphism analysis of Chinese Mongolian ethnic group revealed by a new STR panel: genetic relationship to other groups.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Han, Jun-Tao; Shen, Chun-Mei; Wu, Hua; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhao, Li-Jun; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hong-Dan; White, Richard E; Wei, Xing

    2014-07-01

    Mongolian is the eighth largest ethnic minority on Chinese population data according to the 2010 census. In the present study, we presented the first report about the allelic frequencies and forensic statistical parameters at the 21 new STRs and analyzed linkage disequilibrium of pairwise loci in the Mongolian ethnic minority, China. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests demonstrated no significant deviations except for the D1S1627 locus. The cumulative power of discrimination and power of exclusion of all the loci are 0.9999999999999999992576 and 0.9999997528, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance showed that significant differences between the Mongolian and the other eight populations were found at 1-9 STR loci. In population genetics, the results of principal component analysis, structure analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis indicated shorter genetic distance between the Mongolian group and the Ningxia Han. All the results suggest that the 21 new STR loci will contribute to Chinese population genetics and forensic caseworks in the Mongolian group.

  14. [Current situation and comparison of age at menarche in 26 ethnic minority groups in Chinese girls in 2010].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Pei-jin; Ma, Jun

    2014-06-18

    To analyze the current situation of age at menarche (AAM) in Chinese ethnic minority girls aged 9-18 years, and compare the AAM with that of Chinese Han girls from the same province or autonomous region. Probit analyses were used to calculate the AAM in various ethnic minority groups of Chinese girls who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. The sample size of ethnic minority girls was 31 711, and the ethnic minorities were Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Kirgiz, Tu, Qiang and Sala. The local Han girls to compare with the AAM were also surveyed in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. In the 13-year-old group, the percentage of menarche in Sala was the lowest (32.17%), while that in Korean was the highest (93.23%). At the age of 18, 99.60% ethnic minority girls appeared menstruating. The AAM of the top 3 ethnic minority groups were Korean (11.79 years), Mongolian (12.44 years) and Zhuang (12.52 years); and the last 3 ethnic minority groups were Dongxiang (14.36 years), Sala (14.32 years) and Shui (14.02 years). The AAM in Korean was 0.93 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Jilin province; the AAM in Mongolian was 0.14 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Neimenggu autonomous region; the AAM in Naxi and Qiang was close to that of the Han girls in the same province (region) (P>0.05); and the AAM in Hui, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Tu, and Sala was later than that of the Han girls in the same province (region). The cluster analysis indicated that the 26 ethnic minority groups could be classified as three groups: Korean were classified into the earlier age group of AAM; Dongxiang, Sala, Uighur, Yi and Shui belonged to the later age group of AAM; and the other 20 ethnic minority groups were into the middle

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II in Chinese Bai ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Cai-Yong; Qian, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Han-Ting; Deng, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Xu, Peng

    2015-03-01

    For forensic and population genetic purposes, a total of 125 unrelated volunteers' blood samples were collected from Chinese Bai ethnic minority group to analyze sequence variation of two hypervariable segments (HVS-I and HVS-II) in the mitochondrial DNA control region. Comparing the HVS-I and HVS-II sequences of the 125 Chinese Bais to the Anderson reference sequence, we found 86 polymorphic loci in HVS-I and 40 in HVS-II in mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Chinese Bai ethnic minority group, which defined 93 and 53 different haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype diversity and the mean pairwise differences were 0.992 ± 0.003 and 6.553 in HVS-I, and 0.877 ± 0.027 and 2.407 in HVS-II, respectively. We defined four macrohaplogroups R, M, N and D with the proportions ranging from 9.6% to 40.0%. With the analysis of the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 16 180-16 193 in HVS-I, our study revealed new haplotypes of sequence variations. In addition, the Fst metric, phylogenetic tree, and principal component analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the Bai group and Chinese Han populations from South China, Changsha, and Guangdong. The results support that the Bai group is a multiorigin ethnic minority that has merged with the Chinese Han population. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Distinct genotype distribution and haplotype profiles in MDR1 gene among Chinese Han, Bai, Wa and Tibetan ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yong; Huang, Min; Li, Hui; Wang, Xue-Ding; Li, Jia-Li

    2012-11-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1 gene) plays an important role in determining bioavailability and pharmacologic effects of many drugs. There is increasing evidence that P-gp activity may be genetically determined. In this study, we investigated the genotype distribution and the haplotype profiles of MDR1 gene in Chinese Han, Bai, Wa and Tibetan subjects. Much lower frequencies of the 1236T allele and the 2677T allele were found in Wa subjects than those in other three ethnic groups, while the 2677A allele was found about 6-fold more frequently in Han subjects than in subjects of other three ethnic groups. The Han, Bai and Tibetan subjects share the same three predominant haplotypes (T-T-T, T-G-C and C-G-C), and T-T-T is the highest and accounts for more than one third of the number of haplotypes in the subjects from each ethnic group. However, T-T-T was less common than T-G-C, T-G-T and C-G-C and occurring at only 13.8% in Wa subjects, furthermore, higher frequencies of T-G-T, C-T-C, C-G-T and C-T-T were observed in Wa subjects compared to those in other three ethnic groups. Frequencies of C-A-C and T-A-C in Han subjects were higher than those in other three ethnic groups. The findings of this study will be of some relevance in predicting MDR1 phenotype and pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamic effects of many commonly used drugs that are P-gp substrates in these four Chinese ethnic groups.

  17. Comparison of major depressive disorder onset among foreign-born Asian Americans: Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Choi, Sunha; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-11-30

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1280 Asian Americans, we examined the extent to which major depressive disorder (MDD) onset differs by ethnicity and its associated factors for each of the three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese. We employed the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the survival and hazard functions for MDD onset by ethnicity, and cox proportional hazards models to identify socio-demographic and immigration-related factors associated with MDD onset. Approximately 7% of the entire sample had experienced MDD onset in their lifetime. Filipino immigrants showed the highest survival function, followed by Vietnamese immigrants over time. Those who were never-married or divorced were more likely to experience MDD onset when compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. Those who immigrated at a younger age were more likely to experience MDD onset than were those who immigrated at an older age. However, there were ethnic variations in terms of the risk factors that were associated with MDD onset across these three ethnic groups. Findings from this study signal the importance of understanding the differing experiences of MDD onset by ethnicity.

  18. Analysis of 17 Y-STR loci haplotype and Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution in five Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Li, Yue; Ou, Xue-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate genetic diversity in Chinese populations, 706 unrelated male individuals from five ethnic groups (Han, Korean, Hui, Mongolian, and Tibetan, respectively) were analyzed with 17 Y-chromosomal STRs. The haplotype diversity was 0.99985 in the combined data. A total of 675 distinct haplotypes were observed, of which 649 were unique. Y-chromosome haplogroups in the five groups were also predicted with Y-STR haplotypes. Genetic distance between the five studied ethnic groups and other published groups was analyzed by analysis of molecular variance and visualized in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, the 17 Y-STR loci are highly polymorphic markers in the five groups and hence are very useful in forensic application, population genetics, and human evolution studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Genetic profile characterization and population study of 21 autosomal STR in Chinese Kazak ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been constantly discovered, studied, and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study, forensic human individual identification, and paternity tests.

  20. Correlation between the linguistic affinity and genetic diversity of Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Lin, Keqin; Yu, Liang; Huang, Kai; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-10-01

    As the world's most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.

  1. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.

  2. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  3. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  4. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  5. Population genetics and forensic efficiency of twenty-one novel microsatellite loci of Chinese Yi ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Pan, Feng; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Rui; Jing, Hang; Xu, Peng

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated polymorphic distributions of allelic frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 21 novel autosomal microsatellite loci from 110 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic group. Expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.617 to 0.812, 0.777 to 0.936 and 0.560 to 0.790. The microsatellite loci showed high forensic efficiency. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999986902 and 0.999998818, respectively. Locus-by-locus allelic frequencies were compared using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method, and the statistically significant differences were observed between Yi group and Russian, Tujia, Kazak, Bai, Ningxia Han, Salar, Tibetan, and Uigur groups at 5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 12, and 13 loci, respectively. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses, and principal component analysis all indicated that the Yi group showed relatively short genetic relationships with Russian, Salar, and Bai group. The experimental results showed that the 21 loci in the multiplex system provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, also basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. American Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.

    The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…

  7. Autosomal InDel polymorphisms for population genetic structure and differentiation analysis of Chinese Kazak ethnic group

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tingting; Chen, Yahao; Guo, Yuxin; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xiaoye; Xie, Tong; Mu, Yuling; Dong, Qian; Wen, Shaoqing; Zhou, Boyan; Zhang, Li; Shen, Chunmei; Zhu, Bofeng

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversities of the Chinese Kazak ethnic group on the basis of 30 well-chosen autosomal insertion and deletion loci and explored the genetic relationships between Kazak and 23 reference groups. We detected the level of the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.3605 at HLD39 locus to 0.5000 at HLD136 locus and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.3548 at HLD39 locus to 0.5283 at HLD136 locus. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the studied Kazak group were 0.999999999999128 and 0.9945, respectively. The dataset generated in this study indicated the panel of 30 InDels was highly efficient in forensic individual identifcation but may not have enough power in paternity cases. The results of the interpopulation differentiations, PCA plots, phylogenetic trees and STRUCTURE analyses showed a close genetic affiliation between the Kazak and Uigur group. PMID:28915619

  8. Genetic diversities of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs of a Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group in Lhasa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.

  9. Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: a comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States

    Treesearch

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2005-01-01

    This research considers acculturation by Mexican and Chinese groups in the United States and how participation in five nature-based outdoor recreation activities may be an indicator of acculturation to American society. We argue that the greater incidence of professional human capital among Chinese immigrants helps this group acculturate more quickly than Mexicans,...

  10. Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-02-05

    In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background.

  11. Assessment of obesity in New Zealand Chinese: a comparative analysis of adults aged 30-39 years from five ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ji Y J; Rush, Elaine C; Plank, Lindsay D

    2010-12-17

    To compare the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in New Zealand Chinese aged 30-39 years and their European, Māori, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian counterparts. Healthy Chinese (M20, F23) were selected to cover a wide range of BMI. European (M29, F37), Maori (M23, F23), Pacific Island (M15, F23), and Asian Indian (M29, F25) volunteers were drawn from existing data. Total and regional body fat and arm and leg lengths were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. For fixed BMI, Chinese had a higher %BF than European and less %BF than Asian Indian. At a %BF equivalent to a BMI of 30 kg/m2 in Europeans (WHO threshold for obesity), BMI values for Asian Indian and Chinese women were 5.8 and 2.2 units lower than European, respectively, and for Asian Indian and Chinese men, 8.2 and 3.0 units lower. Chinese had relatively shorter arm and leg lengths than Asian Indians and Europeans with a significantly higher ratio of central fat mass to limb fat mass. The %BF-BMI relationships for Asian Indian and Chinese differ from Europeans and from each other and different BMI obesity thresholds may be required for these Asian ethnic groups.

  12. Gut microbiome analysis of type 2 diabetic patients from the Chinese minority ethnic groups the Uygurs and Kazaks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Mao, Xinmin; Tao, Yicun; Ran, Xinjian; Zhao, Haixia; Xiong, Jianhui; Li, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome may have an important influence on the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). To better understand the DM2 pandemic in ethnic minority groups in China, we investigated and compared the composition and richness of the gut microbiota of healthy, normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals and DM2 patients from two ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang, northwest China, the Uygurs and Kazaks. The conserved V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the isolated DNA. The amplified DNA was sequenced and analyzed. An average of 4047 high quality reads of unique tag sequences were obtained from the 40 Uygurs and Kazaks. The 3 most dominant bacterial families among all participants, both healthy and DM2 patients, were the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Significant differences in intestinal microbiota were found between the NGT individuals and DM2 patients, as well as between the two ethnic groups. Our findings shed new light on the gut microbiome in relation to DM2. The differentiated microbiota data may be used for potential biomarkers for DM2 diagnosis and prevention. PMID:28328990

  13. Gut microbiome analysis of type 2 diabetic patients from the Chinese minority ethnic groups the Uygurs and Kazaks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Mao, Xinmin; Tao, Yicun; Ran, Xinjian; Zhao, Haixia; Xiong, Jianhui; Li, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome may have an important influence on the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). To better understand the DM2 pandemic in ethnic minority groups in China, we investigated and compared the composition and richness of the gut microbiota of healthy, normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals and DM2 patients from two ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang, northwest China, the Uygurs and Kazaks. The conserved V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the isolated DNA. The amplified DNA was sequenced and analyzed. An average of 4047 high quality reads of unique tag sequences were obtained from the 40 Uygurs and Kazaks. The 3 most dominant bacterial families among all participants, both healthy and DM2 patients, were the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Significant differences in intestinal microbiota were found between the NGT individuals and DM2 patients, as well as between the two ethnic groups. Our findings shed new light on the gut microbiome in relation to DM2. The differentiated microbiota data may be used for potential biomarkers for DM2 diagnosis and prevention.

  14. Incidence and risk factors for breast cancer subtypes in three distinct South-East Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Devi, C R Beena; Tang, Tieng Swee; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-12-15

    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  15. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  16. Extrinsic skin ageing in German, Chinese and Japanese women manifests differently in all three groups depending on ethnic background, age and anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows

  17. Association of the SPTLC3 rs364585 polymorphism and serum lipid profiles in two Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hui; Yin, Rui-Xing; Gao, Hui; Huang, Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Yang, De-Zhai

    2017-01-05

    Little is known about the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs364585 near serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 gene (SPTLC3) and serum lipid profiles. The present study was detected the association of the SPTLC3 rs364585 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Han and Jing populations. Genotyping of the SPTLC3 rs364585 SNP was performed in 824 unrelated individuals of Han and 783 participants of Jing by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There was no significant difference in either genotypic or allelic frequencies between Han and Jing, or between males and females of the both ethnic groups. The levels of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the ratio of apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 to ApoB in Han; and total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C in Jing were different between the A allele carriers and the A allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.001). Subgroup analysis according to sex showed that the levels of LDL-C in Han males; TC and LDL-C in Jing males; and HDL-C and LDL-C in Jing females were different between the A allele carriers and the A allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.001), the A allele carriers had higher LDL-C and TC levels, and lower HDL-C levels than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid traits were also associated with several environmental factors in the Han and Jing populations, or in males and females of the both ethnic groups. The present study demonstrates the association between the SPTLC3 rs364585 SNP and serum TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels in our study populations. These associations might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity. Retrospectively registered.

  18. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  19. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  20. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity.

  1. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented.

  2. Allele Polymorphism and Haplotype Diversity of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Loci in Sequence-Based Typing for Chinese Uyghur Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Bo-feng; Deng, Ya-jun; Ye, Shi-hui; Yan, Jiang-wei; Yang, Guang; Wang, Hong-dan; Qin, Hai-xia; Huang, Qi-zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. Conclusions

  3. The Education of Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic…

  4. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and a family planning (FP) clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. Results Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508). Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76%) and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003), all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. Conclusion Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention measures are

  5. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Jannie J; Bom, Reinier J M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Sabajo, Leslie O A; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and a family planning (FP) clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508). Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76%) and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003), all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention measures are required. Although ethnic sexual mixing

  6. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  7. Ethnicity versus Class: An Analysis of Conflict in a North American Chinese Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    Examines effects of population growth (due to immigration) and social and economic change on class formation and conflict among Toronto's ethnic Chinese. Suggests that what is often interpreted as ethnic conflict is actually class conflict and that groups consciously use ethnicity to obscure the fundamental class basis of their conflict.…

  8. Ethnicity versus Class: An Analysis of Conflict in a North American Chinese Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    Examines effects of population growth (due to immigration) and social and economic change on class formation and conflict among Toronto's ethnic Chinese. Suggests that what is often interpreted as ethnic conflict is actually class conflict and that groups consciously use ethnicity to obscure the fundamental class basis of their conflict.…

  9. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  10. Ethnic self-awareness as a function of ethnic group status, group composition, and ethnic identity orientation.

    PubMed

    Kim-ju, Greg M; Liem, Ramsay

    2003-08-01

    This study found that ethnic self-awareness (i.e., the extent to which people are consciously aware of their ethnicity at any given moment) has different meanings for European Americans and Asian Americans and for Asian Americans with different ethnic identity orientations. The authors found main effects of ethnic group status and ethnic composition on ethnic self-awareness when comparing Asian Americans and European Americans. There was also an interaction effect between ethnic composition and ethnic identity orientation for Asian Americans when examining ethnic self-awareness. Findings are discussed in relation to theories that predict salience of ethnicity and to educators and practitioners who deal with ethnic minority group members.

  11. Ethnic conflict without ethnic groups: a study in pure sociology.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Despite growing awareness of the limitations of group-level analyses in ethnic studies, research on ethnic conflict has paid virtually no systematic attention to variation at the individual or micro level. Addressing that gap, the present paper draws upon data from interviews conducted with members of two broadly-defined categories recently arrived in the Republic of Ireland, Muslims and Nigerians. Results indicate that while members of both immigrant categories experience a good deal of ethnic conflict or hostility, such conflict is rarely collective and invariably varies across individuals. The research data are consistent with Donald Black's theory of moralism. Black's theory, based on his theoretical system known as pure sociology, predicts that ethnic hostility increases with the social inferiority and cultural distance of the immigrant, and that higher status immigrants are more assertive in responding to hostility, though they experience less of it (the status paradox).

  12. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  13. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  14. Margin reflex distance in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Ann P; Sires, Bryan A; Jian-Amadi, Arash

    2009-01-01

    To determine the normal range for eyelid margin reflex distance (MRD) in adults according to their ethnicity, age, and sex. A prospective study of eyelid measurements in 112 consecutive adult African American, Asian, white, and Latino patients was compared using t test analysis. Measurements of MRD were collected by a single examiner across 5 months. Patients with conditions disposing to eyelid height changes were excluded. The MRD showed statistically significant variance among select ethnic groups. There was no statistical significance between sexes within each ethnic group. Variance in MRD exists among ethnic groups. This information and further data on ethnicity and sex variance of eyelid measurements can be used for both diagnostic purposes and surgical treatment of patients for optimal results.

  15. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  16. Perceived Prejudice and the Mental Health of Chinese Ethnic Minority College Students: The Chain Mediating Effect of Ethnic Identity and Hope

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin; Yang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    As a multinational country incorporating 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, China is concerned with the mental health of members of minority ethnic groups, with an increasing focus on supporting Chinese ethnic minority college students. Nevertheless, in daily life, members of minority ethnic groups in China often perceive prejudice, which may in turn negatively influence their mental health, with respect to relative levels of ethnic identity and hope. To examine the mediating effects of ethnic identity and hope on the relationship between perceived prejudice and the mental health of Chinese ethnic minority college students, 665 students (18–26 years old; 207 males, 458 females; the proportion of participants is 95.38%) from nine colleges in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region and Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China took part in our study, each completing adapted versions of a perceived prejudice scale, a multiethnic identity measure, an adult dispositional hope scale, and a general health questionnaire. Analysis of the results reveals that perceived prejudice negatively influences mental health through both ethnic identity and hope in Chinese ethnic minority college students. The total mediation effect was 54.9%. Perceived prejudice was found to negatively predict ethnic identity and hope, suggesting that perceived prejudice brings about a negative reconstruction of ethnic identity and hope mechanisms within the study's Chinese cultural context. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health was fully mediated by hope and the chain of ethnic identity and hope. Ethnic identity partially mediated the relationship between perceived prejudice and hope. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health mediated by ethnic identity was not significant, which suggests that the rejection–identification model cannot be applied to Chinese ethnic minority college students. This paper concludes by considering the limitations of our study

  17. The Effect of Ethnic Identity and Bilingual Confidence on Chinese Youth's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer Wen-shya

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the interrelated issues of private and public domains of self-esteem, ethnic identity formation, and bilingual confidence among youth of a minority group in a city in western Canada. One hundred, ten Chinese students aged 11-18 from a Chinese-language school were randomly surveyed. Most items of the instrument are derived from…

  18. Ethnic Identity in College Students from Four Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Alipuria, Linda Line

    1990-01-01

    Examined ethnic identity search and commitment, importance of ethnicity as identity issue, and relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem among college students (N=196). Found exploration of ethnic identity issues was higher among minority students, and ethnicity was rated more important to minority students. Self-esteem was related to…

  19. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P < .05 corrected); this reduction was detected in all 4 ethnic groups despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and image acquisition sequence. This finding provides evidence for a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia expressed above and beyond ethnic variations in incidence and clinical expression. In light of the existing literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. PMID:26264820

  20. A Comprehensive Bibliography of Selected Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martha, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography identifies books citing the history of nine ethnic groups: American Indians, Puerto Rican Americans, Jewish Americans, Mexican Americans, Eskimos, Appalachians, black Americans, German Americans, and Japanese Americans. Books were selected to provide researchers with an accurate view of the histories of these groups and to cite…

  1. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  2. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  3. Genetic variation and forensic efficiency of autosomal insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Chinese Bai ethnic group: phylogenetic analysis to other populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Shen, Chun-Mei; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jin, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Thirty insertion/deletion loci were utilized to study the genetic diversities of 125 bloodstain samples collected from Bai group in Yunnan Dali region, China. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity of the 30 loci ranged from 0.1520 to 0.5680, and 0.1927 to 0.4997, respectively. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests after Bonferroni correction were found at all 30 loci in Bai group. The cumulative probability of exclusion and combined discrimination power were 0.9859 and 0.9999999999887, respectively, which indicated the 30 loci could be used as complementary genetic markers for paternity testing and were qualified for personal identification in forensic cases. We found the studied Bai group had close relationships with Tibetan, Yi and Han groups from China by the population structure, principal component analysis, population differentiations, and phylogenetic reconstruction studies. Even so, for a better understanding of Bai ethnicity's genetic milieu, DNA genotyping at various genetic markers is necessary in future studies. PMID:28465476

  4. Coronary artery calcification across ethnic groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chia, Pow Li; Earnest, Arul; Lee, Raymond; Lim, Jamie; Wong, Chun Pong; Chia, Yew Woon; Weng, James Y S; Negi, Anuradha; Khatri, Priyanka; Foo, David

    2013-09-01

    In Singapore, the age-standardised event rates of myocardial infarction (MI) are 2- and 3-fold higher for Malays and Indians respectively compared to the Chinese. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and non-calcified plaques across these 3 ethnic groups. This was a retrospective descriptive study. We identified 1041 patients (810 Chinese, 139 Malays, 92 Indians) without previous history of cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac computed tomography for atypical chest pain evaluation. A cardiologist, who was blinded to the patients' clinical demographics, reviewed all scans. We retrospectively analysed all their case records. Overall, Malays were most likely to be active smokers (P = 0.02), Indians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01) and Chinese had the highest mean age (P <0.0001). The overall prevalence of patients with non-calcified plaques as the only manifestation of sub-clinical coronary artery disease was 2.1%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CAC, mean CAC score or prevalence of non-calcified plaques among the 3 ethnic groups. Active smoking, age and hypertension were independent predictors of CAC. Non-calcified plaques were positively associated with male gender, age, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. The higher MI rates in Malays and Indians in Singapore cannot be explained by any difference in CAC or non-calcified plaque. More research with prospective follow-up of larger patient populations is necessary to establish if ethnic-specific calibration of CAC measures is needed to adjust for differences among ethnic groups.

  5. Importance-performance analysis of dental satisfaction among three ethnic groups in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Fellani Danasra; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C; Cugati, Navaneetha

    2013-01-01

    To find the differences in patient satisfaction related to dental services among three ethnic groups - Chinese, Indian and Malay - at AIMST University Dental Centre and analyse them with an importance-performance grid, identifying the weak and strong points, in order to provide better service. This questionnaire-based study consisted of convenience samples of 174 patients of Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnicity. Importance-performance analysis for 20 attributes were compared using Likert's scale. The data obtained were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Chinese and Indians both emphasised low performance on the interpersonal relationship attribute in terms of the receptionist's courtesy, whereas the Malay participants were concerned with convenience attributes. All the ethnic groups favoured maintaining existing major attributes towards technical competency, interpersonal relationship and facility factors. This study demonstrated priority differences between the ethnic groups' perception of the quality of dental services, where ethnic Chinese showed the highest gap (measure of dissatisfaction) between importance and performance compared to ethnic Malays, followed by ethnic Indians. The patients from the three major ethnic groups of Malaysia were generally well satisfied. Perhaps more priority should be placed on improving the interpersonal relationship attribute, especially with the receptionists.

  6. Educational Equity in Ethnically Diverse Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…

  7. Perception of Symptomatology in Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanborn, Kenneth O.; Katz, Martin M.

    This study was undertaken by several clinicians to obtain ratings of symptomatology and coping behavior of mental patients from different ethnic groups in Hawaii. Three dimensions of depression were studied: physical agitation, verbal retention, and optimism. The aims of the study were to describe the symptomatic and coping behaviors which are…

  8. American Ethnic Groups: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

    This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…

  9. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  10. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Challenges for different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Lili; Wong, Vincent W

    2015-01-01

    Ethnicity is defined as “belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition”. Membership of certain ethnic groups has long been associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies that examined ethnic differences amongst women with GDM were often conducted in western countries where women from various ethnic backgrounds were represented. The prevalence of GDM appears to be particularly high among women from South Asia and South East Asia, compared to Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic communities. For some, but not all ethnic groups, the body mass index is a risk factor for the development of GDM. Even within a particular ethnic group, those who were born in their native countries have a different risk profile for GDM compared to those born in western countries. In terms of treatment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays a key role in the management of GDM and the prescription of MNT should be culturally sensitive. Limited studies have shown that women who live in an English-speaking country but predominantly speak a language other than English, have lower rates of dietary understanding compared with their English speaking counterparts, and this may affect compliance to therapy. Insulin therapy also plays an important role and there appears to be variation as to the progression of women who progress to requiring insulin among different ethnicities. As for peri-natal outcomes, women from Pacific Islander countries have higher rates of macrosomia, while women from Chinese backgrounds had lower adverse pregnancy outcomes. From a maternal outcome point of view, pregnant women from Asia with GDM have a higher incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance test results post-partum and hence a higher risk of future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, women from Hispanic or African-American backgrounds with GDM are more likely to develop hypertension post-partum. This review highlights the

  12. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433

  13. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Baiju R; Chiu, Maria; Amin, Shubarna; Ramani, Meera; Sadry, Sharon; Tu, Jack V

    2010-05-15

    Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins.

  14. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74 interviewed by telephone in their preferred languages. The relationship between base-line constructs and mammography 2 years later was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Intention predicted mammography overall and among Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 10), with racial/ethnic differences in association (p = .020). Self-efficacy predicted mammography overall and among Whites (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 11), with no racial/ethnic interaction. Perceived benefits and subjective norms were associated with screening overall and in some racial/ethnic groups. These results generally support cross-cultural applicability of four of the five constructs to screening with mixed predictive value of measures across racial/ethnic groups. Additional in-depth inquiry is required to refine assessment of constructs. PMID:19805790

  15. Family physician ethnicity influences quality of diabetes care for Chinese but not South Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Baiju R; Hwee, Jeremiah; Anand, Sonia S; Austin, Peter C; Manuel, Douglas G; Hux, Janet E

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether sharing the same ethnicity as their family physician influenced the quality of diabetes care for Chinese and South Asian patients in Ontario, Canada. We conducted two related studies: a population-based cohort study of Chinese and South Asian patients with incident diabetes using health care administrative data (n=49,484), and a cross-sectional study of Chinese and South Asian patients with established diabetes using data collected directly from their family physicians' clinical records (n=416). In both studies, quality of care measures were compared between patients whose family physicians were or were not from the same ethnic group. In the cohort study, Chinese patients whose family physicians were also Chinese were more likely to have a diabetes-related family physician visit and appropriate HbA1c and cholesterol testing. In the cross-sectional study, they were more likely to have foot examinations, to have microalbuminuria testing, and to achieve recommended treatment targets for HbA1c and for LDL-cholesterol. In contrast, for South Asian patients, most quality measures in either study did not differ by physician ethnicity. Having a family physician from the same ethnic group was associated with better quality of diabetes care for Chinese but not for South Asian patients. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. -141C insertion/deletion polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population: Evidence from an ethnic group-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yinglin; Chen, Kaiyuan; Li, Duolu; Han, Chao; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-09-01

    Accumulate evidence has implicated dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms in the etiology of schizophrenia. A single nucleotide polymorphism, -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs1799732), in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to schizophrenia; however, the data are inconclusive. This study investigated whether the -141C polymorphism is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in different ethnic groups by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 24 case-control studies examining the association between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia were identified according to established inclusion criteria. Significant association was revealed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in dominant genetic model (Ins/Ins + Ins/Del versus Del/Del) (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.81, z = 2.41, P = 0.02) in Chinese Han but not in Caucasian, Japanese or India populations. Our results indicate that -141C Ins/Del polymorphism might be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.

  17. Group Status, Outgroup Ethnicity and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Griffiths, Judith

    2004-01-01

    This study tested predictions drawn from social identity development theory (SIDT; [Nesdale, D. (1999a). Social identity and ethnic prejudice in children. In: P. Martin, & W. Noble (Eds.). "Psychology and society" (pp. 92-110). Brisbane: Australian Academic Press; Nesdale, D. (2004). Social identity processes and children's ethnic prejudice. In M.…

  18. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.

  19. STR data for the AmpFlSTR Profiler loci from the three main ethnic population groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K B; Jeevan, N H; Jaya, P; Othman, M I; Lee, Y H

    2001-06-01

    Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.

  20. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  1. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  2. When Social Class Meets Ethnicity: College-Going Experiences of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…

  3. CMC and Ethnic Communities: A Case Study of Chinese Students' Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kewen; Hao, Xiaoming

    This paper presents a case study exploring the impact of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) on the formation of ethnic social groups, or communities, by examining the case of Chinese students in North America and other parts of the world. The paper (1) reviews the relationship between communication and community; (2) traces the development of…

  4. When Social Class Meets Ethnicity: College-Going Experiences of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…

  5. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  6. Diurnal Rhythms of Bone Turnover Markers in Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Jean; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jarjou, Landing; Zhou, Bo; Prentice, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ethnic groups differ in fragility fracture risk and bone metabolism. Differences in diurnal rhythms (DRs) of bone turnover and PTH may play a role. Objective: We investigated the DRs of plasma bone turnover markers (BTMs), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D in three groups with pronounced differences in bone metabolism and plasma PTH. Participants: Healthy Gambian, Chinese, and white British adults (ages 60–75 years; 30 per country). Interventions: Observational study with sample collection every 4 hours for 24 hours. Main Outcomes: Levels of plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type-1 N-propeptide, N-mid osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. DRs were analyzed with random-effects Fourier regression and cross-correlation and regression analyses to assess associations between DRs and fasting and 24-hour means of BTMs and PTH. Results: Concentrations of BTMs, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were higher in Gambians compared to other groups (P < .05). The DRs were significant for all variables and groups (P < .03) and were unimodal, with a nocturnal peak and a daytime nadir for BTMs, whereas PTH had two peaks. The DRs of BTMs and PTH were significantly cross-correlated for all groups (P < .05). There was a significant positive association between C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and PTH in the British and Gambian groups (P = .03), but not the Chinese group. Conclusions: Despite ethnic differences in plasma BTMs and PTH, DRs were similar. This indicates that alteration of rhythmicity and loss of coupling of bone resorption and formation associated with an elevated PTH in other studies may not uniformly occur across different populations and needs to be considered in the interpretation of PTH as a risk factor of increased bone loss. PMID:27294326

  7. Diurnal Rhythms of Bone Turnover Markers in Three Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Jean; Fulford, Anthony J; Jarjou, Landing; Zhou, Bo; Prentice, Ann; Schoenmakers, Inez

    2016-08-01

    Ethnic groups differ in fragility fracture risk and bone metabolism. Differences in diurnal rhythms (DRs) of bone turnover and PTH may play a role. We investigated the DRs of plasma bone turnover markers (BTMs), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D in three groups with pronounced differences in bone metabolism and plasma PTH. Healthy Gambian, Chinese, and white British adults (ages 60-75 years; 30 per country). Observational study with sample collection every 4 hours for 24 hours. Levels of plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type-1 N-propeptide, N-mid osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. DRs were analyzed with random-effects Fourier regression and cross-correlation and regression analyses to assess associations between DRs and fasting and 24-hour means of BTMs and PTH. Concentrations of BTMs, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were higher in Gambians compared to other groups (P < .05). The DRs were significant for all variables and groups (P < .03) and were unimodal, with a nocturnal peak and a daytime nadir for BTMs, whereas PTH had two peaks. The DRs of BTMs and PTH were significantly cross-correlated for all groups (P < .05). There was a significant positive association between C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and PTH in the British and Gambian groups (P = .03), but not the Chinese group. Despite ethnic differences in plasma BTMs and PTH, DRs were similar. This indicates that alteration of rhythmicity and loss of coupling of bone resorption and formation associated with an elevated PTH in other studies may not uniformly occur across different populations and needs to be considered in the interpretation of PTH as a risk factor of increased bone loss.

  8. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    PubMed

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Anthropometry of eyelid and orbit in four southern Thailand ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Preechawai, Passorn

    2011-02-01

    To study the basic eyelid and orbital measurement in the four main ethnic groups of southern Thailand. The basic eyelid and orbital surface anatomy of 101 normal subjects aged 20-40 years old were measured in the four ethnic groups of which the majority of people in southern Thailand belong to: Thai, Chinese, Thai-Malay, and Thai-Chinese. Of the 101 subjects, 51 were male and 50 were female. Each ethnic group had at least 12 normal subjects. Male-female data were analyzed separately and compared between groups. The palpebral fissure heights in Thai, Chinese, Thai-Malay, and Thai-Chinese males were 9.5, 9.0, 10.2 and 9.6 mm respectively, which demonstrated statistically significant differences between Thai-Malay versus Thai, and Thai-Malay versus Chinese. The palpebral fissure lengths were 30.4, 29.8, 30.5 and 30.5 mm, but without statistically significant differences. The marginal reflex distances were 3.2, 2.8, 3.7 and 3.1 mm respectively with a statistically significant difference only between Thai-Malay versus Chinese. The levator functions were 15.2, 15.2, 15.3 and 15.2 mm. The upper lid creases were 7.1, 4.0, 6.6, and 4.4 mm, statistically significantly different in Thai versus Chinese, Thai versus Thai-Chinese and Chinese versus Thai-Malay. The Hertel exophthalmometer measurements were 15.4, 16.3, 16.6 and 15.9 mm without statistically significant differences. The female measurements were overall similar to the male measurements, with some parallel differences between the groups. The eyebrow position in this age group was mostly at and above the orbital rim in both genders and all ethnic groups. An absence of upper lid crease and an epicanthal fold were found in significantly greater numbers in the Chinese group compared to the others, while parallel lid crease was significantly found in greater numbers in the Thai-Malay group than in the others. Different eyelid characteristics in diferent ethnic groups are an important feature to note when planning for

  10. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  11. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  12. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  13. Preliminary selection for potential probiotic Bifidobacterium isolated from subjects of different Chinese ethnic groups and evaluation of their fermentation and storage characteristics in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, W J; Chen, Y F; Kwok, L Y; Li, M H; Sun, T; Sun, C L; Wang, X N; Dan, T; Menghebilige; Zhang, H P; Sun, T S

    2013-01-01

    A total of 29 strains of Bifidobacterium were isolated from 18 samples of human feces in different ethnic minority regions of China. All isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium longum (9 strains) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (20 strains) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were preliminarily tested for their suitability to become probiotics by assessing their ability to survive adequately at low pH conditions and their tolerance of different concentrations of bile salts and simulated gastrointestinal juices. In vitro tests were sequentially used to predict the survival of these strains in the simulated conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract. These strains were first exposed to pH 2.5 for 3h, and 7 out of the 29 strains were discriminated from the others by their high survival rates. Out of these 7 strains, 4 were found to grow and survive well at an even lower pH of 2.0 and in high bile salt concentration. Apart from the gastrointestinal survival capacity, both fermentation efficiency and storage characteristics are important criteria for selecting for suitable potential probiotic strains. Therefore, the fermentation efficiency in bovine milk and the bacterial viability during the storage in the resultant fermented milk were also evaluated for these 4 selected strains. In this study, we isolated and identified 29 novel Bifidobacterium strains. Based on our initial evaluation, at least 4 of them may serve as valuable resources for further dairy probiotic strain selection.

  14. Measurement of social support across women from four ethnic groups: evidence of factorial invariance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sabrina T; Nordstokke, David; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2010-03-01

    To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) framework was used to test for the invariance of the instrument's psychometric properties across ethnic groups. We used multitrait scaling to eliminate items that did not meet the item-convergence criterion (r > 0.30) and where items were non-convergent items in at least three groups. A series of nested CFA models assessed the level of factorial invariance. One thousand seventy-four women completed the survey; Their mean age was 61 years with Chinese and Latinas reporting lower education compared to non-Latino Whites (p <. 001). A four-factor model (Tangible, Informational, Financial, Emotional/Companionship) fit within each ethnic group separately, suggested good fit. Multi-group CFA supported configural and metric invariance across all ethnic groups. Only partial scalar invariance was supported. This 8-item instrument is a reliable and valid tool that can be used as a multidimensional measure of social support. It can used to examine social support within one ethnic group and for comparative research across diverse ethnic groups of women.

  15. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  16. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  17. Ethnic differences in quality of life in adolescents among Chinese, Malay and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Lionel Chee Chong; Jin, Aizhen; Shinfuku, N

    2005-09-01

    Health-related quality of life in adolescents and ethnic and cultural differences are not well characterized. We used the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (QOLQA) to examine ethnic differences in reported QOL scores among Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities in Singapore. The 70-item QOLQA measuring five QOL domains (physical, psychological, independence, social and environmental) was administered to a random sample of 1363 school-children aged 10-15 years, representative of the ethnic composition of Singapore adolescents (Chinese 72%, Malays 20% and Indians 8%). Indians reported the highest overall QOL (mean 3.71 +/- SD 0.54) compared to Chinese (3.59 +/- 0.43), p < 0.05, and Malays (3.58 +/- 0.44), p < 0.05. In particular, Indians had significantly higher psychological QOL scores (3.73 +/- 0.61) compared to Chinese (3.55 +/- 0.54), p < 0.01. On the other hand, Chinese scored highest on physical and independence domains (3.97 +/- 0.54), p < 0.01 compared to Malays (3.82 +/- 0.55). There were no statistically significant gender differences in QOL scores. QOL declined significantly from age 10 to 15 for overall score, psychological, physical (p < 0.01) and environmental (p < 0.05). Lower socio-economic status and the self-report of a significant health problem were significantly associated with lower overall QOL and most domains. These ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for differences in socio-economic and health status. Psychometric properties and known group construct validity appeared to be similar across different ethnic groups, but compared to Chinese (r = 0.39) or Malays (r = 0.39), Indians showed a higher correlation of psychological scores with physical score (r = 0.59) and with other domain scores. Significant ethnic differences in reported adolescent quality of life among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore that are independent of socioeconomic and health status suggest important cultural differences.

  18. [Comparing the Health Needs of Older Aboriginal and Older Ethnic Chinese Individuals in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Lin, Shu-Shuan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chuang, Jui-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Providing healthcare to older people is an essential policy in Taiwan. Previous studies have assessed the health needs of older people residing in urban areas. Evidence related to the differences in healthcare needs between older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese people in Taiwan is insufficient. As both groups exhibit mutually distinct physical and socio-cultural attributes, understanding their different health needs is necessary to provide tailored and effective healthcare. To investigate the distinct health needs of older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese using a comprehensive health-needs assessment tool. A cross-sectional study design was used. Older people aged 65 or over were proportionally sampled from communities. The Elderly Assessment System Care Standard instrument was used to collect data through interviews held in participant homes or in community activity centers between October 20th and December 20th, 2011. A total of 180 older people were recruited. A majority of participants had at least one chronic disease, disability, or frailty. Across a range of dimensions and categories of health needs, older aboriginal people had statistically significant higher health needs than non-aboriginal ones. However, older ethnic Chinese participants had higher levels of need in the domains of housing/financing and social participation/isolation. Regression analysis found that independence, risk of frailty, and risk of falls explained the majority of health needs, with R2 values of 64% and 69.6% for older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese participants, respectively. However, the respective impact of these three categories on overall health needs varied between the two groups. Based on our findings, healthcare providers should focus on improving the self-care capabilities of older aboriginal people and on reducing the risk of breakdowns in care for older ethnic Chinese people in order to enhance the quality of elderly care in Taiwan.

  19. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  20. Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Perry L., Comp.

    This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic…

  1. Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 24 Y-chromosomal STR in Chinese Hui ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other populations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Lv, Zhe; Dong, Nan; Li, Qiong; Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Hou, Yin-Ling; Qian, Li; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Peng

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 115 unrelated Hui male individuals from Haiyuan county or Tongxin county, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, to evaluate the forensic application of the 24 STR loci and to analyze interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Hui group data and previously published data of other 13 populations. A total of 115 different haplotypes were observed on these 24 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.4049 (DYS437) to 0.9729 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 1 at AGCU 24 Y-STR loci level, while the values were reduced to 0.999237, 0.996949, and 0.996644 at the Y-filer 17 loci, 11 Y-STR loci of extended haplotype and 9 Y-STR loci of minimal haplotype levels, respectively; whereas, haplotype diversity for additional 7 loci (not included in Y-filer 17 loci) was 0.995271. The pairwise FST , multidimensional scaling plot and neighbor-joining tree indicated the Hui group had the closest genetic relationship with Sala in the paternal lineage in the present study. In summary, the results in our study indicated the 24 Y-STRs had a high level of polymorphism in Hui group and hence could be a powerful tool for forensic application and population genetic study.

  2. Exploring Ethnic Inequalities in Admission to Russell Group Universities.

    PubMed

    Boliver, Vikki

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and 'facilitating subjects' at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body.

  3. Exploring Ethnic Inequalities in Admission to Russell Group Universities

    PubMed Central

    Boliver, Vikki

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and ‘facilitating subjects’ at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body. PMID:27904229

  4. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. [STR polymorphism in populations of indigenous Daghestan ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Bulaeva, K B; Jorde, L; Ostler, C; Bulaev, O A; Pavlova, T A; Harpending, H

    2004-05-01

    Genomic diversity of 21 STR loci has been studied in six ethnic populations of Daghestan (the Caucasus), namely, Avars, Dargins, Kubachians, Lezgins, and Nogais, and the results have been compared with these data for European, African, and East Asian ethnic groups. Daghestan is unique in its ethnic diversity, which is the greatest in the Caucasus: 26 out of approximately 50 autochthonous ethnic groups of the Caucasus live there. The genetic origin of this wide ethnic diversity of Daghestan and the Caucasus as a whole is still obscure. The genetic heterogeneity of Daghestan populations has been found to be lower than that of most other populations in the world. This is explained by a prolonged isolation and gene drift in their demographic history. Generalized genetic distances between ethnic groups calculated for the whole set of loci studied allow differentiating Asian populations from African ones, with European populations occupying intermediate positions. All Daghestan ethnic populations form a distinct common group together with some European populations (Finnish, Polish, and French). Nogais are genetically close to Southeast Asian populations. The genetic closeness and the apparently equal genetic diversity of Daghestan and European populations suggest that the ethnic differentiation of the ancestral populations of Daghestan and European ethnic groups occurred in the earliest populations of modern humans.

  6. Ethnic Group's Representation in Test Construction Sample and Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; And Others

    The hypothesis that faulty classical psychometric and sampling procedures in test construction could generate systematic bias against ethnic groups with smaller representation in the test construction sample was studied empirically. Two test construction models were developed: one with differential representation of ethnic groups (White, African…

  7. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently…

  8. Meteorology and ethnicity as critical factors in HRIPT: Comparing responses between Chinese and Indian ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Wang, Xue-Min; Galzote, Carlos; Tan, Yi-Mei; Bhagat, Kamlesh V; Yuan, Zhi-Kang; Du, Jian-Fei; Tan, Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT) is regarded as one of the confirmatory test in determining the safety of skin sensitizers. A number of important factors should be considered when conducting and interpreting the results of the HRIPT. To investigate for probable critical factors that influence the results of HRIPT with the same protocol in Shanghai and Mumbai. Two HRIPTs were carried out in Shanghai and Mumbai in 2011. Six identical products and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate were tested. Two Chinese dermatologists performed the grading in the two cities. Climate conditions of Shanghai and Mumbai were also recorded. For four lower reaction ratio products, cumulative irritation scores in the induction phase were higher in individuals whose ethnicity was Indian rather than Chinese. Reaction ratio of the same four products was highly correlated to the climatic parameters. The other two higher reaction ratio products and the positive control had no difference between the two ethnicities. Greater attention ought to be paid to the impact of climate on the results of HRIPT, especially for the mild irritation cosmetics when giving the interpretation. Greater emphasis also needs to be placed on the ethnicity of the subjects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  10. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  11. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  12. Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an English-speaking ethnic Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.

  13. British-born Chinese teenagers: the influence of Chinese ethnicity on their attitudes towards sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juping

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.

  14. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Ethnicity and utilization of family physicians: a case study of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Rosenberg, Mark; Lo, Lucia

    2008-11-01

    This paper seeks to examine how immigrants in a multicultural society access and utilize culturally- and linguistically-diverse family physicians. It focuses on Mainland Chinese (MLC) immigrants - the most important source of immigrants to Canada since 1996 - in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), Canada. Specifically, the paper aims to explore the choice between Chinese-speaking and non-Chinese-speaking family physicians by MLC immigrants and to determine the underlying reasons for MLC immigrants use of ethnically- and linguistically-matched family physicians. A wide range of data are analyzed including survey and focus group data, physician data from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) and geo-referenced 2001 Canadian Census data. A mixed-method approach is employed combining quantitative analysis of survey data and Census data, spatial analysis of patient travel behaviour based on the survey and qualitative analysis based on focus groups. The paper reveals an overwhelming preference among MLC survey respondents for Chinese-speaking family physicians regardless of study areas and socioeconomic and demographic status. The focus groups suggest that language, culture and ethnicity are intertwined in a complex way to influence the choice of health care providers and health management strategies in the host society. The paper yields important policy implications for identifying health professional shortage areas for culturally-diverse populations, addressing issues related to foreign-trained physicians and enhancing primary care delivery relevant for immigrant populations.

  16. The Semantic Equivalence of Intelligence Test Items between Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Susan E.

    The current study is concerned with identifying racial-ethnic differences in cognitive strategies or structures that are related to performance on verbal ability tests. The study had two goals: (1) to compare the semantic equivalency of intelligence test items between racial-ethnic groups, and (2) to examine the relationships of individual…

  17. The Communications Media and Southern and Eastern European Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambino, Richard

    This paper discusses bias against southern and eastern European ethnic groups as it appears in current elementary school textbooks, popular fiction, newspapers, television, and movies. Anti-ethnic sentiment expressed by nineteenth and twentieth century politicians is also mentioned. It is held that bias and stereotypes in the media perpetuate and…

  18. Ethnic Group, Acculturation, and Psychiatric Problems in Young Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethnic origin and acculturation factors on psychiatric problems among immigrant adolescents. One aim was to examine variations in psychiatric problems according to gender and immigrant generation level. Another aim was to explore ethnic group differences in psychiatric problems…

  19. Can body fat distribution, adiponectin levels and inflammation explain differences in insulin resistance between ethnic Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians?

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Salim, A; Lee, J; Tai, E S; van Dam, R M

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes in Asia constitutes approximately half of the global burden. Although insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes differ substantially between ethnic groups within Asia, the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We evaluated to what extent body fatness, adiponectin levels and inflammation mediate the relationship between ethnicity and insulin resistance in an Asian setting. Cross-sectional population-based study. In total, 4136 adult Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians residing in Singapore. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and systemic inflammation by C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed using path analysis. HOMA-IR was highest in Asian Indians, intermediate in Malays and lowest in Chinese (P<0.001). The difference in HOMA-IR between Malays and Chinese disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). For the comparison of Asian Indians with Chinese, the association between ethnicity and HOMA-IR was mediated by BMI (men: 32.9%; women: 48.5%), BMI-adjusted waist circumference (men: 6.1%; women: 3.5%), and CRP (men: 5.1%; women: 5.6%), and unidentified factors (men: 47.2%; women: 26.5%). Part of the mediating effects of body fatness was indirect through effects of body fatness on CRP and adiponectin concentrations. Mediators of ethnic differences in insulin resistance differed markedly depending on the ethnic groups compared. General adiposity explained the difference in insulin resistance between Chinese and Malays, whereas abdominal fat distribution, inflammation and unexplained factors contributed to excess insulin resistance in Asian Indians as compared with Chinese and Malays. These findings suggest that interventions targeting excess weight gain can reduce ethnic disparities in insulin resistance among Asian Indians, Chinese and Malays.

  20. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Kathryn A; Solarin, Ijeoma; Power, Emily; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and attitudes to FS screening were added to Ethnibus™ – a monthly, nationwide survey of the main ethnic minority communities living in the UK (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, and Chinese). Interviews (n = 875) were conducted, face-to-face, by multilingual field-workers, including 125 interviews with white-British adults. Results All respondents showed a notable lack of knowledge about causes of colorectal cancer, which was more pronounced in ethnic minority than white-British adults. Interest in FS screening was uniformly high (>60%), with more than 90% of those interested saying it would provide 'peace of mind'. The most frequently cited barrier to screening 'in your community' was embarrassment, particularly among ethnic minority groups. Conclusion Educational materials should recognise that non-white groups may be less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer. The findings of the current study suggest that embarrassment may be a greater deterrent to participation to FS screening among ethnic minority groups, but this result requires exploration in further research. PMID:18221519

  1. Neighborhood ethnic density and preterm birth across seven ethnic groups in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Susan M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Daniels, Julie L.; Emch, Michael E.; Hogan, Vijaya K.; Savitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Residential segregation limits non-white ethnic groups' access to white neighborhood resources, but may also reduce their exposure to discrimination and facilitate social support. We computed adjusted preterm birth risk differences (RDs) for seven ethnic groups comparing > 25% to ≤ 25% ethnic density neighborhoods using 1995–2003 New York City birth records and a spatial ethnic density measure. RDs ranged from −15.0 per 1000 (95% CI: −18.5, −11.4) for whites to 6.4 per 1000 (95% CI: 2.8, 9.9) for blacks, with Hispanic and Asian estimates falling in between but tending to be protective. Results suggest that ethnic density is uniquely harmful for non-Hispanic blacks. PMID:21130677

  2. Stroke risk factors and outcomes among various Asian ethnic groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Teoh, Hock Luen; Ong, Benjamin K C; Chan, Bernard P L

    2012-05-01

    Data on interethnic differences in the Asian stroke population are limited. We evaluated the relationships among various cardiovascular risk factors, stroke subtypes, and outcomes in a multiethnic Singaporean population comprising consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting to our tertiary center over a 1-year period. Strokes were classified based on criteria used in the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). Functional independence at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. The ethnic distribution of the study population (n = 481; mean age, 64.1 ± 11.9 years) was 74% Chinese, 17% Malay, and 9% Indian. The prevalence of risk factors was similar in the 3 ethnic groups except for diabetes (Chinese, 39.8%; Malay, 67.5%; Indian, 52.3%; P < .001). Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Lacunar stroke was the most frequent stroke subtype (47.9%). Large-artery atherosclerotic infarctions were more prevalent in Indians (25.0%), whereas lacunar infarctions occured more frequently in Chinese (51.8%; P < .01). No differences in in-hospital mortality and functional independence at discharge were seen among the 3 ethnic groups. Despite the differences in risk factors and in stroke subtypes classified by location or underlying etiology, short-term outcome measures were similar in the 3 different Asian ethnicities in Singapore.

  3. Validity of body composition methods across ethnic population groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2003-10-01

    Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.

  4. Association between limited English proficiency and understanding prescription labels among five ethnic groups in California.

    PubMed

    Masland, Mary C; Kang, Soo H; Ma, Yifei

    2011-04-01

    Misunderstanding of prescription labels results in adverse drug events and non-adherence. We assessed the effect of limited English and other factors on prescription understanding among five ethnic groups in a controlled analysis. Subjects were respondents to California's 2007 Health Interview Survey who received a prescription in the past year. In separate logistic regressions, limited English's effect on self-reported prescription understanding - controlling for bilingual doctor, education level, medications for chronic conditions, disability, years in USA, citizenship and socio-demographics - was estimated for Mexicans, Central Americans, Chinese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Unweighted sample size was 48,968. Approximately 14% had limited English and 8% had difficulty in understanding prescriptions. In multivariate analysis, limited English increased odds of difficulty in understanding prescriptions by three times for Mexicans, Central Americans, and Koreans, and four times for Chinese; it was insignificant for Vietnamese. Generally, having a bilingual doctor reduced odds of difficulty while disability, low education, low income or recent immigration increased odds of difficulty. Effects varied according to the ethnic group. In controlled analysis, Chinese and Korean ethnicity increased odds of difficulty compared to Mexican or Central American ethnicity; Vietnamese ethnicity reduced odds of difficulty compared to others. Limited English blocked prescription understanding for all groups except Vietnamese. Translated prescription labels and interpreted in-person pharmacy consultations are indicated. Education and ethnicity affected prescription understanding; prescription instructions must be compatible with patients' educational level and culture. Bilingual/bicultural providers and interpreters can help bridge linguistic/cultural gaps but efforts should be made to ensure that they are truly culturally and linguistically concordant. Linguistic, cultural or

  5. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in a Chinese population of Han ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Ma, Zhanbing; Wang, Lu; Huo, Zhenghao; Lu, Hong; Zhao, Junli; Qian, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity. 608 students (211 males and 397 females) of Han ethnicity were recruited from Ningxia medical university. Photocopies and HGS of both hands were collected at Yinchuan city, in the Ningxia province of China. Sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D and HGS were found, males had significantly lower 2D:4D and greater HGS than females. 2D:4D in both hands were significantly negative correlated with HGS in females and not in males. 2D:4D ratio is negative correlated with HGS in a Chinese population of Ningxia Han ethnicity and this association should be considered on the anthropological research within an evolutionary concept in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001.

    PubMed

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0-65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4-67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7-61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1-64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7-54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8-55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0-4.6). Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions.

  7. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  8. Fasting glucose GWAS candidate region analysis across ethnic groups in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Guo, Xiuqing; Bowden, Donald W; Bertoni, Alain G; Sale, Michele M; Yao, Jie; Bluemke, David A; Goodarzi, Mark O; Chen, Y Ida; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Raffel, Leslie J; Papanicolaou, George J; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S

    2012-05-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across multiple ethnicities in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Nondiabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the baseline exam and with GWAS genotyping were included; 2,349 Caucasians, 664 individuals of Chinese descent, 1,366 African Americans, and 1,171 Hispanics. Genotype data were generated from the Affymetrix 6.0 array and imputation in IMPUTE. Fasting glucose was regressed on SNP dosage data in each ethnic group adjusting for age, gender, MESA study center, and ethnic-specific principal components. SNPs from the three gene regions with the strongest associations to fasting glucose in previous Caucasian GWAS (MTNR1B / GCK / G6PC2) were examined in depth. There was limited power to replicate associations in other ethnic groups due to smaller allele frequencies and limited sample size; SNP associations may also have differed across ethnic groups due to differing linkage disequilibrium patterns with causal variants. rs10830963 in MTNR1B and rs4607517 in GCK demonstrated consistent magnitude and direction of association with fasting glucose across ethnic groups, although the associations were often not nominally significant. In conclusion, certain SNPs in MTNR1B and GCK demonstrate consistent effects across four racial and ethnic groups, narrowing the putative region for these causal variants. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences in late cardiovascular mortality following acute myocardial infarction in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Leonardo P; Gao, Fei; Chen, Qifeng; Hartman, Mikael; Sim, Ling-Ling; Koh, Tian-Hai; Foo, David; Chin, Chee-Tang; Ong, Hean-Yee; Tong, Khim-Leng; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Yew, Chow-Khuan; Richards, Arthur M; Peterson, Eric D; Chua, Terrance; Chan, Mark Y

    2014-12-01

    the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients from three major ethnicities of Asia. We studied 15,151 patients hospitalized for AMI with a median follow-up of 7.3 years (maximum 12 years) in six publicly-funded hospitals in Singapore from 2000-2005. Overall and cause-specific cardiovascular (CV) mortality until 2012 were compared among three major ethnic groups that represent large parts of Asia: Chinese, Malay and Indian. Relative survival of all three ethnic groups was compared with a contemporaneous background reference population using the relative survival ratio (RSR) method. The median global registry of acute coronary events score was highest among Chinese, followed by Malay and Indians: 144 (25th percentile 119, 75th percentile 173), 138 (115, 167), and 131 (109, 160), respectively, p<0.0001; similarly, in-hospital mortality was highest among Chinese (9.8%) followed by Malay (7.6%) and Indian (6.4%) patients. In contrast, 12-year overall and cause-specific CV mortality was highest among Malay (46.2 and 32.0%) followed by Chinese (43.0 and 27.0%) and Indian (35.9 and 25.2%) patients, p<0.0001. The five-year RSR was lowest among Malay (RSR 0.69) followed by Chinese (RSR 0.73) and Indian (RSR 0.79) patients, compared with a background reference population (RSR 1.00). We observed strong inter-Asian ethnic disparities in long-term mortality after AMI. Malay patients had the most discordant relationship between baseline risk and long-term mortality. Intensified interventions targeting Malay patients as a high-risk group are necessary to reduce disparities in long-term outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-06-03

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.

  11. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  12. Ethnic awareness, prejudice, and civic commitments in four ethnic groups of American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance A; Syvertsen, Amy K; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-04-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by African- and Arab-Americans. Parental admonitions against discrimination were heard by all but African Americans, Latinos and those who reported prejudice heard that it could pose a barrier. Adolescents' beliefs that America is an equal opportunity society were negatively associated with experiences of discrimination and African-Americans were least likely to believe that the government was responsive to the average person. With respect to civic goals, all youth endorsed patriotism but ethnic minorities and ethnically aware youth were more committed to advocating for their ethnic group and European-Americans were less committed than were African Americans to improving race relations.

  13. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  14. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  15. End-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Clark, David H

    2004-01-01

    Death and dying are profound events that bring into focus important ethical and medical questions for all patients, whatever their cultural background. For ethnic minority groups and their families, specific issues or barriers may arise related to culturally appropriate health care practices, cultural or religious differences, diverse health beliefs, and access to services for care and support during end-of-life conditions. National policy and local initiatives in both the United States and the United Kingdom support the development of services that address the care of ethnic minorities. This article examines end-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

  16. Influenza vaccination coverage across ethnic groups in Canada.

    PubMed

    Quach, Susan; Hamid, Jemila S; Pereira, Jennifer A; Heidebrecht, Christine L; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Quan, Sherman D; Brien, Stephanie; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2012-10-16

    The success of influenza vaccination campaigns may be suboptimal if subgroups of the population face unique barriers or have misconceptions about vaccination. We conducted a national study to estimate influenza vaccine coverage across 12 ethnic groups in Canada to assess the presence of ethnic disparities. We pooled responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2003 and 2009 (n = 437 488). We estimated ethnicity-specific self-reported influenza vaccine coverage for the overall population, for people aged 65 years and older, and for people aged 12-64 years with and without chronic conditions. We used weighted logistic regression models to examine the association between ethnicity and influenza vaccination, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status. Influenza vaccination coverage ranged from 25% to 41% across ethnic groups. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status for people aged 12 years and older, all ethnic groups were more likely to have received a vaccination against influenza than people who self-identified as white, with the exception of those who self-identified as black (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.15). Compared with white Canadians, Canadians of Filipino (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.67-2.40) and Southeast Asian (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.36-2.03) descent had the greatest likelihood of having received vaccination against influenza. Influenza vaccine coverage in Canada varies by ethnicity. Black and white Canadians have the lowest uptake of influenza vaccine of the ethnic groups represented in our study. Further research is needed to understand the facilitators, barriers and misconceptions relating to vaccination that exist across ethnic groups, and to identify promotional strategies that may improve uptake among black and white Canadians.

  17. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Yap, M; van Staveren, W A

    1998-12-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in different ethnic groups and to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Meta analysis of literature data. Populations of American Blacks, Caucasians, Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians, Polynesians and Thais. Mean values of BMI, percent body fat, gender and age were adapted from original papers. The relationship between percent body fat and BMI differs in the ethnic groups studied. For the same level of body fat, age and gender, American Blacks have a 1.3 kg/m2 and Polynesians a 4.5 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to Caucasians. By contrast, in Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians and Thais BMIs are 1.9, 4.6, 3.2 and 2.9 kg/m2 lower compared to Caucasians, respectively. Slight differences in the relationship between percent body fat and BMI of American Caucasians and European Caucasians were also found. The differences found in the body fat/BMI relationship in different ethnic groups could be due to differences in energy balance as well as to differences in body build. The results show that the relationship between percent body fat and BMI is different among different ethnic groups. This should have public health implications for the definitions of BMI cut-off points for obesity, which would need to be population-specific.

  18. The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    de Rigal, Jean; Des Mazis, Isabelle; Diridollou, Stephane; Querleux, Bernard; Yang, Grace; Leroy, Frederce; Barbosa, Vietoria Holloway

    2010-05-01

    Few comparative data are available on age-related changes in skin color among different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to measure and analyze the skin color and color heterogeneity in four different ethnic groups living in the same local environment and to determine the effects of age on these skin color characteristics. Female volunteers (385) from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese and Mexicans) living in the same city were enrolled after informed consent. Skin color was measured on two facial areas, forehead and cheek. The subjects were further divided into six age ranges: 19-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-87 years to determine any age-related effects on the skin color and color heterogeneity in both areas. According to the L(*)a(*)b(*) CIE system, clarity (fairness/lightness) was found to be lower in the African-American group whereas the hue was lower in Caucasians, which means more red skin. A clear, statistically significant darkening of the skin with age was observed in all ethnic groups, while evidence of yellowing of the skin was shown in the Chinese volunteers. Overall, the skin color of the face of African-Americans was more heterogeneous than in the other ethnic groups, but showed the least increase with age. Our study revealed interesting differences in skin color and color heterogeneity with respect to ethnicity and age-related alterations. Data obtained are very useful in improving our knowledge about the skin of people of different origins and helps in the development of specific cosmetic products that are well adapted to all these populations.

  19. Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E

    2004-02-01

    Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.

  20. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P < 0.01 in all cases). However, there were no statistically significant differences in GI and GR for the liquids between the ethnic groups (Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  1. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-05

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18-60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012-3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097-2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466-0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205-0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532-0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  2. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  3. The worldwide diversity of scalp seborrhoea, as daily experienced by seven human ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Pouradier, Florence; Liu, Chen; Wares, John; Yokoyama, Emilie; Collaudin, Catherine; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint-Léger, Didier; Loussouarn, Geneviève

    2017-09-02

    The re-greasing process and kinetics of the human scalp, post shampooing, has been previously documented, in vivo, on a few Caucasian subjects. The objective of the presented research is to extend such knowledge over 7 different ethnic groups. The post shampooing re-greasing kinetics of the scalp was studied on 1325 subjects (women and men of two distinct age classes) from 7 different ethnic groups in their residential and native country. Sebum amounts were determined onto small shaved scalp areas at various times post shampooing, using the Sebumeter(®) technique. As previously published on Caucasian subjects, scalp re-greasing process follows a hyperbolic-like kinetics over days. However, amounts of collected sebum highly vary with ethnicity. As recorded through the Casual Level (CL) at the equilibrium phase, 2 to 3 days post-shampooing, the highest amount of sebum was found in African American subjects, followed in descending order by Caucasian American, Japanese, Chinese, Thai, Caucasian European and Indian subjects, the latter showing very low values. Lower amounts of sebum were recorded in the older age-class in all ethnics, as compared to the younger one and male subjects were found higher sebum producers than women, irrespective of ethnicity. The kinetics and slopes of the re-greasing process of the human scalp appear similar in all ethnic groups studied. Despite, striking quantitative differences are found between the 7 ethnic groups, resulting from different sebaceous production levels and scalp hygiene routines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  5. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  6. Benign familial leukopenia and neutropenia in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Alkan, M L; Asaly, A; Carmeli, Y; Katz, M

    1988-09-01

    Benign hereditary leukopenia-neutropenia has been reported in several ethnic groups, including Yemenite Jews, Blacks of South African extraction, West Indians and Arab Jordanians. The subjects with BFL were shown not to have an increased incidence of infections, and their response to infection did not differ from subjects having normal white blood cell counts. This study entails the report of two additional unrelated ethnic groups with familial neutropenia - Black Beduin and Falashah Jews. The familial nature of the phenomenon was confirmed. The suggested mechanism of this type of neutropenia is a defect in release of mature WBC from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation. All ethnic groups thus far reported have tanned or dark skin. The significance of this common feature has still to be elucidated.

  7. Does trauma-linked dissociation vary across ethnic groups?

    PubMed

    Zatzick, D F; Marmar, C R; Weiss, D S; Metzler, T

    1994-10-01

    This investigation assessed the relationship between traumatic stress exposure and dissociation in male Vietnam theater veterans from three ethnic groups. Subjects were African-American (N = 61), Caucasian (N = 91), and Hispanic (N = 73) veterans who completed the Dissociative Experience Scale and a measure of war zone stress exposure, and who were rated on the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire-Rater Version. Greater exposure to war zone stress was associated with reports of more dissociation at the time of trauma and with more general dissociative experiences both when the data were pooled and when examined separately for each group. After controlling for the effects of war zone stress exposure, the significant differences found in peritraumatic and general dissociative experiences across the three ethnic groups no longer were evident. This investigation demonstrated that among American Vietnam veterans, greater exposure to traumatic stress is related to more dissociative experiences, regardless of ethnicity.

  8. Self-management Following a Cardiac Event in People of Chinese Ethnicity Living in Western Countries: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Gallagher, Robyn; Ding, Ding; Neubeck, Lis

    2017-04-13

    Health outcomes and impact of cardiovascular disease vary between populations, where ethnic minorities and immigrant groups are more likely to be disadvantaged. Compared with the majority residents, health outcomes, especially short-term mortality from coronary heart disease event are worse in people of Chinese ethnicity, potentially due to poor self-management and experiences with the healthcare system in host countries. A scoping review was conducted. Four overarching themes were found: (1) understanding of heart disease, risk factors and symptom recognition, (2) adherence to medication and lifestyle modification, (3) health service/information choice, and (4) family role in disease self-management and decision making. All themes were greatly influenced by English language proficiency and cultural practices. English language proficiency and cultural practices should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services for people of Chinese ethnicity, as it plays an important role in self-management and experiences with the healthcare system.

  9. Injury mortality among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stirbu, I; Kunst, A E; Bos, V; van Beeck, E F

    2006-03-01

    To prepare a comprehensive overview of ethnic differences in injury related mortality in the Netherlands and to determine the role of area income and urbanisation degree. Data for the period 1995-2000 were obtained from the population and cause of death registries. Injury related death rates were compared for persons from Turkish, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antillean/Aruban origin with rates for the native Dutch population. Compared with the native Dutch population, all ethnic minorities combined had an increased mortality for all injuries together (RR = 1.29). Ethnic minorities experienced a significantly higher risk of death from pedestrian accidents (RR = 1.87), drowning (RR = 2.58), poisoning (RR = 1.76), fire and scalds (RR = 1.95), and homicide (RR = 3.24). Mortality for cyclists (RR = 0.53) and motorcycle drivers (RR = 0.47) was significantly lower among ethnic minorities compared with the native Dutch. Adjustment for area income and urbanisation decreased the mortality risk difference for most of the non-traffic injuries, but showed a difference in risk for car driver and passenger accidents (RR = 1.37). Compared with the native Dutch inhabitants, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher risk of total injury mortality (RR = 1.33 and 1.53 respectively), while Turkish and Moroccans had increased risk only for selected conditions. Inequalities in injury mortality were the highest among children and young adults, but persisted in the age group above 50 years old. Ethnic differences in injury mortality in the Netherlands strongly depended on type of injury, ethnic group, sex, and age. Policies should be aimed at the prevention of high risk injuries among the most vulnerable ages and ethnic groups.

  10. Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702

  11. The allele frequency of CYP2A6*4 in four ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cong; Liu, Jin-Hui; Xu, Yi-Song; Chen, Chao; Dai, Peng-Gao

    2015-06-01

    The CYP2A6*4 allele, characterized as the whole deletion of this gene, is closely associated with nicotine dependence, cancer susceptibility, and drug responsiveness. The frequency of this molecular variant differs across populations. Although genetic polymorphisms of CYP2A6*4 and its functional results have been reported in Chinese Han population, the allele frequency of CYP2A6*4 was largely unknown in other Chinese ethnic population. In this study, we investigated the allele frequency of CYP2A6*4 in four main ethnic groups of China based on our newly developed quantitative real-time PCR assay. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*4 allele were 7.9%, 15%, 0% and 2% in Han (N=120), Uighur (N=100), Bouyei (N=100) and Tibetan (N=100) (P<0.0001), respectively. This work greatly expanded our understanding of the distribution of CYP2A6*4 in Chinese population and provided more information of different ethnic population's smoking behavior and also in disease susceptibility and drug response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnic socialization and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Virginia W; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and preparation for bias messages than their peers from European backgrounds. Chinese adolescents reported more promotion of mistrust messages than their peers with European backgrounds. Moreover, promotion of mistrust messages negatively predicted academic achievement, whereas positive cultural socialization messages accounted for the higher levels of motivation among adolescents from Chinese and Mexican backgrounds as compared with their equally achieving peers from European backgrounds.

  13. Expectations About Ethnic Peer Group Inclusivity: The Role of Shared Interests, Group Norms, and Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  15. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  16. Mutations in Pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a and Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism in Ethnic Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Wen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lo, Fu-Sung; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Yang, Stone; Shih, Shin-Lin; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2014-01-01

    An inactivating mutation in the GNAS gene causes either pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1A) when it is maternally inherited or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) when it is paternally inherited. We investigated clinical manifestations and mutations of the GNAS gene in ethnic Chinese patients with PHP1A or PPHP. Seven patients from 5 families including 4 girls and 2 boys with PHP1A and 1 girl with PPHP were studied. All PHP1A patients had mental retardation. They were treated with calcitriol and CaCO3 with regular monitoring of serum Ca levels, urinary Ca/Cr ratios, and renal sonography. Among them, 5 patients also had primary hypothyroidism suggesting TSH resistance. One female patient had a renal stone which was treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. She had an increased urinary Ca/Cr ratio of 0.481 mg/mg when the stone was detected. We detected mutations using PCR and sequencing as well as analysed a splice acceptor site mutation using RT-PCR, sequencing, and minigene construct. We detected 5 mutations: c.85C>T (Q29*), c.103C>T (Q35*), c.840-2A>G (R280Sfs*21), c.1027_1028delGA (D343*), and c.1174G>A (E392K). Mutations c.840-2A>G and c.1027_1028delGA were novel. The c.840-2A>G mutation at the splice acceptor site of intron 10 caused retention of intron 10 in the minigene construct but skipping of exon 11 in the peripheral blood cells. The latter was the most probable mechanism which caused a frameshift, changing Arg to Ser at residue 280 and invoking a premature termination of translation at codon 300 (R280Sfs*21). Five GNAS mutations in ethnic Chinese with PHP1A and PPHP were reported. Two of them were novel. Mutation c.840-2A>G destroyed a spice acceptor site and caused exon skipping. Regular monitoring and adjustment in therapy are mandatory to achieve optimal therapeutic effects and avoid nephrolithiasis in patients with PHP1A. PMID:24651309

  17. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  18. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in 4 racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Knudtson, Michael D; Wong, Tien Yin; Cotch, Mary Frances; Liu, Kiang; Burke, Gregory; Saad, Mohammed F; Jacobs, David R

    2006-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) that participated in the second examination of the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Prospective cohort study. Six thousand one hundred seventy-six 45- to 85-year-old subjects selected from 6 United States communities. Fundus images were taken using a 45 degrees digital camera through dark-adapted pupils and were graded for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Age-related macular degeneration. Prevalences of AMD were 2.4% (black), 4.2% (Hispanic), 4.6% (Chinese), to 5.4% (white) (P<0.001 for any differences among groups). The highest prevalence of any AMD occurred in those 75 to 84 years old, varying from 7.4% in blacks to 15.8% in whites and Chinese (P = 0.03). Estimated prevalences of late AMD were 0.3% (black), 0.2% (Hispanic), 0.6% (white), and 1.0% (Chinese). These differences were marginally significant (age and gender adjusted, P = 0.08). The frequency of exudative AMD was highest in Chinese (age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, 4.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-14.27) compared with whites. Differences in age, gender, pupil size, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking history, diabetes, and hypertension status did not explain the variability among the 4 racial/ethnic groups. Low prevalences of AMD were found in the MESA cohort in all groups. A lower prevalence of AMD was found in blacks compared with whites. The higher prevalence of exudative AMD in Chinese needs further study.

  19. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  20. Mexican Americans. Ethnic Groups in American Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan W.; Cuellar, Alfredo

    Part of a series on ethnic groups in American life, this book treats the Mexican American experience in the U.S. Perspectives presented in the book result from interaction with Mexican American and Anglo students and with Mexican American community members, from responses to surveys in 3 southwestern cities, and from recent research findings.…

  1. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  2. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  3. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  4. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  5. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  7. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  8. Intestinal and diffuse carcinoma of the stomach among the ethnic and dialect groups in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Teh, M; Lee, Y S

    1987-08-15

    This study attempts to determine the relative prevalence of intestinal-type and diffuse-type carcinomas (using a modified Lauren classification of gastric carcinomas) and to evaluate its significance in relation to the difference in stomach cancer risks among the different ethnic and Chinese dialect groups in Singapore. Of the 648 cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach studied, 405 (62.5%) were of the intestinal type, 206 (31.8%) of the diffuse type, and 37 (5.7%) of the mixed type. Men had higher proportions of intestinal-type carcinoma than women. The intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio increased progressively with age. Although the relative intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratios in women appeared to reflect the relative incidence rates of stomach cancer of the different ethnic and dialect groups, the ratios in men were inconsistent. Indian men had a higher intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio than Chinese men despite a lower incidence of stomach cancer. Hokkien men had the highest incidence of stomach cancer and the lowest intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio among the Chinese dialect groups. The use of the ratio as an indicator of relative risks for gastric cancer between populations of different genetic makeup is inconsistent and unreliable.

  9. Who are the traffic offenders among ethnic groups and why?

    PubMed

    Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram

    2016-06-01

    Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources.

  10. Ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N allele in two Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, A; Li, M; Xu, D-P; Zhang, W-G; Yan, W-H

    2009-03-01

    Unlike high polymorphic classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, the genetic polymorphism of HLA-G is very limited. However, the prevalence of HLA-G alleles among different ethnic populations varied dramatically. The HLA-G null allele (HLA-G*0105N) is defined by a cytosine deletion (Delta C) at position 1597 in exon 3, which disrupts the reading frame and alters the expression of HLA-G proteins. The HLA-G*0105N allelic frequency was investigated in previous studies and possible roles were addressed. In the current study, a total of 310 Chinese Han and 260 Chinese She ethnic minority population had been genotyped for the G*0105N polymorphism. Marked difference was observed that the G*0105N allelic frequency in Chinese Han was 1.61%, while no copy of the null allele was observed in the Chinese She minority population (P(c) = 0.0073). Data also revealed that no homozygote of HLA-G*0105N allele exists in this Chinese Han population. Furthermore, significant difference was found for the frequencies of HLA-G*0105N both in Chinese Han and in Chinese She populations when compared with other ethnic populations. Taken together, our results indicated that ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N polymorphism among different ethnic populations is possibly the result of evolution. However, the advantages of the selection of this allele are necessary to be further investigated.

  11. Socioeconomic Factors and Women's Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in national surveys. Less is known about how socioeconomic factors affect CAM use in US subpopulations. We examined whether the relationship between SES and CAM use differs by racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using national survey data, we assessed education and income effects on women's CAM use in four racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Mexican Americans, and Chinese Americans), controlling for age, health status, and geographic region. CAM use was defined as using any of 11 domains in the prior year. Results Adjusted effects of SES on CAM use were similar among Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women—education had a distinct gradient effect, with each increasing level of education significantly more likely to use CAM; household income ≥$60,000 was associated with CAM use compared to income <$20,000. For Chinese American women, socioeconomic factors were not associated with CAM use when controlling for confounders. Although income was not associated with CAM use among African American women, college graduates were three times more likely to use CAM than those with less than a high school education, adjusting for confounders. Conclusion SES effects on CAM use are not uniform across racial/ethnic populations. Other factors, such as culture and social networks, may interact with SES to influence CAM use in minority populations. PMID:18447102

  12. Gender and Ethnic Variation in Arranged Marriages in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Using a data set (N = 1,600) collected in the city of Urumchi in 2005, this article examines ethnic differences in arranged marriages in urban China. Data analysis shows a rapid decline in parental arrangement for both Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese in Urumchi. Han Chinese are less likely than Uyghur Muslims to report arranged marriages, with main…

  13. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  14. Importance of native language in a population-based health survey among ethnic Chinese in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-08-01

    To assess the impacts of survey languages on participation and representativeness of the study subjects in a health survey in a Chinese community in Australia. A random sample of 500 ethnic Chinese in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia was surveyed during November 2005 to February 2006 by using a bilingual survey questionnaire in their preferred languages, i.e. English or Chinese. 210 questionnaires were returned. Two-thirds of the participants chose to answer the questionnaires in Chinese. Besides being older with relatively lower income, they were more likely to be married, have a Chinese family doctor, and visit a Chinese medicine practitioner. Fewer of them have visited the Diabetes Australia website or read any educational information materials about diabetes. The multilingual approach is crucial to improving participation and representativeness of samples from ethnic populations.

  15. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Ethnic Identification and Disidentification: Japanese-American Views of Chinese-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayano, David M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems of ethnic "lumping" faced by Asian groups in the United States. Reveals how, historically, Asians have found it necessary to disassociate themselves from other Asians in order to uphold their ethnic identity; this need has often resulted in mutual antagonism between Asian ethnic groups. (Author/DA)

  17. Associations of body mass index and insulin resistance with leptin, adiponectin, and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio across ethnic groups: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Wassel, Christina L; Ding, Jingzhong; Carr, Jeffery; Cushman, Mary; Jenny, Nancy; Allison, Matthew A

    2012-10-01

    Associations of adiponectin and leptin and their ratio with body mass index (BMI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) have been investigated in different ethnic groups but variability in both assays and statistical methods have made cross-study comparisons difficult. We examined associations among these variables across four ethnic groups in a single study. Adiponectin and leptin were measured in a subset of participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study. We calculated associations (using both partial correlations and adjusted linear regression) in each ethnic group and then compared the magnitude of these associations across groups. After we excluded individuals with type 2 diabetes, there were 714 white, 219 Chinese, 332 African-American, and 405 Hispanic subjects in the study sample. Associations of BMI with adiponectin and leptin differed significantly (P < .05) across the ethnic groups in regression analyses, whereas associations of HOMA-IR with adiponectin and leptin did not differ across ethnic groups. The leptin-to-adiponectin ratio was not associated with a greater amount of adiposity or HOMA-IR variance than leptin or adiponectin in any ethnic group. Given the consistency of HOMA-IR and adipokine associations, the differing means of adiponectin and leptin across ethnic groups may help to explain ethnic differences in mean insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do early infant feeding practices vary by maternal ethnic group?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Tate, A Rosemary; Dezateux, Carol

    2007-09-01

    To examine UK country and ethnic variations in infant feeding practices. Cohort study. Infants enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 18 150 natural mothers (11 286 (8207 white) living in England) of singleton infants. Breast-feeding initiation, breast-feeding discontinuation and introduction of solid foods before 4 months. EXPLANATORY VARIABLES: Maternal ethnic group, education and social class. Seventy per cent of UK mothers started to breast-feed, of whom 62% stopped before 4 months. Median age at discontinuing breast-feeding was 14, 13, 10 and 6 weeks in Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of UK mothers (34% in England) introduced solids before 4 months. White mothers were more likely to discontinue breast-feeding (62%) and introduce solids early (37%) than most other ethnic minority groups; those stopping before 4 months were more likely to introduce solids early compared with those continuing to breast-feed beyond this age (adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.3 (1.1-1.2)). Educated mothers were less likely to stop breast-feeding before 4 months (white mothers, 0.8 (0.8-0.9); non-white mothers, 0.9 (0.8-1.0)) than those with no/minimal qualifications but, among ethnic minorities, were more likely to introduce solids early (1.3 (1.0-1.6)). Socio-economic status was positively associated with breast-feeding continuation among white women, and with age at introduction of solids among non-white women. We have identified important geographic, ethnic and social inequalities in breast-feeding continuation and introduction of solids within the UK, many of which have not been reported previously. The factors mediating these associations are complex and merit further study to ensure that interventions proposed to promote maternal adherence to current infant feeding recommendations are appropriate and effective.

  19. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  20. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  1. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers. PMID:28067780

  2. Ethnic Groups Differ in How Poor Self-Rated Mental Health Reflects Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656). SRMH was the outcome. Independent variables were psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder [MDD], general anxiety disorder [GAD], social phobia, alcohol abuse, binge eating disorders, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were covariates. The only psychiatric disorder which was universally associated with SRMH across all ethnic groups was MDD. More psychiatric disorders were associated with poor SRMH in Non-Hispanic Whites than any other ethnic groups. Among African Americans, demographic and socioeconomic factors could fully explain the associations between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Among Mexican and Other Hispanics, demographic and socioeconomic factors could only explain the association between some but not all psychiatric disorders and SRMH. In all other ethnic groups, demographic and socioeconomic factors did not explain the link between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Although SRMH is a useful tool for estimation of mental health needs of populations, poor SRMH may not have universal meanings across ethnically diverse populations. Ethnic groups differ in how their poor SRMH reflects psychiatric conditions and the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors

  3. Ethnic differences in mental health service use among White, Chinese, South Asian and South East Asian populations living in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Suresh K; Wang, Jianli

    2008-11-01

    Health services in Canada are publicly funded. However, the use of health services, especially mental health services, by ethnic minority groups in Canada, has not been well studied. The objectives of the study were to estimate the 12-month prevalence of mental health service use by ethnicities, overall and among those with major depression, and to identify factors associated with mental health services use in different ethnic groups in Canada. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.1) were used. Participants included in this analysis were white who were born in Canada (n = 108,192), white immigrants (n = 10,892), Chinese (n = 1,785), South Asian (n = 1,214), and South East Asian immigrants (n = 818). Participants were selected using multiple staged, stratified random sampling procedures from household residents aged 12 years or older in ten provinces. White people were more likely to have used mental health services than Chinese participants and those from South Asian and South East Asian regions. The Chinese participants appeared to be less likely to have used mental health services than those in the South Asian and South East Asian groups, in those without major depression. In Canada, Asian immigrants are less likely to use mental health service use than white people. More studies are needed to examine factors affecting mental health service use in Asian immigrants living in North America.

  4. Ethnicity modifies the relation between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in Indians, Malays and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, K; Kao, S L; Thai, A C; Salim, A; Lee, J J M; Heng, D; Tai, E S; Khoo, E Y H

    2012-07-01

    To study whether HbA(1c) , and its relationship with fasting plasma glucose, was significantly different among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. A sample of 3895 individuals without known diabetes underwent detailed interview and health examination, including anthropometric and biochemical evaluation, between 2004 and 2007. Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the influence of ethnicity on HbA(1c) . As fasting plasma glucose increased, HbA(1c) increased more in Malays and Indians compared with Chinese after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P-interaction < 0.001). This translates to an HbA(1c) difference of 1.1 mmol/mol (0.1%, Indians vs. Chinese), and 0.9 mmol/mol (0.08%, Malays vs. Chinese) at fasting plasma glucose 5.6 mmol/l (the American Diabetes Association criterion for impaired fasting glycaemia); and 2.1 mmol/mol (0.19%, Indians vs. Chinese) and 2.6 mmol/mol (0.24%, Malays vs. Chinese) at fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/l, the diagnostic criterion for diabetes mellitus. Using HbA(1c) in place of fasting plasma glucose will reclassify different proportions of the population in different ethnic groups. This may have implications in interpretation of HbA(1c) results across ethnic groups and the use of HbA(1c) for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  5. Peak BMD assessment in a Chinese infantry recruit group.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Sun, J; Luo, F; Sun, Q; Zhao, L; Su, N; Du, X; Huang, H; Shen, Y; Chen, L

    2011-12-01

    Peak bone mass is an important factor influencing the occurrence of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture in adulthood. We measured the areal bone mineral density (BMD) in a Chinese male infantry recruit group ranging in age from 17 to 23 years and subsequently assessed peak BMD at the lumbar vertebrae and hip. This study included 812 Chinese men of Han ethnicity from 11 provinces and municipalities of China. The BMD, bone mineral content and the bone area of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-4), left femoral neck and total hip were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were also measured at the same time. BMD at the lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and total hip reached a plateau at 22 years of age. The peak value of BMD at these 3 sites was 1.209±0.175, 1.098±0.177 and 1.122±0.151 (g/cm2), respectively. Stepwise regression analysis showed that age and weight most contributed to the variance in BMD (P<0.001). The average age when reaching peak BMD in this study is earlier than the ages reported in previous studies, and the value of peak BMD is higher than that reported previously in Chinese males. This study provides the newest peak BMD data on Chinese men. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and its association with bipolar disorder across different ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Midin, Marhani; Mohd Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder. This is a candidate gene association study of randomly selected forty five unrelated bipolar disorder probands and sixty six controls. Diagnosis was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorder. Patients' whole blood was collected for genotyping. This study revealed that the frequency of the short variant of 5-HTTLPR in healthy control group was highest in Indians (42.9%) followed by Malays (23.5%) and was absent in Chinese. The association between the homozygous ss genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with bipolar disorder was not found in the pooled subjects (χ(2)=1.52, d.f.=1, p=0.218, OR=4.67, 95% C.I.=0.69-7.58) and after stratification into Malays (p=0.315, OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.50-8.17), Indians (p=0.310; OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.21-0.92) and Chinese. The differences in the frequency of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR across the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia were noteworthy. The present study showed no significant association between the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR and bipolar disorder in the pooled subject and after stratification into the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Wits appraisal among different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Wits values for various ethnic groups are different and the applicability of the norms described in these analyses to different populations is difficult. The objectives of this study were to establish the normal values of Wits appraisal in a sample from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to evaluate the existence of gender dimorphism. Also, to compare the results with previously published Wits values. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 lateral cephalometric digital radiographs of Saudi patients from the western region (25 males and 41 females, mean age 19.32±8.16 years and 20.88±8.77 years, respectively). All subjects had angle class-I occlusion, well-balanced faces, all premolars had erupted and in occlusion, and no history of orthodontic treatment. Tracing was performed using the VistadentOC® software. Results: Wits mean values were greater in males (−0.73±2.48) than females (1.79±2.06), with significant gender difference (P<0.001). Comparisons with previously published showed that there is a significant differences between ethnic groups, especially in females’ data. Conclusion: Wits appraisal appears to be gender-specific and ethnicity-specific for female values. PMID:24987633

  8. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  9. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Materials and Methods: Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Results: Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. Conclusion: The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region. PMID:23559760

  10. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group.

  11. The influence of maternal ethnic group and diet on breast milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin Lin; S K, Thamarai Chelvi; Lim, Su Lin; Chen, Yuming; Tan, Elizabeth A T; Pai, Namratha Narayan; Gong, Yin Han; Foo, Janie; Rauff, Mary; Chong, Yap Seng

    2010-09-01

    Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition. This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Healthy pregnant women with the intention to breastfeed were recruited. Diet profile was studied using a standard validated 3-day food diary. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 1 to 2 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks postnatally. Agilent gas chromatograph (6870N) equipped with a mass spectrometer (5975) and an automatic liquid sampler (ALS) system with a split mode was used for analysis. Seventy-two breast milk samples were obtained from 52 subjects. Analysis showed that breast milk ETA (Eicosatetraenoic acid) and ETA:EA (Eicosatrienoic acid) ratio were significantly different among the races (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020), with ETA being the highest among Indians and the lowest among Malays. Docosahexaenoic acid was significantly higher among Chinese compared to Indians and Malays. No difference was demonstrated in n3 and n6 levels in the food diet analysis among the 3 ethnic groups. Differences exist in breast milk fatty acid composition in different ethnic groups in the same region, although no difference was demonstrated in the diet analysis. Factors other than maternal diet may play a role in breast milk fatty acid composition.

  12. Genetic structure of Tunisian ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Martinez-Cruz, Begoña; Khodjet-el-khil, Houssein; Mendizabal, Isabel; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2011-10-01

    Tunisia has experienced a variety of human migrations that have modeled the myriad cultural groups inhabiting the area. Both Arabic and Berber-speaking populations live in Tunisia. Berbers are commonly considered as in situ descendants of peoples who settled roughly in Palaeolithic times, and posterior demographic events such as the arrival of the Neolithic, the Arab migrations, and the expulsion of the "Moors" from Spain, had a strong cultural influence. Nonetheless, the genetic structure and the population relationships of the ethnic groups living in Tunisia have been poorly assessed. In order to gain insight into the paternal genetic landscape and population structure, more than 40 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 short tandem repeats were analyzed in five Tunisian ethnic groups (three Berber-speaking isolates, one Andalusian, and one Cosmopolitan Arab). The most common lineage was the North African haplogroup E-M81 (71%), being fixed in two Berber samples (Chenini-Douiret and Jradou), suggesting isolation and genetic drift. Differential levels of paternal gene flow from the Near East were detected in the Tunisian samples (J-M267 lineage over 30%); however, no major sub-Saharan African or European influence was found. This result contrasts with the high amount of sub-Saharan and Eurasian maternal lineages previously described in Tunisia. Overall, our results reveal a certain genetic inter-population diversity, especially among Berber groups, and sexual asymmetry, paternal lineages being mostly of autochthonous origin. In addition, Andalusians, who are supposed to be migrants from southern Spain, do not exhibit any substantial contribution of European lineages, suggesting a North African origin for this ethnic group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

  14. Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

  15. Representation of ethnic identity in North American social work literature: a dossier of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Tsang, A K

    2001-07-01

    Ethnic and cultural identities of people who are not white in North America are conceived as natural and fixed categories. Such conceptualizations are associated with a tendency to take ethnicity as a client characteristic instead of understanding ethnic and cultural differences as constituted by the engagement between social worker and client. Using Foucault's dossier approach, the author uses the Chinese people as a case example to illustrate the politics of identification and identity assignment in professional social work literature in North America. The literature was selected from the Social Work Abstracts database from 1977 to 1997. The article reveals how Chinese people are "essentialized," "otherized," and negatively positioned as an ethnic construct. Four major arguments are presented together with their implications for cross-cultural social work practice.

  16. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  17. Glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism among ethnic groups of Singapore--with report of two additional alleles (GDH4 and GDH5).

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Bhattacharyya, S P; Yeoh, S C; Chua, S P; Ratnam, S S

    1987-02-01

    Placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; E.C.1.1.1.47) polymorphism was studied in 254 Chinese, 104 Malays, and 47 Indians from Singapore using isoelectric focusing. There is suggestive evidence of two additional anodal alleles (GDH4 and GDH5) in addition to the three alleles described in earlier studies. Altogether, 14 phenotypes have been observed in the present investigation, compared with six phenotypes described in earlier studies. It appears that placental GDH is controlled by five codominant autosomal alleles producing 15 possible phenotypes. The gene frequencies of GDH1, GDH2, and GDH3 in these ethnic groups are significantly different from those reported in Caucasians. There were slight differences in the gene frequencies between the three ethnic groups, with those of Indians being nearer to the frequency in Caucasians. In general, the distribution of GDH phenotypes was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups studied.

  18. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

  19. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. PMID:28228993

  20. Trends in growth and obesity in ethnic groups in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Hughes, J; Rona, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To estimate trends in growth for 5 to 11 year old ethnic minority and inner city children and comparative representative samples from 1983 to 1994.
DESIGN—Mixed longitudinal.
SUBJECTS—At each of six surveys, more than 2000 inner city white, 1500 Urdu or Punjabi speaking, 5000 English representative white, 3000 Scottish representative white, and around 1000 Afro-Caribbean, 500 falling to 300 Gujarati speaking, and 260 increasing to 300other Indian children.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS—Height, weight for height, and triceps skinfold thickness.
RESULTS—Height increased in all inner city groups by ~ 1.5 cm, but group differences were maintained. Trends in triceps skinfold varied, but increased by 4-12% in Indian subcontinent girls. Weight for height increased generally. Inner city white children showed conflicting trends in weight for height and fatness.
CONCLUSIONS—Afro-Caribbean children are maintaining their tall, slim build, but other groups emphasise the diversity of obesity patterns in a multi-ethnic society, with a predominant trend towards greater obesity. Monitoring of these groups should continue.

 PMID:9713005

  1. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  2. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-11-12

    Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50-1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations.

  3. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  4. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  5. Inter-ethnic variation of ocular traits-design and methodology of comparison study among American Caucasians, American Chinese and mainland Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan Dan; Huang, Guo Fu; He, Ming Guang; Wu, Ling Ling; Lin, Shan

    2011-03-01

    To summarize the design and methodology of a multi-center study. With the existed ethnic differences of glaucoma, this survey will explore the differences with regard to anterior and posterior ocular segment parameters between Caucasians and Chinese. In this study, four cohorts including American Caucasians and American Chinese from San Francisco, southern mainland Chinese from Guangzhou, and northern mainland Chinese from Beijing were prospectively enrolled for a series of eye examinations and tests from May 2008 to December 2010. A total of 120 subjects including 15 of each gender in each age decade from 40s to 70s were recruited for each group. Data of the following tests were collected: a questionnaire eliciting systemic and ocular disease history, blood pressure, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, auto-refraction, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, A-scan, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT), ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), visual field (VF), Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT), OCT for optic nerve, and digital fundus photography. this study will provide insights to the etiologies of glaucoma especially PACG through inter-ethnic comparisons of relevant ocular anatomic and functional parameters.

  6. Cancer risks in Nairobi (2000-2014) by ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma.

  7. Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2012-06-01

    This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.

  8. Focus group study of ethnically diverse low-income users of paid personal assistance services.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Joseph T; Grossman, Brian R; Hernandez, Mauro; Wong, Alice; Eversley, Rani; Harrington, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of ethnically diverse, low-income consumers of paid personal assistance services (PAS) to understand the successes and problems they faced setting up and maintaining their assistance. A thematic analysis was conducted with transcripts from eight focus groups of ethnically homogeneous consumers (n = 67): African American, Latino, Chinese, Native American, and non-Hispanic white. These experienced consumers were generally satisfied with their current PAS but noted significant difficulties: Getting access to appropriate care, obtaining enough paid care to avoid unmet need, and dealing with confusing bureaucracies and cultural differences between them and agency staff/attendants. They desired more control over their care, including the use of paid family attendants when possible. Respondents recommended improved screening and training of attendants, more attendant time, higher wages for attendants, improved cultural sensitivity of attendants and agency staff, and greater consumer control over PAS. Although these low-income PAS consumers are ethnically and geographically diverse, the similarity of findings points to their ongoing struggle to access adequate high quality assistance. The burden they have in obtaining and maintaining services is substantial.

  9. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren; Robinson, Jennifer; McFarland, Joel; KewalRamani, Angelina; Zhang, Anlan; Wilkinson-Flicker, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that, over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska…

  10. White Ethnic Groups and American Politics, Student Book. The Lavinia and Charles P. Schwartz Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Mark M.

    This student book, one in a series of civic education materials, focuses on white ethnic groups and how they influence the operation of the American political system. The ethnic groups which are investigated include Poles, Irish, Italians, and Jews. An ethnic person is defined as anyone who decides to identify with and live among those who share…

  11. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  12. Neighborhood deprivation and adverse birth outcomes among diverse ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, T; Stein, CR; Savitz, DA; Kaufman, JS; Mason, SM; Herring, AH

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood has been associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, variation in the effect of neighborhood deprivation among diverse ethnic groups has not been studied. Methods Using linked hospital discharge and birth data for 517,994 singleton live births in New York City from 1998–2002, we examined the association between neighborhood deprivation, preterm birth (PTB), and term low birthweight (TLBW)(≥37 weeks and <2500g). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for PTB (<32 and 33–36 weeks) and TLBW were estimated using logistic regression. Results The aOR for PTB <32 weeks for the highest quartile of deprivation compared to the lowest was 1.24 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.13, 1.36), for PTB 33–36 weeks was 1.06 (95%CI=1.01, 1.11), and for TLBW was 1.19 (95%CI=1.11, 1.27). Measures of association varied by ethnicity; AORs of the greatest magnitude for PTB were found among Hispanic Caribbean women (PTB<32weeks: aOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.27, 2.10; PTB 33–36 weeks: aOR=1.32, 95%CI=1.02, 1.70), and for TLBW among African women (aOR=1.47, 95%CI=1.02, 2.13). Conclusions The mechanisms linking neighborhood deprivation to adverse birth outcomes may differ depending on individual ethnicity and/or cultural context and should be investigated in future research. PMID:20470971

  13. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  14. Ethnic Mongol Students and Cultural Recognition: Case Studies of Three Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenzhou, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Cultural recognition is of growing interest in China, where ethnic identity has become an increasingly conspicuous issue (Gladney 1994, 1996; Hansen 1999; Harrell 1990, 2001; Lee 2001; Postiglione 1999; Postiglione, Zhu, and Ben 2004; Teng 2001). However, the role of institutions of Chinese higher education has received little attention, despite…

  15. Another Look at the Enclave Economy Thesis: Chinese Immigrants in the Ethnic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Don

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of 165 Chinese immigrants to San Francisco (California) who arrived between 1965 and 1975 suggest that workers employed in the ethnic labor market (enclave economy) have lower wages, higher turnover, and less promotional opportunities than workers in other labor markets. Positive aspects of the enclave economy are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  17. Another Look at the Enclave Economy Thesis: Chinese Immigrants in the Ethnic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Don

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of 165 Chinese immigrants to San Francisco (California) who arrived between 1965 and 1975 suggest that workers employed in the ethnic labor market (enclave economy) have lower wages, higher turnover, and less promotional opportunities than workers in other labor markets. Positive aspects of the enclave economy are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  19. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  20. Ethnic Group Schooling and the Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Big-Qu; Duda, Halyna

    Ethnic schools (supplementary schools conducted on Saturday and weekday afternoons and religion-affiliated day schools) in the Boston area were surveyed in order to determine the effect of the Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act (TBEA) on ethnic schooling and the possibilities of ethnic school involvement with TBEA. The schools…

  1. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Population genetics of coagulant factor IX: frequencies of two DNA polymorphisms in five ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, D B; Lord, S T; Bosco, J; Kirshtein, J; Jeffries, O J; Parker, N; Levtzow, C; Silverman, L M; Graham, J B

    1987-01-01

    Two frequently used restriction-enzyme polymorphisms (RFLPs) of coagulant F.IX, TaqI and XmnI, have been examined in five ethnic groups: white Americans, black Americans, East Indians, Chinese, and Malays. There is a distinct "cline" in the frequencies of both polymorphisms, from white Americans to Malays. The rarer type 2 alleles of both polymorphisms, in which middle recognition sites are present--and which in our sample reach their highest frequencies in white Americans--are marginally higher in four groups of Europeans previously reported by others. The frequencies of the rarer alleles are significantly higher in Europeans than in black Americans and East Indians, and these alleles are essentially absent in Chinese and Malays. The frequency of heterozygosity diminishes in the same order, being zero in Malays for both polymorphisms. The polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium, and in all groups the type 1 allele for TaqI is disproportionately accompanied by the type 1 allele for XmnI. The paucity of type 2 alleles and the low rate of heterozygosity in four non-European groups suggest that the polymorphisms will be of little diagnostic value south of Gibraltar and east of Suez. This prediction is confirmed by the observed haplotype frequencies in the black American and the Oriental groups. PMID:2884869

  3. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  4. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.

  5. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools

    PubMed Central

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Methods Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. Results No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within ‘black’ and ‘Asian’ ethnic groups. Conclusions Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication

  6. The Social Costs of Academic Success across Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Doan, Stacey N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal association between academic achievement and social acceptance across ethnic groups in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13,570; Mage = 15.5 years). The effects of school context are also considered. Results show that African American and Native American adolescents experience greater social costs with academic success than Whites. Pertaining to school context, findings suggest that the differential social consequences of achievement experienced by African Americans are greatest in more highly achieving schools, but only when these schools have a smaller percentage of Black students. Students from Mexican decent also showed differential social costs with achievement in particular contexts. The implications of these findings to theory, policy, and future research are discussed. PMID:21077858

  7. Values grading among nursing students - differences between the ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Michal Rassin, R N

    2010-07-01

    This study was aimed at measuring professional and personal values among nursing students. The participants were 180 students tested according to 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The findings indicated that passing time has not harmed the fundamental values on which the nursing profession is based: human dignity, the prevention of suffering, reliability, and faithful relationships. Devaluation was observed in the values of equality among patients, and altruism, which were graded only in fifth and sixth place, respectively. It is necessary to consider the regression in the values: imagination, ambition, and cleanliness, which were graded among the bottom values on the list. Significant differences were found in the grading of several personal and professional values, as a function of ethnic origin. Results may help understand motives of nursing students and assist in promoting bachelor of nursing programmes while taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the student group.

  8. Awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic testing for cancer risk among ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hann, Katie E J; Freeman, Madeleine; Fraser, Lindsay; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Lanceley, Anne

    2017-05-25

    Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups' awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups. More detailed research is needed in countries other than the US and

  9. Teaching the Invisible: Ethnic History through Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of ethnic literature in the classroom. States that ethnic novelists provide insight into the conditions of their people that the historian would find difficult to document and discuss. Provides a list of books on the following ethnic groups: Afro-Americans, Jews, Norwegians, Italians, Slavs, Puerto Ricans, Chinese, and Irish.…

  10. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  11. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

    2010-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased.…

  12. Body image and eating disturbances across ethnic groups: more similarities than differences.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Heather; Ramirez, Lisa; Trost, Ariel; Randall, Pat; Stice, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Sociocultural models of eating pathology posit that ethnic minority groups should show fewer eating disturbances than Whites. Thus, the authors tested whether there were ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors for eating pathology and whether the relations between risk factors and eating pathology differed across ethnic groups, with data from adolescent and adult females (N = 785). Only 1 of the 14 tests of main effect differences between ethnic groups was significant and none of the 49 tests of whether ethnicity moderated the relations of risk factors to eating pathology were significant. Findings provide little support for the hypothesized ethnic differences in eating disturbances and suggest that ethnic minority groups have reached parity with Whites in this domain.

  13. Accessibility and use of touchscreens by black and ethnic minority groups in the three cities project.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jean; Jackson, Margot

    2005-08-01

    The public are being encouraged by Government, at a national level, to take a greater role in the management of their health and healthcare but information to support this is not always accessible to black and ethnic minority group members who do not speak or read English. This study looks at the feasibility of providing health-related information in a multilanguage format through a touchscreen kiosk. Three touchscreen kiosks were programmed with information on 10 health topics translated into five languages: Chinese, Bengali, Gujarati, Urdu and Mirpuri Punjabi. Information was provided orally and in written format. Over an 18-month period the touchscreens were rotated between settings including health centres and libraries, located in deprived areas of Leicester, Sheffield and Nottingham. Information was logged on each individual user with respect to language used, topic selected, age group and gender of user. A number of users were invited to complete a short questionnaire about their use and ease of use of the touchscreen. Touchscreens were accessed by 2,456 people across all ages, 53% of whom were male. Urdu and Gujarati were the most frequently accessed languages (37 and 38%, respectively) and Bengali used least (9%). There was some variation in use by setting. Most of the 508 people questioned who had used the touchscreen found it easy to use. Ease of use was related to home computer use and to being younger in age. The five most popular topics accessed by 12% or more users were stress, diabetes, blood pressure, healthy eating and exercise. Topic choice varied by language used by males but not by females. Touchscreens providing health information in ethnic minority languages can be successfully accessed by black and ethnic minority groups, particularly those living in deprived areas. Touchscreens proved acceptable to, and were used by, the targeted audience.

  14. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54% female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (Mage.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection–identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446

  15. Methodology of the Singapore Indian Chinese Cohort (SICC) eye study: quantifying ethnic variations in the epidemiology of eye diseases in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, Raghavan; Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Zheng, Yingfeng; Raju, Prema; Cheung, Ning; Tai, E Shyong; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Young, Terri L; Cajucom-Uy, Howard; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang Mei; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Current knowledge of ethnic variability in the epidemiology of major eye diseases in Asia is limited. This report summarizes the rationale and study design of the Singapore Indian Chinese Cohort (SICC) Eye Study, a population-based study of ethnic South Asian (Indians) and East Asian (Chinese) older adults in Singapore. The SICC examined a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,300 ethnic Indians and 3,300 ethnic Chinese aged 40-80+ years residing in the South-Western part of Singapore. From two lists of 12,000 names of each ethnic group provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs, age-stratified random sampling was used to select 6,350 names in each group, with a target sample size of 3,300. Invitations were sent to attend a central clinic using letters, telephone calls and home visits. Examination procedures included interviews, measurement of blood pressure, anthropometry, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity, subjective refraction, ocular biometry, Goldmann applanation tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, optic disc imaging and digital photography of the lens and retina, using a standardized protocol. Selected participants underwent gonioscopic examination, visual field testing, and anterior and posterior segment optical coherence tomography. Blood, tear, and urine samples were collected for biochemical analyses, and stored for genetic and proteomic studies. In conjunction with the Singapore Malay Eye Study, the SICC study will permit an in-depth evaluation of the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of major eye diseases in Chinese, Indians and Malays, three distinct Asian ethnic groups, whose combined numbers represent half the world's population.

  16. Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I

    2013-11-01

    To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. Cross-sectional study. setting: Multicenter study. study population: A total of 2456 persons aged 45-84 years with genotype information and fundus photographs. procedures: Twelve of 2862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 of 233 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis based on screening with marginal unadjusted P value <.001 within 1 or more racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression models tested for association in case-control samples. main outcome measure: Prevalence of early AMD. Early AMD was present in 4.0% of the cohort and varied from 2.4% in blacks to 6.0% in whites. The odds ratio increased from 2.3 for 1 to 10.0 for 4 risk alleles in a joint effect analysis of Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 rs10490924 and Complement Factor H Y402H (P for trend = 4.2×10(-7)). Frequencies of each SNP varied among the racial/ethnic groups. Adjusting for age and other factors, few statistically significant associations of the 12 SNPs with AMD were consistent across all groups. In a multivariate model, most candidate genes did not attenuate the comparatively higher odds of AMD in whites. The higher frequency of risk alleles for several SNPs in Chinese Americans may partially explain their AMD frequency's approaching that of whites. The relationships of 11 candidate genes to early AMD varied among 4 racial/ethnic groups, and partially explained the observed variations in early AMD prevalence among them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-11-12

    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [The indigenous population. Demographic expansion of ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Valdes De Montano, L M

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the vital statistics of the 450 Mexican municipios in which 70% or more of the population speak indigenous languages permits a rough analysis of the demographic behavior of 23 different ethnic groups. Statistics of government departments dealing with indigenous affairs and the various indigenous organizations created since the 1970s provide other estimates of the size of the indigenous population. The census indicated a population of 5,181,038 speakers of indigenous languages aged 5 or older in 1980. The public administration estimated the 1980 indigenous population at 10 million, and the indigenous organizations estimated 12 to 18 million in 1980 and 15 million in 1989. Census and vital statistics data indicate that each indigenous group has had unique patterns of mortality and fertility in the past 30 years. Mortality declined significantly in some groups, but fertility overall has not declined to the same extent. In 1970 and 1980 respectively for the sample as a whole, the average crude birth rates were 42.4 and 37.3/1000 and the average crude death rates were 13.8 and 8.2/1000. The average annual growth rate was estimated at 2.9% for both years. 1980 growth rates ranged from 3.5% for the Maya and Mixtec to a low of 0.5% for the Tzotzil.

  19. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  20. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: Is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation – particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised. PMID:22749442

  1. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation - particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised.

  2. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    PubMed

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  3. Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment: Examining risk and resilience among youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M; Hua, Josephine M; Chance, Lauren J

    2010-04-01

    Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment were examined among 95 youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada (mean age 12 years). Utilizing cross-sectional data, promotive effects of ethnic identity were observed; higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms. Vulnerability effects of ethnic identity were fewer; lower ethnic identity was associated with above average depressive symptoms and, for males only, below average self-esteem. Findings also suggested that higher ethnic identity might buffer the stress of poor achievement, indicating a possible protective effect of ethnic identity. Although requiring replication, these preliminary findings illustrate the utility of adopting a risk and resilience framework and suggest the value of promoting strong ethnic identities.

  4. A macro analysis of population growth of China's ethnic groups in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, W

    1992-06-01

    8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.

  5. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  6. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  7. Ethnicity, self reported psychiatric illness, and intake of psychotropic drugs in five ethnic groups in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bayard-Burfield, L; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study hypothesises that the presumed increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and intake of psychotropic drugs among Iranian, Chilean, Turkish, and Kurdish adults, when these groups are compared with Polish adults, can be explained by living alone, poor acculturation, unemployment, and low sense of coherence.
DESIGN—Data from a national sample of immigrants/refugees, who were between the ages of 20-44 years old, upon their arrival in Sweden between 1980 and 1989. Unconditional logistic regression was used in the statistical modelling.
SETTING—Sweden.
PARTICIPANTS—1059 female and 921 male migrants from Iran, Chile, Turkey, Kurdistan and Poland and a random sample of 3001 Swedes, all between the ages of 27-60 years, were interviewed in 1996 by Statistics Sweden.
MAIN RESULTS—Compared with Swedes, all immigrants had an increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs, with results for the Kurds being non-significant. Compared with Poles, Iranian and Chilean migrants had an increased risk of psychiatric illness, when seen in relation to a model in which adjustment was made for sex and age. The difference became non-significant for Chileans when marital status was taken into account. After including civil status and knowledge of the Swedish language, the increased risks for intake of psychotropic drugs for Chileans and Iranians disappeared. Living alone, poor knowledge of the Swedish language, non-employment, and low sense of coherence were strong risk factors for self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs. Iranian, Chilean, Turkish and Kurdish immigrants more frequently reported living in segregated neighbourhoods and having a greater desire to leave Sweden than their Polish counterparts.
CONCLUSION—Evidence substantiates a strong association between ethnicity and self reported longstanding psychiatric

  8. Less favorable body composition and adipokines in South Asians compared with other US ethnic groups: results from the MASALA and MESA studies.

    PubMed

    Shah, A D; Kandula, N R; Lin, F; Allison, M A; Carr, J; Herrington, D; Liu, K; Kanaya, A M

    2016-04-01

    Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared with Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared with other ethnic groups are lacking. Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2622 Whites, 803 Chinese Americans, 1893 African Americans and 1496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess the ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and body mass index. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Compared with all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons with each MESA group, P<0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (P<0.001) and less lean mass (P<0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared with Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (P<0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared with African Americans (P<0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared with other ethnic groups (P<0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (P<0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in SAs may partially explain the increased

  9. Less Favorable Body Composition and Adipokines in South Asians Compared to Other U.S. Ethnic Groups: Results from the MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Lin, Feng; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, Jeffrey; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared to Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared to other ethnic groups are lacking. Methods Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2,622 Whites; 803 Chinese Americans; 1,893 African Americans; and 1,496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass, and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and BMI. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, HDL, and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Results Compared to all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons to each MESA group, p < 0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (p < 0.001), and less lean mass (p < 0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared to Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (p < 0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared to African Americans (p < 0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. Conclusion There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass, and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in South Asians may partially

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the Caucasus ethnic groups: distribution of some blood group genetic markers (Part II).

    PubMed

    Nasidze, I S

    1995-08-01

    The compiled data on the distribution of polymorphic blood groups (ABO, Diego, Duffy, Kell-Cellano, Kidd, MN, MNSs, P, Penney, Rh(D), Rh-Hr), secretion ABH antigens in saliva, HLA system (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR), immunoglobulin (GM1) and other miscellaneous data (phenylthiocarbamide taste, tongue rolling) in the Caucasus are presented. Results of the interpopulation heterogeneity test show that, in spite of the limited territory of the Caucasus, a high level of genetic variability was observed. In terms of gene frequencies, these ethnic groups are approximately equidistant from European and West Asian Populations.

  11. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  12. Objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam: The HELIUS study

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Stronks, Karien; Langøien, Lars J.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the socio-demographic and lifestyle-related correlates of objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were collected as part of the HELIUS study. The sample consisted of adults from a Dutch, Moroccan, African Surinamese, South-Asian Surinamese and Turkish ethnic origin. Data were collected by questionnaire, physical examination, and a combined heart rate and accelerometry monitor (Actiheart). Sedentary time was defined as waking time spent on activities of <1.5 metabolic equivalents. Ethnic differences in the levels of sedentary time were tested using ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses, while ethnic differences in the correlates of sedentary time were tested with interactions between ethnicity and potential correlates using general linear models. Associations between these correlates and sedentary time were explored using linear regression analyses stratified by ethnicity (pre-determined). All analyses were adjusted for gender and age. Results 447 participants were included in the analyses, ranging from 73 to 109 participants per ethnic group. Adjusted levels of sedentary time ranged from 569 minutes/day (9.5 hours/day) for participants with a Moroccan and Turkish origin to 621 minutes/day (10.3 hours/day) in African Surinamese participants. There were no statistically significant differences in the levels or correlates of sedentary time between the ethnic groups. Meeting the physical activity recommendations (150 minutes/week) was consistently inversely associated with sedentary time across all ethnic groups, while age was positively associated with sedentary time in most groups. Conclusions No statistically significant

  13. Objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam: The HELIUS study.

    PubMed

    Loyen, Anne; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Langøien, Lars J; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the socio-demographic and lifestyle-related correlates of objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected as part of the HELIUS study. The sample consisted of adults from a Dutch, Moroccan, African Surinamese, South-Asian Surinamese and Turkish ethnic origin. Data were collected by questionnaire, physical examination, and a combined heart rate and accelerometry monitor (Actiheart). Sedentary time was defined as waking time spent on activities of <1.5 metabolic equivalents. Ethnic differences in the levels of sedentary time were tested using ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses, while ethnic differences in the correlates of sedentary time were tested with interactions between ethnicity and potential correlates using general linear models. Associations between these correlates and sedentary time were explored using linear regression analyses stratified by ethnicity (pre-determined). All analyses were adjusted for gender and age. 447 participants were included in the analyses, ranging from 73 to 109 participants per ethnic group. Adjusted levels of sedentary time ranged from 569 minutes/day (9.5 hours/day) for participants with a Moroccan and Turkish origin to 621 minutes/day (10.3 hours/day) in African Surinamese participants. There were no statistically significant differences in the levels or correlates of sedentary time between the ethnic groups. Meeting the physical activity recommendations (150 minutes/week) was consistently inversely associated with sedentary time across all ethnic groups, while age was positively associated with sedentary time in most groups. No statistically significant differences in the levels of objectively measured

  14. Learners' Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Pronunciation Accuracy: A Sociolinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…

  15. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-04

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.

  16. Attitudes of New Haven Sixth Grade Students toward Thirty Ethnic Groups. Short Summary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Barry E.

    An examination of approximately 400 New Haven, Connecticut sixth graders using a modified social distance scale and race questionnaire measured student attitudes towards different ethnic and racial groups. The group interview questionnaire was given to a racial and ethnic cross section of students in nine different schools. Students were asked to…

  17. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  18. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  19. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  20. Do Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation Protect against Discrimination for Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…

  1. National and ethnographic groups in Central Asia as reflected in ethnic statistics (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Vinnikov, Y R

    1980-01-01

    This is the second part of an article in which the author examines trends in population growth and development among the national and ethnographic groups of the republics of Central Asia. The historical process of ethnic group consolidation is studied, with a focus on the roles of bilingualism, cross-national marriage, and socioeconomic development in inter-ethnic integration

  2. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  3. Measurement of Intelligence Among Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups: Product Versus Process Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klippel, Magot D.

    1975-01-01

    Compares the performances on psychometric and Piagetian measures of intelligence at school entry of children of different ethnic groups living within a dominant Western-type culture. In general, few significant differences between the ethnic groups are found. (Author/AM)

  4. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  5. 1999–2001 Cancer Mortality Rates for Asian and Pacific Islander Ethnic Groups with Comparisons to Their 1988–1992 Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Chu, Kristine T.

    2006-01-01

    We report upper and lower boundary estimates of the 1999–2001 site-specific cancer mortality rates for Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Vietnamese, Native Hawaiians, and Samoans. These rates are for the seven states (California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Washington) that officially record mortality data for these ethnicities. The rates are based on the 2000 Census, which reports two population counts as follows: persons who identify themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group (which forms the basis for an upper boundary estimate of the rates) and persons who identify themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group or to multiple groups that include the single ethnic group (which forms the basis for a lower boundary estimate for the rates). The top five cancers for each Asian and Pacific Islander ethnic group by gender are reported. In addition, the 1988–1992 cancer mortality rates based on the 1990 Census for Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Native Hawaiians are determined. Their 1999–2001 and 1988–1992 rates are compared. PMID:16270326

  6. The structure of ethnic attitudes: the effects of target group, region, gender, and national identity.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, M

    1997-08-01

    The present study was an assessment of attitudes of 410 ethnically Dutch adolescents toward three ethnic minority groups living in the Netherlands. Stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, affective associations, and the evaluation of possible interactions were used to predict the global evaluation of ethnic outgroups and accounted for much of the variance in ethnic attitudes. The relative importance of the four predictors varied by target group and location. Gender differences were found in the structure of attitudes; symbolic beliefs played a greater role in the attitudes of boys, whereas emotions played a more central role in the attitudes of girls. The evaluation of Dutch identity was related to the favorability of ethnic attitudes and also to the underlying structure. Respondents with a positive national identity had less favorable ethnic attitudes, and emotions were more predictive of their attitudes, whereas symbolic beliefs were most predictive among respondents with a less positive national identity.

  7. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap."

  8. The disease burden across different ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2011-2030.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Kunst, Anton E; Lamkaddem, Majda; Stronks, Karien

    2014-08-01

    Current disease burden estimates do not provide evidence across different ethnic groups. This study aims to assess the disease burden as measured by the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for six ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, for 2011 and 2030. The DALYs were calculated by combining three components: disease-/sex-/age-specific DALYs per person; disease-specific relative risks (RRs) by ethnicity; and sex-/age-specific population sizes by ethnicity in Amsterdam in 2011 and 2030. Disease-specific DALYs were derived from the National Institute of Public Health. The RRs were obtained through a systematic review of studies published in 1997-2008. The population figures were gathered from the Statistics Netherlands and municipality of Amsterdam. The findings suggest that cardiovascular diseases and anxiety and depressive disorders dominate disease burden in all ethnic groups in 2011 and 2030. In most of the non-Western ethnic minorities, diabetes mellitus is the strongest contributor to the disease burden. The total disease burden will increase more strongly in non-Western ethnic minorities than ethnic Dutch. The 2030 disease burden is estimated to be highest among Surinamese and Antilleans. In ethnic minorities, diabetes plays an important role in the disease burden, and the total disease burden will grow stronger than ethnic Dutch, resulting in a higher total disease burden for some ethnic groups in 2030. We encourage researchers to estimate the disease burden by ethnicity so that health priorities can be set in the fields of policy, health care and research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  10. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  11. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN MULTI-SITE, MULTI-ETHNIC RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH: A STUDY OF WOMEN ACROSS THE NATION (SWAN) EXAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus. PMID:19769020

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bai and Han ethnic groups in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-03-01

    Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world.

  13. Parenting predictors of early-adolescents' health behaviors: simultaneous group comparisons across sex and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth graders collected from three sites (Birmingham, AL, Houston, TX, and Los Angeles, CA) were used in the analyses. Simultaneous group structural equation modeling supported the invariance of parenting-early adolescent outcomes across sex and ethnic groups. Parental monitoring and parental norms were relatively robust predictors of early-adolescent externalizing problems and victimization, and to a lesser extent, of internalizing problems. A maternal nurturance by parental monitoring interaction was statistically significant for all outcome behaviors, indicating that higher monitoring in conjunction with higher maternal nurturance was associated with lower levels of early-adolescent problem behaviors. The findings suggest that core parenting factors such as nurturance, monitoring, and normative expectations for early adolescent problem behaviors may serve as a foundation for parenting components of multi-component intervention studies.

  14. The contribution of ethnic groups to Malaysian scientific output, 1982-2014, and the effects of the new economic policy.

    PubMed

    Lewison, Grant; Kumar, Sameer; Wong, Chan-Yuan; Roe, Philip; Webber, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has three main ethnic communities: Chinese, Indians and Malays. At independence in 1957, the Chinese dominated commercial life, and this led to ethnic tensions and finally riots. As a result in 1969 Malaysia introduced a "New Economic Policy" (NEP) to promote Malays in all areas of activity, and in particular to assist them to obtain basic and higher education. We examined the scientific outputs from Malaysia between 1982 and 2014 and classified the names of Malaysian researchers into one of these three groups and two others. There was a major increase in Malay participation in research, which has risen from 20 % of researchers in 1982-1984 to 65 % in 2012-2014, with corresponding declines in the percentages of Chinese and Indian authors, although their absolute numbers have increased because Malaysian scientific output has increased so rapidly in the last 10 years. The huge increase in Malay researchers contrasts with their presence in the Malaysian population which has remained stable at about 50 % since 1969.

  15. Meta-analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:149-170, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Strength of linkage disequilibrium between two vitamin D receptor markers in five ethnic groups: implications for association studies.

    PubMed

    Ingles, S A; Haile, R W; Henderson, B E; Kolonel, L N; Nakaichi, G; Shi, C Y; Yu, M C; Ross, R K; Coetzee, G A

    1997-02-01

    Markers in the 3' end of the vitamin D receptor gene have recently been associated with prostate cancer risk. To evaluate the adequacy of the commonly used BsmI restriction fragment length polymorphism as a marker of this locus, we genotyped 627 individuals from five ethnic groups for this marker, as well as for a polymorphic site in the 3' untranslated region of this gene. At the latter site, we identified 12 alleles, A13 to A24, of a poly(A) microsatellite. Allele size followed a bimodal distribution with distinct short (A13-A17) and long (A18-A24) allele populations. Poly(A) allele frequency differed by ethnicity, with the frequency of short alleles being highest in non-Hispanic whites (41%), intermediate in Hispanics and African-Americans (31 and 29%, respectively), and lowest in Japanese-Americans and Chinese (8 and 9%, respectively). In each of the ethnic groups, some degree of coupling was observed between BsmI B and short poly(A) alleles and between BsmI b and long poly(A) alleles. However, the strength of the linkage disequilibrium varied by ethnicity, with departures from complete disequilibrium producing disagreement between the BsmI and poly(A) genotypes. Genotypic disagreement was lowest in Japanese-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (6 and 7%, respectively), intermediate in Chinese and Hispanics (11 and 19%, respectively), and highest among African-Americans (37%), indicating that BsmI is not a good marker for the vitamin D receptor 3' untranslated region genotype in all populations. This finding may explain contradictory results from recent association studies using the BsmI marker.

  17. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  18. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  19. Differences in Baseline Dark and the Dark-to-Light Changes in Anterior Chamber Angle Parameters in Whites and Ethnic Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dandan; Chiu, Cynthia; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Kao, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the anterior chamber drainage angle width in the dark and the dark-to-light change (Δ) between Caucasians and Chinese aged 40 years and older. Methods. The study groups comprised four age- and sex-matched cohorts: American Caucasians, American Chinese, southern mainland Chinese, and northern mainland Chinese. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images of the anterior chamber angles were obtained under both light and dark conditions. The parameters analyzed included angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular–iris space area (TISA). Results. Data were obtained from 121, 124, 121, and 120 participants who were American Caucasians, American Chinese, and southern and northern mainland Chinese, respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, refractive status, pupil size, lens location, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) and width (ACW), the ethnic Chinese had significantly smaller ARAs (regression coefficient, β = −0.06, P < 0.001) and TISAs (β = −0.01, P = 0.039), as well as greater ΔAODs (β = 0.03, P = 0.009) and ΔTISAs (β = 0.02, P = 0.029) than did the Caucasians. For the dark-to-light change analysis, the independent associations between angle width and iris thickness (IT) and iris curvature (ICurv) were identified only in the Chinese. Conclusions. Compared with the Caucasians, the ethnic Chinese had smaller ARA and TISA, but greater dark-to-light changes in AOD and TISA, independent of refractive status and overall ocular anterior segment dimensions. PMID:22076986

  20. Engaging parents in preventive parenting groups: do ethnic, socioeconomic, and belief match between parents and group leaders matter?

    PubMed

    Dumas, Jean E; Moreland, Angela D; Gitter, Alexandra H; Pearl, Amanda M; Nordstrom, Alicia H

    2008-10-01

    The authors evaluate the relation of ethnic, socioeconomic status (SES), and belief match between parents and group leaders and engagement in a preventive intervention for parents of preschoolers. Engagement was assessed through attendance, retention, and quality of participation in sessions with 171 parents and 11 group leaders. SES match predicted attendance, retention, and quality of participation. Parents attended more sessions, remained longer in the program, and participated more actively when their group leader came from comparable SES backgrounds. Ethnic match predicted retention only, with parents attending longer when their ethnicity matched their group leader's. Engagement was unrelated to the extent of match across different characteristics, nor was the link between ethnic match and retention mediated by SES or belief match. Results suggest that social, cultural, and belief similarities between parents and group leaders may be less salient in preventive parenting interventions than is assumed. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Race-ethnicity and health trajectories: tests of three hypotheses across multiple groups and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; O'Rand, Angela M; Adkins, Daniel E

    2012-09-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories.

  2. A Model of Intercultural Communication: The Interaction of Japanese and Other Ethnic Groups in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Several research studies have looked at Japanese-American interaction with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. A study by McCandless and Hoyt, "Sex, Ethnicity, and Play Preferences of Preschool Children," reveals that children in Hawaii base their choice of friends on racial distinctions. This is due, however, not to racial hostility or…

  3. Using Personal Growth Groups in Multicultural Counseling Courses to Foster Students' Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, P. Clay; Benshoff, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between personal growth group (PGG) experiences in multicultural counseling courses and counseling students' ethnic identity development. Differences in ethnic identity development were compared between counseling students who participated in a PGG experience as part of a multicultural counseling…

  4. Defining Boundaries, Creating Contacts: Puerto Rican and Polish Presentation of Group Identity through Ethnic Parades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jo Anne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the group dynamics of ethnic parades with respect to participants, outsiders, and recent immigrants. Covers the following topics: (1) context of parades; (2) community development within historical and social environment; (3) American and ethnic aspects; (4) presentation of immigrants in parades; (5) relationships with homeland; and (6)…

  5. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Father-Infant Engagement across Race/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…

  7. Prevalence of Disabling Conditions among Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sylvia; And Others

    This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…

  8. Predictors of Career Indecision in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Ann-Yi, Sujin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores…

  9. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  10. THE MANPOWER POTENTIAL IN OUR ETHNIC GROUPS, SEMINAR ON MANPOWER POLICY AND PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALL, EDWARD T.

    THE MAJOR PART OF THIS DOCUMENT IS AN ADDRESS GIVEN BEFORE A MANPOWER ADMINISTRATION SEMINAR BY EDWARD T. HALL. ENTITLED "THE MANPOWER POTENTIAL IN OUR ETHNIC GROUPS," THE TALK OFFERS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE DIFFERENCES IN TALENTS AND SKILLS AMONG VARIOUS ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE U.S. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT ESKIMOS AND SOME AMERICAN…

  11. Temperament, Anxiety, and Depression: Comparisons Across Five Ethnic Groups of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, A. Aukahi; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2004-01-01

    Extending analyses from a large school-based sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,126; Chorpita, 2002), this study examined anxiety and depression assessment with 5 ethnic groups in Hawaii. Ethnic differences in anxiety and depression symptoms, along with 2 temperamental characteristics--negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity…

  12. Patterns and Predictors of Father-Infant Engagement across Race/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…

  13. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  14. Iron deficiency in young Bradford children from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, P

    1986-01-01

    Haematological parameters and iron state were studied in children admitted to hospital consecutively during a six month period. A total of 147 of 598 children (24.6%) were anaemic, with haemoglobin values below the third centile of the reference range, and 131 of 400 children (32.8%) were iron deficient, with serum ferritin concentrations less than 10 micrograms/l. Both findings were more common in children from the Asian ethnic minority. The "routine" full blood count is a useful tool for the presumptive identification of iron deficiency in childhood. Iron deficiency is deleterious to the health of young children. In view of its extent and degree--not exclusively among the Asian ethnic minority--a community based preventive programme on the lines of the Stop Rickets Campaign is recommended. PMID:3080103

  15. Structural and predictive equivalency of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale across three racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Castro, Yessenia; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-07-01

    The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) is a valid and reliable scale among non-Latino Whites but has not been validated for use among other racial/ethnic groups despite increasing use with these populations. The current study examined the structural invariance and predictive equivalency of the WSWS across three racial/ethnic groups. The WSWS scores of 424 African American, Latino, and White smokers receiving smoking cessation treatment were analyzed in a series of factor analyses and multiple-group analyses. Additionally, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether WSWS scores differentially predicted smoking relapse across racial/ethnic groups. These analyses were consistent with a step-down hierarchical regression procedure for examination of test bias. The 7-factor structure of the WSWS was largely confirmed in the current study, with the exception of the removal of two offending items. Evidence of full invariance across race/ethnicity was found in multiple-group analyses. The WSWS total score and subscales measuring anger, anxiety, concentration, and sadness predicted relapse, whereas the hunger, craving, and sleep subscales did not. None of these scales displayed differential predictive ability across race/ethnicity. The WSWS sleep subscale showed a significant interaction with race/ethnicity such that it was a significant predictor of relapse among Whites but not African Americans or Latinos. Overall, the WSWS is similar in structure and predictive of relapse across racial/ethnic groups. Caution should be exercised when using the WSWS sleep subscale with African Americans and Latinos.

  16. The role of dispositional traits in accounting for country and ethnic group differences on adjustment.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Nakagawa, Sanae; Estrada, Aaron

    2009-02-01

    Country and ethnic group differences on adjustment have been demonstrated numerous times, and the source of these differences has been typically interpreted as cultural. We report two studies in which country (Study 1) and ethnic group (Study 2) differences on depression, anxiety, optimism versus pessimism, well-being, and self-esteem are mediated by dispositional traits. These findings provide an alternative explanation for previously reported country and ethnic group differences on these variables and encourage researchers to consider multiple sources, including traits, in their models and studies.

  17. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…

  18. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…

  19. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  20. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra; Tangjang, Sumpam; Mandal, Subhash C

    2011-10-14

    (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  1. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750

  2. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  3. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An exploratory comparison of motivations and crowding norms between ethnic groups in downhill ski areas of New York state and Korea

    Treesearch

    Chung In Park; Chad Dawson

    1998-01-01

    This study explores the concept that ethnic groups have different motivations and crowding norms when downhill skiing and that visiting and immigrant ethnic groups would respond more like their original ethnic group than they would be like their host ethnic group. The four ethnic groups or sampling strata that were surveyed in this study were: White Anglo skiers at...

  5. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = −0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = −0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

  6. Modeling epilepsy disparities among ethnic groups in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Elliott, John O.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined epilepsy as an emerging public health issue in a recent report and emphasized the importance of epilepsy studies in minorities and people of low socioeconomic status. Previous research has suggested that the incidence rate for epilepsy is positively associated with various measures of social and economic disadvantage. In response, we utilize hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze health disparities in epilepsy and seizure risks among multiple ethnicities in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The goals of the analysis are to highlight any overall significant disparities in epilepsy risks between the populations of Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics in the study area during the years 2002–2004 and to visualize the spatial pattern of epilepsy risks by ethnicity to indicate where certain ethnic populations were most adversely affected by epilepsy within the study area. Results of the Bayesian model indicate that Hispanics have the highest epilepsy risk overall, followed by African Americans, and then Caucasians. There are significant increases in relative risk for both African Americans and Hispanics when compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the posterior mean estimates of 2.09 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (1.67, 2.62) for African Americans and 2.97 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (2.37, 3.71) for Hispanics. Results also demonstrate that using a Bayesian analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS) technology can reveal spatial patterns in patient data and highlight areas of disparity in epilepsy risk among subgroups of the population. PMID:18381676

  7. Neighborhood Ethnic Composition, Spatial Assimilation, and Change in Body Mass Index Over Time Among Hispanic and Chinese Immigrants: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Sandra S.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated relations between changes in neighborhood ethnic composition and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among Chinese and Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Methods. We used Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data over a median 9-year follow-up (2000–2002 to 2010–2012) among Chinese (n = 642) and Hispanic (n = 784) immigrants aged 45 to 84 years at baseline. We incorporated information about residential moves and used econometric fixed-effects models to control for confounding by time-invariant characteristics. We characterized neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with census tract–level percentage Asian for Chinese participants and percentage Hispanic for Hispanic participants (neighborhood coethnic concentration). Results. In covariate-adjusted longitudinal fixed-effects models, results suggested associations between decreasing neighborhood coethnic concentration and increasing weight, although results were imprecise: within-person BMI increases associated with an interquartile range decrease in coethnic concentration were 0.15 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00, 0.30) among Chinese and 0.17 kilograms per meters squared (95% CI = –0.17, 0.51) among Hispanic participants. Results did not differ between those who did and did not move during follow-up. Conclusions. Residential neighborhoods may help shape chronic disease risk among immigrants. PMID:25211724

  8. Neighborhood ethnic composition, spatial assimilation, and change in body mass index over time among Hispanic and Chinese immigrants: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Albrecht, Sandra S; Osypuk, Theresa L; Sánchez, Brisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relations between changes in neighborhood ethnic composition and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among Chinese and Hispanic immigrants in the United States. We used Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data over a median 9-year follow-up (2000-2002 to 2010-2012) among Chinese (n = 642) and Hispanic (n = 784) immigrants aged 45 to 84 years at baseline. We incorporated information about residential moves and used econometric fixed-effects models to control for confounding by time-invariant characteristics. We characterized neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with census tract-level percentage Asian for Chinese participants and percentage Hispanic for Hispanic participants (neighborhood coethnic concentration). In covariate-adjusted longitudinal fixed-effects models, results suggested associations between decreasing neighborhood coethnic concentration and increasing weight, although results were imprecise: within-person BMI increases associated with an interquartile range decrease in coethnic concentration were 0.15 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00, 0.30) among Chinese and 0.17 kilograms per meters squared (95% CI = -0.17, 0.51) among Hispanic participants. Results did not differ between those who did and did not move during follow-up. Residential neighborhoods may help shape chronic disease risk among immigrants.

  9. Words, Records, and Beyond: Studying about Local Ethnic Groups through Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shirla R.; Clegg, Ambrose A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests primary sources for studying local ethnic groups when conventional textbooks omit or distort information. Primary sources include church and census records, city directories, oral tradition, pictorial records, programs, and artifacts such as statues and plaques. (AV)

  10. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  11. The Perceived Structure of American Ethnic Groups: The Use of Multidimensional Scaling in Stereotype Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Sandra G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A methodology for stereotype research, including an experimental paradigm and an analytic method, is presented. The paradigm involves the collection of three different types of similarities data concerning ethnic groups and rating-scale adjectives. (Author/DEP)

  12. Temperament, anxiety, and depression: comparisons across five ethnic groups of children.

    PubMed

    Austin, A Aukahi; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2004-06-01

    Extending analyses from a large school-based sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,126; Chorpita, 2002), this study examined anxiety and depression assessment with 5 ethnic groups in Hawaii. Ethnic differences in anxiety and depression symptoms, along with 2 temperamental characteristics-negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA)-were examined within the context of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1991). Minimal between-group differences in temperamental characteristics were found. Good fit was found for a multisample model relating NA and PA to anxiety and depressive dimensions consistently across all groups. However, significant mean level differences among ethnic groups were found for several specific anxiety dimensions, suggesting that factors outside of the tripartite model explain observed ethnic differences. Further support for the generalizability of the tripartite model was also found.

  13. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

  14. [Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (A-376/202) in three Malian ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Guindo, A; Diakité, S A S; Diakite, M; Tapily, A; Traoré, M; Sangaré, B; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocyte G6PD deficiency is the most common worldwide enzymopathy. The aim of this study was to determine erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in 3 ethnic groups of Mali and to investigate whether erythrocyte G6PD deficiency was associated to the observed protection against malaria seen in Fulani ethnic group. The study was conducted in two different areas of Mali: in the Sahel region of Mopti where Fulani and Dogon live as sympatric ethnic groups and in the Sudanese savannah area where lives mostly the Malinke ethnic group. The study was conducted in 2007 in Koro and in 2008 in Naguilabougou. It included a total 90 Dogon, 42 Fulani and 80 Malinke ethnic groups. Malaria was diagnosed using microscopic examination after Giemsa-staining of thick and thin blood smear. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) samples were identified using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) assay and analysis of PCR-amplified DNA amplicon. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) rate was 11.1%, 2.4%, and 13.3% in Dogon, Fulani, and Malinke ethnic group respectively. Heterozygous state for G6PD (A-(376/202)) was found in 7.8% in Dogon; 2.4% in Fulani and 9.3% in Malinke ethnic groups while hemizygous state was found at the frequency of 2.2% in Dogon and 4% in Malinke. No homozygous state was found in our study population.We conclude that G6PD deficiency is not differing significantly between the three ethnic groups, Fulani, Dogon and Malinke.

  15. Estimates of the population by ethnic group for areas within England.

    PubMed

    Large, Pete; Ghosh, Kanak

    2006-01-01

    This article describes, and provides some initial analysis of, the experimental population estimates by ethnic group for areas within England published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in January 2006. The article considers growth and the population structure of each of the ethnic groups identified in the 2001 Census; subnational patterns of change; population turnover; and measures of diversity and segregation, and also provides a comparison of the estimates and corresponding sample-based estimates from the Labour Force Survey.

  16. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10−27, 4.3791 × 10−28 and 6.9118 × 10−27, respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550

  17. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-08-08

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing.

  18. [A comparative study on characterizations of genetic recombination hotspots in PPARG gene between Kirgiz and Uyghur ethnic groups in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zohra, Rozi; Song, M S; Iliham, Nizam; Dolikun, Mamatyusupu

    2016-08-16

    Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) and Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB) and Japanese in Tokyo (JPT) samples.There are six recombination hotspots in the HapMap profile of genetic recombination.The last 5 SNPs within the PPARG gene were shown with lower recombination rates in the Kirgiz, whereas no recombination hotspot was found in the Uyghur. Variable recombination rates may be present in certain chromosome region between patients and healthy controls within the same or between the different ethnic groups.There may be presence of recombination hotspots of ethnic specificity and with variable recombination rates.

  19. The relationship between air layers and evaporative resistance of male Chinese ethnic clothing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing.

  20. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingmin; Fu, Jinjian; Li, Qianxi; Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  1. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  2. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Gao, Haiyan; Redshaw, Maggie

    2013-10-22

    According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women's experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern.

  3. Glycaemic and insulin responses, glycaemic index and insulinaemic index values of rice between three Asian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S

    2015-04-28

    Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM.

  4. A methodology for estimating the population by ethnic group for areas within England.

    PubMed

    Large, Pete; Ghosh, Kanak

    2006-01-01

    This article-describes the methodology used to produce experimental estimates of the population of England, and its local authority districts, by ethnic group. The approach used is a cohort component methodology with population counts, and each component of population change, constrained to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Mid-Year Population Estimates. Consideration is given to the modelling of the ethnic dimension of mortality; fertility (and the allocation of ethnic group to infants); switching between ethnic group categories; and the various aspects of migration, with particular attention given to the application of commissioned census data. A description and analysis of the estimates themselves will be the subject of a separate article in Population Trends.

  5. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  6. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  7. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  8. Food related asthma: a difference between two ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N M

    1985-01-01

    A survey of reported, food related asthma was carried out among children referred to hospital. Ninety nine replies were received from a postal questionnaire and 78 other children were interviewed personally. Both survey methods gave similar results. Symptoms from at least one item of diet were significantly more frequently reported by Asian than non-Asian children (91%:58% respectively). Ice, fizzy drinks, fried food, and nuts were incriminated significantly more often by the Asian children, but there was no difference in the prevalence of asthma associated with orange squash, milk, chocolate, or eggs. This ethnic difference could not be explained by a difference in severity of asthma. Results are presented of six Asian children who showed increased bronchial responsiveness after eating chips but not potato, thereby confirming their claim of asthma induced by fried foods. This report shows that food as a trigger of asthma is much more common than is generally accepted, particularly in Asian children. PMID:4051542

  9. Food related asthma: a difference between two ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N M

    1985-09-01

    A survey of reported, food related asthma was carried out among children referred to hospital. Ninety nine replies were received from a postal questionnaire and 78 other children were interviewed personally. Both survey methods gave similar results. Symptoms from at least one item of diet were significantly more frequently reported by Asian than non-Asian children (91%:58% respectively). Ice, fizzy drinks, fried food, and nuts were incriminated significantly more often by the Asian children, but there was no difference in the prevalence of asthma associated with orange squash, milk, chocolate, or eggs. This ethnic difference could not be explained by a difference in severity of asthma. Results are presented of six Asian children who showed increased bronchial responsiveness after eating chips but not potato, thereby confirming their claim of asthma induced by fried foods. This report shows that food as a trigger of asthma is much more common than is generally accepted, particularly in Asian children.

  10. Does the ‘Scottish effect’ apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, Raj S; Bansal, Narinder; Steiner, Markus; Brewster, David H

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Design, setting, population, measures and analysis This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups. Results For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups. Conclusions The ‘Scottish effect’ does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low

  11. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    PubMed

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations.

  13. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: an examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly cycling women.

    PubMed

    Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection and genotype in asymptomatic people from 10 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection and genotype in asymptomatic people from 10 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen

    2015-11-28

    To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin.

  16. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  17. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  18. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-04-05

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  19. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study collected in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2014. The population-based sample included South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan participants (aged 18 to 70 years). PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. The metabolic syndrome was determined according to the harmonized definition of the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, and others. Logistic regression was used for analysis. population-attributable fraction was used to calculate the contribution of PED. PED was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Moroccan participants (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [0.99-1.30], 1.15 [1.00-1.32], and 1.19 [1.03-1.38], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. No significant association was observed among Ghanaian and Turkish participants. For the individual components, the associations were statistically significant for blood pressure, fasting glucose, and waist circumference among Surinamese participants. PED was associated with dyslipidemia in Moroccan participants. The population-attributable fractions were 5% for South-Asian Surinamese and Moroccan participants, and 7% for African Surinamese participants. We found a positive association of PED with the metabolic syndrome in some ethnic groups, with PED contributing around 5% to 7% to the metabolic syndrome among Surinamese and Moroccans. This suggests that PED might contribute to ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori cagA, cagE and vacA in different ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huck Joo; Rizal, Abdul Manaf; Rosmadi, Mohamed-Yusoff; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2005-04-01

    There is a geographic variation in Helicobacter pylori (HP) genotypes and virulence factors. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and certain vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There is also a different prevalence of PUD among different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The present study compared the distribution of vacA alleles and cagA and cagE status in three ethnic groups residing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and their association with clinical outcome. All patients with cultured positive HP were recruited prospectively. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The results of 127 patients (72 men and 55 women) were included. The mean age was 55.53 +/- 12.52 years. The ethnic distribution was 59 Chinese, 38 Indian and 30 Malay patients. The predominant genotype was s1a among the Malay (76.6%) and Indian patients (71.0%), and s1c among the Chinese patients (66.1%). The vacA middle region sequence m1 was detected in 66.7% of Malay, 54.2% of Chinese and 76.3% of Indian patients. Of the Malay, Chinese and Indian patients, 76.6%, 86.4% and 86.8%, respectively, were cagA positive, and 70.0%, 39.0% and 81.6%, respectively, were cagE positve. HP cagA, cagE and vacA were not associated with PUD. There is a distinctive difference in the HP strains among the three ethnic groups in Malaysia. There was no association between cagA, cagE or vacA genotypes and clinical outcome in the patients. None of these markers are helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of a HP infection.

  1. Meta-analysis of operative mortality and complications in patients from minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bloo, G J A; Hesselink, G J; Oron, A; Emond, E J J M; Damen, J; Dekkers, W J M; Westert, G; Wolff, A P; Calsbeek, H; Wollersheim, H C

    2014-10-01

    Insight into the effects of ethnic disparities on patients' perioperative safety is necessary for the development of tailored improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to review the literature on safety differences between patients from minority ethnic groups and those from the ethnic majority undergoing surgery. PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Embase were searched using predefined inclusion criteria for available studies from January 1990 to January 2013. After quality assessment, the study data were organized on the basis of outcome, statistical significance and the direction of the observed effects. Relative risks for mortality were calculated. After screening 3105 studies, 26 studies were identified. Nine of these 26 studies showed statistically significant higher mortality rates for patients from minority ethnic groups. Meta-analysis demonstrated a greater risk of mortality for these patients compared with patients from the Caucasian majority in studies performed both in North America (risk ratio 1·22, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·05 to 1·42) and outside (risk ratio 2·25, 1·40 to 3·62). For patients from minority groups, the length of hospital or intensive care unit stay was significantly longer in five studies, and complication rates were significantly higher in ten. Methods used to identify patient ethnicity were not described in 14 studies. Patients from minority ethnic groups, in North America and elsewhere, have an increased risk of perioperative death and complications. More insight is needed into the causes of ethnic disparities to pursue safer perioperative care for patients of minority ethnicity. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Seroprevalence and distribution of hepatitis E virus in various ethnic groups in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongren; Feng, Ruofei; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Li, Mingsheng; Qiao, Zilin; Feng, Yuping; Wang, Youchun

    2010-07-01

    Gansu province is located in northwestern China and is home to 45 ethnic groups including Han, Hui, Zang and others. Different ethnic groups have varying involvement with livestock and meat consumption, especially pork. To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the distribution of HEV genotypes among the major ethnic groups in Gansu province, 2090 serum samples were collected from individuals from four regions and three ethnic groups, the Han, Hui and Zang. All serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies, as well as HEV antigen, and selected samples were then tested for HEV RNA. The data showed that the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in the Hui, Han and Zang ethnic groups from the four regions was 8.9%, 18.7% and 32.9%, respectively, and these differed significantly (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibody for each ethnic group varied among the different regions. In general, within the same region, the three ethnic groups also show differences. Genomic analysis indicated that HEV isolated from humans belonged to genotype 4, and resembled closely swine HEV isolates from Gansu province. The seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies was in accordance with the amount of contact with pigs in the different regions. Pigs are the primary host for HEV, so people in frequent contact with pigs may be at risk of zoonotic infection. However, populations that have rare contact with pigs are more likely to be susceptible to HEV when exposed, suggesting that should be the target of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of ABO blood group with P-selectin levels in Chinese Han healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhuo, Xiaofu; Lin, Yisheng; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Jingrong; Zeng, Jia; Jiang, Li; Chen, Cen; Lin, Haijuan; Dettke, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies in Caucasians suggested that an association exists between the ABO gene locus and soluble levels of P-selectin (sP-selectin). However, it is unclear if the relationship corresponds to the phenotypic expression of ABO groups or is present in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to verify this observation at both genotypic and phenotypic levels in a healthy Chinese population. The ABO blood groups were determined by both phenotypes and genotypes in 440 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, while P-selectin levels were evaluated for sP-selectin and total platelet P-selectin (pP-selectin). ABO phenotyping and quantitative analysis of individual sP-selectin plasma levels were combined to demonstrate that individuals phenotypically expressing the A antigen have approximately 20% lower sP-selectin plasma levels than those carrying the B or O phenotype (p < 0.0001), but that no difference exists between A and AB and between B and O phenotypes. Genotyping data revealed that the presence of the A gene could be attributed to the observed difference in phenotype comparison, with no difference between A/A, A/B, and A/O genotypes. There were also no associations between ABO blood groups, either phenotypes or genotypes, and pP-selectin levels. This study demonstrated an association between sP-selectin levels and ABO groups in a Chinese Han population, implicating its generalizability to other ethnic groups. This finding will improve the understanding of the mechanism of ABO blood group-associated diseases. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels across different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bhide, P; Gudi, A; Shah, A; Homburg, R

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ethnic differences in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) exist in a population of subfertile women presenting to a fertility clinic. Observational cross-sectional study. Homerton University Hospital Fertility Centre, London, UK. A total of 865 women attending the fertility clinic for their first consultation appointment between September 2012 and September 2013. Serum AMH was compared amongst women from five different ethnic groups. Serum AMH and ethnicity were the primary outcome variables. Although initial comparison showed South Asian women to have a higher serum AMH, compared with white European and Afro-Caribbean women (F = 3.817; P < 0.005), South Asian women attending the clinic were significantly younger and less likely to be smokers than women from other ethnic groups. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was significantly higher in South Asian and South East Asian women than in other ethnic groups. Differences in serum AMH were no longer significant after controlling for confounding factors: age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status with (P = 0.869) and without (P = 0.215) controlling for PCOS. The results from our study show that there was no independent association of ethnicity and serum AMH levels in an unselected population of women attending the fertility clinic. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Cardiometabolic Abnormalities Among Normal-Weight Persons From Five Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Two Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Unjali P; Vittinghoff, Eric; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kandula, Namratha R; Allison, Matthew; Carr, Jeffrey; Liu, Kiang; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-05-02

    The relationship between body weight and cardiometabolic disease may vary substantially by race/ethnicity. To determine the prevalence and correlates of the phenotype of metabolic abnormality but normal weight (MAN) for 5 racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis. 2 community-based cohorts. 2622 white, 803 Chinese American, 1893 African American, and 1496 Hispanic persons from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 803 South Asian participants in the MASALA (Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America) study. Prevalence of 2 or more cardiometabolic abnormalities (high fasting glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels and hypertension) among normal-weight participants was estimated. Correlates of MAN were assessed by using log-binomial models. Among normal-weight participants (n = 846 whites, 323 Chinese Americans, 334 African Americans, 252 Hispanics, and 195 South Asians), the prevalence of MAN was 21.0% (95% CI, 18.4% to 23.9%) in whites, 32.2% (CI, 27.3% to 37.4%) in Chinese Americans, 31.1% (CI, 26.3% to 36.3%) in African Americans, 38.5% (CI, 32.6% to 44.6%) in Hispanics, and 43.6% (CI, 36.8% to 50.6%) in South Asians. Adjustment for demographic, behavioral, and ectopic body fat measures did not explain racial/ethnic differences. After adjustment for age, sex, and race/ethnicity-body mass index (BMI) interaction, for the equivalent MAN prevalence at a BMI of 25.0 kg/m2 in whites, the corresponding BMI values were 22.9 kg/m2 (CI, 19.5 to 26.3 kg/m2) in African Americans, 21.5 kg/m2 (CI, 18.5 to 24.5 kg/m2) in Hispanics, 20.9 kg/m2 (CI, 19.7 to 22.1 kg/m2) in Chinese Americans, and 19.6 kg/m2 (CI, 17.2 to 22.0 kg/m2) in South Asians. Cross-sectional study design and lack of harmonized dietary data between studies. Compared with whites, all racial/ethnic minority groups had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of MAN, which was not explained by demographic, behavioral, or ectopic

  6. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in three ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs and Kurds.

    PubMed

    Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas, C; Børsting, C; Zeinali, Z; Malekdoost, M; Zeinali, S; Morling, N

    2013-07-01

    A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds. However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs, Kurds and eighteen other worldwide populations. For each of the three Iranian ethnic groups, the lowest FST values calculated between an Iranian and non-Iranian populations were observed between Iranians and populations in Iraq and Turkey. The three Iranian ethnic groups grouped together with other West Asian populations in the MDS plot drawn from the FST values. Statistical parameters of forensic interest calculated for the Iranian ethnic groups showed values of the same order of magnitudes as those obtained for Asians. The mean match probability calculated for the 49 SNPs ranged from 1.7x10(-18) for Kurds to 1.3x10(-19) for Persians. Despite the low level of genetic structure observed among Persians, Lurs and Kurds, a single autosomal SNP database should be used with care when extending its forensic application to other Iranian ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (P<0.001). Height was significantly different between Arab and Berber women (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in energy intake between men and women. Protein intake was not significantly different between ethnic groups. Milk and dairy products in the Berber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  8. Opaque contact lens color choices among women of different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Amber; Prager, Thomas C; Bergmanson, Jan P G; Quintero, Sam; Harden, John; Perrigin, Judith; Piccolo, Marc

    2003-04-01

    The opaque contact lens (OCL) market is profitable and expanding. This pilot study sought to identify OCL color preferences among women of three ethnic groups, African American (A), white (W), and Hispanic Americans (H). Sixty-three brown-eyed female subjects (19 A; 22 W; 22 H), 18 to 35 years of age, with uncorrected near visual accuity of at least 20/50 were recruited. Each subject was presented with OCLs of three different color pattern designs in each of four colors (blue, green, gray, and hazel). The subjects viewed their appearance in a mirror while wearing each lens. Once all lenses had been observed, the subjects chose their lens color preference. Using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, an ethnic preference was shown for all but the gray contact lenses. In group A 47.4% rated the hazel lens as their first choice whereas 0% chose the blue lens. In contrast, 45.5% of group C chose the blue lens over the other colors but did not favor the hazel lens, which was their first choice only 4.5% of the time. Group H demonstrated the most diversity in color preference, however, 36.4% chose green as their overall lenscolor preference. Distinct differences exist in OCL color preferences among the three ethnic groups studied. Improved understanding of this ethnic difference could increase the efficiency of the trial lens process while possibly decreasing inventory costs when one ethnic group dominates a practice patient base.

  9. Structural and Predictive Equivalency of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) is a valid and reliable scale among non-Latino Whites but has not been validated for use among other racial/ethnic groups despite increasing use with these populations. The current study examined the structural invariance and predictive equivalency of the WSWS across three racial/ethnic groups. Methods: The WSWS scores of 424 African American, Latino, and White smokers receiving smoking cessation treatment were analyzed in a series of factor analyses and multiple-group analyses. Additionally, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether WSWS scores differentially predicted smoking relapse across racial/ethnic groups. These analyses were consistent with a step-down hierarchical regression procedure for examination of test bias. Results: The 7-factor structure of the WSWS was largely confirmed in the current study, with the exception of the removal of two offending items. Evidence of full invariance across race/ethnicity was found in multiple-group analyses. The WSWS total score and subscales measuring anger, anxiety, concentration, and sadness predicted relapse, whereas the hunger, craving, and sleep subscales did not. None of these scales displayed differential predictive ability across race/ethnicity. The WSWS sleep subscale showed a significant interaction with race/ethnicity such that it was a significant predictor of relapse among Whites but not African Americans or Latinos. Conclusions: Overall, the WSWS is similar in structure and predictive of relapse across racial/ethnic groups. Caution should be exercised when using the WSWS sleep subscale with African Americans and Latinos. PMID:21454912

  10. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  11. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  12. Conspiracy Beliefs about the Origin of HIV/AIDS in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Torres, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

  13. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

  14. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in five ethnic groups: a comparison of their clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wong, V W

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus has been shown to vary between ethnic groups. The differences in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus from various ethnic groups have not been clearly defined. A retrospective review of women with gestational diabetes mellitus from a single institution between 2007 and 2010 was conducted. The clinical profiles of women from five ethnic groups (South-East Asian, South Asian, Middle Eastern, Anglo-European and Pacific Islander) were documented, including the outcomes of their pregnancy. In this cohort of 827 women from these five ethnic groups, South-East Asians had the lowest BMI, lowest fasting (yet highest 2-h) glucose level on 75-g glucose tolerance test, lowest need for insulin therapy and lowest rate of macrosomia. South Asians had the lowest parity but strongest family history of diabetes. Their offspring also had the lowest birthweight. Women from Pacific Islands had the highest parity, BMI, fasting glucose levels on 75-g glucose tolerance test, HbA(1c) (at diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus as well as at 36 weeks' gestation) and greatest need for insulin therapy. Their offspring also had the highest birthweights. This study highlighted the significant differences in clinical characteristics of women with gestational diabetes mellitus among five ethnic groups. These differences may need to be considered in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus, especially in the interpretation of normality for pregnancy. © 2011 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  16. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure in racial/ethnic groups at high risk for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3' hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social-environmental stressors. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification.

  17. Race and ethnicity in the workplace: spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Victoria C; Thomas, Kecia M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace--a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  19. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chin Yen; Mitchell, Hazel; Dong, Quanjiang; Goh, Khean-Lee; Dawes, Ian W; Lan, Ruiting

    2009-06-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.

  20. Dietary sources of five nutrients in ethnic groups represented in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-04-28

    Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease.

  1. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  2. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  3. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  4. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  5. Radiographic localization of mental foramen in Northeast and South Indian ethnic groups of Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Hunsigi, Prahalad; Kaipa, Balakasi Reddy; Reddy, Rajini; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Kumar, Chakki B Arun; Prasanna, M D

    2014-11-01

    The position of mental foramen varies in different ethnic groups. The position of mental foramen is mainly important for achieving effective mental nerve block to carry out dental surgical procedures in mandible. Deviation in its position can be a cause of complication during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The position of the mental foramen in South Indian and Northeast Indian population has not been reported. The purpose of the current study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen (MF) and its bilateral symmetry in selected Indian population. 380 digital panoramic radiographs (DPR) of a randomly selected 2 Ethnic groups of Indian population were studied. The common position (59.2%) of the mental foramen was located between the 1st and 2nd premolars (P3) in Northeast Indians and in South Indians the common location (62.8%) was in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar (P4), which was statistically significant in both Populations. A bilateral symmetry was observed in the location of mental foramina, either mesial to or in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar, which is consistent with the observations of similar studies in various ethnic or racial groups. In our study a statistically significant association between the 2 ethnic groups and the position of mental foramen exists. Therefore the position of mental foramen may be specific to racial groups facilitating accurate landmark for mental nerve block depending on the ethnic group. Further, studies are required with larger sample for better understanding of mental foramen location in different ethnic groups.

  6. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Rachel; Pao, Caroline; McKenzie, Sheila

    2001-01-01

    Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties. PMID:11667951

  7. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Cane, R; Pao, C; McKenzie, S

    2001-01-01

    Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor - patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  8. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  9. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  10. Developing a More Inclusive Sociology Curriculum: Racial and Ethnic Group Coverage in Thirty Introductory Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennick-Brecht, M. Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Argues that research and teaching in sociology should reflect increased commitment achievements and contributions of culturally diverse groups. Discusses content analysis of 30 introductory sociology texts to determine quantity and quality of their coverage of U.S. ethnic and racial groups. Concludes that, although substantial progress has been…

  11. Patterns of Ability Factors among Four Ethnic Groups. Project Access Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.

    Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…

  12. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  13. Adult Social Capital and Track Placement of Ethnic Groups in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Simon; Martin, Leslie; Werum, Regina E.

    2007-01-01

    The dictum that "context matters" notwithstanding, few researchers have focused on how social capital affects educational outcomes for ethnic groups outside of the United States. Using German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) data, analyses highlight the group-specific effects of parental social capital on track placement among 11-16-year-old…

  14. Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Eric A.; Allen, Brenda A.; Boykin, A. Wade

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that cultural differences in group orientation predict an interaction between the student variable--ethnicity--and a learning context variable--reward structure--on math performance after group learning. One hundred and thirty-two African-American and European-American female and male fourth and fifth grade students…

  15. Ability Test Performance and Test Validity Difference among Sex and Ethnic Groups. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yong H.; And Others

    This study assessed level and structure differences across sex and ethnic groups on a newly developed multiple aptitude battery, called the Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB), and established and examined the concurrent and differential validities of the battery relative to different groups. The 17 Ball ability variables are: clerical test; idea fluency;…

  16. Interaction Patterns in Cooperative Groups: The Effects of Gender, Ethnicity, and Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrenet, Jacob; Terwel, Jan

    The central question of this study was how gender, ethnicity, and ability influence students' participation in small cooperative groups, especially in relation to leadership. Interaction processes during cooperative group work were recorded in detail on the basis of direct observation and audio-recordings, and transcripts were analyzed by…

  17. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  18. Performance of Maximal Inspiratory Pressure Tests and MIP Reference Equations for Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Michael C.; Enright, Paul L.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Jiang, Rui; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) is an important and non-invasive index of diaphragm strength and an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The ability of adults over a wide age range and multiple ethnicities to perform MIP tests has previously not been evaluated. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited white, African-American, Hispanic and Chinese-American participants ages 45–84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease in six US cities. MIP was measured using standard techniques among 3849 MESA participants. The MIP quality goal was 5 maneuvers, with the two largest values matching within 10 cmH2O. Correlates of MIP quality and values were assessed in logistic and linear regression models. Results The 3849 MESA-Lung participants with MIP measures were 51% female, 35% white, 26% African-American, 23% Hispanic, and 16% Chinese-American. Mean MIP±SD was 73±26 cmH2O for women and 97±29 cmH2O for men. The quality goal was achieved by 83% of the cohort and was associated with female gender, older age, race/ethnicity, study site, low FEV1/FVC ratio, and wheeze with dyspnea. The multivariate correlates of MIP were male gender, younger age, higher BMI, shorter height, higher FVC, higher systolic blood pressure (in women) and health status (in men). There were no clinically important race/ethnic differences in MIP values. Conclusion Race-specific reference equations for MIP are unnecessary in the United States. More than 80% of adults can be successfully coached for 5 maneuvers with repeatability within 10 cmH2O. PMID:19796411

  19. [Paying attention to different health needs of different ethnic groups in process health for all program].

    PubMed

    Li, T G; Wang, M

    2017-06-10

    In recent years, great effort has been made in the promotion of health for all in China. Articles on column on chronic and non-communicable disease risk factors in Uighur population, analysis based on the investigation results of Uygur population health status in the Kashi area of Xinjiang of China and similar domestic and foreign studies showed that the health data in different countries are different. The differences in health related data exist in different ethnic groups even in same country or same ethnic group in different areas. Only by fully understanding the differences in disease and related factors among different ethnic groups, developing individualized health indicators and conducting targeted intervention, the goal of health for all can be achieved.

  20. Differential item functioning between ethnic groups in the epidemiological assessment of depression.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Joshua; Javaras, Kristin N; Blacker, Deborah; Murphy, Jane M; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2008-04-01

    A potential explanation for the finding that disadvantaged minority status is associated with a lower lifetime risk for depression is that individuals from minority ethnic groups may be less likely to endorse survey questions about depression even when they have the same level of depression. We examine this possibility using a nonparametric item response theory approach to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in a national survey of psychiatric disorders, the National Comorbidity Survey. Of 20 questions used to assess depression symptoms, we found evidence of DIF in 3 questions when comparing non-Hispanic blacks with non-Hispanic whites and in 3 questions when comparing Hispanics with non-Hispanic whites. However, removal of the questions with DIF did not alter the relative prevalence of depression between ethnic groups. Ethnic differences do exist in response to questions concerning depression, but these differences do not account for the finding of relatively low prevalence of depression among minority groups.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  3. Difference in susceptibility to malaria between two sympatric ethnic groups in Mali.

    PubMed

    Dolo, Amagana; Modiano, David; Maiga, Boubacar; Daou, Modibo; Dolo, Guimogo; Guindo, Hamadoun; Ba, Mamadou; Maiga, Hama; Coulibaly, Drissa; Perlman, Hedvig; Blomberg, Marita Troye; Touré, Yeya Tiemoko; Coluzzi, Mario; Doumbo, Ogobara

    2005-03-01

    We compared malaria indicators among sympatric groups to study human heterogeneities in the response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. Four cross-sectional surveys and two longitudinal surveys in two sympatric ethnic groups (Dogon and Fulani) in Mali were carried out from 1998 to 2000. Spleen and parasite rates were evaluated during the cross-sectional surveys and disease incidence was assessed during longitudinal surveys. In spite of similar sociocultural factors and entomologic inoculation rates between ethnic groups, the Fulani had a significantly higher spleen enlargement rate, lower parasite rate, and were less affected by the disease than the Dogon group, whose frequency of hemoglobin C was higher than that recorded among the Fulani group. The Fulani group had significantly higher levels of IgG and IgE against crude malaria antigen than the Dogon group, suggesting a role of anti-malaria antibodies in the immune protection seen in this group.

  4. Refilling medications through an online patient portal: consistent improvements in adherence across racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Courtney R; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; Ralston, James D; Allen, Jill Y; Nguyen, Robert; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Online patient portals are being widely implemented; however, no studies have examined whether portals influence health behaviors or outcomes similarly across patient racial/ethnic subgroups. We evaluated longitudinal changes in statin adherence to determine whether racial/ethnic minorities initiating use of the online refill function in patient portals had similar changes over time compared with Whites. We examined a retrospective cohort of diabetes patients who were existing patient portal users. The primary exposure was initiating online refill use (either exclusively for all statin refills or occasionally for some refills), compared with using the portal for other tasks (eg, exchanging secure messages with providers). The primary outcome was change in statin adherence, measured as the percentage of time a patient was without a supply of statins. Adjusted generalized estimating equation models controlled for race/ethnicity as a primary interaction term. Fifty-eight percent of patient portal users were white, and all racial/ethnic minority groups had poorer baseline statin adherence compared with Whites. In adjusted difference-in-difference models, statin adherence improved significantly over time among patients who exclusively refilled prescriptions online, even after comparing changes over time with other portal users (4% absolute decrease in percentage of time without medication). This improvement was statistically similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Patient portals may encourage or improve key health behaviors, such as medication adherence, for engaged patients, but further research will likely be required to reduce underlying racial/ethnic differences in adherence. In a well-controlled examination of diabetes patients' behavior when using a new online feature for their healthcare management, patient portals were linked to better medication adherence across all racial/ethnic groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  5. Current research findings on end-of-life decision making among racially or ethnically diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E

    2005-10-01

    We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or choices, where racial or ethnic groups were compared in their end-of-life decisions, or where the end-of-life decision making of a single minority group was studied in depth. We conducted a narrative review and identified four topical domains of study: advance directives; life support; disclosure and communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and preferences; and designation of primary decision makers. Non-White racial or ethnic groups generally lacked knowledge of advance directives and were less likely than Whites to support advance directives. African Americans were consistently found to prefer the use of life support; Asians and Hispanics were more likely to prefer family-centered decision making than other racial or ethnic groups. Variations within groups existed and were related to cultural values, demographic characteristics, level of acculturation, and knowledge of end-of-life treatment options. Common methodological limitations of these studies were lack of theoretical framework, use of cross-sectional designs, convenience samples, and self-developed measurement scales. Although the studies are limited by methodological concerns, identified differences in end-of-life decision-making preference and practice suggest that clinical care and policy should recognize the variety of values and preferences found among diverse racial or ethnic groups. Future research priorities are described to better inform clinicians and policy makers about ways to allow for more culturally sensitive approaches to end-of-life care.

  6. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814

  7. ABO and Rh blood groups and their ethnic distribution in a teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lava; Malla, Uzwali; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    ABO and Rh blood group systems are the most important blood grouping systems from clinical aspect. Determination of blood group is important for blood transfusion therapy, medico-legal purposes, organ transplantation, settlement of paternity disputes etc. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out for a period of one year from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 in blood bank of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. All blood samples collected for blood group determination were included in the study. Blood group was determined by slide agglutination method using commercial antisera. A total of 13568 blood samples were analyzed, 5123 (37.75%) were male and 8445 (62.25%) were female. Frequencies of blood groups A, B, AB and O were found to be 4034 (29.7%), 3665 (27.0%), 1114 (8.2%) and 4755 (35.1%). Frequencies of Rh positive and Rh negative blood groups were found to be 13200 (97.3%) and 368 (2.7%). Blood group O was common in Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang, Lama, Gurung, Sherpa, Terai Brahmin, Muslim and Yadav ethnicities; blood group A was common in Newar, Rai, Magar, Limbu and Sanyasi ethnicitites; and blood group B was common in Tharu and Marwari ethnicities. Blood group O was found to be the most common blood group while AB was the rarest one. It was found that blood group O is the more common in Sherpa, Brahmin and Yadav; A in Limbu, Rai and Newar; and B in Tharu and Marwari ethnicities.

  8. Health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse J E; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Looman, Caspar; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Mol, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups differs from the health-related quality of life of native Dutch infants and to evaluate whether infant health and family characteristics explain the potential differences. We included 4,506 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. When the child was 12 months, parents completed the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); ITQOL scale scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Influence of infant health and family characteristics on ITQOL scale scores were evaluated using multivariate regression models. Infants from ethnic minority groups presented significantly lower ITQOL scale scores compared to the Dutch subgroup (e.g., Temperament and Moods scale: median score of Turkish subgroup, 70.8 (IQR, 15.3); median score of Dutch subgroup, 80.6 (IQR, 13.9; P < 0.001)). Infant health and family characteristics mediated an important part of the association between the ethnic minority status and infant health-related quality of life. However, these factors could not fully explain all the differences in the ITQOL scale scores. Parent-reported health-related quality of life is lower in infants from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch infants, which could partly be explained by infant health and by family characteristics.

  9. Phylogeographic and genome-wide investigations of Vietnam ethnic groups reveal signatures of complex historical demographic movements.

    PubMed

    Pischedda, S; Barral-Arca, R; Gómez-Carballa, A; Pardo-Seco, J; Catelli, M L; Álvarez-Iglesias, V; Cárdenas, J M; Nguyen, N D; Ha, H H; Le, A T; Martinón-Torres, F; Vullo, C; Salas, A

    2017-10-03

    The territory of present-day Vietnam was the cradle of one of the world's earliest civilizations, and one of the first world regions to develop agriculture. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete control region of six ethnic groups and the mitogenomes from Vietnamese in The 1000 Genomes Project (1000G). Genome-wide data from 1000G (~55k SNPs) were also investigated to explore different demographic scenarios. All Vietnamese carry South East Asian (SEA) haplotypes, which show a moderate geographic and ethnic stratification, with the Mong constituting the most distinctive group. Two new mtDNA clades (M7b1a1f1 and F1f1) point to historical gene flow between the Vietnamese and other neighboring countries. Bayesian-based inferences indicate a time-deep and continuous population growth of Vietnamese, although with some exceptions. The dramatic population decrease experienced by the Cham 700 years ago (ya) fits well with the Nam tiến ("southern expansion") southwards from their original heartland in the Red River Delta. Autosomal SNPs consistently point to important historical gene flow within mainland SEA, and add support to a main admixture event occurring between Chinese and a southern Asian ancestral composite (mainly represented by the Malay). This admixture event occurred ~800 ya, again coinciding with the Nam tiến.

  10. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  11. Correlates of Treatment Retention among Multi-Ethnic Youth with Substance Use Problems Initial Examination of Ethnic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ashley; Wagner, Eric F.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To explore (1) the influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on treatment retention among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents and (2) the potential differential influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on treatment retention within each ethnic subgroup. Participants: A multi-ethnic sample of 420 adolescent juvenile offenders in…

  12. Metabolic syndrome in three ethnic groups using current definitions.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène; Désilets, Marie-Claude; Vargas, Estanislao Ramirez; Garrel, Dominique

    2008-04-01

    According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y). Although phenotypes were different, high triglycerides and fasting dysglycemia were good predictors of MetS in all three groups using both definitions. The international cut-offs for abdominal obesity were not predictive of MetS in the Haitian subjects.

  13. Similarities and Differences in the Outdoor Recreation Participation of Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from Illinois

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    Much of the initial research on the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups focused on between-group differences in percent participating in an activity. This tended to focus research, policy, and management on between-group differences at the expense of a more comprehensive look at the participation patterns of racial/ethnic groups. This paper...

  14. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana E.; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J.; Burke, Gregory L.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods Visual acuity data was obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46 to 87 years old at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States (U.S.). Visual impairment was defined as a presenting visual acuity of 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Results Among all participants, 6.6% (N=421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% (N=178) of men and 7.5% (N=243) of women. Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (N=52) and 6.0% (N=77) in White men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (N=37) and 11.6% (N=44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction and not unexpectedly, lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Conclusion Even in the United States where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges. PMID:26395659

  15. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana E; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46-87 years at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States. Visual impairment was defined as presenting visual acuity 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Among all participants, 6.6% (n = 421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% of men (n = 178) and 7.5% of women (n = 243). Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (n = 52) and 6.0% (n = 77) in white men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (n = 37) and 11.6% (n = 44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction, and not unexpectedly, a lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Even in the U.S. where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges.

  16. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  17. Composition, concentration and deprivation: exploring their association with social cohesion among different ethnic groups in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James

    2011-01-01

    Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.

  18. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in different ethnic groups in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kumbasar, Baki; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Hayriye Esra; Sar, Fuat; Serez, Kemal; Turker, Tunga; Tamay, Sebnem; Kutlu, Mehmet; Seven, Cemal; Ebil, Samet Serkan; Temiz, Levent Umit; Ergen, Kadir; Kaptanogullari, Ozlem Harmankaya; Kazancioglu, Rumayza

    2013-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in various ethnic groups in Istanbul, Turkey. Study participants were aged ≥ 20 years. Risk factor components for metabolic syndrome were measured and its presence was determined in study participants. The study included 254 Greeks, 273 West Thracians, 275 East Turkistanis and 304 Armenians. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly different between groups (Greeks, 19.3%; West Thracians, 24.9%; East Turkistanis, 15.3%; Armenians, 20.4%), and increased with age in all groups. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found mainly in Greeks (females, 64.5%; males, 61.6%) and West Thracians (females, 75.8%; males, 73.1%). Among East Turkistanis, HDL-C and triglyceride levels were significantly higher compared with the other ethnic groups. Hypertension was the most frequently encountered component of metabolic syndrome in East Turkistanis. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied between ethnic groups living in the same geographical location. In Turkey, metabolic syndrome is common. It is important to determine differences between ethnic groups, as this will assist in identifying those at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease.

  19. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron–exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients’ sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype–phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights. PMID:26031747

  20. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Jackson, Fatimah; Jackson, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes found in ethnic groups from

  1. Serogroup distribution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in urban ethnic groups in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verweij, S P; Quint, K D; Bax, C J; Van Leeuwen, A P; Mutsaers, J A E M; Jansen, C L; Oostvogel, P M; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A; Peters, R P H

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis varies between ethnic groups in The Netherlands. It is, however, unknown whether this is associated with specific serogroups. The objective of this study was to determine whether serogroup distribution is associated with ethnic origin in the region of The Hague, The Netherlands. Serogroups of 370 microbiologically confirmed C. trachomatis-positive samples were analysed. The samples were obtained from 247 women and 123 men between January and October 2008, of self-reported Dutch Caucasian, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese, N. African/Turkish or other descent. We observed a difference in serogroup distribution comparing Dutch Caucasian women to Dutch Antillean women (χ2 for distribution P = 0·035). Serogroup C was more common in Dutch Antillean women, whereas serogroup B was less common (P = 0·03). This difference was not observed for Dutch Antillean men. The observed difference in distribution of C. trachomatis serogroups between ethnic groups is relevant for further transmission studies.

  2. Immigrant Generation and Sexual Initiation Among a Diverse Racial/Ethnic Group of Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana

    2016-04-21

    Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.

  3. Association of hOGG1 genotype with life style and oxidative DNA damage among Chinese ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuebin; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Jiang, Youshen; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Li, Lu; Lu, Wenqing; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    To assess the natural variation of hOGG1 gene and the gene-environmental interactions, the hOGG1 codon 326 polymorphism and urinary 8-OHdG levels were investigated in large samples (n = 953) of healthy individuals from five Chinese ethnic populations by using PCR-RFLP and HPLC-ECD. Life-style parameters under study were obtained through a questionnaire. The allelic frequencies of the hOGG1 gene in the Chinese populations were found to be 0.16 (Ser/Ser), 0.49 (Ser/Cys) and 0.35 (Cys/Cys), respectively. The frequencies of Ser326Cys polymorphism were significantly different among the five Chinese ethnic populations (P = 0.002). No association was found between the hOGG1 gene polymorphism and other life-style parameters except for the association between Ser326Cys and smoking (P = 0.027). A significant increase of urinary 8-OHdG level was observed in Cys326Cys allelic healthy subjects (P = 0.033). These results suggest that there are natural variations of hOGG1 gene among Chinese ethnic populations. Smoking relates to Cys/Cys polymorphism frequencies, and oxidative DNA damage is repaired less in individuals with the hOGG1 Cys326Cys genotype.

  4. Differential methylation between ethnic sub-groups reflects the effect of genetic ancestry and environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10-64) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20532.001 PMID:28044981

  5. Differential methylation between ethnic sub-groups reflects the effect of genetic ancestry and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah

    2017-01-03

    Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10(-64)) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation.

  6. Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

  7. Ethnic Differences in Body Composition and Obesity Related Risk Factors: Study in Chinese and White Males Living in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Li, Yanping; Lee, Simin Gharib; Wang, Lei; Fan, Jinhui; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Songlin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to identify ethnic differences in body composition and obesity-related risk factors between Chinese and white males living in China. 115 Chinese and 114 white male pilots aged 28–63 years were recruited. Fasting body weight, height and blood pressure were measured following standard procedures. Whole-body and segmental body composition were measured using an 8-contact electrode bioimpedance analysis (BIA) system. Fasting serum glucose, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were assessed using automatic biochemistry analyzer. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), Chinese males had significantly higher percentage of body fat (PBF) both with respect to whole body (Chinese: 23.7%±0.2% vs. Whites: 22.4%±0.2%) and the trunk area (Chinese: 25.0%±0.3% vs. Whites: 23.2%±0.3%) compared to their white counterparts. At all BMIs, Chinese males had significantly higher fasting glucose levels (Chinese: 5.7±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 5.2±1.0 mmol/L) but lower high-density lipoprotein levels (Chinese: 0.8±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 1.0±1.0 mmol/L) than white males. In addition, a marginally significantly higher diastolic blood pressure was found among Chinese men than that among white men (Chinese: 80±1.0 mmHg vs. Whites: 77±1.0 mmHg). Chinese males had more body fat and a greater degree of central fat deposition pattern than that seen in white males in the present study. Furthermore, data on blood pressure, fasting glucose and blood lipids suggest that Chinese men may be more prone to obesity-related risk factors than white men. PMID:21625549

  8. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences.

  10. Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T Rune; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-03-01

    Older people from ethnic minorities are underrepresented in dementia care. Some of the determinants of access to care are knowledge and perceptions of dementia, which may vary between ethnic groups in the population. The aims of this study were to compare knowledge and perceptions of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark, and to assess the influence of education and acculturation. Quantitative survey data from 260 participants were analyzed: 100 native Danish, and 47 Polish, 51 Turkish, and 62 Pakistani immigrants. Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and AD were assessed with the Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) supplemented with two questions from the Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Test (ADAT). Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and AD in the four groups were compared, and the influence of education and acculturation was assessed. Group differences were found on the DKQ total score as well as all sub-domains. Turkish and Pakistani people were most likely to hold normalizing and stigmatizing views of AD. Level of education and acculturation had limited influence on dementia knowledge, accounting for 22% of the variance at most and had only minor influence on perceptions of AD. Lacking knowledge and certain perceptions of dementia and AD may hamper access to services in some ethnic minority groups. Ongoing efforts to raise awareness that dementia and AD are not part of normal aging, particularly among Turkish and Pakistani communities, should be a high priority for educational outreach. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Discrimination and common mental disorder among migrant and ethnic groups: findings from a South East London Community sample.

    PubMed

    Hatch, S L; Gazard, B; Williams, D R; Frissa, S; Goodwin, L; Hotopf, M

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have examined discrimination and mental health in the UK, particularly by migrant status and in urban contexts with greater demographic diversity. This study aims to (1) describe the prevalence of discrimination experiences across multiple life domains; (2) to describe associations between discrimination experiences and common mental disorder (CMD); (3) to determine whether or not the relationship between discrimination and CMD varies by migrant status and ethnicity. Data on major, anticipated and everyday discrimination and CMD symptoms were collected from an ethnically diverse prospective sample of 1052 participants followed up from 2008 to 2013 in the South East London Community Health study, a population-based household survey. With few exceptions, discrimination was most prevalent among those in the Black Caribbean group. However, those in the White Other ethnic group had similar or greater reporting major and anticipated discrimination to Black or mixed ethnic minority groups. The effects of discrimination on CMD were most pronounced for individuals who had recently migrated to the UK, an ethnically heterogeneous group, and for Black and Mixed ethnic minority groups in partially adjusted models. Prior CMD accounted for differences between the Mixed and White British ethnic groups, but the strength of the association for the most recent migrant group and the Black ethnic groups remained two or more times greater than the reference groups. The strength of the relationship suggests a need for more consideration of migration status along with ethnicity in examining the impact of discrimination on mental disorder in community and clinical samples.

  12. Ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis risk for migrant groups - A population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Peter; Thygesen, Malene; Das-Munshi, Jay; Becares, Laia; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2017-03-15

    Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15. For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23). In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Risk Drinking in Ontario Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Agic, Branka; Mann, Robert E; Tuck, Andrew; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Bondy, Susan J; Simich, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines prevalence and gender differences of alcohol use and risk drinking in a representative sample of Ontario adults. Data were drawn from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor survey of Ontario adults aged 18 and older collected between January 2005 and December 2010. The prevalence of self-reported lifetime, current, and high-risk drinking were all higher among the Canadian and the European-origin groups compared with other ethnic groups. Within-group gender differences were evident for all ethnic groups. The narrowest gender gap was observed within the North European group and the widest in the South Asian group. The non-European ethnic groups had higher rates of abstinence and lower alcohol consumption rates; nevertheless, a considerable proportion of people from these groups may be at risk of alcohol-related harm due to risky and harmful alcohol consumption patterns. Future research should continue to investigate alcohol use in these groups and identify subgroups at risk and factors that increase or decrease their vulnerability to risky and problem drinking.

  14. Use of the life table to compare mortality in ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Uitenbroek, Daan G

    2015-08-27

    The life table is a valid and frequently used instrument to compare the mortality of migrant groups. Most analyses are limited to an overview and give only life expectancy; however, further analysis of the life table can give more insight into differences in patterns of mortality between groups. A thorough life table analysis was applied to the mortality data of seven ethnic groups by age and gender. Life expectancy is systematically higher in migrants compared with the Dutch citizens of Amsterdam. However, between birth and the age of 40 the probability of death is higher among non-western migrants compared with citizens of western origin. The number of deaths is small among the young. This results in very small differences in survival between the groups; from birth up to the age of 40 the survival rate is 98.7% for citizens of western origin and 98.3% for citizens of non-western origin. In all seven ethnic groups over 90.7% of babies, male and female, survive up to the age of 60. In all female groups the survival is better than in male groups. Males and females aged 0 to 40 from Antillean origin are the only exception. Life expectancy is generally higher in non-western than in western groups. Differences in survival between ethnic groups are small up to middle age.

  15. Measurement Equivalence across Racial/Ethnic Groups of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…

  16. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  17. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  18. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  19. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  20. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  1. Factorial Validity, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence of the Noctcaelador Inventory across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability, factorial validity, and measurement equivalence of the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) among three ethnic groups of college students. Participants included 200 Whites, 200 African Americans, and 200 Latino/Hispanics. The results indicated that although the African American sample scored slightly lower than the…

  2. Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Shlomo

    1980-01-01

    Three peer tutoring methods and two group investigation approaches are examined for effects on academic achievement, students' attitudes, and ethnic relations. The five methods are: Jigsaw classroom (Aronson), Teams-Games-Tournaments (DeVries), Student Teams and Academic Division (Slavin), cooperative learning approach (Johnson), and small-group…

  3. Academic Motivation and Self-Determination among Three Ethnic Groups of Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…

  4. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  5. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  6. Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

  7. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  8. Health Service Access across Racial/Ethnic Groups of Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…

  9. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  10. Health Service Access across Racial/Ethnic Groups of Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…

  11. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  12. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  13. Ethnic Attitudes of Minority Students and Their Contact with Majority Group Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2012-01-01

    Research on intergroup attitudes in children has focused on contact with out-group peers but neglected the role of adults. This cross-sectional self-report study examined the association between the ethnic attitudes of 174 minority (Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch) preadolescents (ages 9-13) and the perceived interpersonal relationships with their…

  14. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  15. Radio vs. Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)

  16. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  18. The use of a new indirect method to estimate ethnic-group fertility rates for subnational projections for England.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Rees, Philip; Wohland, Pia

    2014-03-01

    To project the ethnic-group populations of local authorities in England to 2051, estimates of ethnic-specific fertility rates were needed. In the absence of ethnic information on birth records, we developed indirect estimation methods that use a combination of vital statistics, the census (both microdata and aggregate tables), and survey data (Labour Force Survey). We estimated age-specific and total fertility rates successively for five broad ethnic groups encompassed by all data-sets, and for eight ethnic groups encompassed by the 1991 and 2001 Censuses for England. We then used census data to disaggregate the estimates to the 16 ethnic groups required for the subnational projections and the Hadwiger function to estimate single-year-of-age estimates. We estimated the uncertainty around the fertility estimates and used a logistic model to project rates to 2021, after which we assumed rates would remain constant.

  19. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  20. A Quantitative Review of Ethnic Group Differences in Experimental Pain Response: Do Biology, Psychology and Culture Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Williams, Ameenah K.K.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response, and factors contributing to group differences. Method We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944-2011, and utilized the PUBMED bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes, identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli and measures, and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. Results We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; African Americans demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. Conclusion There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences, has translational merit for culturally-competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. PMID:22390201

  1. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  2. Life-course events and experiences: association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Devine, C M; Wolfe, W S; Frongillo, E A; Bisogni, C A

    1999-03-01

    To examine how life-course experiences and events are associated with current fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. A theoretic model developed from previous qualitative research guided the development of a telephone survey. Data were collected on fruit and vegetable consumption, sociodemographic characteristics, ethnic identity, and life-course events and experiences, including food upbringing, social roles, food skills, dietary changes for health, and practice of food traditions. Low- to moderate-income adults living in a northeastern US city were selected randomly from 3 ethnic groups: black (n = 201), Hispanic (n = 191), and white (n = 200). Bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis of associations between life-course variables and fruit and vegetable consumption. Black, Hispanic, and white respondents differed significantly in life-course experiences, family roles, socio-demographic characteristics, and place of birth. Explanatory models for fruit and vegetable consumption differed among ethnic groups and between fruits and vegetables. Among black respondents, a college education was positively associated with fruit consumption; education and family roles contributed most to differences in fruit (R2 = .16) and vegetable (R2 = .09) consumption. Among Hispanic respondents, life-course experiences such as liking fruits and vegetables in youth, making dietary changes for health, and food skills were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .25) and vegetable (R2 = .35) consumption. Among white respondents, socio-demographic characteristics, such as being married with a young child or single with no child and having a garden as an adult, were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .20) and vegetable (R2 = .22) consumption. An understanding of the determinants of food choice in different subcultural groups can be used to design effective nutrition interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Experiences such as eating fresh

  3. The role of national identity representation in the relation between in-group identification and out-group derogation: ethnic versus civic representation.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Joke; Duriez, Bart; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2010-06-01

    Two studies investigated whether the content of in-group identity affects the relation between in-group identification and ethnic prejudice. The first study among university students, tested whether national identity representations (i.e., ethnic vs. civic) moderate or mediate the relation between Flemish in-group identification and ethnic prejudice. A moderation hypothesis is supported when those higher in identification who subscribe to a more ethnic representation display higher ethnic prejudice levels than those higher in identification who subscribe to a more civic representation. A mediation hypothesis is supported when those higher in identification tend towards one specific representation, which in turn, should predict ethnic prejudice. Results supported a mediation hypothesis and showed that the more respondents identified with the Flemish in-group, the more ethnic their identity representation, and the more they were inclined to display ethnic prejudice. The second study tested this mediation from a longitudinal perspective in a two-wave study among high school students. In-group identification at Time 1 predicted over-time changes in identity representation, which in turn, predicted changes in ethnic prejudice. In addition to this, changes in identity representation were predicted by initial ethnic prejudice levels. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. The role of family influences on adolescent smoking in different racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-03-01

    Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Data from 6,426 parent-child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. While all measures of family influences except for parent-adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds.

  5. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  6. Using Adolescents' Drawings to Reveal Stereotypes About Ethnic Groups in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ashdown, Brien K; Gibbons, Judith L; de Baessa, Yetilú; Brown, Carrie M

    2017-06-15

    It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigenous Maya and nonindigenous Ladino people, which were then coded for patterns in the data. These patterns included negative stereotypes, such as the Maya being lazy and Ladina women being weak; and positive stereotypes, such as the Maya being caring and warm and Ladino men being successful. There were also interactions between the participants' own gender and ethnicity and how they depicted the target they were assigned. For example, male participants were unlikely to depict male targets of either ethnicity engaging in homemaking activities. Finally, there was evidence of in-group bias based both on gender and ethnicity. These findings suggest that perhaps because indigenous groups around the world share some common negative stereotypes, an understanding of these stereotypes will aid in decreasing prejudice and discrimination against indigenous people, could reduce intergroup conflict, and increase access to basic human rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Association of the functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene with schizophrenia in the three ethnic groups of the Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ching-Lee; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Lian, Lay-Hoong; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2011-08-30

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia as its encoded enzyme is involved in the metabolic inactivation of dopamine and noradrenaline. Several molecular genetic studies thus far have demonstrated that the COMT functional polymorphism of Val158Met is susceptible with schizophrenia. Hence, the present study aims to determine this genetic association of this SNP in the three major ethnic groups of the Malaysian population. A total of 317 patients (79 Malays, 154 Chinese and 84 Indians) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 417 healthy subjects (160 Malays, 164 Chinese and 93 Indians) were recruited. A PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the genotypes and alleles present. We found a significant association of genotypes within the total pooled samples, as well as in the female subgroup, with a higher frequency of heterozygotes in schizophrenia subjects. However, there were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequency between the schizophrenic patients and normal controls in all three ethnic groups. Our current findings suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism has a weak association with schizophrenia in the Malaysian population and does not play a major role in conferring susceptibility to the schizophrenia in any of the three major local ethnicities.

  8. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  9. Obesity and awareness of obesity as risk factors for breast cancer in six ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine; Neugut, Alfred I

    2004-10-01

    To document BMI and knowledge regarding obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer among subpopulations of African-, Caribbean-, and European-American women and to consider the variables predicting obesity in these diverse groups. A stratified cluster-sampling plan was used to recruit 1364 older women from Brooklyn, NY, during 2000-2002. Two groups were born in the United States (African Americans and European Americans), whereas others were from the English-speaking Caribbean, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Eastern Europe. Participants provided demographics, height and weight measures, and estimates of the risk obesity posed for breast cancer. Women from all groups were significantly overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)), although European Americans were lowest, followed by Dominicans and Haitians; African-American and English-speaking Caribbean women fell into the obese range, even when background variables were controlled. Knowledge of obesity as a breast cancer risk factor was also poor across groups, but Dominicans and Haitians had the lowest scores on knowledge. Importantly, knowledge was not associated with BMI in the overall sample, even when controlling for demographics and ethnicity, although logistic regressions comparing normal weight women with overweight and obese groupings suggested some knowledge of breast cancer risk in the overweight, but not the obese, group. The findings remind health professionals of the need to consider more specific ethnic groupings than has hitherto been the case, as well as consider how ethnic and cultural variables may influence perceptions of obesity and its relation to cancer risk.

  10. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population.

  11. Ethnic Identity Formation during Adolescence: The Critical Role of Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bhanot, Ruchi; Shin, Nana

    2006-01-01

    An ecological model of ethnic identity was examined among 639 adolescents of Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Salvadoran descent. Using structural equation modeling and, specifically, multiple group comparisons, findings indicated that familial ethnic socialization (FES) played a significant role in the process of ethnic identity…

  12. Prostate cancer screening behavior in men from seven ethnic groups: the fear factor.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Morgenstern, Amy H; Kudadjie-Gyamfi, Elizabeth; Magai, Carol; Neugut, Alfred I

    2006-02-01

    Rates of prostate cancer screening are known to vary among the major ethnic groups. However, likely variations in screening behavior among ethnic subpopulations and the likely role of psychological characteristics remain understudied. We examined differences in prostate cancer screening among samples of 44 men from each of seven ethnic groups (N = 308; U.S.-born European Americans, U.S.-born African Americans, men from the English-speaking Caribbean, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and Eastern Europeans) and the associations among trait fear, emotion regulatory characteristics, and screening. As expected, there were differences in the frequency of both digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests among the groups, even when demographic factors and access were controlled. Haitian men reported fewer DRE and PSA tests than either U.S.-born European American or Dominican men, and immigrant Eastern European men reported fewer tests than U.S.-born European Americans; consistent with prior research, U.S.-born African Americans differed from U.S.-born European Americans for DRE but not PSA frequency. Second, the addition of trait fear significantly improved model fit, as did the inclusion of a quadratic, inverted U, trait fear term, even where demographics, access, and ethnicity were controlled. Trait fear did not interact with ethnicity, suggesting its effect may operate equally across groups, and adding patterns of information processing and emotion regulation to the model did not improve model fit. Overall, our data suggest that fear is among the key psychological determinants of male screening behavior and would be usefully considered in models designed to increase male screening frequency.

  13. Polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 Genes in Three Ethnic Groups from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Korytina, Gülnaz; Kochetova, Olga; Akhmadishina, Leysan; Viktorova, Elena; Victorova, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the most common allelic variants of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2 and CYP2S1 in a representative sample of the three ethnic groups (Russians, Tatars and Bashkirs) from Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia), and compare the results with existing data published for other populations. Material and Methods: CYPs genotypes were determined in 742 DNA samples of healthy unrelated individuals representative of three ethnic groups. The CYPs gene polymorphisms were examined using the PCR-RLFP method. Results: Analysis of the CYP1A1 (rs1048943, rs4646903), CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2E1 (rs2031920) allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies revealed significant differences among healthy residents of the Republic of Bashkortostan of different ethnicities. Distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of CYP1A2 (rs35694136), CYP1B1 (rs1056836), CYP2C9 (rs1799853, rs1057910), CYP2F1 (rs11399890), CYP2J2 (rs890293), CYP2S1 (rs34971233, rs338583) genes were similar in Russians, Tatars, and Bashkirs. Analysis of the CYPs genes allele frequency distribution patterns among the ethnic groups from the Republic of Bashkortostan in comparison with the different populations worldwide was conducted. Conclusion: The peculiarities of the allele frequency distribution of CYPs genes in the ethnic groups of the Republic of Bashkortostan should be taken into consideration in association and pharmacogenetic studies. The results of the present investigation will be of great help in elucidating the genetic background of drug response, susceptibility to cancer and complex diseases, as well as in determining the toxic potentials of environmental pollutants in our region. PMID:25207010

  14. Prevalence of obesity among US preschool children in different racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity in 5 major racial/ethnic groups in 4-year-old US children. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Nationally representative sample of US children born in 2001. Height and weight were measured in 2005 in approximately 8550 children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Racial/ethnic group. Prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age of the sex-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity prevalence among 4-year-old US children (mean age, 52.3 months) was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.1%-19.8%). Obesity prevalence differed by racial/ethnic group (P < .001): American Indian/Native Alaskan, 31.2% (95% CI, 24.6%-37.8%); Hispanic, 22.0% (95% CI, 19.5%-24.5%); non-Hispanic black, 20.8% (95% CI, 17.8%-23.7%); non-Hispanic white, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.3%-17.5%); and Asian, 12.8% (95% CI, 10.0%-15.6%). All pairwise differences in obesity prevalence between racial/ethnic groups were statistically significant after a Bonferroni adjustment (P < .005) except for those between Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children and between non-Hispanic white and Asian children. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity are apparent in 4-year-old US children. The highest prevalence is in American Indian/Native Alaskan children, in whom obesity is twice as common as in non-Hispanic white or Asian children.

  15. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  16. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    PubMed

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. It Takes a Village (or an Ethnic Economy): The Varying Roles of Socioeconomic Status, Religion, and Social Capital in SAT Preparation for Chinese and Korean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…

  18. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  19. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  20. It Takes a Village (or an Ethnic Economy): The Varying Roles of Socioeconomic Status, Religion, and Social Capital in SAT Preparation for Chinese and Korean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…

  1. Dietary sources of five nutrients in ethnic groups represented in the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2015-01-01

    Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186916 men and women aged 45–75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2–49·6 % to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4–27·8 %) across all ethnic–sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6–6·2 % to saturated fat intake across all ethnic–sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9–19·4 %). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1–22 %) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease. PMID:22947145

  2. Association of LRRK2 R1628P variant with Parkinson’s disease in Ethnic Han-Chinese and subgroup population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Qingzhi; Jiao, Fengjuan; Yan, Jianguo; Chen, Lijun; He, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Tian, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The R1628P variant of LRRK2 may be a specific risk factor for PD in ethnic Han-Chinese populations. This study is to elucidate the epidemiological feature of R1628P in ethnic Han-Chinese population with PD. A comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the precise association between R1628P variant and the risk for PD in ethnic Han-Chinese and subgroups stratified by gender, onset age, or family history. The analysis assessing the role of R1628P on the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese supported a significant association, and the odds ratio was 1.86. We further estimate the specific prevalence in relevant ethnic Han-Chinese subgroups. After stratifying the eligible data by gender, onset age, or family history, significant associations were found in all male, female, early-onset, late-onset, familial and sporadic subgroups, and the odds ratio were 1.90, 1.94, 2.12, 1.75, 6.71 and 1.81 respectively. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that R1628P variant of LRRK2 has a significant association with the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese and subgroup population. PMID:27812003

  3. Understanding the high prevalence of diabetes in U.S. south Asians compared with four racial/ethnic groups: the MASALA and MESA studies.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Alka M; Herrington, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ewing, Susan K; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J; Dave, Swapna S; Qureshi, Fareeha; Kandula, Namratha R

    2014-06-01

    We compared South Asians with four other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. to determine whether sociodemographic, lifestyle, or metabolic factors could explain the higher diabetes prevalence and whether insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction occurred at younger ages and/or lower adiposity levels compared with other groups. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts, the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); all participants had no known cardiovascular disease and were between 44 and 84 years of age. We compared 799 South Asians with 2,611 whites, 1,879 African Americans, 1,493 Latinos, and 801 Chinese Americans. Type 2 diabetes was classified by fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or use of a diabetes medication. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and β-cell function was measured by the HOMA-β model. South Asians had significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes (23%) than the MESA ethnic groups (6% in whites, 18% in African Americans, 17% in Latinos, and 13% in Chinese Americans). This difference increased further after adjustment for potential confounders. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher and HOMA-β levels were lower among South Asians compared with all other racial/ethnic groups after adjustment for age and adiposity. The higher prevalence of diabetes in South Asians is not explained by traditionally measured risk factors. South Asians may have lower β-cell function and an inability to compensate adequately for higher glucose levels from insulin resistance. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Children's Attitudes towards an Atypical Member of an Ethnic In-Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Brown, Kristi

    2004-01-01

    Given that children have a strong bias towards their in-group, this study examined how children respond to a group member who is revealed to have negative qualities. One hundred and twenty Anglo-Australian children who were 6, 9, or 12 years of age heard a story about an (in-group) Anglo-Australian boy and a (out-group) Chinese boy who were good…

  5. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-xin; Chen, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-hua; Zhang, Li-ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-tian; Zhang, Yu-dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  6. DESCRIPTION OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS, LIVING IN THE NORTH.

    PubMed

    Chibyeva, L G; Balanova, O P; Vasilev, N N

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTIOD: Over the past 15 years, the relative frequency of detection of erosive form of GERD has increased from 3,1 to 16%. Manifestations of GERD in different ethnic populations of Yakutia are not well understood. Studying kliniko-endoscopic and the morfofunktsionalnykh of features of GERD in various ethnic groups living in conditions of Yakutia. The study included 168 patients with GERD of different ethnic origins. Yakuts, Evens and Evenks, were considered as indigenous people and newcomers were all persons of other nationalities, who arrived at different times from other regions of Russia. The average age was 41.75 ± 24.73 years. Clinical manifestations of GERD in different ethnic groups living in Yakutia. Leukoplakia of the esophagus was detected in the indigenous population are four times more likely than newcomers. With GERD associated with thyroid disorders prevalent low level of contamination of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with GERD in Yakutia was higher among immigrants than among the indigenous, with a high degree of contamination of Helicobacter pylori was detected more frequently in immigrants than among the indigenous. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux during the daily pH-metry of the esophagus was detected more frequently in patients visiting than among the indigenous. The found features of a current of GERD can be further the basis for the individualized and differentiated approaches to treatment of this disease.

  7. The prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C infection among different ethnic groups in Belize.

    PubMed

    Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E

    1993-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.

  8. Shared Epitope Alleles Remain A Risk Factor for Anti-Citrullinated Proteins Antibody (ACPA) – Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis in Three Asian Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chun-Lai, Too; Padyukov, Leonid; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh; Lundström, Emeli; Yahya, Abqariyah; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Larsson, Per Tobias; Murad, Shahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. Methods 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. Results The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. Conclusion The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia. PMID:21698259

  9. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  10. Morphometric distances among five ethnic groups and evaluation of the secular trend in historical Libya.

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Martorella, Domenico; Rufo, Fabrizio; Vecchi, Elvira; Sanna, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the variations, both in space and time, of 10 body dimensions and 2 anthropometric indexes of 745 adult males belonging to 5 ethnic groups of historical Lybia (el-Haràbi, el-Baraghìts, Marabtìn, Oases inhabitants and Tuareg). The data were collected in the years 1928 and 1932 by Puccioni and Cipriani, two Italian anthropologists. The aim was to reconstruct the biological history of Libya at the time, and thus contribute to the ongoing debate on the evolution of the biological standard of living in developing Countries. The subjects were analysed by ethnicity and by 10-year age groups, after adjusting for age. The results of ANCOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test show that among and between groups there are statistical significant differences overall for armspan, height, head breadth, bizygomatic breadth, biiliac breadth/height and head breadth/head length indexes. By means of the cluster analysis, the el-Haràbi, el-Baraghìts and Marabtìn groups cluster together, whereas the Tuareg and Oases inhabitants cluster separately one from the other and both from the other three ethnic groups. Within-group variations are not very marked in all ethnicities. In general, there is the tendency, not statistically significant, to the reduction and/or stasis of body dimensions from the older to the younger, and the differences are greater among the older than the younger age classes. In conclusion, it can be argued that these groups, all different culturally and geographically, were following the same tendency of stasis of the secular trend of the body dimensions considered in this study, and such stasis persisted since, at least, the last twenty years of the 19th century, when the older were born.

  11. The applicability of Greulich and Pyle atlas to assess skeletal age for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa

    2014-02-01

    Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African

  12. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-29

    Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers' part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  14. Assessing the Factor Structure Invariance of Self-Concept Measurement across Ethnic and Gender Groups: Findings from a National Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Ping; Fan, Xitao

    2003-01-01

    Studied the degree of factor structure invariance of self-concept measurement across ethnic and gender groups using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Findings suggest it would be reasonable to consider the factor pattern coefficients and factor variances and covariances as invariant across ethnic and gender groups. (SLD)

  15. Trends in cannabis use disorders among racial/ethnic population groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-08-01

    Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Approximately 1.5% of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005-2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chin-Shih; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Shieh, Jia-Ching; Fu, Yi-Ping; Chin, Ting-Yu; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Wen

    2011-01-30

    Influence of folate/homocysteine conversion is considered to be important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, association of the folate metabolic pathway gene polymorphisms with PD susceptibility remains unclear. To test this possibility in PD, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study constituting 211 patients and 218 age- and sex-matched controls of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. Genotyping assay was performed to screen for polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T), methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR A2756G), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR A1049G and C1783T) genes and assess the association between these genotype polymorphisms and PD risk using logistic regression analysis. Of these four non-synonymous polymorphisms, the MTRR 1049GG variant was significantly associated with PD susceptibility (OR=3.17, 95%CI=1.08-9.35). Furthermore, we stratified our patients based on the MTHFR 677TT genotype in different strata, a significant association between the joint effect of polymorphisms and PD risk was observed in those patients whose genotypes were MTRR A1049G/MTR A2756G or MTRR C1783T/MTR A2756G (P<0.05). Our findings provide support for the synergistic effects of polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway genes in PD susceptibility; the increased PD risk would be more significant in carriers with the polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  18. High Y-chromosomal Differentiation Among Ethnic Groups of Dir and Swat Districts, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Inam; Olofsson, Jill K; Margaryan, Ashot; Ilardo, Melissa; Ahmad, Habib; Sikora, Martin; Hansen, Anders J; Shahid Nadeem, Muhammad; Fazal, Numan; Ali, Murad; Buchard, Anders; Hemphill, Brian E; Willerslev, Eske; Allentoft, Morten E

    2017-08-03

    The ethnic groups that inhabit the mountainous Dir and Swat districts of northern Pakistan are marked by high levels of cultural and phenotypic diversity. To obtain knowledge of the extent of genetic diversity in this region, we investigated Y-chromosomal diversity in five population samples representing the three main ethnic groups residing within these districts, including Gujars, Pashtuns and Kohistanis. A total of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and 331 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) were investigated. In the Y-STRs, we observed very high and significant levels of genetic differentiation in nine of the 10 pairwise between-group comparisons (RST 0.179-0.746), and the differences were mirrored in the Y-SNP haplogroup frequency distribution. No genetic differences were found between the two Pashtun subethnic groups Tarklanis and Yusafzais (RST = 0.000). Utmankhels, also considered Pashtuns culturally, were not closely related to any of the other population samples (RST 0.451-0.746). Thus, our findings provide examples of both associations and dissociations between cultural and genetic legacies. When analyzed within a larger continental-scale context, these five ethnic groups fall mostly outside the previously characterized Y-chromosomal gene pools of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent. Male founder effects, coupled with culturally and topographically based constraints upon marriage and movement, are likely responsible for the high degree of genetic structure in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  19. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.0001). Normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester vary significantly between different ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  20. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andreas W; Christensen, Dirk L; Larsson, Melanie W; Eis, Jeannette; Christensen, Tue; Friis, Henrik; Mwaniki, David L; Kilonzo, Beatrice; Boit, Michael K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Tetens, Inge

    2011-09-01

    To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. A total of 1163 (61 % women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age of 38·6 (range: 18-68) years, volunteered to participate. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5·8 to 8·6 MJ/d among women and from 7·2 to 10·5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55·7 % and 74·2 % and fat contributing between 14·5 % and 30·2 % of total EI. Mean protein intake ranged from 0·72 to 1·3 g/kg per d, and EI:BMR ratio ranged between 1·1 and 1·6 in both sexes, and was highest among the Luo. Prevalence of underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2) was 13·7 %, 20·5 % and 24·2 % in the Luo, Kamba and Maasai, respectively. The degree of food insecurity measured as a degree of undernutrition and as dietary patterns differed considerably among the ethnic groups. The Maasai and Kamba in particular were exposed to food insecurity.

  1. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  2. Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Emery, Sherry L.; White, Martha M.; Grana, Rachel A.; Messer, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1–5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies. Methods: Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately. Results: Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59–2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29–2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75–3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27–3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13–4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85–5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups. Discussion: These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:19246433

  3. End-of-Life Care for People With Cancer From Ethnic Minority Groups: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa A; Dement, Fritz; Gold, Heather T

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic/racial minorities encounter disparities in healthcare, which may carry into end-of-life (EOL) care. Advanced cancer, highly prevalent and morbid, presents with worsening symptoms, heightening the need for supportive and EOL care. To conduct a systematic review examining ethnic/racial disparities in EOL care for cancer patients. We searched four electronic databases for all original research examining EOL care use, preferences, and beliefs for cancer patients from ethnic/racial minority groups. Twenty-five studies were included: 20 quantitative and five qualitative. All had a full-text English language article and focused on the ethnic/racial minority groups of African Americans, Hispanics Americans, or Asian Americans. Key themes included EOL decision making processes, family involvement, provider communication, religion and spirituality, and patient preferences. Hospice was the most studied EOL care, and was most used among Whites, followed by use among Hispanics, and least used by African and Asian Americans. African Americans perceived a greater need for hospice, yet more frequently had inadequate knowledge. African Americans preferred aggressive treatment, yet EOL care provided was often inconsistent with preferences. Hispanics and African Americans less often documented advance care plans, citing religious coping and spirituality as factors. EOL care differences among ethnic/racial minority cancer patients were found in the processes, preferences, and beliefs regarding their care. Further steps are needed to explore the exact causes of differences, yet possible explanations include religious or cultural differences, caregiver respect for patient autonomy, access barriers, and knowledge of EOL care options. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Understanding Early Childhood Socialisation in Immigrant Families: Malaysian-Chinese Parents' Perceptions on the Importance of Ethnic Identity and Cultural Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voon, Shi Jing; Pearson, Emma

    This pilot study was designed to shed light on Malaysian-Chinese parents' beliefs about ethnic identity and cultural maintenance in children's socialisation following migration. Three Malaysian-Chinese families residing in Sydney, Australia, with at least one child within the early childhood age range of 4-8 years, participated in the study.…

  5. The influence of ethnicity and culture on dementia caregiving: a review of empirical studies on Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Ong, Rebecca; Burnette, Denise

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to pinpoint the cultural and ethnic influences on dementia caregiving in Chinese American families through a systemic review and analysis of published research findings. Eighteen publications on Chinese American dementia family caregivers published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and early 2011 were identified. Based on a systematic database search and review process, we found that caregivers' beliefs concerning dementia and the concept of family harmony as evidenced through the practice of filial piety are permeating cultural values, which together affect attitudes toward research and help-seeking behaviors (ie, seeking information on diagnosis and using formal services). There is also evidence to suggest that these cultural beliefs impinge on key elements of the caregiving process, including caregivers' appraisal of stress, coping strategies, and informal and formal support. The study concludes with recommendations for future research and practice with the Chinese American population.

  6. Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome p450 (2C9) Enzyme in Iranian Baluch Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Mojdeh Ghiyas; Naseri, Fatemeh; Ataby, Maryam Agh; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare the frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 variations in the Baluch ethnic group (n=110) with other ethnic groups. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were 80.90%, 11.82% and 7.27%, respectively. 70.90%, 11.82%, 8.18%, 4.55%, 2.73% and 1.82% of subjects were with CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*2, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*2/*2, CYP2C9*2/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes, respectively. Different mutants may effect on prediction of drug dose requirements in different ethnic groups. Thus, CYP2C9 variants to be determined for findings high risk groups use optimal dosage of drugs metabolized by this polymorphic enzyme. PMID:26464589

  7. Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome p450 (2C9) Enzyme in Iranian Baluch Ethnic Group.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mojdeh Ghiyas; Naseri, Fatemeh; Ataby, Maryam Agh; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare the frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 variations in the Baluch ethnic group (n=110) with other ethnic groups. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were 80.90%, 11.82% and 7.27%, respectively. 70.90%, 11.82%, 8.18%, 4.55%, 2.73% and 1.82% of subjects were with CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*2, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*2/*2, CYP2C9*2/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes, respectively. Different mutants may effect on prediction of drug dose requirements in different ethnic groups. Thus, CYP2C9 variants to be determined for findings high risk groups use optimal dosage of drugs metabolized by this polymorphic enzyme.

  8. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Keith, Louis G.; Ehiri, John E.; Islam, M. Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. METHODS: Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. RESULTS: Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend

  9. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age

  10. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities.

  11. Relationships between discrimination in health care and health care outcomes among four race/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination has been found